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Outline the main anatomical features of the human body.

Our bodies consist of a number of biological systems that carry out specific functions
necessary for everyday living.
The job of the circulatory system is to move blood, nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and
hormones, around the body. It consists of the heart, blood, blood vessels,arteries and veins.
The digestive system consists of a series of connected organs that together, allow the body to
break down and absorb food, and remove waste. It includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach,
small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. The liver and pancreas also play a role in the
digestive system because they produce digestive juices.
The endocrine system consists of eight major glands that secrete hormones into the blood. These
hormones, in turn, travel to different tissues and regulate various bodily functions, such as
metabolism, growth and sexual function.
The immune system is the body's defense against bacteria, viruses and other pathogens that may
be harmful. It includes lymph nodes, the spleen, bone marrow, lymphocytes (including B-cells
and T-cells), the thymus and leukocytes, which are white blood cells.
The lymphatic system includes lymph nodes, lymph ducts and lymph vessels, and also plays a
role in the body's defenses. Its main job is to make is to make and move lymph, a clear fluid that
contains white blood cells, which help the body fight infection. The lymphatic system also
removes excess lymph fluid from bodily tissues, and returns it to the blood.
The nervous system controls both voluntary action (like conscious movement) and involuntary
actions (like breathing), and sends signals to different parts of the body. The central nervous
system includes the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that
connect every other part of the body to the central nervous system.
The body's muscular system consists of about 650 muscles that aid in movement, blood flow
and other bodily functions. There are three types of muscle: skeletal muscle which is connected
to bone and helps with voluntary movement, smooth muscle which is found inside organs and
helps to move substances through organs, and cardiac muscle which is found in the heart and
helps pump blood.
The reproductive system allows humans to reproduce. The male reproductive system includes
the penis and the testes, which produce sperm. The female reproductive system consists of the

vagina, the uterus and the ovaries, which produce eggs. During conception, a sperm cell fuses
with an egg cell, which creates a fertilized egg that implants and grows in the uterus.
Our bodies are supported by the skeletal system, which consists of 206 bones that are connected
by tendons, ligaments and cartilage. The skeleton not only helps us move, but it's also involved
in the production of blood cells and the storage of calcium. The teeth are also part of the skeletal
system, but they aren't considered bones.
The respiratory system allows us to take in vital oxygen and expel carbon dioxide in a process
we call breathing. It consists mainly of the trachea, the diaphragm and the lungs.
The urinary system helps eliminate a waste product called urea from the body, which is
produced when certain foods are broken down. The whole system includes two kidneys, two
ureters, the bladder, two sphincter muscles and the urethra. Urine produced by the kidneys
travels down the ureters to the bladder, and exits the body through the urethra.
The skin, or integumentary system, is the body's largest organ. It protects us from the outside
world, and is our first defense against bacteria, viruses and other pathogens. Our skin also helps
regulate body temperature and eliminate waste through perspiration. In addition to skin, the
integumentary system includes hair and nails.

Discuss how body systems interact to ensure the body functions and grows.
All of the systems in our body interact with one another to keep the organism healthy. They all
have their different operations and functions but they all are interconnected and dependant on
each other. The brain receive signals and information and from different organs and adjust
signals to maintain proper functioning
The nervous system gives instruction via electrical pulses to every nerve etc as to what to do and
so forth. Its basically the powerhouse, it tells all the organs to do what. The digestive system
breaks down nutrients which enter into blood stream thus involving circulatory system. This
system further pumps blood into lungs and lungs pump oxygen into the blood thus connecting
the circulatory and repiratory system, the Skeletal system protects all the organs and organ
system and the muscle are responsible for action is the organ as well as being connected to the
bones for mobility. The skin covers it all in just one package.

Explain normal body responses to everyday activities.

When challenged with any physical task the human body responds through a series of integrated
changes in function that involves most of it not all of its physiologic system, most of it not all of
its physiologic system. Movement requires activation and control of the musckeltol system, the
cardio vascular and respiratory system provide the ability to sustain the movment over extended
periods. When the body engages in excersice training several times a week or more if frequently
each of these physcologic system undergoes specific adaptions that increases the body efficiency
and capacity that was gained through these trained these training induced adaptions.

Explain how body coordinates its internal activities

The internal environment of the body is tissue fluid, which bathes all cells making up the body.
The composition of tissue fluid must remain constant if cells are to remain alive and healthy.
Tissue fluid is nourished and purified when molecules are exchanged across thin capillary walls.
Tissue fluid remains constant only if the composition of blood remains constant.
Circulatory System
The circulatory system is composed of vessels (arteries and arterioles) that take blood from the
heart, thin-walled capillaries where exchange occurs, and vessels (venules and veins) that return
blood to the heart. Blood is pumped by the heart simultaneously into two circuits: the pulmonary
and systemic circuits. The pulmonary system takes blood through the lungs where gas exchange
occurs and the systemic system transports blood to all parts of the body where exchange with
tissue fluid takes place.
In practical terms, we can think of the systemic circuit as a means to conduct blood to and away
from the capillaries, because only here does exchange with tissue fluid take place. Nutrient
molecules leave the capillaries to be taken up by the cells, and waste molecules given off by the
cells are received by the capillaries to be transported away. Capillaries abound in all parts of the
body, and no cell is more than a few micrometers from a capillary.
Blood is composed of two parts: formed elements and plasma. All of the formed elements
contribute to homeostasis, as outlined in table 1. Oxygen is utilized during cellular respiration, a
process that provides energy for metabolic activities. Fighting infection keeps the body intact and
prevents it from succumbing to disease caused by viruses and bacteria. Clotting of blood when a
vessel has been cut prevents the loss of this vital fluid.

Red blood cells
White blood cells

Table 1 - Formed Elements

Transport oxygen and hydrogen ions
Fight infection
Assist blood clotting

Plasma, too, contributes to homeostasis, as noted in table 2. The nutrients needed and wastes
given off by cells are carried in plasma. Nutrients leave plasma at the capillaries and wastes enter
plasma at the capillaries. Blood pressure created by the pumping of the heart forces water out of
a capillary at the arteriole end and osmotic pressure maintained largely by proteins draws water
back in at the venous end of a capillary. Plasma proteins not only maintain osmotic pressure, but
also buffer the blood; a function they share with the salts, as we shall discuss in more detail later.


Table 2 - Plasma
Provides fluid environment
Create osmotic pressure, aid clotting, and help buffer blood
Required for cellular metabolism
Produced by cellular metabolism
Aid metabolic activity and help buffer blood
Chemical messengers

Lymphatic System
Tissue fluid is constantly refreshed because more water exits a capillary than returns to it.
Lymphatic capillaries collect excess tissue fluid, and return it via lymphatic vessels to the
systemic veins. Lymph nodes present along the length of lymphatic vessels filter and purify
lymph. Lymph nodes are rich in lymphocytes, the type of white blood cell that responds to
antigens allowing immunity to develop.
Special lymph capillaries, called lacteals, are found within the villi. They absorb the products of
fat digestion.
Nervous System
Since the nervous system does not store nutrients, it must receive a continuous supply from
blood. Any interruption to the flow of blood may bring brain damage or death. The nervous
system maintains homeostasis by controlling and regulating the other parts of the body. A
deviation from a normal set point acts as a stimulus to a receptor, which sends nerve impulses to
a regulating center in the brain. The brain directs an effector to act in such a way that an adaptive
response takes place. If, for example, the deviation was a lowering of body temperature, the
effector acts to increase body temperature. The adaptive response returns the body to a state of
normalcy and the receptor, the regulating center, and the effector temporarily cease their
activities. Since the effector is regulated by the very conditions it produced, this process is called
control by negative feedback (fig. 2).
This manner of regulating normalcy results in a fluctuation between two extreme levels. Not
until body temperature drops below normal do receptors stimulate the regulating center and
effectors act to raise body temperature. Regulating centers are located in the central nervous
system, consisting of the brain and spinal cord (fig. 3a, 3b). The hypothalamus is a portion of the

brain particularly concerned with homeostasis; it influences the action of the medulla oblongata,
a lower part of the brain, the autonomic nervous system, and the pituitary gland.
The nervous system has two major portions: the central nervous system and the peripheral
nervous system (table 3). The peripheral nervous system consists of the cranial and spinal nerves.
The autonomic nervous system is a part of peripheral nervous system and contains motor
neurons that control internal organs. It operates at the subconscious level and has two divisions,
the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. In general, the sympathetic system brings about
those results we associate with emergency situations, often called fight or flight reactions, and
the parasympathetic system produces those effects necessary to our everyday existence.

Lower portions
Spinal cord
Cranial nerves, spinal
Autonomic system

Table 3 - Nervous System


Consciousness, creativity, thought, morals, memory

Reception of sensory data, coordination of muscular activity,
Automatic reflex actions
Carry sensory information to motor impulses from the CNS
Those cranial and spinal motor nerves that control internal organs

*CNS = Central nervous system

**PNS = Peripheral nervous system
The reflex arc is the action unit of the nervous system. In this arc, a sense receptor initiates nerve
impulses that travel by way of a sensory fiber to the central nervous system where integration
takes place. Following this, nerve impulses travel by way of motor neurons to either a gland or
muscle that then reacts.
The nerve impulse is an electrochemical change that is propagated along the length of a neuron
from dendrite to axon. The nerve impulse is the same in all neurons; the specific effect that
results is dependent on the organ being stimulated. For example, each part of the cerebrum has a
different function: stimulation of the occipital lobes results in vision; stimulation of the temporal
lobe produces a sensation of sound. Sensations are the prerogative of the cerebrum since only the
cerebrum is responsible for consciousness.
A region of close proximity between neurons is called a synapse. At a synapse, one neuron ends
at the presynaptic membrane and the next neuron begins at the postsynaptic membrane. The
small gap between is the synaptic cleft. Transmission across a synapse is by means of
neurotransmitter substances which are stored in small synaptic vesicles on the axon side of the
synapse. Nerve impulses cause the release of neurotransmitter substances, which diffuses across

the synaptic cleft to be received by the postsynaptic membrane. If stimulation results, nerve
impulses begin in the next neuron (fig. 4).
A neuromuscular junction has the same components as a synapse. In this case, however, the
postsynaptic membrane is the membrane of a muscle fiber. Again a neurotransmitter substance
diffuses across the synaptic cleft but this time the action potential that travels along the T system
of a muscle fiber causes the release of calcium, which triggers a muscle contraction. When a
skeletal muscle contracts, the actin filaments slide past the myosin filaments, thereby shortening
sarcomeres and therefore, the muscle. While at first it may seem that the muscular system does
not play a role in homeostasis, voluntary muscles very definitely do play a role because by their
contraction the individual can take the necessary actions to bring about a more favorable external
Endocrine System
The major endocrine glands of the body are listed in table 4. The hormones produced by these
glands are chemical messengers that are transported throughout the body by the blood. A
hormone is capable of stimulating only its target organ or cells since they alone have receptors
for that hormone. The endocrine system and the nervous system both coordinate the activities of
body parts. The nervous system reacts quickly to external and internal stimuli, whereas the
endocrine system is slower to act but its effects are longer lasting.
Table 4 - Major Endocrine Glands and Their Major Hormones
Hypothalmic-releasing and releaseRegulate anterior pituitary
inhibiting hormones
Stimulates thyroid
Stimulates adrenal cortex
Stimulates gonads
Promotes water reabsorption by
Increases metabolic rate
Maintains blood calcium and
phosphorus levels
Adrenal cortex Glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisol)
Promotes gluconeogenesis
Promotes sodium reabsorption by
Mineralocorticoids (e.g., aldosterone)
Adrenal medulla Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Stimulates fight or flight reaction
Lowers blood sugar level
Raises blood sugar level
Androgens (male) Estrogens and
Promotes secondary sex
progesterone (female)
Respiratory System

Oxygen-laden air is inhaled into the alveoli of the lungs by way of the structures illustrated
in fig. 5. Blood within the pulmonary artery is oxygen-poor and contains a large concentration of
carbon dioxide. As blood passes through the capillaries surrounding the alveoli, oxygen diffuses
into blood and carbon dioxide diffuses out of blood into the alveoli. Thereafter, carbon dioxide is
exhaled by moving from the alveoli to the nose. Since the blood within the pulmonary vein is
oxygen-rich and contains a small concentration of carbon dioxide, it is clear that carbon dioxide
has been traded for oxygen as blood passes through the lungs.
Digestive System
When blood is pumped from the left ventricle of the heart, much of it passes down the dorsal
aorta to the organs of the abdomen. Chief among these organs are those of the digestive tract (fig.
Within the digestive tract the food is broken down to nutrient molecules small enough to be
absorbed by the villi of the small intestine. Digestive enzymes are produced by the digestive tract
and by the pancreas. In addition the liver produces bile, an emulsifier that plays a role in the
digestion of fats. Bile, which is stored in the gallbladder, enters the small intestine along with the
pancreatic enzymes. Following the absorption of nutrients, blood passes from the region of the
small intestine to the liver by way of the hepatic portal vein.
The liver, which monitors the blood, is a very important organ of homeostasis. The liver breaks
down toxic substances like alcohol and other drugs, and it produces urea, the end product of
nitrogenous metabolism. The liver produces the plasma proteins and stores glucose as glycogen
after eating. In between eating it releases glucose, thereby keeping the blood glucose
concentration constant. The liver destroys old blood cells and breaks down hemoglobin-hemoglobin breakdown products are excreted in bile.

Urinary System
As blood passes through the kidneys, urine is made and excreted. Urine is composed of
substances not needed by cells: end-products of metabolism (e.g., urea) and excess salts and
water. In the process of making urine, blood is first filtered and all small molecules, including
both nutrients and wastes, enter a nephron. Then the nutrient molecules and much of the salts and
water are reabsorbed back into the blood, while unwanted substances remain within the nephron
to become a part of urine. Tubular secretion is another way by which certain molecules enter a
nephron just before urine enters a collecting duct.

Explain how age may affect body structure and functioning

Living tissue is made up of cells. There are many different types of cells, but all have the same
basic structure. Tissues are layers of similar cells that perform a specific function. The different
kinds of tissues group together to form organs.
There are four basic types of tissue:

Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together. This includes bone,
blood, and lymph tissues, as well as the tissues that give support and structure to the skin
and internal organs.

Epithelial tissue provides a covering for deeper body layers. The skin and the linings of
the passages inside the body, such as the gastrointestinal system, are made
of epithelial tissue.

Muscle tissue includes three types of tissue:

o Striated muscles, such as those that that move the skeleton (also called voluntary
o Smooth muscles (also called involuntary muscle), such as the muscles contained
in the stomach and other internal organs
o Cardiac muscle, which makes up most of the heart wall (also an involuntary

Nerve tissue is made up of nerve cells (neurons) and is used to carry messages to and
from various parts of the body. The brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves are made of
nerve tissue.

Cells are the basic building blocks of tissues. All cells experience changes with aging. They
become larger and are less able to divide and multiply. Among other changes, there is an increase
in pigments and fatty substances inside the cell (lipids). Many cells lose their ability to function,
or they begin to function abnormally.
Waste products build up in tissue with aging. A fatty brown pigment called lipofuscin collects in
many tissues, as do other fatty substances.
Connective tissue changes, becoming more stiff. This makes the organs, blood vessels, and
airways more rigid. Cell membranes change, so many tissues have more trouble getting oxygen
and nutrients and removing carbon dioxide and wastes.
Many tissues lose mass. This process is called atrophy. Some tissues become lumpy (nodular) or
more rigid.

Because of cell and tissue changes, your organs also change as you age. Aging organs slowly
lose function. Most people do not notice this loss, because you rarely need to use your organs to
their fullest ability.
Organs have a reserve ability to function beyond the usual needs. For example, the heart of a 20year-old is capable of pumping about 10 times the amount of blood that is actually needed to
keep the body alive. After age 30, an average of 1% of this reserve is lost each year.
The biggest changes in organ reserve occur in the heart, lungs, and kidneys. The amount of
reserve lost varies between people and between different organs in a single person.
These changes appear slowly and over a long period of time. When an organ is worked harder
than usual it may not be able to increase function. Sudden heart failure or other problems can
develop when the body is worked harder than usual. Things that produce an extra workload
(body stressors) include the following:



Significant life changes

Suddenly increased physical demands on the body, for example:

o A sudden change in activity
o Exposure to a higher altitude

Loss of reserve also makes it harder to restore balance (equilibrium) in the body. Drugs are
removed from the body at a slower rate. Lower doses of medications may be needed, and side
effects become more common.
Medication side effects can mimic the symptoms of many diseases, so it is easy to mistake a drug
reaction for an illness. Some medications have entirely different side effects in the elderly than in
younger people

Assess the impact of common disorders on body structure and functioning.

Human body diseases vary in both severity and diversity. Any body part or function can contract
a disease or have a disorder. We are more capable today than ever before of combating these
diseases and medicine is advancing every day.
Skin Disorders
The skin is susceptible to physical injury and to infection by bacteria, virus, fungi, and exposure
to sunlight. Rashes can be caused by allergic reactions and some skin disorders are hereditary.
Nervous System Disorders
Damage to the nervous system through physical injury or disease can impair both physical and
mental function. The nervous system can be affected by infections, injury, tumors, and
degenerative conditions.
Cardiovascular Disorders
Common heart diseases include structural defects, damage due to restricted blood supply, heart
muscle disorders and viral infections. What we eat and the amount of exercise we get can affect
our cardiovascular system.
Infections and Immune Disorders
Our bodies can be infected by bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Our immune systems work
to combat these viruses. Our immune systems can also develop disorders and there are two types
of immune system disorder; allergies and autoimmune diseases where the immune system over
reacts and immunodefficiency diseases where it underacts and is too weak to cope with a threat.
Digestive Disorders
Problems with our digestive systems occur frequently mainly due to the food we consume. Viral
infections and cancer can also affect our digestive systems.

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