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Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 12 (8): 1056-1061, 2012

ISSN 1990-9233
IDOSI Publications, 2012
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2012.12.8.3333

Effect of Water and Cement Ratio on Compressive


Strength and Abrasion of Microsilica Concrete
1

Kamal Rahmani, 2Abolfazl Shamsai, 2Bahram Saghafian and 1Saber Peroti


Department of Civil Engineering, Mahabad Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
1

Abstract: Nowadays, due to development of hydraulic structures such as dams, the durability issue of concrete
is very important parameter of hydraulic structures. The key issue in this regard is the concrete resistance
against abrasion which is related to water and cement and the crystalline formation of the particles in concrete.
To enhance the abrasion resistance of concrete, various issues have been proposed by number of
investigators. Those include use of aggregates which are resistance against abrasion, reduce the water and
cement ratio, use of micro and nano-silica in concrete and proper curing time for the concrete. In this
investigation, concrete cubic sample size of ( 151515 cm3) were prepared with different combination of
nano-silica samples and variable water and cement ratio. The sample compressive strength was examined at the
curing time of 7, 28 and 91 days. The aim of present paper was to investigate the importance water and cement
ratio on compressive strength and abrasion resistant of micro silica in the concrete.
Key words: Compressive strength

Abrasion resistance

INTRODUCTION
Erosion is one of the major problems, threatening the
durability of structures. Failure due to abrasion is mainly
caused by sand, gravel, rock, ice or any other material
which is carried by water. Abrasion trend mainly related
to some factors, such as size, shape, hardness, amount of
particles carried by water, water velocity, turbulent flow
and the quality of concrete. To improve the abrasion
resistance of concrete structures, there are various
techniques to apply; however, present investigation may
emphasize on partial replacement cement; use of silica as
filler, water and cement ratio while other parameters
remind unchanged at define conditions.
Nowadays, use of nano-silica in concrete gained
great popularity; Aiu and Huang [1] have improved
physical properties of concrete by addition of nano-silica.
In order to improve mechanical and physical properties
as well as durability of concrete materials nano-silicate
materials are used [2]. It has been reported that, addition
of 10% nano-silica has increased compressive strength of
concrete by 50% [2].

Micro and nanosilica

Water and cement ratio

Addition of pozzolanic materials such as silica,


fly ash may enhance the performance of concrete for
high mechanical strength. Combination of silica fume
and amorphous nano-silica material improved the
plasticity and the performance of concrete [3, 4]. Use of
rice husk ask as partial replacement of cement has
improved the silica content of cement; such materials
are often used to enhance mechanical strength of
concrete [5].
Fazel Zarandi et al. [6] have predicted the
compressive strength of concrete with the aid of fuzzy
polynomial network (FPNW). They have found that
FPNW was quite able to predict compressive strength of
mix-design concrete [6].
Influence of fly ash on viscosity and compressive
strength of concrete have been evaluated by Felekoglu
and his coworkers [7] with optimum composition of
concrete for the specified sample; the workability of
concrete were determined [7].
Compressive strength, water permeability and
workability of concrete with partial replacement
have been investigated by Givi et al. [8].

Corresponding Author: Kamal Rahmani, Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University,
Mahabad Branch Mahabad, Iran.

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Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 12 (8): 1056-1061, 2012

The improved compressive strength of concrete was


obtained with 15-20% rice husk ash replacement in
concrete [8].
Effect of micro and nano-particles of SiO2 on concrete
strength has been investigated. It has been reported in
literature [9] that the concrete physical properties
significantly improved for the specimens contained micro
or nano-silica.
It is well known that nano-SiO2 significantly improved
the strength of concrete. Also it was found that nanosilica not only act as filler but activates the pozzolanic
reactivity of the concrete [10].
The dehydration heat of nano-SiO2 fly ash cement
was compared with pure cement. High volume fly ash was
related to high concrete strength. After 3 days of curing
of the concrete sample, the pore size distribution was
improved [11]. The above concept clearly declare that
water and cement ratio may be influential for the
compressive strength of concrete.
The effect of water and cement has been investigated
by other researcher [12]. It was reported that concrete
mixture having 0.35 water/ binder ratio and silica
replacement ranged 0-15% were important parameter in
improvement of concrete compressive strength [13, 14].
Replacement of cement by silica fume has increased
the presence of calcium silicate hydrate; that would
increase the strength of concrete. Besides that nano-silica
is able significantly improve the durability of concrete
[15].
Nazari [16] has utilized TiO2 nano-particles with 2%
partial replacement of cement. He found that TiO2 has
improved the pozzolanic action and also improved the
concrete strength with respect to curing media of water.
The effect of nano-silica particle size on mechanical
properties of blended concrete, flexural and tensile
strength of concrete has been investigated by number of
research scientists [17-25]. The percentage of replacement
with cement was up to 2%. After 90 days curing, they
have found nano-particle size of 15 nm had higher
strength than other sample with particle size of 80 nm [17].
It was found that the filling properties of nano-silica were
more effective than other influential parameters such as
silica.
The purpose of present investigation is to apply
the desired composition of silica in concrete
specimens and to evaluate compressive strength of
sample with variation of water and cement ratio in a
defined range. The improvements were determined and
reported.

Tests Performed on Samples: Concrete samples were


made of 7.5% of micro silica with water and cement ratio
of 0.33, 0.36, 0.40, 0.44 and 0.50. Other characteristics were
kept constant in all samples.
The following tests were conducted on concrete samples:
Compressive
strength
of
cubic
samples
(151515cm3) for 7, 28 and 91 days of curing were
determined.
Abrasion resistances of cubic samples (151515cm3)
at the curing time of 28 days through aqueous send
spraying method (Water Sand Blast) were defined.
Micro Silica Concrete Mixture Design: The following
assumptions were considered during the design:
Samples slump were in the range of 60-100 mm.
Aggregates were not broken.
Maximum grain diameter was 30 mm.
Ordinary Portland cement (Type 1) was used.
For all samples the amount of micro silica was
constant about 7.5% of weights were replaced with
cement.
Abrasion resistance of cubic sample for 28 days was
35Mpa.
The water and cement ratio was varied; it was ranged
0.33-0.5.
In order to achieve a good performance, MELCRET
TB101 lubricant was used.
Compressive Strength Test: The following results were
obtained from experimental data analysis:

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Maximum Compressive Strength was related to the


sample with curing of 7, 28 and 91 days; water and
cement ratio of 0.33.
Minimum Compressive Strength was related to the
sample with 7, 28 and 91 days of curing; water and
cement ratio of 0.5.
About 68% Compressive Strength was achieved
within the first 7days.
About 75% Compressive Strength was achieved
within the first 28 days.
Minimum growth of 7 to 28-day compressive strength
was related to the sample with 0.50 of water and
cement ratio.
Maximum growth of 7 to 28-day compressive
strength was related to the sample with 0.33 of water
and cement ratio.

Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 12 (8): 1056-1061, 2012

The development of compressive strength for all


samples from 28 to 91 days was almost the same.
The overall shapes of the curves were almost
identical for 7, 28 and 91 days of curing time.
By increasing the water and cement ratio,
compressive strength curves for 7-days and 28-days
become closer to each others.

To increase in water and cement ratio from 0.33


to 0.50, abrasion depth slope gradually
decreases. This can be related to the two-phase
nature of concrete. When water-cement ratio
increases the abrasion strength will decrease,
but the abrasion strength of concrete will tend to
the abrasion strength of aggregates.

The Abrasion Strength Test: The test was performed on


samples through following steps:

The graphical presentation of data shows that curve


is concave downward and has a maximum value
water-cement ratio from 0.33 to 0.50.
A reverse in depth abrasion versus water and cement
ratio is illustrated. Because depth abrasion and
abrasion strength are inversely related. So, with
increase in water-cement ratio, the abrasion strength
will decrease.
Percentage of abrasion strength to the concrete with
0.5water-cement ratio.
Percentage of abrasion strength to the different
water-cement ratios.

The granulated silica sand (as it passes the sieve no.


20 and remains on the sieve no. 30) was disembogued
in to tank sands and then put the suction tube into it.
The device was regulated on 120 atm.
Put the sample in the box and set the spray distance
in 80 mm above the sample.
Water-silica sand flow was shot about a minute into
a point on the concrete surface. This job was done 8
times from 8 different points.
After the pervious step, the sample was washed out
and extra water should be taken off.
Depth of abrasion was measured according to the
following steps:
The sample is weighed
Cavities created in the sample were filled with
fine sands (they should be passed through sieve
no.150) then smooth out all surfaces.
Again the sample is weighed.
Specific weigh of sand is measured.
Sp.Gr. of sand =Wair /( Wair - Wwater)
Cavities volume is measured:
V = W/
Where V Is Void Volume: Depth of abrasion is measured
by the following relation:

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The Compressive Strength curve changes with
respect to water-cement ratio for curing time of 7, 28 and
91 days are shown in Figure 1. Improvements of
compressive strength of concrete samples for 7, 28 and 91
days are shown in Figures 2-4, respectively. Also Tables
1 - 5 summarized obtained data for Compressive Strength
Test for samples with defined water and cement ratio of
0.33 to 0.5.
Table 6 presents the improvement made for concrete
aged for duration of 7, 28 and 91 days. Compressive
Strength (%) with water sand cement ratio of 0.05.
Table 7 summarized abrasion depth values for water and
cement ratio. Table 8 demonstrate the improvement in
abrasion strength (%) toward water and cement ratio
(w/c).

he = V/A
The necessary results were obtained from the
experiments.
Evaluation of Abrasion Strength Test Result:
The depth of abrasion versus water and cement
ratio was defined. When water-cement ratio
increases, the depth of abrasion will also
increase.

Fig. 1: Compressive Strength curve changes with respect


to water-cement ratio at 7, 28 and 91 days
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Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 12 (8): 1056-1061, 2012


Table 3: Compressive Strength Test for samples with water and cement
ratio of 0.4
Average Compressive
Strength (Mpa)

Age of
samples (days)

Water and
cement ratio (w/c)

33.69
47.17
51.87

7
28
91

0.4

Table 4: Compressive Strength Test for samples with 0.44 water-cement


ratio

Fig. 2: Compressive strength improvement after 7 days

Average Compressive
Strength (Mpa)

Age of
samples (days)

Water and
cement ratio (w/c)

39.08
51.66
60.24

7
28
91

0.33

Table 5: Compressive Strength Test for samples with water and cement
ratio of 0.5

Fig. 3: Compressive strength improvement after 28 days

Average Compressive
Strength (Mpa)

Age of
samples (days)

Water and
cement ratio (w/c)

32.20
45.17
48.94

7
28
91

0.44

Table 6: Improvement of concrete aged for 7, 28 and 91 days. Compressive


Strength (%) with water sand cement ratio of 0.05
Improvement of 91 Improvement of 28
days Compressive days Compressive
Strength (%)
Strength (%)

Improvement of 7 Water and


days Compressive cement
Strength (%)
ratio (w/c)

37.44
26.92
18.34
11.66

35.79
28.14
17.06
11.88

33.21
30.38
21.63
16.48

0.33
0.36
0.40
0.44

Table 7: Abrasion depth values for water and cement ratio


Water and cement ratio (w/c)

Fig. 4: Compressive strength improvement after 91 days


Table 1: Compressive Strength Test for samples with water and cement
ratio of 0.33
Average Compressive
Strength (Mpa)

Age of
samples (days)

Water and
cement ratio (w/c)

39.08
51.66
60.24

7
28
91

0.33

0.33
0.36
0.40
0.44
0.50

Age of
samples (days)

Water and
cement ratio (w/c)

36.88
50.56
55.63

7
28
91

0.36

0.962
1.070
1.126
1.166
1.205

Table 8: Improvement in abrasion strength (%) toward water and cement


ratio (w/c)
Improvement in abrasion strength (%)
20.13
14.03
7.93
3.32

Table 2: Compressive Strength Test for samples with water and cement
ratio of 0.36
Average Compressive
Strength (Mpa)

The average depth of abrasion (mm)

Water and cement ratio (w/c)


0.33
0.36
0.40
0.44

When water-cement ratio increases in micro silica


concrete, the abrasion strength and compressive
strength will increase.
To increase in water-cement ratio from 0.5 to
0.33, 7-days compressive strength
increases
35.8%.
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Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 12 (8): 1056-1061, 2012

With increase in water-cement ratio from 0.33 to 0.5,


gradient of depth curve gradually decreases.
This can be related to the two-phase nature of
concrete, increase in water-cement ratio caused
decrease in abrasion strength phase but abrasion
strength of concrete will tend to abrasion strength of
aggregations. The sand-water spray test is a proper
way to evaluate the abrasion strength toward water,
because this method can largely simulate actual
abrasion in concrete.
To increase the abrasion strength, it is necessary to
reinforce the mortar mixers phase and aggregation phase
together. We can reinforce the mortar mixers phase by
increasing the water-cement ratio, using micro silica,
proper curing and etc. we can use the Granite aggregate
to improve the aggregate strength.

Fig. 5: The percentage of abrasion strength improvement

Increase in compressive strength of concrete cause


an increase in abrasion strength.
To the high specific surface of micro silica (14m2/g)
and its need to large amount of water, the most
appropriate value of micro silica is 7.5% of it. Higher
values have negative effects on its smoothness.
The percentage of abrasion strength improvements
with respect to water and cement ratio are illustrated in
Figure 5.
The depth of abrasion with respect to water-cement
ratio is shown in Figure 6.
The depth of abrasion inverse with to water-cement
ratio is shown in Figure 7.

Fig. 6: Depth of abrasion with to water-cement ratio

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Fig. 7: Depth of abrasion inverse with to water-cement


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