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PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL

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STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

PIPENET VISION STANDARD MODULE


CHAPTER 3
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES

1. Introduction
In this chapter, there are five examples of different scenarios that can be modelled using
the PIPENET VISION Standard Module.

2. Example 1: Nitrogen Distribution System


2.1

Objectives

In this example, we look at a nitrogen distribution system. The network is fairly simple and
consists only of pipes. This example illustrates the following points:

The use of a default pipe roughness.

The input of pipe data with tags.

The use of a built-in gas (Nitrogen) as the network fluid.

The provision of specifications.

2.2

The Network

The network consists only of pipes, which contain nitrogen. There is a single input point (at
which nitrogen flows into the network) and three output points. The full network is
illustrated in the diagram below (which was created using an external drawing package,
and not PIPENET VISION).

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2.3

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Initialization

2.3.1 Standard Options


Select the Colebrook-White Equation for the pressure-drop model.

2.3.2 Units
The units for the model are user-defined, and are as follows.
Variable

Unit

Length

metres

Diameter

mm

Velocity

m/sec

Temperature

Celcius

Density

kg/m3

Viscosity

cP

Power

kW

Heat capacity J/kg K


Pressure

bar Gauge

Flow type

Mass

Flow rate

kg/hr

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STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

2.3.3 Fluid Type


The fluid in the network is nitrogen at 25C, which is to be modelled using the Ideal Gas
Equation.

2.3.4 Defaults
Since all of the pipes have a roughness of 0.0457 mm, it would ease data entry if the
default value for the roughness were set to this value. Therefore, choose the Defaults Tab,
and enter 0.0457 mm as the default roughness.

2.4
Pipe
Label

Network Data Entry


Input
Node

Output
Node

Diameter Length Elevation Roughness Fittings


(mm)
K-factor
(mm)
(m)
(m)

SUPPLY/1 SUPPLY/ SUPPLY/2 80


(1)
1

20

-10

0.0457

GLOBE

DISTRIB/1 SUPPLY/ DISTRIB/3 50


(2)
2

20

0.0457

0.0

DISTRIB/2 DISTRIB/ DISTRIB/4 25


(3)
3

30

0.0457

GLOBE
ELBOW

DISTRIB/3 DISTRIB/ DISTRIB/4 25


(4)
3

30

0.0457

GLOBE
ELBOW

OUTPIPE/1 DISTRIB/ OUTPIPE/ 30


(5)
4
5

20

-10

0.0457

GLOBE

DISTRIB/4 SUPPLY/ DISTRIB/6 50


(6)
2

50

0.0457

2.7

OUTPIPE/2 DISTRIB/ OUTPIPE/ 25


(7)
6
7

10

-6

0.0457

GLOBE

OUTPIPE/3 DISTRIB/ OUTPIPE/ 25


(8)
6
8

10

-6

0.0457

GLOBE
ELBOW

2.4.1 Tags
The labels that are used in the table above require some explanation. If nodes and
components are entered in the standard way, they will automatically be assigned a unique
numeric identifier. Note that a node can have the same numeric identifier as a pipe, a
pump, or any other component, but it cannot have the same numeric identifier as another
node. If we entered the pipes in the order shown in the above table then the pipes would
be assigned the numeric identifiers that are shown in parentheses in the first column of the
table. Similarly, nodes would be assigned the numeric identifiers that follow the / (forward
slash) character in the second and third columns.

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STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

In the above table, the parts of the label SUPPLY, DISTRIB and OUTPIPE are tags, and
the labels are referred to as tagged labels. With a relatively small network like the current
one, it is probably easier to enter the network using purely numeric labels, and then edit
the labels in the tabular view of a Data Window (by simply clicking on an item in the Label
Column, and changing its label). If you attempt to use a label that is already in use then
the change will be rejected. Note that, if you proceed in this way, then it is probably best to
rename the nodes first.

For larger networks there is a better way; namely, using the Tag Toolbar:

Tags can be assigned separately for nodes and components. By default, both have a
setting of <NO TAG>. The user can specify tags using either of the following methods.

Click in the data-entry field and enter a new tag, followed by a carriage return.

From the drop-down button to the right of the data-entry field, select a tag from the
list of available tags.

If a tag is selected in one of the drop-down menus, whenever a new component of that
type is created, the label of the component will begin with the specified tag, followed by a
forward-slash character (/), followed by an automatically generated numerical identifier
(resulting in, for example, B/5).
Of course, there is no need to change the labels. As long as the entered network is
topologically the same as the one in the following diagram, the calculated results will be
the same. The use of tags merely makes it easier to identify key points of interest.

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2.5

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Specifications

The input and output nodes of the network are as follows.

The input node for the system is SUPPLY/1.

The output nodes for the system are OUTPIPE/5, OUTPIPE/7 and OUTPIPE/8.

The specifications that are used are shown in the following table.
Node Label
SUPPLY/1
OUTPIPE/5
OUTPIPE/7
OUTPIPE/8

Pressure Specification
1.8
1
Unset
Unset

Flow-rate Specification
Unset
Unset
100
100

Specifications are entered in the Properties Window by (a) selecting the appropriate node,
(b) changing the type of the node to be either input or output, and (c) entering the
specification data. The Properties Window for SUPPLY/1 is shown below.

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2.6

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Calculation and Results

Having entered all of the data, we can check the network by choosing Calculation |
Check (or, alternatively, by clicking on the Check Network Button on the Calculation
Toolbar). If there are no errors, we can run the simulation by either (a) choosing
Calculation | Calculate or (b) clicking on the Calculate Button on the Calculation Toolbar.
All of the results can be examined using either the browser or the Results Tab of a Data
Window. In the latter case, select the component type of interest (for this example we have
results for only pipes and nodes), and then the click on the Results Tab. The results for the
pipes are shown below.

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STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

The results in the Schematic Window are as follows.

3. Example 2: Design of a Steam Network


In this example, we look at the design of part of the high-pressure section of a steam utility
system.

3.1

Objectives

To produce a data file.

To use the design facility of PIPENET VISION to determine optimal pipe sizes.

3.2

The Network

The network under consideration is the high-pressure section of a steam utility system.
The existing system is to be extended, and pipe work for supplying four new outlets is to
be added. The diagram below shows our proposed new network. The existing network has
labels that contain the tag OLD, whilst the proposed new section is labelled using the tag
NEW. We shall use the design facility in PIPENET VISION to help us size the new pipes
in the system. Steam is available at the header inlet at a pressure of 18 bar G and a
temperature of 230C. The outlet demands are shown (in units of kg/hr) in the diagram
below (which was also created using an external drawing package, and not PIPENET
VISION).

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3.3

Initialization

3.3.1 Standard Options


Select the Colebrook-White Formula for the pressure model.

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

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STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

3.3.2 Units
User-defined units are to be used, and are as follows.
Variable

Unit

Length

metres

Diameter

mm

Velocity

m/sec

Temperature

Celcius

Density

kg/m3

Viscosity

cP

Power

kW

Heat capacity J/kg K


Pressure

bar Gauge

Flow type

Mass

Flow rate

kg/hr

3.3.3 Fluid
The fluid is steam at a constant temperature of 230 degrees Celcius.

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3.4

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Design Data

Given a list of available pipe sizes and the maximum permitted velocity of fluid in the
network, PIPENET VISION will choose an appropriate size for the pipes in the new part of
the network. The user must supply data about the pipe schedule in use, which (for this
example) is steel piping with a roughness of 0.0457, and comes in the following sizes.
Nominal Size (mm) Actual Internal Diameter (mm)
25

24.31

40

38.10

50

49.25

80

73.66

100

97.18

150

146.33

200

193.68

250

242.87

300

288.90

350

317.50

400

363.52

The maximum velocity permitted in the new pipes is 20.4 m/s. This velocity is referred to
as the Design Velocity. PIPENET VISION must also be given a full set of specifications
for the design stage of the calculation. These design specifications must satisfy the same
conditions as calculation specifications, with the additional constraint that there must be
exactly one pressure specification in the network. For this example, the design
specifications are the same as the calculation specifications.

3.4.1 Entering the Pipe Schedule


Select Libraries | Schedules to display a dialog box (for which the Schedules Tab is
visible). Please note that the diagram below corresponds to a completed pipe schedule.

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STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

To add data for a schedule, select the New Button and provide the following.

The schedule name, STEEL STEAM PIPE (which is the name that will appear in
the left-hand window when the data entry is complete).

An optional description (which, if not specified, will be the same as the schedule
name).

A roughness value of 0.0457 mm.

The Tab Key and the arrow keys can be used to move from one field to the next. Note
that, when the New Button is clicked, the data grid in the bottom right-hand side lists all
internal bores as unset, which simply means that no value has been supplied for the
corresponding nominal bore.
Now place the cursor in the internal-bore field that corresponds to a nominal bore of
25 mm, and enter the value 24.31 (from table above). Pressing the Tab Key moves the
cursor to the next field, which we can skip (leaving the value as unset). Selecting the Tab
Key again moves to the next field, where we enter the value 38.10 Continue in this way
until the last diameter has been entered. Then, select the Apply Button, in which case
changes are accepted and the new schedule appears in the list in the left-hand window.

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STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

The schedule can then be saved, by clicking on either the Apply Button or the OK Button.
The user must remember that the library file is saved only when the network is saved.

3.4.2 Creating the Pipe Type


Before we can create any pipes, we must first create a pipe type. To create a pipe type,
access the appropriate page, via Options | Pipe types, and then proceed as follows.

Click on the New Button.

From the drop-down menu on the right-hand side of the dialog box (next to
Schedule), select the required schedule (in our case, STEEL STEAM PIPE).
Note that the pipe type name becomes the schedule name.

Enter a maximum velocity of 20.4 m/sec for all bores.

Select the Apply Button to accept the pipe type.

The dialog should then look like the following one.

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3.5

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Network Data Entry


Pipe
Label

Input
Node

Output
Node

Nominal
Bore (mm)

Length
(m)

Fittings
(Head Loss)

OLD/1

OLD/1

OLD/2

300

15.0

OLD/2

OLD/2

OLD/3

300

60.0

OLD/3

OLD/3

OLD/4

300

9.0

OLD/4

OLD/4

OLD/5

300

6.0

OLD/5

OLD/5

OLD/6

300

6.0

OLD/6

OLD/4

OLD/7

50

9.0

OLD/7

OLD/5

OLD/8

25

9.0

1.01

OLD/8

OLD/6

OLD/9

25

9.0

0.5

OLD/9

OLD/2

OLD/10

250

18.0

1.0

OLD/10

OLD/10

OLD/11

250

9.0

OLD/11

OLD/11

OLD/12

200

9.0

1.0

OLD/12

OLD/11

OLD/13

250

9.0

OLD/13

OLD/13

OLD/14

150

9.0

1.0

OLD/14

OLD/15

OLD/13

250

9.0

1.0

OLD/15

OLD/15

OLD/16

50

9.0

1.0

OLD/16

OLD/17

OLD/15

250

9.0

OLD/17

OLD/17

OLD/18

150

9.0

1.0

OLD/18

OLD/10

OLD/17

250

18.0

1.5

60.0

1.5

NEW/20 NEW/19 NEW/20 Unset

6.0

NEW/21 NEW/20 NEW/21 Unset

6.0

NEW/22 NEW/21 NEW/22 Unset

6.0

NEW/23 NEW/19 NEW/23 Unset

9.0

1.0

NEW/24 NEW/20 NEW/24 Unset

9.0

1.0

NEW/25 NEW/21 NEW/25 Unset

9.0

1.0

NEW/26 NEW/22 NEW/26 Unset

9.0

1.0

NEW/19 OLD/3

NEW/19 Unset

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STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

The pipe data for the network is given in the above table. Note that all pipes have a
roughness of 0.0457 mm (which is obtained from the default value in the pipe-schedule
data) and an elevation of zero metres.
When a pipe diameter is left unset, PIPENET VISION will calculate a suitable size for such
a pipe in the Design Phase of the simulation. Further, when a pipe diameter is supplied,
the value must be a nominal diameter from the pipe schedule used.

3.6

Specifications

The specifications for both the Design Phase and Calculation Phase are as shown below.
As in previous examples, enter the specification data via the Properties Window.
Remember that the same specifications must be made for both the Calculation Phase and
Design Phase of the simulation. Note that you can use Copy and Paste to copy
attributes of nodes and links.

3.7

Node Label

Pressure (bar G)

Flow Rate (kg/hr) Input/Output

OLD/1
OLD/7
OLD/8
OLD/9
OLD/12
OLD/14
OLD/16
OLD/18
NEW/23
NEW/24
NEW/25
NEW/26

18.00
Unset
Unset
Unset
Unset
Unset
Unset
Unset
Unset
Unset
Unset
Unset

Unset
900
100
50
25000
8000
1500
8000
1500
1500
1500
300

Input
Output
Output
Output
Output
Output
Output
Output
Output
Output
Output
Output

Complex Colouring

In this example, the complex-colouring rule is used to display the high velocity in pipes that
have a nominal bore above 250 mm. The complex-colouring rule can be accessed from
Colouration | Complex links. We wish to see which pipes have a velocity greater than
20 m/s. (Note that we set the velocity criterion at 19.5 m/s, so that we do not miss any
pipes with velocities slightly lower than 20 m/s.)

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3.8

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Results

Prepare for a Design Calculation (by clicking on the D icon in the Calculation Toolbar),
and then run the calculation (by either clicking on the Calculation Button or choosing
Calculation | Calculate).
The pipes that are labelled OLD/1, OLD/9, and OLD/10 have a velocity above 19.5 m/sec,
and they are displayed in red in the following diagram.

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STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Also, PIPENET VISION has sized the pipes in accordance with the velocity limit, as shown
below.

4. Example 3: Closed-loop Cooling Water System


In this example, we shall consider a closed-loop cooling system.

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4.1

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Objectives

We shall learn how to perform the following tasks.

How to deal with varying fluid temperature when it affects the transport properties.

How to model miscellaneous network items such as heat exchangers.

Using pumps from a pump/fan library file.

Ways of modelling a closed-loop system.

4.2

The Network

The above network diagram was also created using an external drawing package.

4.3

Setting up the Network

4.3.1 Title
Enter a title (Closed-loop Cooling Water System) for the model (via Options | Title).

4.3.2 Standard Options


Select the Colebrook-White Equation for the pressure model.

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STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

4.3.3 Units
The units for the model, which are user-defined, are as follows.
Variable

Unit

Length

feet

Diameter

inches

Velocity

ft/sec

Temperature

Celcius

Density

lb/ft3

Viscosity

cP

Power

kW

Heat capacity J/kg K


Pressure

psi Absolute

Flow type

Mass

Flow rate

lb/s

4.3.4 Fluid Type


The fluid (or, in this case, coolant) is a glycol-water mixture at 2C. The fluid class should
be specified as liquid, property correlations. The density and viscosity of the fluid vary
with the temperature, T, according to the following correlation equations.
Density:
2

= AB

T
1
TC

Viscosity:

= CT M
where the coefficients (A, B, C and M) and the critical temperature, TC, of the fluid are as
follows.
A = 41.97 lb/ft3,
B = 0.6043,
C = 2.10E18 Cp,
M = -7.362,
TC = 328.2C.

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STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

4.3.5 Pipe Type


No pipe type is to be selected for this example.

4.3.6 Default Values


Leave the default value of the roughness to be unset.

4.4

Exchanger and Fittings

For simplicity, each exchanger is represented as a fitting on the section of pipe


downstream from the exchanger. A velocity head-loss coefficient (K-factor) of 3.5 is
assigned to the exchanger. The fittings used in the system are as follows.
Fitting Type

K-factor

Fitting Name

90-degree bend

0.75

B90

T junction

1.0

TJUNC

Throttle valve

50.0

THRT

Exchanger

3.5

EXCH

Create the above fittings in the local library (via Libraries | Fittings), using the appropriate
fitting name from the table. Because the K-factor values are known, all of the fittings are
taken to be of type K-factor.

4.5

Properties

The default system temperature is 2C, as recorded in Options | Fluids. However, the
temperature in Pipe LINE1/2 is 20C, and the temperature in Pipes LINE1/3, LINE2/2 and
LINE3/1 is 40C.
These temperatures are set using the Property Tool.

Property Tool

Firstly, select the Property Tool, and then place the property on the appropriate pipe by
simply pointing and clicking on the pipe. The position of the symbol representing the
property can be moved using the Selection Tool, by click-dragging the property along the
pipe. Only one property may be placed on each pipe.

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4.6

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Pump Data and the Pump Library

The data points for the pump are tabulated below.


Flow Rate (m3/hr) Head (bar)
40

1.878

100

1.765

200

1.492

300

0.87

Note that the units for the pump data are different from the model units (which were
defined at the start of the example). In the pump-definition dialog, the user is permitted to
specify different units from those in general use (i.e., those from Options | Units). Care
must be taken to ensure that the correct units are used when inputting the pump data into
the pump library.
The completed pump specification should appear as follows.

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4.7

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Network Data

Pipe

In

Out

Diameter (in) Length (ft)

Elevation (ft) Fittings

PS/1
PS1/2
PS1/4
PS1/5
PS2/1
PS2/2
PS2/4
PS2/5
LINK/2
LINE1/1

LINK/1
PS1/2
PSI/4
PS1/2
LINK/2
PS2/2
PS2/4
PS2/2
RISER/1
PS2/5

PS1/2
PS1/3
PS1/5
PS1/5
PS2/2
PS2/3
PS2/5
PS2/5
LINK/2
LINE1/2

3.826
3.826
3.826
3.826
3.826
3.826
3.826
3.826
5.761
5.761

4.0
4.0
3.0
11.0
4.0
4.0
3.0
11.0
5.0
16

0.0
-1.0
0.5
-0.5
0.0
-1.0
0.5
-0.5
0.0
2.0

LINE1/2 LINE1/2
LINE1/3 LINE1/3

LINE1/3
LINE1/4

5.761
5.761

6.0
14.0

4.0
-2.0

LINE3/1 LINE1/4
LINE3/2 LINE3/2

LINE3/2
LINK/1

5.761
5.761

15.0
35.0

0.0
-3.5

LINE2/1 PS1/514

LINE2/1

3.826

10.0

2.0

LINE2/2 LINE2/1
LINK/1
LINK/1

LINE1/4
RISER/1

3.826
5.761

12.0
5.0

2.0
0.0

4.8

TJUNC
THRT
TJUNC
THRT
B90
TJUNC +
B90
EXCH
B90 +
EXCH
B90
EXCH +
2*B90
TJUNC +
B90
EXCH
-

Specifications

The network is a closed loop with a single opening to the atmosphere, where a riser to an
expansion tank connects to the loop. The pressure at that point is 25 psi A, which may be
assumed to be constant whatever the recirculation rates in the network are. In order to
analyse a network using PIPENET VISION, there must be at least two input/output nodes
(or, I/O nodes). As the network stands, there is only one I/O node: RISER/1, which has a
pressure specification of 25 psi A.
The second I/O node and a second specification may be provided in two different ways.
1. Create a gap in the loop at the point where the pressure in the system is known
(i.e., at the point where the riser to the expansion tank joins the loop). There are
then two free ends, which can be made input/output nodes with identical pressure
specifications (of 25 psi A).
2. Declare an I/O node in the middle of the loop, with a flow rate specification of zero
(i.e., no draw-off). This approach may be interpreted as a drainage tap that is
closed. Note that connecting nodes could not be declared I/O nodes if we were
using volumetric flow-rate units and variable fluid properties. However, in our case,
we are using mass flow-rate units, and so this method is feasible.

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STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Both methods are equally effective, though the second method is usually better, in that it
maintains the loop and so allows the program to detect any elevation errors that may be
present. We shall, therefore, use the second method.
Our specifications for this example are therefore:
RISER/1 is an inlet with a pressure of 25 psi A.
LINE1/3 is an outlet with a flow rate of 0 lb/s.
The schematic appears as follows.

4.9

Checking the Network

It is advisable to check the network before a calculation is performed. A common error that
occurs in a closed-loop system is the elevation error, which can be corrected by PIPENET
VISION. If pipe elevations are used, height checking is performed, which essentially
involves summing the rises and falls in every loop and checking that the sum is zero
(within the height-check tolerance). For every loop in error, one line is displayed in the
status window, with the component identifying one node in the loop. The error description
includes the value of the height error in user-defined length units.
In the network that we have created, there should be an error (an example of which is
indicated below).

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STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

If you double-click on the error in the Check Status Dialog Box, PIPENET VISION
highlights the problematic loop (which contains the height discrepancy) in the Schematic
Window.
The reason for the error is that pipe PUMPSET1/2 has been created with the wrong
elevation (or the wrong direction). Correct this problem (by negating the elevation or
reversing the direction of the pipe) and check the network again.

4.10 Results
The results can be viewed in either the Schematic Window or a Data Window. Detailed
results can be viewed using the output browser (which can be launched using either
Calculation | Browse or by clicking on the Output Browser Button).

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STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

5. Example 4: High-pressure Network


5.1

5.2

Objectives

To use the design facility in PIPENET VISION to find optimal pipe sizes.

To use control valves, fixed pressure drops and orifice plates in the network.

The Network

Input the following network into the PIPENET VISION Standard Module.

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5.3

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Setting up the Network

5.3.1 Standard Options


Select (a) the Colebrook-White Formula for the pressure model and (b) Crane for the
orifice-plate model.

5.3.2 Units
The units used are user-defined, and are as follows.
Variable

Unit

Length

metres

Diameter

mm

Velocity

m/sec

Temperature

Celcius

Density

kg/m3

Viscosity

cP

Power

kW

Heat capacity J/kg K


Pressure

bar Gauge

Flow type

Volumetric

Flow rate

lit/min

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 26 OF 33

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

5.3.3 Fluid
The fluid is water at 30 degrees Celcius.

5.3.4 Pipe Type


Select AnsiB3610_40 as the pipe type, and enter the following data.
Pipe Diameter (mm) Length (m) Elevation (m) Roughness (mm) Fittings
1
Unset
0.9
-0.9
0.04572
90 deg elbow x 1
2
Unset
1.425
0
0.04572
Tee (run) x 1,
Ball valve x 1
3
Unset
7.77
0
0.04572
Ball valve x 1
4
Unset
5.485
0
0.04572
90 deg elbow x 1
5
Unset
0.05
0
0.04572
-

5.4

Other Components

5.4.1 Control Valve


The data for the control valve is tabulated below.
Description
Type
Opening Profile
K Factor (fully open)
Valve Port Area
Sensor Type
Pressure set point
Node label

Values
K-factor
Linear
1.5
16839
Pressure
4
6

Enter this data for the control valve.

Units

mm
bar G

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 27 OF 33

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Note the sensor specification: The sensor is located at Node 6, with the pressure set point
at 4 Bar G. In fact, the sensor could be located at any node in the network.

5.4.2 Orifice Plates


The orifice plate is used to provide a pressure drop of 2.5 bar Gauge on Pipe 5. After the
calculation, PIPENET VISION provides the corresponding diameter for the orifice plate.

5.5

Specifications

5.5.1 Analysis or Calculation Specifications


Node
Label
1 (Inlet)
7 (Outlet)

Pressure
Specification (bar G)
6.9
Unset

Flow-rate Specification
(lit/min)
Unset
7644

5.5.2 Design Specifications


Node
Label
1 (Inlet)
7 (Outlet)

Pressure
Specification, (bar G)
6.9
Unset

Flow-rate Specification
(lit/min)
Unset
7644

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 28 OF 33

5.6

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Results

PIPENET VISION has sized the pipe to be 300 NB of AnsiB3610_40. The results are
shown below.
The diameter of the orifice plate has been calculated to be 93.4355 mm for a pressure
drop of 2.5 bar G.

The output can also be viewed through the output browser. Sample output is provided
below. Please note that the last two columns have been omitted so that the data for each
pipe fits onto one line. The omitted columns correspond to the velocity and flow rate (the
values of which are 6.833 m/s and 7644 lit/min for each pipe).

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 29 OF 33

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

FLOW IN PIPES
------------Pipe
Input
Output
Inlet Pr.
Outlet Pr Drop in pr. Pipe frict
Reynolds
Label
Node
Node
(bar G
) (bar G
) (bar
) (Bar / m )
Number
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1
2
6.900
6.861
3.8925E-02 2.3337E-02 1.3151E+06
2
2
3
6.861
6.747
0.1144
2.3337E-02 1.3151E+06
3
3
4
6.747
6.555
0.1919
2.3337E-02 1.3151E+06
4
4
5
6.555
6.321
0.2339
2.3337E-02 1.3151E+06
5
6
7
4.000
1.499
2.501
2.3337E-02 1.3151E+06 P
NOTE: A P indicates a Pipe containing an Orifice Plate

6. Example 5: Steam System with Partial Design Requirement


In order to allow the user the opportunity to work independently, less guidance is provided
in this example. Therefore, the user is expected to work largely on his/her own. A few
dialog boxes are shown for convenience.
Although most of the data is supplied, some data is missing, in which case you should
supply your own data.

6.1

Units
Variable

Unit

Length

metres

Diameter

mm

Velocity

m/sec

Temperature

Celcius

Density

kg/m3

Viscosity

cP

Power

kW

Heat capacity J/kg K


Pressure

bar Gauge

Flow type

Mass

Flow rate

kg/hr

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 30 OF 33

6.2

Fluid Properties

The fluid is superheated or saturated steam at 250 C.

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 31 OF 33

6.3

Piping and Design Data

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 32 OF 33

6.4

The Network

6.5

Pipe Data

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

All of the pipes are assumed to be horizontal, and all fittings are ignored. The pipe data is
shown in the following table.
Pipe Label
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Diameter (mm)
100
80
Unset
80
50
50
50
50
Unset
Unset

Length (m)
25
15
20
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 33 OF 33

STANDARD: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

The required flow rates are as follows.


Node
6
7
8
9
10
11

6.6

Design Phase Flow (kg/hr)


1500
1500
1500
1500
2000
2000

Calculation Phase Flow (kg/hr)


1500
1500
1500
1500
2000
2000

Results

The results are shown below.

The diameters determined by PIPENET VISION are as follows.


Pipe Label
3
9
10

Nominal Bore (mm)


90
65
65