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Chapter1

INTRODUCTIONTOLEGALRESEARCH

A.LegalResearch,Defined
It is the process of finding the laws, rules and regulations that govern activities in human
society.ItinvolveslocatingboththelawsandruleswhichareenforcedbytheStateandthe
commentarieswhichexplainoranalyzetheserules.
LegalResearchisalsodefinedastheinvestigationforinformationnecessarytosupportlegal
decisionmaking.LegalResearchincludeseachstepofaprocessthatbeginswithanalyzing
the facts of a problem and concludes with applying and communicating the results of the
investigation.
B.TheNeedforLegalResearch
Inordertoprovideacompetentrepresentationwhichrequiresthelegalknowledge,
skill,thoroughnessandpreparationreasonablynecessaryfortherepresentation.
Toupholdthestandardsofthelegalprofession
Inordertobecomeacompetentpractitioner
Inordertoconductlegalresearcheffectively,alawyershouldhave:
aworkingknowledgeofthenatureoflegalrulesandlegalinstitutions
thefundamentaltoolsoflegalresearch,and
theprocessofdevisingandimplementingacoherentandeffectiveresearchdesign
C.SourcesofLegalResearch
Legalresearchinvolvestheuseofavarietyofprintedandelectronicsources.
Printedsources:
Constitution
Statutes
Courtdecisions
Administrativerules
Scholarlycommentaries
Computerdatabasescontainingtheseandothermaterialshavedramaticallychanged
thenatureoflegalresearchandimproveditseffectiveness.
D.SourcesofLawThreebroadcategories:
1.PrimarySourcesthoserecordedlawsandruleswhichwillbeenforcedbytheState
(purelaws)
Firstmajorprimarysources
legislativeactions
codes
statutes
Secondmajorcategoryjudicialdecisions
SupremeCourt
CourtofAppeals

TrialCourts(RTC,MTC,MCTC)
Thirdprimarysource
administrativelaw,ortheregulationsanddecisionsofgovernmentagencies
stateagenciespromulgateregulationsgoverningbehaviorwithintheirareasof
expertise
agenciesalsoactinquasijudicialcapacitybyconductinghearingsandissuing
decisionstoresolveparticulardisputes
2. Secondary Materials (commentaries and annotations) vary widely in purpose and
quality,rangingfromauthoritativetreatiesbygreatacademicscholarstosuperficialtractsby
hackwriters.Itcanhelpanalyzeaproblemandprovideresearchreferencestobothprimary
sourcesandothersecondarymaterials
Publicationswhicharenotprimaryauthoritybutwhichdiscussoranalyzelegaldoctrine
areconsideredsecondarymaterials:
Treatises
Commentaries
Encyclopedias
Mostinfluentiallegalwritings
academicjournals(lawreviewersoflawschools)
IBPjournalsandLawyersReview
secondarymaterialsthroughtheuseof:
lawlibrarycatalog
legalperiodicalindexes
otherbibliographicaids
commentariesfromtheprimarysources
3.FindingToolssearchmaterialstolocatelegalsourcesmeansoflocatingprimary
sources
SCRAQuickIndexDigests
PHILJURIS&LEXLIBRIScomputerbasedlegalresearchsystems,providethe
capabilitytosearchforcasesandotherdocumentsbyusingpracticallyanywordor
combinationofwords.
Chapter2
THELEGALRESEARCHPROCESS
A.SystematicApproachtoLegalResearchbasicstepsarerecommended:
1. Identify and Analyze the Significant Facts begins with compiling a descriptive
statementoflegallysignificantfacts.TheTARPRuleisausefultechniquetoanalyze
yourfactsaccordingtothefollowingfactors:
TThingorsubjectmatter
ACauseofActionorgroupofdefense
RReliefsought
PPersonsorpartiesinvolved

FormulatetheLegalIssuestobeResearchedthisistheinitialintellectualactivity
that presumes some knowledge of the substantive law. The goal is to classify or
categorize the problem into general, and increasingly specific, subject areas and to
begintohypothesizelegalissues.
Consultgeneralsecondarysourcesforanoverviewofallrelevantsubject
areas,thiscanbeusedtoprovidebackgroundinformationtohelpformulate
issuestheyaretoolsNOTtheobjectsofresearch
Statementoftheissuesshouldbearrangedinalogicalpatterntoforman
outline

3. ResearchtheIssuesPresentedbegintoresearchtheissue
a. OrganizeandPlanwritedownallsourcestobesearchedundereachissue
toberesearched,evenifsourcesarerepeated
b. Identify, Read and Update All Relevant Constitutional Provisions, Statutes
andAdministrativeRegulationstheseprimarysourcescanbeidentifiedin
severalways:
Statutory Compilations tables of contents and indexes that list the
subjectandtopicscoveredbythestatutes
ComputerAssistedLegalResearch
PHILJURISandLEXLIBRIS
SecondarySourcestreatiesandcommentariesandlawreviewarticles,
commonly cite relevant constitutional provisions, statues, and
administrativeregulations

c. Identify,ReadandUpdateAllRelevantCaseLawnoteitsfullcitation,the
ponente,dateofdecision,relevantfacts,theholding,summaryofthecourts
reasoning,andthesourcescitedbytheCourt

d. RefinetheSearchexpandyourarguments
4. UpdateconsultthePHILJURISorLEXLIBRIStodeterminewhethertheauthorities
have been interpreted or altered in any way, or whether new cases, statutes or
regulationshavebeenpublishedlawchangesconstantlyourCongresspassesnew
statutesandmodifyoldonesourSupremeCourteitherrefinesthelaworreaffirms
thelaworevenchangestheinterpretationofthelaw.
Chapter3
FUNDAMENTALRESEARCHSKILL:CASEBRIEFING
ANDSYTHESISOFCASES
A. CaseBriefingprocessofdigestingorthecondensationofareportedcase.Thereisno
one correct form for a case brief since it is a document that is created to meet the
studentsneeds.Thetypicalcomponentsofacasebriefare:
1. Factsdescribetheeventsbetweenthepartiesleadingtothelitigationandtell
howthecasebeforethecourtthatisnowdecidingit.Includethosefactsthatare
2.

relevanttotheissuethecourtmustdecideandtothereasonsforitdecision.You
will not know which facts are relevant until you know what the issue or issues
are.
Statetheplaintiffaddefendant
Basisforplaintiffssuit
Plaintiffsrelief
IncludetherulingoftheLowerCourtandCourtofAppeals

2. Issue(s)questionthatthecourtmustdecidetoresolvethedisputebetweenthe
partiesinthecasebeforeit.
Identifytheruleoflawthatgovernsthedisputeandaskhowitshouldapply
tothosefacts
3. Rulingcourtsdecisiononthequestionthatisactuallybeforeit,butiftheydo
notrelatetothequestionactuallybeforeit,theyaredictaordictum(expression
ofopinionorapointotherthanthepreciseissueinvolvedindeterminingacase).
* providestheanswertothequestionaskedintheissues
* supportedbycourtsreasoningexplainingandsupportingthecourtsdecision

B. SynthesizingCasesprocessofrelatingthecasestoeachother.Bythisprocess,we
can understand the applicable area of law and then use the synthesis to analyze the
proble
1. Understandtheapplicableareaoflaw
2. Usethesynthesistoanalyzetheproblem
3. Synthesizingisthestepbetweenyourresearchandyourwriting
Chapter4
STATUTORYLAW

STATUTORYLAWconsistsmainlyofthefollowing:

1. The1987Constitution
2. TreatiesandInternationalAgreements
3. StatuesenactedbyLegislature
4. AdministrativeRulesandRegulations
5. OrdinancesenactedbyAutonomousRegion
6. OrdinancesenactedbyLocalGovernmentUnits

1. THEPHILIPPINECONSTITUTIONlawandlawofthehighestauthoritativenessand
obligation. As supreme law of the land, it is the ultimate authority to which reference
mustbemadetodeterminethevalidityofnationallaws,administrativeregulations,local
ordinancesandexecutiveactions.
a. SpanishPeriod

LeyesConstitucionalesdeEspana
DerechoParliamentarioEspanol(3volumes)
Ponce,EfemeridesFilipinas
Prologue,FilipinasenlasCortes

b. TheTreatyofParis
OfficialGazette,Vol.1(Appendix)
U.S.StatutesatLarge,Vol.30
PublicLaws(PhilippineCommissionandPhilippineLegislative)
ActsofCongressandTreatiesPertainingtothePhilippineIslands

c. TheMalolosConstitutionof1899
HeraldodelaRevolucion
LaRevolucionFilipina(ApolinarioMabini,publishedbyBureauofPrintingin
2vols.)
ReportsofthePhilippineCommissiontothePresident(GovtPrintingOffice,
4vols.)
MisMemoriasSobreLaRevolucion(Calderon)
LaConstituciondeMalolos(Kalaw)
ArchivodelBibliofiloFilipino(Retana)
DocumentosparalaHistoriadeFilipinas(Calderon)
PlanesConstitutionalesparaFilipnas(Kalaw)
ResenaVeridicadelaRevolucion(Aguinaldo)
PhilippineConstitutionalLaw(Malcolm)
ThePhilippineIslands(BlairandRobertson)

d. TheAmericanPeriod
a. OrganicLaws
Pres.McKinleyssInstructionsofApril7,1900
OfficialGazette(Vol.1PreliminaryNumber)
PublicLaws(PhilippineCommission,Vol.1)
ReportstothePhilippinesCommissiontothePresident(Vol.1)
TheSpoonerAmendmentofMarch2,1901
U.S.StatuesatLargeVol.31
ThePhilippineBillof1902
U.S.StatutesatLargeVol.32
U.S.CodeTitles2and48
ThePhilippineAutonomyActof1916
U.S.StatutesatLargeVol.39
U.S.CodeTitles2,39and48

b.

TheCommonwealthPeriod
TheTydingsMcDuffieLawof1934
U.S.StatutesatLargeVol.48
U.S.CodeTitle48
DiscussedinthePhilippineCharterofLibertybyOsiasandBaradi
The1935PhilippineConstitution
PublicLawsofthePhilippines(Vol.30Appendix)
OfficialGazetteVol.34
MessagesofthePresidentVol.1revisededition(1936)
ProceedingsoftheConstitutionalConventionof1935bySen.JoseP.Laurel
(7vols.)
Journalofthe1935ConstitutionalConvention(3vols.)
JournaloftheConstitutionalConventionofthePhilippines(7volumes)
FramingofthePhilippineConstitution2vols.
ConstitutionalConventionRecords(11vols.)
Secondarysources:
Philippine Constitutional Law (Malcolm and Laurel, Lawyers
CooperativePublishingCo.,Manila,1936)
ConstitutionofthePhilippines(TanadaandFernando,1952)
Philippine Constitutional Law (Martin, Rev. Ed., Philaw Publishing,
Manila,1954)
ConstitutionalHistory(Francisco,EastPublication,Manila,1956)
PoliticalLawofthePhilippines(TanadaandCarreon,1956)
PhilippineConstitutionalLaw(Sinco,CommunityPublishing,Manila,
2ndEd.,1960)
Philippine Annotated Laws (The Lawyers Cooperative Publishing Co.,
1956)

e.

f.

TheJapanesePeriod(1943Constitution)
OfficialGazette(Vol.2SpecialNumber9A)

PeriodAfterPhilippineIndependencein1946
a. MartialLawDeclaration
b. The1973Constitution
OfficialGazette(Vol.68,No.50Vol.69No.4)
ConstitutionalConventionArchivesU.P.LawLibrary
From McKinleys Instruction to the Constitution: Documents on the
Philippine Constitutional System, Central Book Supply, Inc., Manila,
1978
Secondarysources

2.

ConstitutionofthePhilippines(Fernando,CentralBookSupply,Inc.,
1973Ed.)
Philippine Constitutional Law (Gonzales, 4th Ed., Rex Book Store,
Manila,1975)
c. TheAmendmentstothe1973Constitution
d. TheProvisionalConstitutionof1986FreedomConstitution
VitalLegalDocumentsintheNewPeoplesGovernmentCentralBook
Supply,Inc.
ConstitutionalisminthePhilippines,1997(RufusRodriguez)
e. The1987Constitution
OfficialGazette
TheNewConstitutionofthePhilippines(Noledo)
ConstitutionalisminthePhilippines(R.Rodriguez)
Record of the Philippine Constitutional Commission (5 vols.) and its 3
vol.Journals
Secondarysources
The1987ConstitutionofthePhilippineswithCommentsandCases
TheAquinoPresidencyandtheConstitution
TheConstitutionoftheRepublicofthePhilippinesACommentary
1996
TextbookontheNewPhilippineConstitution,1999
ConstitutionalLaw
HumanRights:AnIntroductionCourse
ConstitutionalLaw,TextandCases
Principles,CommentsandCasesinConstitutionalLaw

TREATIESANDINTERNATIONALAGREEMENTSacompactmadebetweentwoor
moreindependentnationswithaviewtothepublicwelfare
OfficialGazette
TreatySeries
ActsofCongressandTreatiesPertainingtothePhilippineIslands
PhilippineTreatySeries
PhilippineTreatiesIndex
TheLawyersReview,InternationalLaDocuments
LawoftheSea
PhilippineYearbookofInternationalLawsVols.IXtoXV
DocumentsinContemporaryInternationalLaw2vols.
VitalASEANDocuments
TheOceanLawandPolicySeries
PhilippineTradeandEconomicAgreements

3.

WorldBulletin
Secondarymaterials
CasesandMaterialsonInternationalLaw
PublicInternationalLaw1974
InternationalLaw1998Ed.(CoquiaJr.andSantiago)
InternationalLaw1998Ed.(Cruz,I.A.)
InternationalLaw,withPhilippineCasesandMaterialsandAseanInstruments
1999Ed.

STATUTESENACTEDBYTHELEGISLATURE
a. LegislationinGeneralistheformalenactmentoflawsbycompetentauthorityand
inthepropermanner
1. ConstitutionalProvisions
2. TypesofLegislation
3. FormofStatutes
4. TheEnactmentofStatutes
5. TheConstructionofStatutes
b. HistoryofPhilippineLegislation
1. PreSpanishPeriod
2. SpanishPeriod
a. SpanishLawsMadeApplicabletothePhilippines
1. ThesystemoflawinSpainanditsantecedents
a. TheCodeofEuricandtheBrevariumofAlaric
b. FueroJuzgo
c. FueroReal
d. LasSietePartidas
e. LeyesdeToroNuevaRecopilacion
f. NovisimaRecopilacion
2. ModernSpanishCodes
a. CodigodeComercioof1885
b. CodigoPenalof1870
c. TheCodesofCivilandCriminalProcedure
d. CodigoCivilof1889
b. LawsSpeciallyEnactedfortheColonies
1. LegislationfortheColonies
2. FirstCollectionofLawsRelatingtotheColonies
3. CompilationofLawsInitiatedbytheCouncil
4. TheCodigoOvandino
5. GeneralCompilationbyAguilaryAcunaandPinelo
6. TherecopilaciondeLeyesdelosreynosdeIndias
7. CompilationsSubsequenttotheRecopilacion

EvaluationoftheLawsinthePhilippinesDuringtheSpanishPeriod

d. MaterialsontheSpanishLaws
1. PrimaryMaterials
a. BoletinOficial
b. GacetadeManila
c. ArchivodeBibliofiloFilipino(5vol.,18951905)
d. CodigoPenaldeFilipinasyLeyProvisional
e. CodigoComercio
f. CodigoPenal
2. SecondaryMaterials
a. Civillaw
b. Criminallaw
c. Commerciallaw
e. LegislationinthePhilippinesduringtheSpanishperiod
3. TheperiodofthePhilippineRevolution
4. TheAmericanPeriod
5. TheCommonwealthPeriod
6. TheJapanesePeriod
7. ThePeriodafterIndependence
8. TheMartialLawPeriod
9. AquinosRevolutionaryGovernment
10. Periodunder1987Constitution
c. PublicationonPhilippineStatutes,ingeneral
d. SummaryofPhilippineLegislation

PERIOD
LEGISLATIVE
NAMEOF
NO.OF
FIRSTLAWS
STATUTE

AUTHORITY
STATUTES
PASSED
S

1900
Philippine
Act1
Acts
4,275
1935
Commission
Appropriating
Philippine
$2Mforhighways

Assembly
and
Philippine

bridges
Legislative

c.

1935
1941

CA1Providing
for
NationalDefense
of
thePhilippines

RA1
Appropriating
FundsforGov'tof
the
Commonwealth
July1,19461947

Commonwealth
Acts

Congress

RepublicActs

Marcosas
Legislator

Presidential
Decrees

underMartialLaw

Batasang
Pambansa

PD1
Reorganizingthe
ExecutiveBranch
ofthe
Government

BP1
Appropriating
FundsfortheGov't
fromJan.1Dec.
31,'79

302

EO1Creatingthe

1946
1972

1972
1986

1986
1987

NationalAssembly

PresidentAquino
as
Legislatorinthe
RevolutionaryGov't

BatasPambansa

ExecutiveOrders

733

6,635

2,036

891

1987to

Congress

RepublicActs

2,524

present

PCGG

RA6636
Resetting
LocalElections
from
Nov.9,1987to
Jan.18,
1988

4.

BureauofTourismServices
DepartmentofSocialWelfareandDevelopment

ADMINISTRATIVERULESANDREGULATIONS

a.

b.

c.

AdministrativeactsandcommandsofthePresidentofthePhilippinestouching
on the organization or mode of operation of the government of the rearranging or
readjustmentofthedistricts,divisions,partorpartsofthePhilippinesandallactsand
commands governing the general performance of duties by public employees or
disposing of issues of general concern are made effective by the issuance of
Executive Orders. Those orders fixing the dates when specific laws, resolutions or
ordersaretohaveorceasetotakeeffectandanyinformationconcerningmattersof
public moment determined by law, resolution, or executive orders, take the form of
proclamations. Ordinarily, administrative orders are confined to the exercise by the
President of the Philippines of his power deciding administrative cases. Sometimes
theymaycontainregulationsfortheconductofsubordinateofficersintheexecutive
departmentintheperformanceoftheirofficialduties.

During the Commonwealth Period, the administrative acts and orders of the
Presidentwerepublishedinthe:

ExecutiveOrders4volumes
Proclamations7volumes,coveringperiodfrom1935to1941

Executive Orders and Proclamations of the GovernorGeneral during the


American period were published annually in a set entitled Executive Orders and
Proclamations. Thirtythree volumes were published until 1935, by the Bureau of
Printing.

OfficialGazetteand
PublicLawsasappendices

Government agencies may also be grouped together in accordance with their


powersandfunctions:

2.

3.

4.

1.

Agencies with implied quasilegislative powers they have administrative


rules and regulations which have not been expressly directed by law to be
issued, but they are necessary in the proper discharge of the functions of the
agency.

BureauofForestry
BureauofPrisons
NationalBureauofInvestigation

Agencies with express quasilegislative powers they are specifically


authorizedbylawtopromulgateimplementingrulesandregulations

GovernmentServiceInsuranceSystem
SocialSecuritySystem
DepartmentofLaborandEmployment
BureauofInternalRevenue
PhilippineMedicalCareCommission
BoardofInvestments

PublicationsonAdministrativeRulesandRegulationsusuallypublishedin
Official Gazette each department, bureau or agency issuing orders imposing
penalty for their violation, rules and regulations are expected to keep official
recordsandfilesthereofandmimeographcopiesareusuallymadeavailableto
thepublic.

General studies made of administrative offices and their rulemaking power


include:

AdministrativeLawCarreon
AdministrativeLawFernando&Fernando
AdministrativeLawandRevisedAdministrativeCodeMartin
AdministrativeLawofthePhilippinesRivera

5.

MaterialscontainingAdministrativeRulesandRegulationsarealsofoundinThe
National Administrative Register containing rules and regulations, circulars,
memorandaandotherofficialissuanceissuedbydifferentgovernmentagencies,
publishedquarterlyVols.1to12(19902001)bytheUPLawComplex

Publicationsbytheparticularadministrativeagencies:
a.

CivilServiceCommission
Book V of the Revised Administrative Code of 1987 on the Civil Service
Commissionlaysdownthebasicpoliciesandprovisionsofthelawonthe
CSCasthecentralpersonnelagencyofthegovernment.Italsopresents

thesystemsandproceduresbywhichtheoperationofthecivilserviceare
tobebasedincludingpersonneladministration.
Omnibus Rules Implementing Book V of Exec. Order 292 and Other
Pertinent Civil Service Laws lays down the implementing rules adopted
and prescribed by the CSC to carry out the provisions on civil service
embodied in Book V of the Revised Administrative Code of 1987. Also
includestherevisedrulesonappointmentsandotherpersonnelactionand
newrulesonleave.
UniformRulesonAdministrativeCasesintheCivilServiceembodiesthe
uniformrulesofprocedureintheconduct/adjudicationofalladministrative
proceedings,eitherdisciplinaryornondisciplinary,inthecivilserviceboth
atthecommissionandagencylevels.Italsocontainstherevisedschedule
ofpenaltiesfortheclassificationsofadministrativeoffenses.
RulesimplementingtheCodeofConductandEthicalStandardsforPublic
OfficialsandEmployees(RA6713)laysdowntheprescribedrulessetby
the CSC in the application/implementation of the provisions of RA 6713
otherwiseknownastheCodeofConductandEthicalStandardsforPublic
OfficialsandEmployees.IncludesthefulltextofRA6713.
Revised Omnibus Rules on Appointment and Other Personnel Actions
consolidated general rules and policies on appointments and other
personnelandotherpersonnelactionsinthecivilservice.Thismanualalso
lays down the responsibilities of the human resources management
officer/personnelofficer,certainmodesofseparationfromtheserviceand
prohibitions.
Omnibus Rules on Leave a handbook containing pertinent policies and
implementing rules and regulations governing leave administration. Also
includes a listing of leave privileges/benefits and their corresponding
entitlementandavailmentillustrationofhowtocomputeleavecreditsand
monetization.
Personnel Officers Manual outlines the responsibilities of the personnel
officer in the different areas of human resource management and
development such as recruitment and examination, promotion,
performance evaluation, appointments preparation, leave administration,
retirement,personnelrelations,discipline,benefits,rewards,incentivesand
careerdevelopment.Italsodiscussesthelegalauthorityandobjectivesof
theCouncilofPersonnelOfficers.
Revised Policies on Performance Evaluation System presents a
comprehensive discussion of the revised policies on performance
evaluationinthecivilserviceadoptedbytheCSCtoinstallandimplement

performancebased security of tenure. The PES aims to draw up an


objectiveassessmentofemployeeperformance.
Agency Performance Evaluation System (A Model) a model for the
development of PES designed by the CSC. The pES Model will help or
guideagenciesinpreparingtheirrespectivePESbasedoncorresponding
policies and its proper application. Compliance with the revised PES by
agencies is crucial as it will serve as the basis for all agency personnel
actionssuchaspromotionandgrantofproductivityincentivebonus.
Memorandum Circulars 19922000 an annual compilation of all
memorandum circulars issued by the CSC in book form. Memorandum
Circularsarecompliedperyear.
QualificationStandardsManualcontainsanalphabeticallistingofroughly
4,000 positions in government service with corresponding educational,
experience, training and eligibility requirements. It also includes the
positions respective salary grade level, and sector classification. The
qualificationslistedinthislevel,andsectorclassification.Thequalifications
listedinthismanualaretheminimumrequirementsetbytheCSCforeach
positionagenciesarenotprecludedfromsettinghigherstandardsthatwill
suittheirneeds.
CSC Memo Circulars Index (19881998) contains a listing of all memo
circulars issued by the CSC covering the period 19881998, classified
according to subject. It also indicates the newspaper and date of
publicationforcircularswhichwerepublishedtoascertaintheirrespective
datesofeffectivity.
Manual on Definitions of Administrative Offenses in the Civil Service a
handbook of definitions to serve as aid for legal practitioners as well as
government workers involved in handling administrative cases and other
legalmatters.

b. SecuritiesAndExchangeCommission
a. SECPOLIO,19461976
b. SECBULLETIN
c. SECWEEKLYBULLETIN

c. CentralBank
a. Financialjournal
b. Centralbankannualreportsandcompilations

d. DepartmentOfLaborAndEmployment
a. Rulesandregulationsimplementingthelaborcode

DepartmentOfAgrarianReform
a. Comprehensiveagrarianreformprogramandpresidentialissuances

f. DepartmentOfJustice
a. Departmentofjustice,revisedcirculars1963

g. DangerousDrugsBoard
a. Dangerousdrugsboardregulations1988

h. BoardOfInvestments
a. OmnibusInvestmentscodeandimplementingRegulations1989

i. OfficeOfTheInsuranceCommission
a. InsuranceReporter

5. ORDINANCES ENACTED BY THE AUTONOMOUS REGION the 1987 Constitution


created the Autonomous Regions in Muslim Mindanao and in the Cordillera. The
legislative assemblies of these autonomous regions enact ordinances to govern the
regionandmaycreateadministrativeagenciestooperateintheregions.
6. ORDINANCES ENACTED BY LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS the basic local
governmentunitsaretheprovinces,cities,municipalitiesandbarangays.Eachofthese
units have lawmaking powers to pass what is commonly called ordinances (to
distinguish them from statutes enacted by Congress) which are usually of local interest
only.

AlocalordinanceislegallyineffectiveifinconsistentwithstatutesenactedbyCongress.
COMPUTERIZED LEGAL RESEARCH SERVICES the text of the Constitutions and
statutesabovementionedmaybesourcedfromtwocomputerizedlegalresearchservices.
1. LexLibrisproducedbyCDAsia,Inc.,withthefollowingdatabases:

a. Laws(PhilippineEdition),Vol.I
b. Taxation(Phil.Edition),Vol.II
c. Jurisprudence(ThePhil.SupremeCourtReports),Vol.III
d. DepartmentofJustice(OpinionsoftheSecretary),Vol.IV
e. LocalAutonomyandLocalGovernment,Vol.V
f. EnvironmentandNaturalResources,Vol.VI
g. LaborandSocialLegislation,Vol.VII
h. Elections,Vol.VIII
i. Trade,CommerceandIndustry,Vol.IX
j. BangkoSentralngPilipinas,Vol.X
k. SecuritiesandExchangeCommission,Vol.XI
e.

PhiljurisproducedbyGigabytesResearchSystems,Inc.alsohasadatabaseonall
lawsofthePhilippines.
Chapter5
CASELAW
While statute law is derived from the lawmaking agencies of the government, case law
comesfromthejudicialauthoritiesoftheState.
Caselawmaybedividedinto:
1. DecisionProper

a. DecisionsoftheSupremeCourt
b. DecisionoftheCourtofAppeals
c. DecisionsoftheSandiganbayan
d. DecisionsoftheCourtofTaxappeal
e. DecisionsoftheRegionalTrailacourts
f. DecisionsoftheMunicipal,MunicipalCircuitandMetropolittantrialcourts

2. SubordinateDecisions

a. Decisions of the Senate electoral tribunal and house of representative


electoraltribunal

b. Decisions of administrative agencies exercising qausi judicial powers, such


as:
i. CommissiononElections
ii.CivilServiceCommission
iii.
CommissiononAudit
iv.
NationalLaborrelationcommission
v. Insurancecommission
vi.
HousingandlandUseregulatoryboard
vii.
DepartmentofAgrarianAdjudicationboard

THEPHILIPPINEJUDICIALSYSTEM

A. PRESPANISH PERIOD trials were held publicly and decisions were rendered
promptly. The accuser and the accused faced each other with their respective
witnesses. The latter, to show their honesty and sincerity, took an oath to this
effect. The disputants then began presenting their arguments, buttressed by the
testimonies of their respective witnesses. The chieftain listened attentively and the
elderstookmentalnotesofthearguments.Thedisputantwithmorewitnessestohis
side was adjudged as winner. In this case, the chieftain, acting as Judge and
2.

executive,enforcedhisjudgmentbysidingopenlywiththewinnerandcompellingthe
defeated party to respect the judgment of the honorable court. . Under such
circumstances, the defeated party had no other recourse than to bow to the
inevitable.

B. SPANISHPERIODMagellansarrivalinthePhilippinesin1521becamethebasis
forSpaintoclaimandcolonizetheislands.ThreeSpanishexpeditionsweresentto
the islands which all ended in failure. Finally on November 21, 1564, Miguel Lopez
de Legaspi sailed from Navidad, Mexico to the islands of the West towards the
Moluccas and subsequently landed in the Visayan islands and founded the City of
Cebuin1565.Manilawaslaterfoundedasacapitalcityin1571.Thefoundationof
SpanishsovereigntyoverthePhilippineshadbeenlaid.

a. InGeneral

Fivecomponents:
a. The law to govern the conduct of the people and regulate the relations
amongindividualsandbetweentheindividualandthesovereign.

b. The judiciary which provided the mechanism for the adjudication of


disputesamongindividualsandbetweentheindividualandthegovernment
ofstate.

c. The law enforcement agencies to uphold the law and enforce the
decisionsrenderedbyjudiciary.
Cuerpo de Cuadrilleros the municipal police under the local
governmentofficials
Guardia Civil the national constabulary, the forces of which were
assignedtoparticularprovincesundertheprovincialcommanderswho
reporteddirectlytothegovernorandcaptaingeneral

d. Theprisonsystemforpublicpunishmentofthosewhoviolatedthelaw.
Municipaljails
Provincialjails
Major penitentiaries such as the Bilibid Prison and those in Cavite,
ZamboangaandMarianas
PenalfarmsorcoloniesinPalawan,Davao,CotabatoandZamboanga

e. Legalprofessiongroupofpersonswithlegaltrainingmannedthejudicial
postsandactedasadvocatesofindividualsinprotectingtheirrights.

Lawyers who were either appointed to the judiciary and public


prosecutionorwerethepracticinglawyers
Thosewhohadsomelegaltrainingwhowereeithernotariesorclerks
appointedtoassistthecourts

Hierarchicalstructureofthejudicialsystem:
TheCrown
KingistheunquestionedheadofSpanishgovernment
Asanabsoluteruler,hadthepowertoreversetherulingsoftheCouncil
oftheIndies
TheCounciloftheIndies
DecisionsoftheRealAudenciaincertaincaseswereappealabletothe
CounciloftheIndiesinServille,Spain
When the Council was abolished in 1834, its judicial functions were
assumedbyanewlycreatedTribunalSupremadeEspanadeIndias
CreationoftheKingtheunquestionedheadofSpanishgovernment
TheRealAudiencia
SupremetribunalinthePhilippines
Bothhadcivilandcriminaljurisdictionincasesofappealfromthealcalde
mayororCorregidor
Performedotherfunctionsasidefromitsjudicialduties
TheGovernorhadsupremejudicialpowersinthePhilippines.Evenafter
theestablishmentoftheAudencia,theGovernorcontinuedparticipating
inthejudicialaffairsasPresidentoftheAudencia
TheAlcaldesMayores(CFI)
Alcaldemayorinpacifiedareas
Corregidorinunpacifiedareas
Actedasappellatejudgeforsuitsoriginatingfromthegobernadorcillo
TheGobernadorcillos(JusticeofthePeaceCourts)
baseofthejudicialstructure
whogovernedthetownorpueblo
had jurisdiction over all civil cases arising among Indios, Chinese
mestizosandChinesethatinvolvesmallsumsandpettycriminalcases
SpecialCourts:
a. EcclesiasticalCourtsforthereligious
b. ArmyandNavyCourtsformilitarypersonnel
c. CommercialCourtformerchants
d. ContentiousCourtcomplaintsagainsttheadministrationofthegovernment
e. Treasury Court for cases involving the royal treasury, including cases of
smuggling,etc.
f. ProbateCourtadjudicationofprobatecases

The judicial system included the Department of Public Prosecution which


representedthegovernmentanditsinstitutionsintheenforcementofthelawandin
allcivilandcriminalactionstowhichthestatewasaparty.
PublicationduringtheSpanishPeriod:
JurisprudenciaCivil
JurisprudenciaCriminal

C. THE AMERICAN PERIOD with the establishment of the American military


government following the surrender of Manila to the American army, provost courts
and military commissions were created. At the same time, civil courts were
recognizedforcertaincivilpurposes.Subsequently,byActNo.136ofthePhilippine
Commission, the existing courts were abolished and in their place were substituted
the courts provided in said act.. Thereafter, Congress of the United States, through
the Philippine Bill and. Later, the Jones Law, approved and confirmed the
organization of the courts thus established. As ultimately evolved, the judiciary
systeminstitutedwassubstantiallymodeleduponEnglishandAmericanprototypes.
However,nodivisionwasmadeofthetribunalsintocourtsoflawandcourtsofequity
astheywereknownanddistinguishedinEnglandandmostjurisdictionsoftheUnited
States.Thesametribunaldispensesbothlegalandequitablerelief.

TheAudienciaTerritorialdeManila(SupremeCourt)
o ChiefJustice
o EightAssociateJustices
CourtofFirstInstance
TheMunicipalandtheJusticeofthePeaceCourts
Note: The uncivilized part of the Archipelago were wholly unfitted to exercise
therightoftrialbyjury.
D. THEJUDICIALSYSTEMATPRESENT

I. TRIAL COURTS OF LIMITED JURISDICTION limited to civil suits involving


relativelysmalleramountsofmoneyandtominorviolationsofcriminallaws.These
arethetribunalsinwhichmostofthecontroversiesthatoccurinthecommunityare
heardandatleastprovisionallydecided.Theyarethecourtsclosesttothepeople.
Inthislevel,justicebeadministeredfairlyandwithdignity.
a. Metropolitantrialcourts
b. Municipaltrialcourts
c. Municipalcircuittrialcourts

II.
TRIAL COURTS OF GENERAL JURISDICTION involves an amount of
money or a potential criminal sentence, beyond the jurisdictions of the MTC,
MCTC,MTC.

a. RegionalTrailCourts(CourtofFirstInstance)
b. ShariacourtsundertheMuslimcode.

III.
THEINTERMEDIATEAPPELLATECOURTisthebodythatgenerallyhas
exclusiveappellatejurisdictionoverthedecisionsoftheRegionalTrialCourtsand
otherquasijudicialagencies.

a. CourtofAppeals
i. PresidingJustice
ii.50AssociateJustice
b. Specialappellatecourts:
The Sandiganbayan appellate jurisdiction over ceratin criminal
cases decided by the Regional Courts, and also original jurisdiction
overcertaintypesofcriminalcases
Court of Tax appeals act only on protests of private persons
adverselyaffectedbythetaxandcustomslaws.

IV. THECOURTOFLASTRESORT(SupremeCourt)atthetopofthehierarchy
whichdetermineswithfinalitywhatthelawisandshouldbe.Ithasthepowerto
reviewonappealorcertiorarifinaljudgmentsandorderoflowercourtsincertain
cases such as when errors or questions of law are invoked and where the
Constitution or validity of statues are involved. It has original jurisdiction over
petitions for certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo warranto and habeas
corpus.

i. ChiefJustice
ii.14AssociateJustice

DOCTRINEOFPRECEDENT

a. STARE DECISIS, ET NO QUITA MOVERE what has been settled must not be
disturbed.
RESJUDICATAamatterfinallydecidedonitsmeritsbyacourthavingcompetent
jurisdictionandnotsubjecttolitigationagainbetweenthesame

b. REVERSAL has reference to the action of the Supreme Court on a lower court
judgmentsinthesameparticularcontroversy.WhentheSupremecourtreviewsthe
judgment of the lower court in a case and concludes the lower court reached an
erroneousresultinthecase,itwillreverse,setasidethelowercourtsjudgment.
OVERRULESoneofthepastdecisionsoftheSupremecourt,theconclusiveness
ofthatearlierdecisionasasettlementofitsparticularcontroversyisnotaffected,but

the overruled decision is no longer an authoritative precedent for other cases that
mayariseinthefuture.

c. RATIO DECIDENDI is the holding of the principle of law on which a case was
decided.Itsetstheprecedentandisbindingoncourtsinthefuture.
OBITER DICTUM is the language in a decision that is not necessary to the
decision.

d. BINDING also called mandatory when it comes from the decisions of Supreme
Courtanditistheratiodecidendiofthecase.
PERSUASIVEifthedictacomesfromarespectedjustice,itmaybepersuasiveto
theCourt.Persuasiveauthoritycancomefromdecisionsofappellatecourtsinother
jurisdictions.

FORMSOFDECISIONS
MAJORITYOPINION/UNANIMOUS
CONCURRING
SEPARATECONCURRINGOPINION
SEPARATEOPINION
DISSENTING

CASELAWMATERIALS

1. Decisionproper

a. DecisionsoftheSupremeCourt
Official:
i. AdvanceSheetafterthefinalityofthedecision,theyarepublished
inmimeographedformmadeavailabletothebenchandthebarat
theearliestdatepossible,muchearlierthantheirpublication
ii.OfficialGazetteofficialpublicationofthegovernmentprintedbythe
BureauofPrintingthedecisionsoftheSupremeCourtarepublished
underthesectionDecisionsoftheSupremeCourt
iii.
Philippine Reports from August 8, 1901, printed by the
Bureau of Printing, now the Government Printing Office arranged
accordingtodatesoftheirpromulgation
iv.
Philippine Reports (Reprints) the destruction of libraries
and reserve copies of Philippine Reports in the Bureau of Printing
during the war necessitated the reprinting of these reports and the

undertaking was entrusted by the Supreme Court to the Lawyers


CooperativePublishingCo.
v. Jurisprudence Filipina Spanish edition of the Philippine Reports,
alsoprintedbytheBureauofPrintingarrangedinthesameorderas
thatofthePhilippineReports
Unofficial:
a. PhilippineDecisions
b. PhilippineReportsAnnotated
c. PhilippineReportsAnnotated(Central)
d. SupremeCourtsReportsAnnotated(SCRA)
e. SupremeCourtDecisions(SCD)
f. PhilippineLawandJurisprudence(PHILJUR)
g. SupremeCourtUnpublishedDecisions(SCUD)
h. SupremeCourtAdvanceDecisions(SCAD)
i. SupremeCourtExcerpts(SCEX)
j. SummaryofSupremecourtsRulings
k. Citations:excerptsofSupremeCourtDecisions
l. TitleIndextoSupremeCourtDecisions19451978
m. SupremeCourtDecisionsTitleIndex19821985
n. TheSandiganbayanReporter
o. ThePCGGReporter

b. DecisionoftheCourtofAppeals
i. AppellateCourtReports
ii.AdvanceSheets
iii.
OfficialGazette
iv.
CourtsofAppealsReports
v. CourtofAppealsReportsAnnotated
c. DecisionsoftheSandiganbayan
i. SandiganbayanReports
ii.SandiganbayanReporter
d. DecisionsoftheCourtofTaxappeal
i. OfficialGazette
ii.CourtofTaxappealsDigestofCutomsandRealPropertyTaxcases
iii.
Court of Tax appeals Digest of internal Revenue Cases by
ColonPublication
e. DecisionsoftheRegionalTrailcourts
f. DecisionsoftheMunicipal,MunicipalCircuitandMetropolitanTrialCourts
2.SubordinateDecisions
a. Decisions of the Senate electoral tribunal and house of representative
electoraltribunal

HRETReports:FinalOrders,ResolutionsandDecisions7vols.

b. Decisionsofadministrativeagenciesexercisingquasijudicialpowers

Agencies with implied quasijudicial powers agencies mostly with


investigativefunctions:
i. DepartmentofForeignAffairs
ii.CommissiononImmigrationandDeportation
iii.
OfficeofthePresident
iv.
SecretaryofJustice
v. NationalWagesCouncil
vi.
PhilippinePatensOffice
vii.
BureauofLandTransportation
viii.
CivilServiceCommission
ix.
ProfessionalRegulatoryCommission
x. Tanodbayan(Ombudsman)

Agencies with express quasijudicial powers agencies given judicial


functionsovercaseswhichwouldotherwisegotheregularcourtsofjustice
wereitnotforthegrantofsuchpowerstotheseagencies.

i. InsuranceCommission
ii.NationalLaborRelationsCommission
iii.
CommissiononElections
iv.
GovernmentServiceInsuranceSystem
v. SocialSecuritySystem
vi.
NationalSeamenBoard
vii.
CommissiononAudit
1. COARegulationsandJurisprudencebyCentralbookSupply
viii.
EmployeesCompensationCommission
ix.
CivilAeronauticsBoard

Administrative Bodies and Agencies exercising quasijudicial functions


preparedbyUPLawCenter

1. DepartmentofFinance
a. BureauofInternalRevenue
b. BureauofCustoms
c. InsuranceCommission
d. CentralBoardofAssessmentAppeals
e. FiscalIncentivesReviewBoard
1.

Phil.ExportandForeignLoanGuaranteesCorp.
Phil.CropInsuranceCorp.

DepartmentofJustice
a. LandRegistrationAuthority
b. Commission on Immigration and Deportation (now Bureau of
Immigration)

DepartmentofAgriculture
a. SugarRegulatoryAuthority
b. NationalIrrigationAdministration
c. NationalMeatInspectionCommission
d. NationalFoodAuthority
e. QuedansGuaranteeFundBoard
f. Phil.CoconutAuthority
g. BureauofPlantIndustry

DepartmentofPublicWorksandHighways
a. BureauofResearchandStandards
b. MetropolitanWaterworksandSewerageSystem
c. LocalWaterUtilitiesAdministration

DepartmentofLaborandEmployment
a. NationalLaborRelationsCommission
b. Phil.OverseasandEmploymentAdministration
c. NationalManpowerandYouthCouncil
d. NationalMaritimePolytechnic
e. EmployeesCompensationCommission
f. NationalWagesCouncil
g. BureauofLaborRelations
h. BureauofWorkingConditions
i. NationalConciliationandMediationBoard

DepartmentofHealth
a. BureauofFoodandDrugs
b. Phil.MedicalCareCommission
c. DangerousDrugsBoard
d. BureauofResearchandLaboratories
e. BureauofLicensingandRegulation

f.
g.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

DepartmentofTradeandIndustry
a. BureauofTradeRegulationandConsumerProtection
b. VideogramRegulatoryBoard
c. BoardofInvestments
d. BureauofPatents,TrademarkandTechnology
e. ExportProcessingZoneAuthority
f. GarmentsandTextileExportBoard
g. BureauofProductStandards
8. DepartmentofEnvironmentandNaturalResources
a. LandManagementBureau
b. EnvironmentManagementBureau
c. ForestManagementBureau
d. MinesandGeoSciencesBureau
e. NationalElectrificationAdministration
f. NationalQuarantineOffice

9. DepartmentofTransportationandCommunication
a. LandTransportationFranchisingandRegulatoryBoard
b. MaritimeIndustryAuthority
c. PhilippinePortsAuthority
d. TollRegulatoryBoard
e. CivilAeronauticsBoard
f. NationalTelecommunicationsBureau
g. BureauofAirTransportation(AirTransportationOffice)

10. Others
a. ProfessionalRegulatoryCommission
b. SecurityandExchangeCommission
c. SocialSecurityCommission
d. CentralBank
e. HousingandLandUseRegulatoryBoard
f. NationalBureauofInvestigation
g. NationalLandTitlesandDeedsAuthority
h. RegisterofDeeds

PublicationsofAdministrativeAgenciesExercisingQuasiJudicialFunctions

2. CommissiononElections
TheCOMELEChasnotpublisheditsdecisions
3. CivilServiceCommission
7.

c.

d.

Civil Service Board of Appeals have been published by author


Rivera
annually
4. CommissiononAudit
COA Regulations and Jurisprudence 1998 by JV Go published
byCentralBookSupply
COADecisionsDigest(19942000)byReynaldoMontalbo
5. NationalLaborRelationsCommission
Hasnotpublisheditsdecisions
6. InsuranceCommission
Hasnotpublisheditsdecision
7. HousingandLandUseRegulatoryBoard
HumanSettlementsRegulatoryCommissionLegalDigest,1981,3
vols.
8. DepartmentofAgrarianReformAdjudicationBoard
BookentitledJurisprudenceonAgrarianRelationsbyIbay,1973
9. SecuritiesandExchangeCommission
SECDecisions,19771981,publishedbyLegalDatabaseSystems
The decision making powers of the SEC were transferred to the
regular courts by virtue of the Securities Regulation Code, RA
8799

10. BureauofInternalRevenue
Complete Numbered BIR Rulings by the Career Development
Center
DigestofBIRRulingsbyE.O.Ordono,1986to1998

11. IntellectualPropertyOffice
TheIPOhasnotpublisheditsdecision

ComputerizedLegalResearchServices

1. LexLibrisproducedbyCDAsia,Inc.,withthefollowingdatabases:

a. Laws(PhilippineEdition),Vol.I
b. Taxation(Phil.Edition),Vol.II
c. Jurisprudence(ThePhil.SupremeCourtReports),Vol.III
d. DepartmentofJustice(OpinionsoftheSecretary),Vol.IV
e. LocalAutonomyandLocalGovernment,Vol.V
f. EnvironmentandNaturalResources,Vol.VI
g. LaborandSocialLegislation,Vol.VII

h.
i.
j.
k.

2.

Elections,Vol.VIII
Trade,CommerceandIndustry,Vol.IX
BangkoSentralngPilipinas,Vol.X
SecuritiesandExchangeCommission,Vol.XI

4.

5.
Philjuris contains a digitized compilation of the decisions and
resolutions of the Supreme Court. It is produced by Gigabytes
ResearchSystems,Inc.

Chapter6
LAWBOOKSOFSECONDARYAUTHORITY

Workswhicharenotprimaryauthoritybutwhichdigest,discussoranalyzelegalprovisions,
judicialdecisionsordefineandexplainlegaldoctrinesandtermsareconsideredsecondary
materials.

These secondary sources can help analyze a problem and provide research references to
bothprimarysourcesandothersecondarymaterials.

A. CASE DIGESTS are compilations of paragraphs containing concise summaries of


points in cases, grouped under appropriate headings, the chief of which are
alphabeticallyarranged.Eachparagraphincasedigestsiscompleteinitselfwhenithas
conciselyandaccuratelystatedthepointdecidedwithreferencetoprecisefacts.

1. PhilippineDigestthispublicationofLawyersCoop.wasdesignedasacompanion
set to the Philippine Reports. It has a general scheme of digesting cases and a
system of numerous references of such American counterparts as those of the
LawyerReportsAnnotated,theAmericanLawReports,andtheUnitedStatesCourt
ReportswithmodificationstosuitPhilippinelaw.
2. Republic of the Philippines Digest this publication also by the Lawyers Coop.,
dubbedRepublicDigestforshort,startsfromwherethePhilippineDigestleavesoff,
coveralldecisionsoftheSupremeCourtfromJuly4,1946throughSeptember1958,
publishedandunpublished.ThesetcomprisesVolumes1to7ofdigestparagraphs,
classifiedunderpertinenttopics,andVolume8devotedtoanalphabeticallyarranged
tableofcases.Vols.917coverdecisionsfrom1958to1966.
3. VelayosDigestcoversnotonlydecisionsofSupremeCourtbutalsothoseofthe
CourtofAppeals.Themainsetof25vols.CoverstheleadingcasesoftheSupreme
CourtandtheCourtofAppealsfrom1942to1960

6.

SCRA QuickIndex Digest this publication by Central Lawbook Supply, Inc. has
threevolumes.ThefirsttwovolumescondensesVolumes1to36ofSCRA,whilethe
third volume covers Volumes 37 to 61 also of SCRA up to 1974. Every year
thereafter,yearlydigestshavebeencomingout
Compendium of Philippine Jurisprudence authored by Celso L. Magsino and
published by Rex Book Store, it has 12 volumes containing digests of decisions of
theSupremeCourtfrom1945to1980
OtherDigeststheotherdigestsare:
a. Armando C. Castillo, Digest of Supreme Court Decisions, 9 vols. (1951
1964)
b. NapoleonGarcia,CompleteMonthlyDigestofSupremeCourtDecisions
c. Navarrete,DigestIndex(ofSupremeCourtDecisions),for1957and1959
d. Jurado,LeadingCasesinCivilLaw(SupremeCourt),for19581960
e. DanielT.Martinez,SummaryofSupremeCourtRulings,startingfrom1986
followingthetopicclassificationinthebarexamination
f. JesusM.Elbinias,PhilippineJudicialWeekly
g. SupremeCommittee,SupremeCourtDigest

B. TREATISESANDTEXTBOOKSexpositionsbylegalwritersonstatutorylawandcase
lawpertainingtoaparticularsubjectandpublishedinbookform.
C. BARREVIEWERSbarreviewmaterialsareveryhelpfultofourthyearlawstudentsand
those reviewing for the bar. They are also very important to legal researchers because
they present a concise presentation of the law, legal doctrines and leading Supreme
Courtdecisionsincapsulizedform.Theyareusuallyverycurrentandincludethelatest
SCdecisions.

FlorenzRegaladosRemedialLawcompendium
AlbanoCivilLawreviewer
BernasThe1987Philippineconstitutionreviewerprimer
FranciscoPreweekMemoryAidfdinallBarsubjects1997edition

D. LEGAL PERIODICALS the most serious and highly reputed legal periodical are the
academic law reviews are published by virtually all accredited law schools as training
grounds for student editors. They contain both articles by established scholars and
studentwrittencommentsandcasenotes.Bothleadarticlesandcommentsaremarked
byextensivefootnotes,makingthemusefulresearchtools.

In addition to general law reviews, there is an ever growing number of specialized


academicjournals,focusingontopicsfromecologytoindustrialrelations.Mostofthese
are studentedited, but a few specialized scholarly journals, such as the American

Journal of Legal History and the Journal of Legal History and the Journal of Legal
Studies,areeditedbyfaculty.

LegalPeriodicals AteneoLawJournal
CourtofAgrarianRelationsJournal
FarEasternLawReview
FranciscoCollegeofLawJournal
IntegratedBarofthePhilippinesJournal
LawyersJournal
TheLawyersReview
LyceumLawReview
MLQLawQuarterly
PhilippineInternationalLawJournal
PhilippineLaborLawJournal
PhilippineLawJournal(ofUP)
PhilippineLawyersAssociationJournal
PhilippineTaxJournal
SanBedaLawJournal
TaxQuarterlyofthePhilippines
TheLawReview(UST)
UniversityoftheEastLawJournal
UniversityofManilaLawGazetteJournal
UniversityofSanCarlosLawReview
LeadingLawJournalinthePhilippinesPhilippineLawJournaloftheUPCollegeof
Law which has been in existence since 1910. It is distinguished by its scholarly
articles, reviews and commentaries. It is exchanged with leading universities in the
United States and Europe and its articles by leading Filipino academicians and
studentsoftheCollegeofLawarerecordedinbibliographiclistingsaroundtheworld.
NewspapersdailycasedigestsstartedbyJusticeFedericoB.Moreno
ManilaTimes
DailyMirror
BulletinToday
TimesJournal
DailyExpress
PhilippineDailyInquirer
PhilippineStar
BusinessDay

E. LEGAL ENCYCLOPEDIA while a textbook deals with one subject or phrase of a


subjectofthelaw,encyclopediatreatsofallsubjects.Itisacomprehensivetreatiseofthe

entire field of the law. This whole field of the law is divided into topics arranged in
alphabeticalorder.Itpresentsinconciseform,briefbutcomprehensivestatementsofthe
currentlawuponsaidtopics.

A legal encyclopedia as distinguished from law dictionaries is a subjectbook which


presentstotheuserthemeansofmakinghisowndefinitions.Itdealswithawholefield
of law as distinguished from treatise which treats of a portion of the subject. It gives a
literary statement of the law as distinguished from digests which presents isolated
summariesofpointsoflaw.

CyclopediaofPhilippineLawfirstattempttopublishalegalencyclopediainthe
Philippines, to be authored by Alvir & Associates. However, only the first volume
containingatextualtreatmentofthelawfromAtoCwaspublish.

EncyclopediaofPhilippineLawandJurisprudence(PedroVenida)onlyitsfirst
volumehadbeenpublished

Philippine Tax Reporters specialized encyclopedia on taxation advertised as a


25volumecyclopedia,withannualsupplementsdealsextensivelywiththeNational
Internal Revenue Code, special tax laws, tax rulings, circulars, decisions and
treatises.Afterthreevolumes,itstopped.

The Philippine Legal Encyclopedia Jose Agaton R. Sibal published by Central


LawBookPublishingCo.

F. LAW DICTIONARIES are useful for identifying the definitions of words in their legal
senseoruse.Foreachwordorphrase,ashortdefinitionisgiven.Somealsoprovidea
citationtoacourtcaseorotherreferencehavingthesourceofthewordorphrase.

DiccionariodeAdministraciondelasIslasFilipinaspublishedin1887

DiccionarioJuridicoRecopiladorMartinezdeSanAgustin,1922astudywhich
included chronological and alphabetical indexes of Philippine legislation and
jurisprudence.

Philippine Law Dictionary Federico B. Moreno, 1972 it defined legal terms and
phrases that, as part of our law and jurisprudence, was necessary to a law
practitioner. Those definitions are related to Philippine codes or statues and/or the
authoritative court decisions where they may be found by citation to specific
provisionsoflawortoreportedcases.

thecitationstocodesandstatutes,theresearcherwillhavebeforehimallreported
Philippine decisions wherein a particular Philippine statute has been cited, invoked,
applied,construedordiscussed.

DictionaryofInternationalLawandDiplomacyGamboa

PhilippineLaborDictionaryIsidro(1966)

Philippine Citations next citatory publish in the Philippines in 1964 by Paras 2


vols.,Volume1dealswithcitationscoveringVols.1to82ofthePhilippineReports
and issues of the Official Gazette from 1942 to 1962. Volume 2 contains code
citations, statute citations, and citations of administrative rules as well as Spanish
lawsappliedtothePhilippines.

DictionaryofInsuranceTermsandPhrasesTiopanco(1976)

Chapter7
SEARCHMATERIALSANDFINDINGTOOLS

Therehavebeenalargevolumeofstatutorylawandcaselawthathavebeenchurnedoutby
our legislative mill and judicial branch of government since 1900 and the legal researcher
needssomemeansofsubjectaccessintothislargebodyoflaw.Theeffectiveoperationof
the doctrine of precedent requires that prior decisions be easily available. Without a topical
approachtolegalsources,researcherscouldnotfindexistingdecisionsorstatuesonpoint.

We therefore need search materials and finding tools for legal research. The purpose of
these materials and tools is not to persuade, nor do they themselves have any primary or
persuasiveauthority.Theyareonlymeansforlocatingprimarysources.Itisthennecessary
toreadthoseprimarysourcestodeterminetheirapplicabilitytoaparticularsituation.Inlegal
research,asinothersenseofrelevanceakeenappreciationofwhichsourcesarelegally
andfactuallyrelevanttothespecificinquiry.

A. CITATORS supply references to decisions in which other cases have been cited,
reviewed, affirmed, reversed, overruled, criticized or commented upon, and to cases in
which statutes have been construed, and to statutes in which prior acts have been
amended,renewedorrepealed.

Philippine Citations first citator published in the Philippines Dizon (1937) 2


volumes which contain complete citations found in Vols. 2 to 64 of the Philippine
ReportsandintheOfficialGazettetoApril1947(includingoccupationissues)ofthe
decisions of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals as well as of Philippine
laws, including Royal Decrees and Orders, Ordinances of the City of Manila, and
othermatters.

This citatory provides the researcher with knowledge at a glance whether a given
reported Philippine decision has been overruled, criticized, limited in its application,
distinguished or followed in subsequent reported decisions. Likewise, by consulting

PhilippineCitatorcontainedinVolume11ofthePhilippineDigest.Itlistsallthe
citations in the Philippine Reports, the Supreme Court of Spain, the United States
Supreme Court, the other Federal Courts, and the courts of various states and
territoriesoftheUnitedStates.
CitationsinthedecisionsoftheSupremeCourt,CourtofAppeals,andCourtofTax
Appeals,reportedinVol.52oftheOfficialGazettearecontainedintheCitatorwhich
forms part of the 1956 Official Gazette Desk Book. For 1959 Supreme Court
Decisions, a citatory is offered in Navarretes DigestIndex. Citations are also
includedineachvolumeofthePhilippineReports.

B. INDEXES usually means a subjectindex which is like the index found in textbooks,
statutes, etc. A subject index is an alphabetically arranged topical words in which, by
means of references under each topic, materials relating to these topics expressed in
appropriatewordsisdigested.

1. IndexestothePublicLawsofthePhilippineIslands
2. IndexestothePublicLawsoftheCommonwealth
3. LawsandResolutionsIndex
4. PhilippineAnnotatedLaws(P.A.L.)Index
5. IndextoRepublicActsMoran
6. Subject Index to Presidential Decrees and other Presidential Issuances (until
1978)
7. IndexGuideofVitalLegalDocuments
8. IndexIsabeloMoran(PresidentialDecrees)
9. IndexinthePhilippinePermanentandGeneralStatutes
10. CommonwealthActsAnnotatedGuevarra
11. PublicLawsoftheCommonwealthJacobo
12. GuevarrasAnnotatedLaws
13. PhilippineTreatiesIndex

PhilippineDigestVols.1819
RepublicofthePhilippinesDigestVols.6,911and13
Ateneo de Manila Libraries Index covering 1911 to 1975 of Supreme Court
Decisions
Title Index to Supreme Court Decisions Milagros Santos Ong 19451978 with
19781982supplement
SCRAQuickIndex
UPLawLibrarywithcardindexestolegalperiodicals

C. BIBLIOGRAPHIESalistofdescriptionsofpublishedmaterialseitherrelatingtoagiven
subject,orbyagivenauthor.Abibliographyoflawbooksmayrefertoalistofanauthors
legalworks,oroftheliteraturebearingonaparticularsubjectorfieldoflaw.

1. PhilippineLegalBibliographyJusticeFedericoB.Moreno(1973)
2. HandbookonLegalBibliographyAndresSoriano(11984)
3. A Guide to Philippine Legal Materials Fortunato Gupit and Daniel Martinez
(1993)
Chapter1
INTRODUCTIONTOLEGALRESEARCH

A.LegalResearch,Defined

Itistheprocessoffindingthelaws,rulesandregulationsthatgovernactivitiesinhuman
society.

B.TheNeedforLegalResearch

Alawyerisrequiredtoprovidecompetentrepresentationtoaclient.Competent
representationrequiresthelegalknowledge,skill,thoroughnessandpreparationreasonably
necessaryfortherepresentation.Clearly,alawyermustbeabletoresearchthelawto
providecompetentrepresentation.

C.SourcesofLegalResearch

Legalresearchinvolvestheuseofavarietyofprintedandelectronicsources.

Printedsources:
Constitution
Statutes
Courtdecisions
Administrativerules

Scholarlycommentaries

Computerdatabasescontainingtheseandothermaterialshavedramaticallychangedthe
natureoflegalresearchandimproveditseffectiveness.

SourcesofLaw

Threebroadcategories:

1.PrimarySources

ThoserecordedlawsandruleswhichwillbeenforcedbytheState:
Majorprimarysources:legislativeactions,codesandstatutes
Secondmajorcategory:judicialdecisions
Thirdprimarysource:administrativelaw,ortheregulationsanddecisionsof
governmentagencies

2.SecondaryMaterials

Publicationswhicharenotprimaryauthoritybutwhichdiscussoranalyzelegaldoctrineare
consideredsecondarymaterials:
Treatises
Commentaries
Encyclopedias

3.FindingTools

Ourlegislative,executiveandjudicialbranchesofgovernmenthavebeenenactingand
promulgatingcodes,statutes,rules,regulationsandcourtdecisionsandthesehavegrown
intoalargebodyoflaw.Theresearcherthereforeneedssearchmaterialsorfindingtoolsin
ordertolocatetheselegalsources.Amongthefindingtoolsare:
SCRAQuickIndexDigests
PHILJURIS
LEXLIBRIS

b.
c.
d.

Chapter2
THELEGALRESEARCHPROCESS

A.SystematicApproachtoLegalResearch

Fourbasicstepsarerecommended:

1. Identifyandanalyzethesignificantfacts
2. FormulatethelegalIssuestoberesearched
3. Researchtheissuespresented
4. Update

1.IdentifyandAnalyzetheSignificantFacts

TheTARPRuleisausefultechniquetoanalyzeyourfctsaccordingtothefollowingfactors:

TThingorsubjectmatter
ACauseofActionorgroupofdefense
RReliefsought
PPersonsorpartiesinvolved

2.FormulatetheLegalIssuestobeResearched

Thisistheinitialintellectualactivitythatpresumessomeknowledgeofthesubstantivelaw.
Thegoalistoclassifyorcategorizetheproblemintogeneral,andincreasinglyspecific,
subjectareasandtobegintohypothesizelegalissues.

3.ResearchtheIssuesPresented

Afterthefactshavebeenanalyzedandtheissueshavebeenframed,itistimetobegin
researchingthefirstissue:

a. Organizeandplan

Identify,read,andupdateallrelevantconstitutionalprovisions,statutes,and
administrativeregulations
Identify,read,andupdateallrelevantcaselaw
Refinethesearch

4.Update

Lawchangesconstantly.OurCongresspassesnewstatutesandmodifyoldones.Our
SupremeCourteitherrefinesthelaworreaffirmsthelaworevenchangestheinterpretation
ofthelaw.

Chapter3
FUNDAMENTALRESEARCHSKILL:CASEBRIEFINGANDSYTHESISOFCASES

A.CaseBriefing

Alawschoolcasebriefisastudentsdigestorcondensationofareportedcase.

Thereisnoonecorrectformforacasebriefsinceitisadocumentthatiscreatedtomeet
thestudentsneeds.

Thetypicalcomponentsofacasebriefare:

1.Factstheydescribetheeventsbetweenthepartiesleadingtothelitigationandtellhow
thecasebeforethecourtthatisnowdecidingit.Includethosefactsthatarerelevanttothe
issuethecourtmustdecideandtothereasonsforitdecision.Youwillnotknowwhichfacts
arerelevantuntilyouknowwhattheissueorissuesare.

2.Issue(s)itisthequestionthatthecourtmustdecidetoresolvethedisputebetweenthe
partiesinthecasebeforeit.

3.Rulingitisthecourtsdecisiononthequestionthatisactuallybeforeit,butiftheydo
notrelatetothequestionactuallybeforeit,theyaredicta.

B.SynthesizingCases

Morelikely,yourresearchforaproblemwillturnupmanycasesrelevanttotheproblem.In
ordertousetheprinciplesthatthosecasesoffertoresolveyourproblem,youmustrelatethe
casestoeachother,thatis,synthesizethem.Inthatway,youcanunderstandtheapplicable
areaoflawandthenusethesynthesistoanalyzeyourproblem.

LEGALRESEARCHbyRufusB.Rodriguez02

I.INTRODUCTION

1.LegalResearch,Defined
It is the process of finding the law, rules and regulations that govern activities of human
society. It is also defined as the investigation for information necessary to support legal
decisionmaking.

2.LegalResearch,Importance
Toprovidecompetentrepresentation*andupholdthestandardsofthelegalprofession

*requiresthelegalknowledge,skill,thoroughnessandpreparationreasonablynecessaryfor
representation.

3.LegalResearch,Sources
Involvestheuseofavarietyofprinted*andelectronicsources.

*constitution,statutes,courtdecisions,administrativerulesandscholarlycommentaries

4.LegalResearchandBibliography,Distinguished
LegalResearchisthemethodorsystemofinquiryandinvestigationinvolvingtheactualuse
of the law books, while Legal Bibliography is concerned with the study of the materials
essentialtotheinquiryoftheresearcher.

LegalBibliography,Defined
It is generally defined as the science or study of law books, their history, evolution and
description,theircharacteristicsanduse,includingsuchdetailsastheirauthors,publishers,
dates,editionsanddegreeofauthoritativeness.

5.LegalBibliography,Importance
Theefficientuseoflawbookscanonlybelearnedbystudyandapplication.Itisanaidinthe
process*ofanalyzingalegalquestion.

*wheretofindthelaw,inwhatbook,andhow

6.LegalResearchandBibliography,Aim
Inordertoprovidelegalbasisforaclaim,onemustpresentforconsiderationtheauthority
whichmustbeapplied,andwhichthecourtisboundtoapply.

7.SourcesofLaw

PrimarySources
recordedlawsandruleswhichwillbeenforcedbystate

*legislativeactions,codes,statutes,judicialdecisions,administrativelaws(IRR)

SecondarySources
publicationsthatdiscussoranalyzelegaldoctrine
*treatises, commentaries, encyclopedias, legal writings (Academic Journals, IBP Journal &
LawyersReview)

FindingTools
*SCRAQuickIndexDigest,PhilJuris&LexLibris

II.LAWS

1.Law,Defined
A rule of conduct, just and obligatory, promulgated by legitimate authority for the common
observanceandbenefit

2.CharacteristicsofLaw

Ruleofconduct
guidelinesofwhattodoornottodo
Justandobligatory
imposesadutytoobey

Promulgatedbylegitimateauthority
bythelegislature

Commonobservanceandbenefit
observedbyallforthebenefitofall

3.SourcesofLaws

Constitution
Legislation,AdministrativeorExecutiveActs
JudicialDecisionsorJurisprudence
Customs

4.EffectivityofLaws

Art.2,CivilCode.Lawsshalltakeeffectafter15daysuponcompletionoftheirpublicationin
theOfficialGazette,unlessotherwiseprovided.

*EO200innewspaperofgeneralcirculation

TaadavsTuvera
136SCRA27

FACTS: Invoking the right of the people to be informed on matters of public


concern as well as the principle that laws to be valid and enforceable must be
publishedintheOfficialGazette,petitionersfiledforwritofmandamustocompel
respondentpublicofficialstopublishand/orcausetopublishvariouspresidential
decrees,lettersofinstructions,generalorders,proclamations,executiveorders,
lettersofimplementationsandadministrativeorders.
TheSolicitorGeneral,representingtherespondents,movedforthedismissalof
thecase,contendingthatpetitionershavenolegalpersonalitytobringtheinstant
petition.

ISSUE:W.O.N.publicationintheOfficialGazetteisrequiredbeforeanylawor
statutebecomesvalidandenforceable.

HELD:Art.2oftheCivilCodedoesnotprecludetherequirementofpublicationin
the Official Gazette, even if the law itself provides for the date of its effectivity.
Theclearobjectofthisprovisionistogivethegeneralpublicadequatenoticeof
the various laws which are to regulate their actions and conduct as citizens.
Withoutsuchnoticeandpublication,therewouldbenobasisfortheapplication
ofthemaximignoratialegisnominemexcusat.Itwouldbetheheightofinjustive
to punish or otherwise burden a citizen for the transgression of a law which he
hadnonoticewhatsoever,notevenaconstructiveone.

TheveryfirstclauseofSection1ofCA638reads:thereshallbepublishedinthe
OfficialGazette.Thewordshallthereinimposesuponrespondentofficialsan
imperative duty. That duty must be enforced if the constitutional right of the
peopletobeinformedonmatterofpublicconcernistobegivensubstanceand
validity.

The publication of presidential issuances of public nature or of general


applicability is a requirement of due process. It is a rule of law that before a
personmaybeboundbylaw,hemustfirstbeofficiallyandspecificallyinformed
of its contents. The Court declared that presidential issuances of general
applicationwhichhavenotbeenpublishedhavenoforceandeffect.

TaadavsTuvera
146SCRA446

FACTS:ThisisamotionforreconsiderationofthedecisionpromulgatedonApril
24,1985.Respondentarguedthatwhile

publication was necessary as a rule, it was not so when it was otherwise as


when the decrees themselves declared that they were to become effective
immediatelyupontheirapproval.

ISSUES:W.O.N.adistinctionbemadebetweenlawsofgeneralapplicabilityand
laws which are not as to their publication and W.O.N. a publication shall be
madeinpublicationsofgeneralcirculation.

HELD:Theclauseunlessitisotherwiseprovidedreferstothedateofeffectivity
and not to the requirement of publication itself, which cannot in any event be
omitted. This clause does not mean that the legislature may make the law
effective immediately upon approval, or in any other date, without its previous
publication.
Laws should refer to all laws and not only to those of general application, for
strictly speaking, all laws relate to the people in general albeit there are some
thatdonotapplytothemdirectly.Alawwithoutanybearingonthepublicwould
beinvalidasanintrusionofprivacyorasclasslegislationorasanultraviresact
of the legislature. To be valid, the law must invariably affect the public interest
eveifitmightbedirectlyapplicableonlytooneindividual,orsomeofthepeople
only,andnottothepublicasawhole.
All statutes, including those of local application and private laws, shall be
published as a condition for their effectivity, which shall begin 15 days after
publicationunlessadifferenteffectivitydateisfixedbythelegislature.
Publication must be in full or it is no publication at all, since its purpose is to
informthepublicofthecontentofthelaw.
Article2oftheCivilCodeprovidesthatpublicationoflawsmustbemadeinthe
Official Gazette, and not elsewhere, as a requirement for their effectivity. The
SupremeCourtisnotcalledupontoruleuponthewisdomofalawortorepealor
modifyitifitfindsitimpractical.
Thepublicationmustbemadeforthwith,oratleastassoonaspossible.1

UmalivsEstanislao
209SCRA446

FACTS:RA7167,providingadditionalexemptionstotaxpayers,wassignedand
approvedonDecember1991withtheclauseshalltakeeffectuponitsapproval
and was published on January 14, 1992 in Malaya, a newspaper of general
circulation. Petitioner filed a Petition for Mandamus to compel the Secretary of
FinanceandtheCIR,hereinrespondents,toimplementRA7167.

ISSUE:W.O.N.RA7167tookeffectuponitsapprovalorafter15daysuponits
publicationandifitcoverstaxableincomeforyearended1991.

HELD:RA7167tookeffectonJanuary30,1992,after15daysuponpublication
and not upon its approval on December 1991 because the effectivity clause is
defective.Inthesecondissue,lookingintothecontemporaneous
legislativeintent,theActwasintendedtoadjustthepovertythresholdlevelatthe
timesaidActwasenactedandnotinthefuture.

FariasvsExecutiveSecretary
417SCRA503

FACTS: RA 9006, The Fair Election Act, was signed into law by President
Arroyo. Petitioners, members of the Minority of the House of Representatives,
filed a Petition to declare said Act unconstitutional because it violated Sec. 26,
Article 6 of the Constitution requiring every law to have only one subject which
should be expressed in its title. Moreover, it is violative of the Due Process
Clause of the Constitution with regards to Sec. 16 which states that This act
shalltakeeffectimmediatelyuponitsapproval.

HELD:TheeffectivityclauseofRA9006isdefective,butitdoesnotrenderthe
entire law defective. Under the case of Taada vs Tuvera, the phrase unless
otherwise provided refers to the date and not to publication, which is
indispensable.

LaBugalblaanTribalAssociation,Inc.vsRamos
421SCRA148

FACTS:OnJuly25,1987,twodaysbeforetheconveningoftheFirstCongress,
President Aquino, in her exercise of legislative power during the Provisional
Constitution, issued EO 279 with the clause shall take effect immediately. EO
279waspublishedonAugust3,1987.

ISSUE: W.O.N. EO 279 violated EO 200 where a law shall take effect after 15
days following its publication and W.O.N. legislative powers of the President
ceased to exist upon the convening of the First Congress two days after EO
279sissuance,therebymakingsuchissuanceinvalid.

HELD:EO279isaneffectiveandvalidlyenactedstatute.ThereisnothinginEO
200thatpreventalawfromtakingeffectonadateotherthan,orbefore,the15
dayperiodafteritspublication.The15dayperiodonlyappliestothoselawsthat

do not provide for its own effectivity date. When EO 279 was published, it
became immediately effective upon its publication. On EO 279s validity, it was
issued before the convening of the First Congress therefore the President was
validlyexercisingherlegislativepowers.

5.ClassificationofLaws

NaturalLaw
divineinspirationinman,derivesitsforceandauthorityfromGod.Bindingto
thewholeworld

A.PhysicalLaw universalruleofactionthatgovernstheconductandmovementofthingsi.e
lawofgravitation
__________________________________________________________________________
____
1
Source:Internet

B. Moral Law establishes what is right and what is wrong as dictated by human
conscience

C.DivineLaw divinepositivelaw10commandmentsdivinehumanpositivelaw,enacted
bymanfortheirgeneralwelfare

PositiveLaw

A. Public Law Constitutional Law, the fundamental law of the land which defines the
powers of the government Administrative Law, fixes organization and its
functionsInternationalLaw,regulatesthecommunityofnations
B. Private Law Substantive, creates duties, rights and Procedural, means & methods in
courts

III.STATUTES

1.Statute,Defined
Awrittenwillofthelegislatureexpressedaccordingtotheformnecessarytoconstituteita
lawofthestateandrenderedauthenticbycertainprescribedformsandsolemnities

2.ClassesofStatuteLaw

A.The1987Constitution

Constitution,Defined
Thefundamentallaworsupremelawofthelandpromulgatedbythepeople.Alaw,towhich
allotherlawsmustconform

Thewritteninstrumentbywhichthefundamentalpowersofthegovernmentareestablished,
limited and defined and by which these powers are distributed among the several
departmentsfortheirsafeandusefulexerciseforthebenefitofthepeople

B.TreatiesandInternationalAgreements

Treaty,Defined
Anagreementbetweenoramongstateswhichgenerallygovernstheirmutualconductwith
oneanother

C.StatutesenactedbytheLegislature

StatuteProper,Kinds

Astonature
Penal
imposespunishmentofanoffense
Remedial
remedyformerlaws,reformorextendrights
Substantive
creates,defines,regulatestherightsanddutiesofparties
Labor
welfareoflaborers,governsemployeremployeerelationship
Tax
exactionofmoneyfromthestatetoachievelegislativeorgeneralobjective

Astoapplication
Mandatory
noncompliancerendersactvoidorillegal
Directory
noncompliancedoesnotinvalidateact

Astoperformance
Permanent
continuesinperformanceuntilalteredorrepealed
Temporary
fixedforaspecifiedperiod

Astoscope
General
appliestopersons,entities,thingsasaclassomittingnoone
Special
particularpersons,entities,things
Local
specific,withinterritoriallimits

Others
Prospective
operatesafterittakeseffect
Retrospective affectsactsalreadycommittedbeforeeffectivity

Repealing
Amendatory

Reference
Declaratory

revokesorterminatesanotherstatute
additiontotheoriginallawforimprovement(modifiesorqualifies)
referstootherstatutesandmakethemapplicabletothesubjectofthenew
legislation
establishesitsmeaning&correctconstruction

StatutesProper,Parts

Title
givesthegeneralstatementofthesubjectmatter

Preamble
statesthereasonfor,ortheobjectsoftheenactment

EnactingClause
indicatestheauthoritywhichpromulgatestheenactment

Body
contains the subject matter of the statute and shall embrace only one
subject

Provisos
actingasarestraintuponorasqualificationofthegeneralityofthelanguage
whichitfollows

Interpretative Clause
legislature defines its own language or prescribes rules for its
construction
Repealing Clause
announces the legislative intent to terminate or revoke another
statute

Saving Clause
restricts a repealing act and preserves existing powers, rights and
pendingproceedingsfromtheeffectsoftherepeal
Separability Clause
if for any reason, any section or provision is held to be
unconstitutionalorinvoked,theothersectionorprovisionofthelaw
shallnotbeaffectedthereby.
Dateofeffectivity
whenthelawshalltakeeffect(Article2oftheCivilCode)

Note:
*TITLE must have only one subject to prevent hodgepodge or logrolling legislation, to
preventsurpriseorfraud,andtofairlyapprisethepeopleofthesubjectoflegislation

HodgePodge,Defined

Amischievouslegislativepracticeofembracinginonebillseveraldistinctmatters,noneof
which, perhaps, could singly obtain the assent of the legislator, and then procuring its
passagebyacombinationoftheminoritiesinfavourofeachofthemeasureintoamajority
thatwilladoptthemall

Objective:tounitethelegislatorswhofavouranyoneofthesubjectsinsupportofthewhole
act.VOID

Test of sufficiency of title: indicates in broad but CLEAR terms in nature, scope and
consequencesoftheproposedlawanditsoperation

Incaseofdoubtastothesufficiencyofthetitle,thepresumptionisinfavourofthevalidityof
theacts

LidasanvsCOMELEC
21SCRA496

FACTS:RA4790AnActCreatingtheMunicipalityofDianatonintheProvinceof
LanaodelSurwassignedintolawconsistingof21barrios,12ofwhicharefrom
themunicipalitiesofParangandBuldon,provinceofCotabato.TheOfficeofthe
PresidentrecommendedtheCOMELECtosuspendtheoperationofthestatute
until clarified. Notwithstanding, the COMELEC declared that the statute should
be implemented unless declared unconstitutional by the SC. Hence the petition
forcertiorariandprohibitionfiledbyBaraLidasan,aresidentandtaxpayerofthe
detachedportionofParang,Cotabatoandaqualifiedvoter.

HELD:RA4790isunconstitutionalbecauseitviolatestheprovisionthatnobill
whichmaybeenactedintolawshallembracemorethanonesubjectwhichshall
beexpressedinthetitleofthebill

Twopronged purpose combined in one statute: It creates the municipality of


Dianatonpurportedlyfrom21barriosinthetownsofButigandBalabagan,both
in the province of Lanao del Sur and It also dismembers two municipalities in
Cotabato,aprovincedifferentfromLanaodelSur

RATIONALE:Titletobecouchedinalanguagesufficienttonotifythelegislators
andthepublicandthoseconcernedoftheimportofthesinglesubjectthereof.

A title which is so uncertain that the average person reading it would not be
informedofthepurposeoftheenactmentorputoninquiryastoitscontents,or
whichismisleading,eitherinreferringtoorindicatingonesubjectwhereanother
or different one is really embraced in the act, or in omitting any expression or
indicationoftherealsubjectorscopeoftheact,isbad.

*PREAMBLEdoesnotcreaterightnorgrantanyright,notasourceofgovernmentpower,not
anessentialpartofastatute(Whereas)

PeoplevsEchaves
95SCRA663

FACTS:FiscalEllofiledbeforethelowercourtseparateinformationsagainst16
persons charging them with squatting penalized by PD 772. The informations
weredismissedonthegroundsthat(1)entryshouldbebyforce,intimidationor
threatandnotthroughstealthandstrategyasalleged(2)PD772doesnotapply
tothecultivationofagrazingland.Motionforconsiderationwaslikewisedenied.
Thephraseandforotherpurposesinthedecreedoesnotincludeagricultural
purposes because its preamble does not mention the Secretary of Agriculture
andmakesreferencetotheaffluentclass.Hence,theappealtothisCourt.

HELD: Lower courts decision affirmed. The decree does not apply to pasture
lands because its preamble shows that it was intended to apply to squatting in
urbancommunitiesormoreparticularlytoillegalconstructionsinsquattingareas
made by welltodo individuals. The squatting complained of involves pasture
landsinruralareas.Ontheotherhand,itispunishedbyRA947
RATIONALE:TheruleofejusdemgenerisdoesnotapplytoPD772wherethe
intentofdecreeisunmistakable.

AglipayvsRuiz
64SCRA201

FACTS: Mons. Aglipay sought an issuance of prohibition from the court to


prevent Director of Posts from issuing and selling postage stamps
commemorativeofthe33rdInternationalEucharisticCongresswhichviolatesthe
provisionthatnopublicmoneyorpropertyshalleverbeappropriated,appliedor
used, directly or indirectly, for the benefit, or support of any sect, church,
denominationortheprincipleofseparationofchurchandstate.

HELD: Petition denied. RA 4052 which appropriates a sum of P60,000 for the
saidstampscontemplatesnoreligiouspurposeinview.Stampswerenotissued

andsoldforthebenefitoftheRomanCatholicChurchnormoneyderivedfrom
the sale given to that church. Moreover, what is emphasized is not the
EucharisticCongressitselfbutManilaastheseatofthatcongress.

RATIONALE:WhatisguaranteedbyourConstitutionisreligiouslibertyandnot
merereligioustoleration.Religiousfreedom,asaConstitutionalmandate,isnot
inhibitionofprofoundreverenceforreligionandisnotadenialofitsinfluencein
humanaffairs

*BODYconsistsofonlyonesubject,aslongastheprovisionsarealliedandgermanetothe
subject

*SEPARABILITYCLAUSEifsomutuallydependentandconnected,orintendedasawhole,
nullityofonepartvitiatestherest

*DATE OF EFFECTIVITY publication in the Official Gazette, condition for their effectivity1,
exceptthoseinterpretativeregulationsandthoseinternalinnature

D.AdministrativeRulesandRegulations

E.OrdinancesenactedbytheAutonomousRegions

F.OrdinancesenactedbyLocalGovernmentUnits

3.PhilippineLegislativeSystem

4.WhenaBillbecomesaLaw,Process

*Proposaltothecommittee
*1streading(insession,readtitle,author,synopsis)
*Referredtoappropriatecommittee
*2ndreading(debate,interpolation,amendment,finalize)
*Endorsetoplenary
*3rdreading(VoteviaVivaVoceorRollcall,YeasorNays)
*SecondCommittee(Repeatsteps26)

Harmonizationofthebill,ifnecessary:

*Parallelreadingbetweenhouseandsenate
BicameralConferenceCommittee(3rdHouseofCongress)
*EnrolledBill

*signedbySenatePresidentandSpeakeroftheHouse
*SubmittoPresidentforapproval(approve/veto/lapseintolaw)
__________________________________________________________________________
____
1
Taadavs.Tuvera,136SCRA27

5.CivilLawandCommonLawSystem,Distinguished
Withrespecttolaws,theformerarewrittenlawsatthetimeitwascraftedwhilethelatterare
lawshandeddownbyeldersthroughmemoryofmen,originallyunwrittenthencodified.Inthe
former, judges only interpret the laws because the legislature has the exclusive power of
promulgatingsuchwhileinthelatterjudgesmaylegislate.

IV.CASELAW

1.CaseLaw,Defined
thedecisions,interpretationsmadebyjudgeswhiledecidingonthelegalissuesbeforethem
which are considered as the common law or as an aid for interpretation of a law in
subsequentcaseswithsimilarconditions.Caselawsareusedbyadvocatestosupporttheir
viewstofavortheirclientsandalsoitinfluencesthedecisionofthejudges.1

itcomesfromjudicialauthoritiesofthestateandisthe2ndmajorcategoryofprimarysources
oflaw

2.ClassesofCaseLaw

*DecisionsProper
DecisionsbyregularcourtsofJustice2
DecisionsoftheSupremeCourt
DecisionsoftheCourtofAppeals
DecisionsoftheSandiganbayan
DecisionsoftheCourtofTaxAppeals
DecisionsoftheRegionalTrialCourts
Decisions of the Metropolitan Trial Courts, the Municipal Trial Courts and the
MunicipalCircuitTrialCourts

*SubordinateDecisions
RulingofBoards,Commissions,andAdministrativeofficers,andopinionsoflegalofficersof
theGovernment3
Decisions of the Senate Electoral Tribunal and the House of Representatives
ElectoralTribunal
DecisionsofAdministrativeAgenciesExercisingQuasiJudicialPowers,suchas:

COMELEC
CSC
CommissiononAudit
NLRC
InsuranceCommission
Housing&LandUseRegulatoryBoard
DARAdjudicationBoard

3.Decision,Defined
Judgment, decree, or determination of findings of fact and/or of law by a judge, arbitrator,
court,governmentalagency,orotherofficialtribunal(court)4

Aconclusionreachedafteranevaluationoffactsandlaw.

*When referring to judicial matters, a decision is not the same as an opinion, although the
termsaresometimesusedinterchangeably.Adecisionisthepronouncementofthesolution
of the court or judgment in a case, while an opinion is a statement of the reasons for its
determinationmadebythecourt5

4.PartsofaDecision/Ponencia:

(1)Title(indicatingthenamesoftheparties)
(2)Syllabus(summaryofimportantpointsofdecision)
(3)Portionofthereportthatcarriesauthority
__________________________________________________________________________
____
1
Legalexplanations.com2010
2
PedroJoven
3
PedroJoven
4
Hill,2005
5
West'sEncyclopediaofAmericanLaw,edition2
(4)Statementoffacts
(5)Abstractsofbriefsofcounsels(Arguments)
(6)Opinionofthecourt
(7)Dispositiveportion(decision)ofthecase
(8)SeparateDissentingorConcurringOpinionofJustices

NOTE:PercuriamReportagreeduponbyalljustices

5.EffectofDecidedCase(oftheSupremeCourt):

(1)Anauthoritativesettlementoftheparticularcontroversybeforeitand
(2)Asaprecedentforfuturecases

6.Resjudicata,Defined
amatteradjudged,judiciallyacteduponordecided,orsettledbyjudgment.Itprovidesthata
finaljudgmentonthemeritsrenderedbyacourtofcompetentjurisdictionisconclusiveasto
the rights of the parties and their privies and constitutes an absolute bar to subsequent
actionsinvolvingthesameclaim,demandorcauseofaction

7.RequisitesofResjudicata:

(1)Theformerjudgmentmustbefinal
(2)Thecourtthatrenderedithadjurisdictionoverthesubjectmatterandtheparties
(3)Itisajudgmentonthemerits(renderedafterconsiderationofevidenceandstipulations)
and
(4) There is between the first and the second actions an identity of parties, subject
matterandcauseofaction(G.R.No.146886[2003])

8.LawoftheCase,Defined
Thedoctrinethatwhenacourtdecidesuponaruleoflaw,thatdecisionshouldcontinueto
governthesameissueinsubsequentstagesinthesamecase6

The doctrine of "law of the case" is one of policy only, however, and will be disregarded
whencompellingcircumstancesrequirearedeterminationofthepointoflawdecidedonthe
priorappeal.Suchcircumstancesexistwhenaninterveningorcontemporaneouschangein
thelawhastranspiredbytheestablishmentofnewprecedentbyacontrollingauthorityorthe
overrulingofformerdecisions.7

9.StareDecisis,Defined
Theprinciplethatthedecisionsofacourtareabindingauthorityonthecourtthatissuedthe
decisionsandonthelowercourtsforthedispositionoffactuallysimilarcontroversies.Stand
onwhathasbeendecided

Adherencetoprecedents,statesthatonceacasehasbeendecidedoneway,thenanother
case,involvingexactlythesamepointatissue,shouldbedecidedinthesamemanner.8

NOTE:SupremeCourtisnotboundbythisdoctrinebecauseitcanoverturnprecedents.

KindsofStareDecisis:

1. Vertical Stare Decisis Duty of lower courts to apply the decisions of the higher courts to
casesinvolvingthesamefacts.(Obligation)
__________________________________________________________________________
____
6
PedroJoven
7
West'sEncyclopediaofAmericanLaw,edition2
8
CivilCode,Paras(2008)

2.HorizontalStareDecisis
Highercourtsmustfollowitsownprecedents(Policy)
Constitutional Stare Decisis are judicial interpretations of the
Constitution while, Statutory Stare Decisis are interpretations of
statutes

10.ImportanceofPrecedents

The importance of precedent is summed up in the words of Lord Gardiner in London


Tramways Co. vs. London City Council where he said, '...[justices] regard the use of
precedent as an indispensable foundation upon which to decide what is the law and its
application to individual cases. It provides at least some degree of certainty upon which
individuals can rely in the conduct of their affairs, as well as a basis for an orderly
developmentoflegalrules'.

Certaintyleadstostability,anditisoftheforemostimportanceincreatingorderinsociety.1

ResJudicataandStareDecisis,Effects
Theformertothesettlementoftheimmediatecontroversyandthelattertotheimpactofthe
decisionasprecedent

ResJudicataandLawofthecase,Distinguished
Theformerforeclosespartiesinonecase,whilethelatterdoesnothavethefinalityofthe
formerandappliesonlytoaparticularcase.

11.SubordinateCaseLaws

12.DecisionoftheCourtofAppeals

The Court of Appeals serves as our intermediate appellate court. As to whether the
decisionsofthisTribunalshallconstituteprecedents,theSupremeCourtofthePhilippines,in
the case of Miranda, et al, v. Imperial (77 Phil. 1066) held: Only the decision of this
Honorable Court establish jurisprudence or doctrines in the jurisdiction. However, this does

notpreventthataconclusionorpronouncementoftheCourtofAppealswhichcoversapoint
oflawstillundecidedinourjurisprudencemayserveasjuridicalguidetotheinferiorcourts,
and that such conclusion or pronouncement be raised as a doctrine if, after it has been
subjectedtotestinthecrucibleofanalysisandrevision,thisSupremeCourtshouldfindthat
ithasmeritsandqualitiessufficientforitsconsecrationasaruleofjurisprudence

SilvavsMationg
499SCRA724

FACTS: Aklan Electric Cooperative, Inc (AKELCO) failed to pay its P25M
obligation which resulted to a power cutoff. NAPOCOR restored power upon
learning of the NEA takeover. However, respondent remained as General
Manager.Respondentwassoonterminatedfindinghimguiltyofwilfulbreachof
trustandconfidence.RespondentfiledaManifestationandSupplementalmotion
before the CA nullifying his removal on the ground that Sec. 10 (e) of PD 269
whichprovidesforsuspensionorremovalandreplacementisreservedsolelyto
theNEABOAandpraysforreinstatement.CAgrantedthemotion.Hence,this
petition.

HELD: Petition granted. Respondents termination is valid. AKELCOBOD


submitteditsBoardResolutionssuspendingandremovingrespondenttoNEAfor
approval,thereforetheformerwasactingpursuanttotheauthorization.
__________________________________________________________________________
____
1
Studyworld.com,2010

The SC noted, however, that petitioners counsel relied on several decisions of


the CA in addition to SC cases to buttress his arguments. The SC reminded
counsel that decisions of the CA are neither controlling nor conclusive on this
Court.

NepomucenovsCityofSurigao
560SCRA41

FACTS: Petitioner filed a complaint before the RTC for Recovery of Real
Propertyand/oritsMarketValuetorecoveralotwhichwasoccupied,developed
andusedasacityroadbytherespondentwithoutpermissionnorexpropriation
proceedingsforitsacquisition.Notwithstandingproposalforamicablesettlement,
theCityMayorrefusedtopay.RTCgrantedpetitionerP3,260ascompensation
forthelandindispute.Notsatisfied,thepetitionerappealedtotheCA.TheCA
entitled petitioner for moral damages but affirmed the compensation awarded.

Petitioner sought for the value at the time of actual payment invoking CA
decisions with the substantial factual similarity in this case, as well as Article
1250oftheCivilCode.

HELD:Petitiondenied.Inalonglineofcases,ithasbeenheldthatitisthevalue
of the property at the time of taking that is controlling for purposes of
compensation. We find no application for Article 1250 because it pertains to
contractualobligations.

Moreover,petitionercannotproperlyinsistontheapplicationoftheCAdecisions.
ArulingoftheCAonanyquestionoflawisnotbindingonthisCourt.Infact,the
Courtmayreview,modifyorreversenusuchrulingoftheCA.

RATIONALE:Theowneroftheprivatepropertyshouldbecompensatedonlyfor
what he actually loses it is not intended that his compensation shall extend
beyondhislossorinjury.

AyalaCorporationvsRosaDianaRealtyandDevelopmentCorp
346SCRA663

FACTS: Petitioner sold a parcel of land to Manuel Sy and Sy Ka Kieng. The


DeedofSaleexecutedbetweenthepartiescontainedspecialconditionsofsale:
SubmissionofbuildingplansforAyalasapproval,periodofconstruction,andno
resale of the said property. The buyers failed to construct and the lot was then
soldtohereinrespondent,withAyalasapproval,promisingtoabidebythesaid
special conditions. Building plans of The Peak were sent to Ayala and, a
substantiallydifferentone,tothebuildingofficialofMakati.Ayalafiledbeforethe
lower court an action for specific performance of contractual obligation, in an
alternative,rescissionofthesale,whichwasdenied.Undeterred,Ayalatriedto
causetheannotationofanoticeoflispendensonthetitlebutwasdeniedbythe
RegisterofDeedsofMakati.TheLandRegistrationAuthorityreversedtheruling
butwasoverturnedbytheCA.RosaDianafiledaDemurrertoEvidenceaverring
thatAyalafailedtoestablishitsrighttothereliefsoughtwhichwassustainedby
thetrialcourt.Ayalawasguiltyofabandonmentand/orestoppelduetoitsfailure
to enforce the terms of the deed of restrictions and special conditions of sale.
The CA affirmed the ruling of the trial court saying that the appeal is sealed by
thedoctrineofthelawofthecasewithreferencetoapreviouscase.Thus,Ayala
is barred from enforcing the Deed of Restrictions. Hence, the appeal to this
Court.

HELD:ThedecisionoftheCAisreversedandsetaside.Thelawofthecaseor
stare decisis cannot be held applicable in the case at bench. The sole issue
raisedbeforetheappellatecourtwastheproprietyofthelispendensannotation.

RATIONALE: The ruling covered by the doctrine of the law of the case is
adheredtointhesinglecasewhereitarises,butisnotcarriedintoothercases
asprecedent.

SillimanUniversityvsFonteloPaalan
525SCRA759

FACTS: Respondent was employed by the petitioner and was assigned to the
MedicalRecordsSectionoftheSillimanUniversityMedicalCenter.Shewaslater
promotedastheHead,thepositionshehelduntilherretirementattheageof57
pursuant to the provisions of the petitioners retirement plan. Accordingly,
respondentreceivedherretirementbenefits.Threeyearsafter,respondentfiled
withtheNLRCacomplaintforillegaldismissalagainstpetitionerontheground
that said provision violates her constitutional right of security of tenure and is
contrary to the compulsory retirement age of 65. Petitioner was found guilty of
illegaldismissalbytheLaborArbiter.Onappeal,NLRCreversedtherulingofthe
LAandupheldthevalidityoftheretirementplan.RespondentfiledaMotionfor
Reconsideration but was denied but modified its decision by adjudging the
petitioner liable for additional retirement benefits. Respondent then appealed
before the CA, which affirmed the modified decision of the NLRC. Respondent
opted to accept the adverse judgment. Petitioner, on the other hand, filed a
PetitionforReviewonCertiorariinreferencetoitsliability.

HELD: Petition denied. This Court is already without jurisdiction to take


cognizance of the present Petition. By the petitioner and respondents inaction
andpresumedacquiescence,respectively,thefindingsoftheNLRCandtheCA,
attained finality and thus, became final and executory not having been timely
appealed.

LambinovsCOMELEC
505SCRA160

USvsRuiz
136SCRA487

FACTS:USAhadanavalbaseinSubicZambales.Thebasewasoneofthose
provided in the Military Bases Agreement between the Philippines and the US.

SometimeinMay1972,theUSinvitedthesubmissionofbidsfortherepairofits
navalequipment.EligiodeGuzmanandCo.submittedtheirbids.Subsequently,
itreceived2telegramsrequestingittoconfirmitspriceproposals.OnJune1972,
thecompanyreceivedaletterwhichwassignedbyWilliamI.CollinsoftheUS
Navy stating that it did not qualify to receive an award because of its
unsatisfactoryperformanceratings.Thecompanythenfiledapetitioninthetrial
courttoissueawritofpreliminaryinjuction,whichtheRTCaffirmed.Hencethis
petition.
ISSUE: W.O.N. our courts have jurisdiction over the present case W.O.N. the
respondentjudgeerredinapplyingthecaseofLyonsvsUSA

HELD: Petition granted. The traditional rule of State immunity exempts a state
from being sued in courts of another state without its consent. The reliance
placed on Lyons by the respondent judge is misplaced. In the case, it can be
seenthatthestatementinrespectofthewaiverofStateImmunityfromsuitwas
purely gratuitous and therefore obiter, thus, it has no value as an imperative
authority.

RATIONALE: The restrictive application of State Immunity is proper only when


theproceedingsariseoutofcommercialtransactionsoftheforeignsovereign.It
does not apply where the contract relates to the exercise of its sovereign
functions.inthecaseatbar,theprojectsareanintegralpartofthenavalbase
devoted to the defense of both the US and the Philippines, indisputably a
functionofthegovernment.

IV.BOOKSOFSECONDARYAUTHORITY

V.LEGALRESEARCH

LegalAuthority,Defined
Authoritythatwillaidinfindingasolutiontoalegalproblem

1.PrimaryandSecondaryLegalAuthority,Distinguished
PrimaryLegalAuthoritiesareauthorizedstatementsoflawissuedbygovernmentalbodies
whileSecondaryLegalAuthoritiesaredescriptionsof,orcommentaryon,thelaw

Theformeristhelawitself(MandatoryorPersuasive)whilethelatterinterprets,analyzes,
orcompilesthelaw(Persuasive)

PrimaryLegalAuthorities(thecourtmustrelyon)
*ConstitutionandStatutes(LegislativeBranch)

*Cases(JudicialBranch)
* Treaties, Executive Orders, Administrative Rules & Regulations, Ordinances (Executive
Branch)

SecondaryLegalAuthorities(thecourtmayconsider)
*LawreviewArticles,Treatises
*RestatementsoftheLaw
*LegalEncyclopedias

2.MandatoryandPersuasiveLegalAuthority,Distinguished
Mandatory must be followed because it is the legal authority for a particular jurisdiction
while Persuasive may be followed optionally because they are legal authorities (court
decisions)ofotherjurisdictions

3.SourcesofAuthorities
*Legislature
*SupremeCourt
*AdministrativeBodies
*LocalGovernmentUnits
*President

4.LegalResearchProcess

VI.FUNDAMENTALRESEARCHSKILL:CASEBRIEFINGANDSYNTHESISOFCASES

1.CaseBriefing,Defined
A digest or condensation of a case. It is a written summary identifying the essential
componentsofacourtopinion.

CaseBriefing,Elements

Citation

Parties

Facts

Events between the


parties leading to the
litigation

Prior
Proceedings

What happened in the


lowercourts

Issue

Questions including the


ruleoflawappliedtothe
facts

Ruling/
Holding

Resolution of the issue


or the courts decision
on the question that is
actuallybeforeit

Reasoning

RuleofLawapplied

Disposition
Comments

Opinion

Santosvs.CA
240SCRA20

FACTS:PlaintiffLeouelSantosmarrieddefendantJuliaBediaonSeptember20,
1986. On May 18, 1988, Julia left for the U.S. She did not communicate with
Leouel and did not return to the country. In 1991, Leouel filed with the RTC of
Negros Oriental, a complaint for voiding of the marriage under Article 36 of the
Family Code. The RTC dismissed the complaint and the CA affirmed the
dismissal.

ISSUE: Does the failure of Julia to return home, or at the very least to
communicate with him, for more than five years constitute psychological
incapacity?

HELD: No, the failure of Julia to return home or to communicate with her
husband Leouel for more than five years does not constitute psychological
incapacity.

Psychological incapacity must be characterized by a) gravity, b) juridical


antecedence,andc)incurability

Psychological incapacity should refer to no less than a mental (not physical)


incapacity that causes a party to be truly incognitive of the basic marital
covenantsthatconcomitantlymustbeassumedanddischargedbythepartiesto

the marriage which, as so expressed by Article 68 of the Family Code, include


their mutual obligations to live together, observe love, respect and fidelity and
renderhelpandsupport.

The intendment of the law has been to confine the meaning of psychological
incapacity to the most serious cases of personality disorders clearly
demonstrative of an utter insensitivity or inability to give meaning and
significancetothemarriage.Thispsychologicconditionmustexistatthetimethe
marriageiscelebrated.

Undeniablyandunderstandably,Leouelstandsaggrieved,evendesperate,inhis
presentsituation.Regrettably,neitherlawnorsocietyitselfcanalwaysprovideall
thespecificanswerstoeveryindividualproblem

Petitionisdenied.

2.SynthesizingCases

ChiMingTsoivs.CA
266SCRA324

FACTS:OnMay22,1988,GinaLaomarriedChiMingTsoi.Sincetheirmarriage
until their separation on March 15, 1989, there was no sexual contact between
them.Ginafiledacaseofannulmentofmarriageonthegroundofpsychological
incapacitywiththeRTCofQuezonCity.TheRTCgrantedannulmentwhichwas
affirmedbytheCA.

ISSUE:Isthefailureofthehusbandtohavesexualintercoursewithhiswifefrom
the time of the marriage until their separation on March 15, 1989 a ground for
psychologicalincapacity

HELD: One of the essential marital obligations under the Family Code is to
procreate children based on the universal principle that procreation of children
throughsexualcooperationisthebasicendofmarriage.

Inthecaseatbar,thesenselessandprotractedrefusalofoneofthepartiesto
fulfilltheabovemaritalobligationisequivalenttopsychologicalincapacity.

JudgmentAFFIRMED.

Republicvs.CA

268SCRA198

FACTS: On April 14, 1985, plaintiff Roridel O. Molina married Reynaldo Molina
which union bore a son. After a year of marriage, Reynaldo showed signs of
immaturityandirresponsibilityasahusbandandfatherashepreferredtospend
more time with his friends, depended on his parents for assistance, and was
neverhonestwithhiswifeinregardtotheirfinancesresultinginfrequentquarrels
betweenthem.TheRTCgrantedRoridelspetitionfordeclarationofnullityofher
marriagewhichwasaffirmedbytheCA.

ISSUE: Do irreconcilable differences and conflicting personalities constitute


psychologicalincapacity?

HELD: There is no clear showing that the psychological defect spoken of is an


incapacity.Itappearstomoreofadifficulty,ifnotoutrightrefusalorneglect
intheperformanceofsomemaritalobligations.

Mere showing of irreconcilable differences and conflicting personalities in no


wise constitutes psychological incapacity. It is not enough to prove that the
parties failed to meet their responsibilities and duties as married persons it is
essential that they must be shown to be incapable of doing so, due to some
psychological(notphysical)illness.

TheevidencemerelyadducedthatRoridelandherhusbandcouldnotgetalong
with each other. There had been no showing of the gravity of the problem,
neitheritsjuridicalantecedencenoritsincurability.

The following guidelines in interpretation and application of Article 36 of the


FamilyCodeareherebyhandeddownfortheguidanceofthebenchandthebar:

(1)Burdenofproofbelongstotheplaintiff

(2) Root causes of PI must be: medically or clinically identified alleged in the
complaintsufficientlyprovenbyexpertsandclearlyexplainedinthedecision

(3)PImustbeproventobeexistingatthetimeofthecelebrationofthemarriage,
althoughmanifestationneednotbeperceivableatsuchtime

(4)Showntobemedicallyorclinicallypermanent

(5)Mustbegraveenoughtobringaboutthedisabilityofthepartytoassumethe
essentialobligationsofmarriage

(6) The essential marital obligations must be those embraced by Arts. 6871 of
theFamilyCode

(7) Interpretations given by the National Appellate Matrimonial Tribunal of the


Catholic Church in the Philippines, while not controlling, should be given great
respectbyourcourts

(8) The trial court must order the fiscal and the SolicitorGeneral to appear as
counsel for the State. No decision shall be handed down unless the Solicitor
Generalissuesacertification,whichwillbequotedinthedecision,brieflystating
hisreasonsforhisagreementoroppositiontothepetition

Judgmentreversedandsetaside.

Hernandezvs.CA
320SCRA76

FACTS: Lucita Estrella married Mario Hernandez on Januray 1, 1981 and they
begotthreechildren.OnJuly10,1992,LucitafiledbeforetheRTCofTagaytay
City,apetitionforannulmentofmarriageunderArticle36allegingthatfromthe
timeoftheirmarriage,Mariofailedtoperformhisobligationtosupportthefamily,
devotingmostofhistimedrinking,hadaffairswithmanywomenandcohabiting
with another women with whom he had an illegitimate child, and finally
abandoningherandthefamily.

TheRTCdismissedthepetitionwhichwasaffirmedbytheCA.

ISSUE:WhethertherewaspsychologicalincapacityunderArticle36.

HELD: Petitioner failed to establish the fact that at the time they were married,
privaterespondentwassufferingfrompsychologicaldefectwhichinfactdeprived
himoftheabilitytoassumetheessentialdutiesofmarriageanditsconcomitant
responsibilities.AstheCourtofAppealspointedout,noevidencewaspresented
to show that private respondent was not cognizant of the basic marital
obligations. It was not sufficiently proved that private respondent was really
incapableoffulfillinghisdutiesduetosomeincapacityofapsychologicalnature,
andnotmerelyphysical.

Private respondents alleged habitual alcoholism, sexual infidelity or perversion,


andabandonmentdonotbythemselvesconstitutegroundsforfindingthatheis
suffering from a psychological incapacity within the contemplation of the Family
Code. It must be shown that these acts are manifestations of a disordered
personality which make private respondent completely unable to discharge the
essential obligations of the marital state, and not merely due to private
respondents youth and selfconscious feeling of being handsome, as the
appellatecourtheld.

Judgmentaffirmed.

Marcosvs.Marcos
G.R.No.136490,October19,2000

FACTS:PlaintiffBrendaB.MarcosmarriedWilsonMarcosin1982andtheyhad
five children. Alleging that the husband failed to provide material support to the
family and have resorted to physical abuse and abandonment, Brenda filed a
case for the nullity of the marriage for psychological incapacity. The RTC
declared the marriage null and void under Article 36 which was however
reversedbytheCA.

ISSUES:
1)Whetherpersonalmedicalorpsychologicalexaminationoftherespondentby
aphysicianisarequirementforadeclarationofpsychologicalincapacity
2) Whether the totality of evidence presented in this case show psychological
incapacity.

HELD: Psychological incapacity, as a ground for declaring the nullity of a


marriage,maybeestablishedbythetotalityoftheevidencepresented.Thereis
norequirement,howeverthattherespondentshouldbeexaminedbyaphysician
orapsychologistasaconditiosinequanonforsuchdeclaration.

Although this Court is sufficiently convinced that respondent failed to provide


material support to the family and may have resorted to physical abuse and
abandonment, the totality of his acts does not lead to a conclusion of
psychological incapacity on his part. There is absolutely no showing that his
defects were already present at the inception of the marriage or that they are
incurable.

Verily, the behavior of respondent can be attributed to the fact that he had lost
hisjobandwasnotgainfullyemployedforaperiodofmorethansixyears.Itwas

duringthisperiodthathebecameintermittentlydrunk,failedtogivematerialand
moralsupport,andevenleftthefamilyhome.

Thus,hisallegedpsychologicalillnesswastracedonlytosaidperiodandnotto
the inception of the marriage. Equally important, there is no evidence showing
thathisconditionisincurable,especiallynowthatheisgainfullyemployedasa
taxidriver.

In sum, this Court cannot declare the dissolution of the marriage for failure of
petitioner to show that the alleged psychological incapacity is characterized by
gravity,juridicalantecedenceandincurability(Santosv.CA,240SCRA20)and
forherfailuretoobservetheguidelinesasoutlinedinRepublicv.CAandMolina,
268SCRA198

Republicvs.Dagdag
G.R.No.109975,February9,2001

FACTS:PlaintiffErlindaMatiasmarriedAvelinoDagdagin1975andtheybegot
children.Aweekafterthewedding,Avelinowoulddisappearformonths.During
thetimeshewaswiththefamily,heindulgedindrinkingspreeswithfriendsand
would return home drunk. He would likewise inflict physical injuries on her. In
1983, Avelino left the family again and that was the last they heard from him.
ErlindalaterlearnedthatAvelinowasimprisonedbutescapedfromjail.

In 1990, Erlinda filed with the RTC of Olongapo City a petition for nullity of
marriage for psychological incapacity. On December 17, 1990, the date set for
presentationofevidence,onlyErlindaandhercounselappeared.Erlindatestified
and presented her sisterinlaw, Virginia Dagdag, as her only witness. Virginia
testified that she is married to the brother of Avelino. She testified that Erlinda
and Avelino always quarreled, and that Avelino never stayed for long at the
couples house. Thereafter, Erlinda rested her case. The RTC declared the
marriagenullandvoidunderArticle36oftheFamilyCodewhichwasaffirmedby
theCA.

ISSUE: Whether the husband suffers from psychological incapacity as he is


emotionally immature and irresponsible, a habitual alcoholic and a fugitive from
justice.

HELD:TakingintoconsiderationtheseguidelinslaiddownintheMolinacase,it
isevidentthatErlindafailedtocomplywiththerequiredevidentiaryrequirements.
ErlindafailedtocomplywithguidelineNo.2whichrequiresthattherootcauseof

psychologicalincapacitymustbemedicallyorclinicallyidentifiedandsufficiently
proven by experts, since no psychiatrist or medical doctor testified as to the
allegedpsychologicalincapacityofherhusband.Further,theallegationthatthe
husbandisafugitivefromjusticewasnotsufficientlyproven.Infact,thecrimefor
which he was arrested was not even alleged. The investigating prosecutor was
likewisenotgivenanopportunitytopresentcontrovertingevidencesincethetrial
courtsdecisionwasprematurelyrendered.

Judgmentreversedandsetaside.

VII.BASICLEGALCITATION

1.PurposeofLegalCitation
Reference Provides the information necessary for the reader to locate the reference
(specific statute, court opinion, law review, encyclopedia) allowing the reader to check its
content

*Guide/Source:
Bluebook(HarvardLawReviewAssociation)and
ALWD

Supra sameasabove
Id,
same page cited in
Idem
thecase

SearchMaterialsandFindingTools:

1.Citators
They supply references to decisions in which other cases have been cited, reviewed,
affirmed,reversed,overruled,criticizedorcommentedupon,andtocasesinwhichstatutes
have been construed, and to statutes in which prior acts have been amended, renewed or
repealed

Acitatorisafindingtoolthatprovidesthesubsequenthistoryofreportedcasesandlistsof
casesandlegislativeenactmentsconstruing,applyingoraffectingstatutes

Shepards Citations published by Shepards McGrawHill, lists virtually every published


casebycitation,inbothofficialandunofficialreporters,andthenlistunderitscitationevery

subsequentcasethathascitedthecaseinquestion.Theprocessofupdatingacasethrough
thismethodisreferredtoasShepardizing.

2.Indexes
Thewordindexusuallymeansasubjectindexwhichisliketheindexfoundintextbooks,
statutes,etc.Asubjectindexisanalphabeticallyarrangedtopicalwordsinwhich,bymeans
of references under each topic, material relating to these topics expressed in appropriate
wordsisdigested

3.Bibliographies
A bibliography is a list of descriptions of published materials either relating to a given
subject, or by a given author. A bibliography of law books may refer to a list of an authors
legalwords,oroftheliteraturebearingonaparticularsubjectorfieldoflaw

VIII.ELECTRONICRESEARCH
PhilippineLawsPremiumEdition
Contents:
1.SubjectIndex
2.SelectedLawswithAnnotations
3.PhilippineConstitutions
4.Statutes
5.PresidentialIssuances
6.SupremeCourtIssuances
7.SpanishEraCode
8.Treaties
9.ImplementingRulesandRegulations
10.RulesandProcedures
Jurisprudence
1.G.R.Nos.
2.Casesfrom19012009(2010,2ndQuarter)

Description
Code
Connectedwords
xxx
Proximity,inorder
xxx/1
0
Proximity,unordered
xxx@
10
Characterreplacer
wom?n
Synonyms
$
Related
root
word %
extender


IX.LEGALBIBLIOGRAPHY
X.SPECIALTOPICS
LegalResearchapplyingthelawinthegivensetoffacts

FACTS
EVIDENCE
LAW
P
O
P
O
P
P
P
P
O

Thedutyofthelegalresearcherarisesonthethirdinstancewhereyouhaveboththefacts
andtheevidencesbutnotthelaw
Cases
Publishedreportsofdisputewhichhavecomebeforethecourtincludingthereasonforthe
decisionandthedecisionitself
PublishedreportsfoundintheOfficialGazette,PhilippineReports,SCRA,SCANT,etc
CaseBrief
Writtensummaryoftheabstractofthecase,inyourownwords

CaseBrief,Elements
1.Facts
Containsthepartiesinvolved,dateofthecase,controversies,causeofaction(arisesfrom
theactofanotherviolatingtherightofsomeone,thelatterhavingthecauseofaction)
2.Issues
Problem,subissues
3.Arguments
Parties,court,discussionofprosandcons
Formulationthroughgeneralpropositionfromconsideringfacts(inductivereasoning)
4.Decision
Applicationofthelaw
ObiterDicta(notbinding)
Propositionorstatementnotpertinentindecidingtheissuesinthecase
Holding
Propositionsactuallyreliedonthedecision

Citation,Elements
1.Nameofthecase
2.Volume#
3.Page#
4.Datedecided

Example:Peoplevs.Boncayao,234SCRA567(2010)
Methods
A.LivingLawApproach
1.LawFinder
Index,dictionaries,etc
2.Gotothelaw
Ifnotthelawyouarelookingfor,crossreferencetogetthelawthatappliesappropriately
3.Supplementorevaluateit
B.TopicMethod
Readalso:ManualofSupremeCourtonLegalWriting,JudicialWritingbyDr.Ng(page156
166)re:CitingConstitutions,Statutes,AdministrativeOrders,andForeignMaterials
BASICLEGALCITATIONbyDr.NgPo
I.Introduction
Legal research is the search for authority that can be applied to a given set of facts and
issues.Legalresearchandanalysisinvolvedetermininghowthelawappliestothefactsof
thecase,whichinturnrequiresknowledgeofwhatthelawis,howtofindit,andthegeneral
principlesthatgovernitsapplication(Putman,2004)
Legalcitationisthestyleofcreditingandreferencingotherdocumentsorsourcesofauthority
inlegalwriting(Wikipedia)
Manual of Judicial Writing: Substance and form are the basic elements of all human
creation.Onewithouttheotherwouldbeuseless.ThepurposeoftheManualistoprovidea
standardizedformforthesubstanceofSupremeCourtdecisionsandresolutions.Theaimis
toprovidetoolsforclaritywhileleavingplentyofroomforindividualstyleandpreference
II.PurposeofLegalCitation
According to former Chief Justice Hilario Davide (2005), words are the lifeblood of judicial
decisionorofanyotherformofwriting.Whentherightwordsareused,theyserveasgems
that give luster to a message or idea. On the other hand, gobbledygook, legal jargon, or
archaiclanguageislikelytotakeawaythevigorofamessage
Alanguagewithoutidiomislikeamanwhocannotsmile
Legal citation is a standard language that allows one writer to refer to legal authorities with
sufficientprecisionandgeneralitythatothercanfollowthereferences
Legalcitationstrivesto:
1.Identifythedocumentanddocumentparttowhichthewriterisreferring,
2.Providethereaderwithsufficientinformationtofindthedocumentordocumentpartinthe
sourcesthereaderhasavailable(whichmayormaynotbethesamesourcesasthoseused
bythewriter),and
3.Furnishimportantadditionalinformationaboutthereferencedmaterialanditsconnection
tothewritersargumenttoassistreadersindecidingwhetherornottopursuethereference
Thetaskoflegalcitationinshortistoprovidesufficientinformationtothereaderofabrief
ormemorandumtoaidadecisionaboutwhichauthoritiestocheckaswellasinwhatorderto
consultthemandtopermitefficientandpreciseretrievalallofthat,withoutconsumingany

more space or creating any more distraction than is absolutely necessary (Adapted from
CornellLibrary2005,withpermission)
III.TypesofCitationPrinciples
1. Full Address Principles: Principles that specify completeness of the address or
identification of a cited document or document portion in terms that will allow the reader to
retrieveit
2. Other Minimum Content Principles: Principles that call for the inclusion of additional
informationitemsbeyondaretrievaladdressthefullnameoftheauthorofajournalarticle,
theyearadecisionwasrenderedorastatutorycodificationlastupdated
3.CompactingPrinciples:Principlesthatreducethespacetakenupbytheinformationitems
included in a citation. These include standard abbreviations (Supreme Court becomes
S.C.)andprinciplesthateliminateredundancy
4.FormatPrinciples:Principlesthatpunctuation,typography,orderofitemswithinacitation,
andthelike.
IV.HowtociteConstitutions
1.ConstitutionalText
CONSTITUTION,Art.VI,Sec.2
CONSTITUTION,(1935),Art.III,Sec.1,par.(3)
*When the Constitution is no longer in force, enclose the year when it took effect in
parentheses
2. Constitutional Proceedings: cite the volume in roman numeral, followed by the word
RECORD/JOURNAL,CONSTITUTIONALCOMMISSION,thepagenumber,andthedateof
deliberationinparentheses
IIRECORD,CONSTITUTIONALCOMMISSION24(June24,1986)
V.HowtociteStatutes,andSimilarMaterial
1. Session Laws: cite the law, followed by the year of effectivity in parentheses, and the
specificarticleorsection
RepublicActNo.4723(1966),Sec.2
2. Codes: cite the name of the particular code and specific article or section (if numbered
continuously or the headings, from general to specific, followed by the article or section (if
notnumberedcontinuously)
CIVILCODE,Art.297
CIVILCODE(1889),Art.67
ADMINISTRATIVECODE,BookIV,Title1,Chapter9,Sec.29
*Whenthecodeisnolongerinforce,enclosetheyearofeffectivityinparenthesesafterthe
nameofthecode
3. Legislative Proceedings: cite the volume in roman numeral, followed by the word
RECORD/JOURNAL, HOUSE/ SENATE, the specific Congress, the session number, the
pagenumber,andthedateofdeliberationinparentheses
IIRECORD,HOUSE6THCONGRESS1STSESSION24(June24,1966)
VI.HowtociteAdministrativeMaterialsandRegulations

1.Treaties:nameofthetreatyoragreement,thedateofsigning,theparties,thesubdivisions
referredto(ifapplicable),andthesource
TreatyofFriendshipwithIndia,July11,1952(1953),II2
2.ExecutiveandAdministrativeIssuances:
A. issuance followed by the year of effectivity in parentheses, and the specific article or
section
ExecutiveOrderNo.329(1972)
B.PresidentialActsunderMartialLaw
GeneralOrderNo.39(1972)
C.OtherExecutiveIssuances
SecretaryofJusticeOpinionNo.271,s.1982
D.CiteRulesandRegulations:abbreviatednameoftheagencytogetherwiththedesignation
employedintherules,serialnumber,yearofpromulgationinparentheses,andthesectionor
paragraph
LaborEmploymentServiceRegulationNo.3(1966)
E. Cite provincial, city, and municipal ordinances: name of the local government unit, serial
numberofordinance,anddateofadoption
ManilaOrdinance6120,January26,1967
VII.HowtociteCourtDecisions
1.DecisionsandResolutions
A.CaseTitle:surnameoftheopposingpartiesfirstmentioned
B.Exceptions
citeIslamicandChinesenamesinfull
LimSianTekv.Ladislao(NotLimv.Ladislao)
citecompoundnamesinfull
Peoplev.DeGuzman(NotPeoplev.Guzman)
cite names of corporations, associations, business firms and partnerships in full. Words
formingpartofsuchnamesmaybeabbreviated,exceptthefirstword
Matav.RitaLegarda,Inc.
citecasesinvolvingtheGovernmentofthePhilippinesandcriminalcasesasfollows:
U.S.v.Jaranilla
Governmentv.Abadinas
Republicv.Carpin
Peoplev.Santos
citecasesinvolvingpublicofficersasfollows
Gonzalesv.Hechanova(NotGonzalesv.ExecutiveSecretary)
citelocalgovernmentunitsbytheirlevel,followedbytheirofficialname
ProvinceofRizalv.RTC
citecasenamesbeginningwithproceduraltermslikeInre.astheyappearinthedecisions.
UseInreinsteadofInthematterof
InreElpidioZ.Magsaysay

inconsolidatedcases,citeonlythefirstcase
InMabuhayTextileMillsCorpv.MinisterOngpin,1thecourtheldthatxxx
___________________
1
225Phil.383(1986)
C.CaseReports
Concepcionv.Paredes,42Phil.599,607(1921)
Peoplev.Suzuki,G.R.No.120670,October23,2003,414SCRA43
*Inmultiplecases,startwiththelatesttotheearliest
2.RulesofCourt
RULESOFCOURT,Rule130,Sec.2,par.(b)
3.ROLLO&OtherCourtRecords
A.Rollo.Capitalizethewordrolloonlyatthebeginningofacitationorasentence
Rollo,p.21
CArollo,pp.109122
Sandiganbayanrollo,p.9
CTArollo,p.10
Iftherearetwoormorevolumes:
Rollo,Vol.3,p.21
Inconsolidatedcases:
Rollo(G.R.No.123456),p.21
Inconsolidatedcases:
B.Records:
Records,pp.210214
MTCrecords,p.123
C.ReferencestoTSN(transcriptofstenographicnotes)
TSN,January30,2003,pp.2122
D.Exhibits:quotationmarks,followedbythesource(e.g,rolloorrecords)
Exhibit.A,.p.21
VIII.HowtociteForeignMaterials
IX.RepeatingCitations
1.Supratoidentifyamaterialpreviouslycitedonthesameorprecedingpage.Itshouldnot
beusedtorefertostatutesorconstitutions
Concepcionv.Paredes,42Phil.599,607(1921)
Concepcionv.Paredes,supra
Concepcionv.Paredes,supraat601
Concepcionv.Paredes,supranote1,at601
2.Idwhencitingtheimmediatelyprecedingfootnotethathasonlyoneauthority
1
Concepcionv.Paredes,42Phil.599,607(1921)
2
Id.
3
Id.at601
3.IntroductorySignals

A.Signalsthatindicatesupport

See

Cited authority directly states


or clearly supports the
proposition
See
Cited authority constitutes
also
additional source material that
supportstheproposition
Cf.
Means
compare
cited
authority
supports
a
proposition different from the
main
proposition
but
sufficiently analogous to lend
support
B.Signalthatsuggestsausefulcomparison
Comparexxx[and]xxxwithxxx[and]xxx
C.Signalsthatindicatecontradiction

But
Cited authority directly states
see
or
clearly
supports
a
propositioncontraytothemain
proposition
Butcf. cited authority supports a
proposition analogous to the
contrary
of
the
main
proposition
But should be omitted from But cf.
wheneveritfollowsButsee

D.Signalthatindicatesbackgroundmaterial

See
Cited authority presents
generally
helpful
background
material related to the
proposition
D. OrderofSignals
Legal Research process of finding laws, rules and regulations that govern activities in
humansociety

aninvestigationforinformationnecessarytosupportlegaldecisionmaking
>helplawyersupholdthestandardsoflegalprofession

Sourcesoflegalresearch:
1. Constitution
2. Statutes
3. Courtdecisions
4. Administrativerules
5. Scholarlycommentaries
SourcesofLaw:
1. PrimarySources
2. SecondaryMaterials
3. FindingTools
PrimarySources
>recordedlawsandrulesenforcedbythestate
>productsoflegislativeactions,codesandstatutes(1stmajorprimarysource)
>alsoincludejudicialdecisions(2ndmajorcategoryofprimarysources)andadministrativelaw
(3rdmajorcategoryofprimarysource)

SecondaryMaterials
>notprimarilyauthoritybutdiscuss/analyzelegaldoctrine
>examples:treatises,commentaries,academiclawjournals/reviews,etc

FindingTools
>methods/meanstohelpfindmaterialefficiently
>meansforlocatingprimarysources
>example:
a.Digestsreprintheadnotessummarizingpointsoflawfromcourtdecisionsina
subjectclassification
b.Annotationssummarizecasesonparticulartopics
c.SCRAquickindexdigest
d.LexLibrisandPhilJuris

FourBasicStepstoLegalResearch:
1. Identifyandanalyzesignificantfacts
2. Formulatethelegalissuestoberesearched
3. Researchtheissuespresented
4. Update
IdentifyandAnalyzethesignificantfacts
>useoftheT.A.R.P.RULE
Thingorsubjectmatter

Action,oracauseofaction/groupofdefense
Reliefsought
Personsorpartiesinvolved
>puttingtheelementsinanexample:
Thingorsubjectmatterapartyclaimsaviolationofthetermsofacontract
Causeofactionbreachofcontract
Reliefsoughtcivilactionfordamages/actionforspecificperformance
Personsorpartiesinvolvedlessorandlessee

Formulatethelegalissuestoberesearched
>goal:classifyandcategorizeproblemsintogeneralandincreasinglyspecific,subjectareas
tobegintohypothesizelegalissues
>initialactivitywhichpresupposesknowledgeofsubstantivelaw
>draftedstatementsoftheissueshouldbearrangedlogicallytoformanoutline

Researchtheissuespresented
>method:
a. organize and plan best practice is to write down all sources to be researched
undereachissuetoberesearched
b. identify, read and update all relevant constitutional provisions, statutes and
administrativeregulations
c.identify,readandupdateallrelevantcaselawi.e.lawsappliedincasefiles
d.refinethesearch

Update
>rationale:lawchangesconstantly

Casebriefingastudentsdigestorcondensationofareportedcase
>componentsofacasebrief:
1. Facts describe events between the parties leading to the litigation and tel how
thecasecamebeforethecourtthatisnowdecidingit
2. Issue/s the question the court must decide to resolve the dispute between the
partiesinthecasebeforeit
3.Rulingthecourtsdecisionontheissuethatisactuallybeforeit

StatutoryLaw
>consistsmainlyofthefollowing(PhilippineStatutoryLaw):
1.1987Constitution
2.TreatiesandInternationalAgreements
3.StatutesenactedbytheLegislature
4.Administrativerulesandregulations

5.OrdinancesenactedbytheAutonomousRegions
6.OrdinancesenactedbyLocalGovernmentUnits

ThePhilippineConstitution
>supremelawoftheland
>ultimate authority to which reference should be made to determine the validity of national
laws,administrativeregulations,localordinancesandexecutiveactions

>HistoryoftheConstitution:
1. Spanishperiod
1.1. 1808 marked the start of Spanish constitutional history (all laws originated from
Spain)
1.2. PhilippineshadrepresentationintheSpanishCortes
1.3. Laws and the constitution can be found in Leyes Constitutionales de Espana,
DerechoParliamentarioEspanol
1.4. ConstitutionalismwasavagueconceptforFilipinosduringtheperiodandthenotion
of the Constitution as a tool to limit governmental authority and establish a rule of
law for the governor and the subject was not comprehended in theory and in
practice
2. TreatyofParis
2.1. Legal starting point of Philippine constitutional development which reached full
maturitywiththeadoptionoftheConstitutionofthePhilippinesandthedeclaration
ofPhilippineIndependenceonJuly4,1946
2.2. OfficialtextofthetreatycanbefoundinOfficialGazette,Vol.1&U.S.Statutesat
Large,Vol.30
3. MalolosConstitutionof1899
3.1. Namedafterthecapitaltownoftherevolutionarygovernment
3.2. PromulgatedbyEmilioAguinaldoonJanuary21,1899
3.3. Was not new in the strict sense since previous charters and codes from the
KatipunanuptotheautonomyprojectsofPedroPaternoallledtothedraftingofthis
constitution
3.4. OrganizedaFilipinoStatecalled:ThePhilippineRepublic
3.5. Sovereigntyexclusivelyresidedinthepeople
3.6. SomeprovisionsareliteralcopiesoftheSpanishConstitution
3.7. Legislaturewasunicameralassemblyofrepresentatives
3.8. Executivepowerwasvestedinthepresident
3.9. JudicialpowerwasvestedintheSupremeCourtofJustice
4. TheAmericanPeriod
4.1. OrganicLawsTheorganiclawofaterritorytakestheplaceofaconstitutionasthe
fundamental law of the local government. It is obligatory and binds the territorial
authorities but congress is supreme, and for the purpose of this department, its

governmentalauthorityhasallthepowersofthepeopleoftheUnitedStates,except
such as been expressly or by implication reserved in the prohibitions of the
constitution.
4.1.1. PresidentMcKinleysInstructionsofApril7,1900Thelegislativepowerwas
vestedinaunicameralbody.Legislativepowerconferredbytheseinstructions
also included: organization and establishment of municipal and departmental
governments.
4.1.2. The Spooner Amendment of March 2, 1901 This put an end to the military
governmentoveragreatportionofthearchipelagoandenabledthepresident
to establish a true civil government. The office of the Civil Governor now
exercised the powers of the executive branch, which formerly resided in the
militarygovernor.
4.1.3. The Philippine Bill of 1902 act made to temporarily provide for the
administrationofacivilgovernmentinthePhilippineIslands.Itdidnotestablish
a new form of government but only accepted the existing one. This bill called
for the creation of a Philippine Assembly (convened on October 16, 1907),
which together with the Philippine Commission formed the legislative body of
thecountry.Until1907,legislaturewaspurelyunicameral.
4.1.4. ThePhilippineAutonomyActof1916waspopularlyknownastheJonesLaw
andgrantedgenerallegislativepowerexceptasotherwiseprovidedthereinto
the Philippine Legislature. This act more nearly resembles the constitution as
compared to the other organic laws. The Philippine Legislature was
inaugurated on October 16, 1916 with Manuel Quezon as Senate President
andSergioOsmenaasSpeakeroftheHouse.
4.2. TheCommonwealthPeriod
4.2.1. The TydingsMcDuffie Law of 1934 provided for the relinquishment of
American sovereignty over the Philippine Islands upon the expiration of a 10
year transition period during which the Philippines would be under an all
FilipinoCommonwealthgovernment.
4.2.2. The 1935 Constitution The Philippine Legislature enacted a law on May 5,
1934callingforaconstitutionalconventionwhichborethe1935constitution.By
thenewconstitution,thePhilippineLegislaturewassupersededbytheNational
Assembly (unicameral), and provided for a republican form of government
whichfollowedthedoctrineofseparationofpowers.Itismadeupof17articles
namely:NationalTerritory,DeclarationofPrinciples,BillofRights,Citizenship,
Suffrage, Legislative Department, Executive Department, Judicial Department,
Impeachment, General Auditing Office, Civil Service, Conservation and
Utilization of Natural Resources, General Provisions, Amendments, Transitory
Provisions, Special Provisions effective upon the proclamation of Philippine
Independence, and The Commonwealth Republic. There were 3 amendments
tothesaidconstitution:in1940,1.theNationalAssemblywasabolishedand

5.

6.

replacedbytheCongressofthePhilippines(bicameral),2.thetermofofficeof
the president and vice president were reduced from 6 to 4 years, 3. an
independent Commission on Elections was created. In 1947, the constitution
was once again amended which gave rise to parity rights, which allowed
citizens and business enterprises of the US exploitation, development and
utilizationofnaturalresourcesandoperationofpublicutilitiesinthecountry.
TheJapanesePeriod(1943Constitution)
5.1. OnJanuary2,1942,ImperialJapaneseforcesinvadedandoccupiedManila
5.2. 1943ConstitutionwasdraftedduringtheoccupationasheadedbyJoseP.Laurel
5.3. Broad centralized powers were vested in the president including full coercive
powersofthestateforitspreservation
5.4. Providesforaunicamerallegislature(NationalAssembly)headedbythespeaker
PeriodafterPhilippineIndependenceof1946
6.1. MartialLawDeclarationOnSeptember21,1972,PD1081wasissuedplacingthe
Philippinesundermartiallaw.OnNovember29,1972,theconstitutionalconvention
(convened in 1971) approved its proposed constitution of the Philippines. The day
after,thepresidentissuedPD73,submittingtheconstitutiontotheFilipinopeoplein
aplebiscitetoratifyorrejectit.Questionsaboutitsratificationweredismissedbythe
supremecourtbyvirtueofitbeingapoliticalquestion.
6.2. The1973Constitutionprovidesforaparliamentarysystemofgovernment.Under
the constitution, there will be a president who shall serve as the head of state, a
national assembly of legislators elected by the people, a prime minister elected by
the national assembly from among its members and would be heading the
government.Thesaidconstitutionhasapreambleand17articlesnamely:National
Territory, Declaration of State Principles and State Policies, Citizenship, Bill of
Rights, Duties and Obligations of Citizens, Suffrage, The president, The National
Assembly, The Prime Minister and the Cabinet, The Judiciary, Local Government,
The Constitution Commissions, Accountability of Public Officers, The National
Economy and the Patrimony of the Nation, General Provisions, Amendments, and
TransitoryProvisions.
6.3. Amendments to the 1973 Constitution Under PD 1033, the people of the
Philippines ratified in a referendumplebiscite 7 amendments to the 1973
constitution.Amongofwhichwasthegrantingoflegislativepowerstothepresident,
the creation of an interim batasang pambansa, and the making the incumbent
presidenttheregularpresidentandprimeminister.Peopleclamoredforanelection
especially since Marcos had been president for 15 years already. In the plebiscite
held on April 7, 1981, a modified form of parliamentary government was approved
aswellastheinstitutionofelectoralreformsandpermissiontonaturalborncitizens
who have lost their citizenship to be transferees of private land for use as private
residence. The amendments to the constitution paved the way for the presidential
electionofJune16,1981whichtheoppositionboycotted.Marcoswasthenputup

againstGen.AlejoSantos,fromwhichhewoneasily.OnJanuary17,1982,martial
lawwasliftedandthefourthPhilippineRepublicwasinauguratedonthe30thofthe
samemonth.OnAugust21,1983,BenignoAquinowasshottodeathattheManila
InternationalAirport.OnJanuary27,1984,anotherplebiscitewasheldratifyingthe
followingamendmentstotheconstitution:1.ApportioningmembersoftheBatasang
Pambansa among the provinces, cities, and Metropolitan Manila or its districts, 2.
ProvidingforanordinancetobeappendedtotheConstitutionsuchasappointment,
3.Establishingadifferentmodeofpresidentialsuccessionbycreatingtheofficeof
thevicepresidentandabolishingtheexecutivecommittee,4.Allowingthegrnatof
landsofthepublicdomaintoqualifiedcitizens,5.Providingthatatleastamajorityof
themembersofthecabinetwhoareheadsofministriesshallcomefromtheelected
representativesoftheBatasangPambansa,and6.Providingforurbanlandreform
andsocialhousingprogram.
6.4. TheProvisionalconstitutionof1986InNovember1985,Marcoscalledforspecial
snap presidential elections. On February 15, 1986, the Batasang Pambansa
declared Ferdinand Marcos winner over Corazon Aquino. On February 22, 1986,
JuanPonceEnrileandFidelRamos,ministerofnationaldefenseandvicechiefof
staff respectively, holed themselves in the DND headquarters in protest of the
election results. They were later joined by unarmed civilians in what history now
knowsasthepeoplepowerrevolution.OnFebruary25,1986,CorazonAquinowas
proclaimed president of the Philippines. The freedom constitution adopted in toto
the previous constitutions articles regarding: National Territory, Citizenship, Bill of
Rights,DutiesandObligationsofCitizens,andSuffrage.Theotherprovisionswere
superseded.
6.5. The1987ConstitutionaconstitutionalcommissionwascalledbyPresidentAquino
to draft a new constitution on April 23, 1986. Under the new constitution, the
Philippines is now declared to be a republican and democratic state. The 1987
constitution also houses provisions which adopt a policy against nuclear weapons,
human rights, a bicameral legislature, separation of powers, and a redefined and
empowered judiciary. The ratification of the new constitution paved the way for
holdingtheelectionsforsenatorsandcongressmenonMay11,1987.

TreatiesandInternationalAgreements
>hassameforceandauthorityaslegislativeenactments
>treatyacompactmadebetweentwoormoreindependentnationswithaviewtothepublic
welfare
>officialtextoftreatiesenteredintothePhilippinesandforeignnationsarepublishedintothe
OfficialGazette.

StatutesEnactedbytheLegislature

1.

2.

Legislation in General formal enactment of laws by competent authority and in the


proper manner. As a source of laws, legislation carries with it certain advantages
amongwhichisthatitmakesthelawclear,definiteandformal.Atthesametime,laws
canberepealedefficiently.Modernformsoflegislationincludecodification,whichisthe
systematic and logical compilation of all the statutes on a certain subject of law.
Philippine legislature rests on the Congress, which is composed of the House of
RepresentativesandTheSenate.
1.1. ConstitutionalProvisionssectionsoftheconstitutionwhicharetreatedasgeneral
guidelinesforlaw
1.2. TypesofLegislationfrequently,statutelawisequatedtolegislation.Legislation,in
thebroadersensehowever,encompassesstatutelaws.
1.3. Forms of Statutes as prescribed by the constitution, every bill passed by the
congressshallembraceonesubjectwhichshallbeexpressedinthetitlethereof.
1.4. TheEnactmentofStatuteseverybillshallpass3readingsondifferentdaysand
shallbesubmittedtothepresidentforhisapproval.
1.5. TheConstructionofStatutessimplestapproachtointerpretingstatutesistotake
its plain meaning provided that the formulation is clear, plain and unambiguous.
Constructionofastatuteistheprocesswhereinwefindthetrueintentoftheauthor
ofthelawuponmakingit(legislativesense).Iflegislativehistoryofthestatuteisnot
available,itslegislativepurposeisthenlookedupontofinditstruemeaning.
HistoryofPhilippineLegislation
2.1. PreSpanishPeriodduringthesetimes,wheneverthechieftainwantsalawtobe
enacted,hecallsontheeldersofthecommunity.Whentheyapproveofhisplanof
action,itbecomeslaw.Onceapproved,anannouncerorumalahokangoesaround
thevillagetospreadthenews.
2.2. Spanish Period Spanish legislation regarded the indigent population as legal
minors.Thenativesweretreatedasaseparatecommonwealth,larepublicadelos
indios.Twosetsofrulesgovernduringtheperiod.Thefirstisasetofrulesintended
forSpanishcitizens,thesecondisabodyoflawsspecificallyenactedinSpainto
speciallygovernthecolonies.
2.2.1. Spanish Laws made applicable to the Philippines to understand the legal
systemintroducedbytheSpaniards,wemustunderstandthesystemoflawsin
Spain
2.2.1.1. The System of Laws in Spain and its Antecedents The first people in
Spain were called Celtiberians (mixture of the Iberians and the Celts).
BeforeitsruleundertheRomanEmpire,Spainwasundertheruleofthe
Carthaginians.WhenRomedefeatedCarthage,Spainbecameoneofthe
most important Roman colonies. By the time the Huns were ransacking
parts of Northern Europe, the Visigoths (west Goths) was able to
overwhelmRomanarmiesandeventuallysackRomeandSpain.Thusin
416A.D.,SpainbecameaVisigothickingdom.

2.2.1.1.1. ThecodeofEuricandtheBrevariumofAlaricTheVisigothswrote
downtheircustomarylawsandcalledittheCodexEurici.TheCode
was primarily intended to govern the conquerors and not the
conquered. Eurics son, Alaric II then formed a body of visigothic
scholars to form a body of laws for the conquered citizens. The
codedprovisionsbecameknownastheBrevariumofAlaric.
2.2.1.1.2. Fuero Juzgo about 650 A.D., the law governing the two classes
werecompiledunderonecodexwhichwasknownasfuerojuzgo.In
711A.D.,thevisigothickingRodericfelltotheMoorsunderTarik.In
718A.D.,SpainbeganrecapturingthecountryfromtheMoorspiece
by piece until the kingdom of Castille arose on 900 AD, and
eventuallyon1230,CastilleandLeonmergedintotheKingdom.
2.2.1.1.3. FueroRealTheFueroRealcomprisedoffourbooks,dividedinto
72 titles, which housed 555 laws. This was the work of Alfonso X,
king of Castille. The fuero real treated public law from secular and
spiritualpointsofview.ThispresupposestheroleoftheChurchin
theprocesstonationalunification.
2.2.1.1.4. LasSietePartidasthesietepartidaswasdividedinto7parts,had
182 titles, and was comprised by 2,479 laws. The seven parts
(partidas)weredividedasfollows:1.Naturallaw,lawsofcustoms,
the Catholic faith, religious doctrines and canonical laws 2. Public
law 3. Justice, judicial organization and rules of possession and
servitudes 4. Family relations, relations between lord and vassal,
friendship 5. Obligations and contracts 6. Testaments, councils,
heirs, successions, executors, intestates and partitions, minors,
orphans 7. Penal legislation. On October 1469, Ferdinand of
Aragon and Isabella of Castille were married and further unified
Spain. In 1482, Granada, the last province to be reclaimed, was
takenbackfromBoabdiloftheMoors.
2.2.1.1.5. Leyes de Toro This was a systematic codification of all the laws
enforced.Thecompilationhadfullbindingauthorityandremainedin
forceuntilthemoderncodes.
2.2.1.1.6. NuevaRecopilacionunderthemandateofhismajesty,PhilipII,a
reform in laws was sanctioned. The new codification was called
NuevaRecopilaciondelasLeyesdeEspana.
2.2.1.1.7. Novisima Recopilacion under Charles IV, another revision of the
laws was needed. The new codification was known under the tiltle
NovisimaRecopilaciondelasLeyesdeEspana.
2.2.1.2. ModernSpanishCodes
2.2.1.2.1. CodigodeComercioof1885
2.2.1.2.2. CodigoPenalof1870

2.2.1.2.3. ThecodesofCivilandCriminalProcedure
2.2.1.2.4. CodigoCivilof1889
2.2.2. Lawsspeciallyenactedforthecolonies
2.2.2.1. LegislationforthecoloniesenactedinSpainandwastransmittedinthe
form of royal cedulas, ordenamientos pragmaticas, reglamentos,
resoluciones,autosacordados,decretos,provisiones,andcartaabierta.
2.2.2.2. First collection of laws relating to the colonies the earliest that was
printedwastheordenanzas(fortheMexicancolony).
2.2.2.3. Compilation of laws initiated by the Council under Philip II, Juan de
Ovando was sanctioned for the task, which was the beginning of the
RecopilacionoftheIndies
2.2.2.4. TheCodigoOvandinonamedafterJuandeOvandotohonorhisworkin
compilingthelawsfortheIndies.
2.2.2.5. GeneralcompilationbyAguilaryAcunaandPineloworkoncompilation
wascontinuedbyRodrigodeAguilaryAcunaandAntoniodeLeonPinelo
whenAguilardied.
2.2.2.6. RecopilaciondeLeyesdelosReynosdeIndiascomposedof9books,
218 titles, and 6,377 laws. This was practically a digest of the royal
enactments for the political, military, and fiscal administration of the
colonies.
2.2.2.7. Compilations subsequent to the Recopilacion even after the
Recopilacion was printed, partial collections continued to be published
fromtimetotime.
2.2.3. Evaluation of the Laws in the Philippines during the Spanish period In the
Philippines, there is a great mass of unwritten, or at least unprinted law,
emanating from different and independent sources, often contradictory,
introduced traditionally, quoted erroneously a farrago, in which the Leyes de
Indias, Siete Partidas, Novisima Recopilacion, the Roman code, the ancient
andtheRoyalFuerostosaynothingofproclamation,decrees,notifications,
orders,bandosproduceallthetoilandtroubleofthewitchescauldron,stirred
by the evil genii of discord and disputation. (John Browning, A Visit to the
PhilippineIslands,1859)
2.2.4. Legislation in the Philippines during Spanish period power was shared by 3
entitites: 1. GovernorGeneral (chief legislator) 2. Royal Audiencia (Spanish
Supreme Court of the country) 3. The Crown of Spain acting through its
councils.TherewasnoFilipinorepresentation.
2.3. Period of the Philippine Revolution Emilio Aguinaldo inaugurated the Malolos
CongressonSeptember15,1898.Itwasaunicameralbodyandwasmostfamous
fortheMalolosconstitution.
2.4. American period American occupation started with a military government by the
US army which also discharged legislative functions. In 1907, the Philippine

3.
4.

CommissioncomprisedthePhilippineLegislature.Thiswasthensupersededbythe
formationofabicamerallegislatureconsistingofthePhilippineCommissionandthe
PhilippineAssembly.In1916,thePhilippineAutonomyactgaverisetotheHouseof
Representatives and the Philippine Senate. In 1935, it was again reverted into a
unicameralbody,onlytobechangedbackon1940.
2.5. Commonwealth Period this period witnessed the enactment of 733 statutes.
Legislature in this period was first unicameral (1935) then changed back to
bicameral(1940).
2.6. JapanesePeriodthe1943constitutionprovidedforaunicameralbodyknownas
theNationalAssembly
2.7. Period after independence a total of 6,635 Republic Acts were legislated by the
bicameralcongressfromJuly4,1946untilSeptember21,1972.
2.8. MartialLawperiodatotalof2,036PresidentialDecreeswerepromulgated
2.9. AquinosRevolutionaryGovernmentAquinodumpedthe73constitution,installed
a revolutionary government and promulgated the freedom constitution by which
shestoodaslegislatorbygivingoutExecutiveOrders
2.10. Periodunderthe1987constitutionitrestoredabicameralcongresswhichisstillin
effectuptopresent
Publications of Philippine Statutes, In general contained primarily in the Official
Gazette,whichalsoservesasprimafacieevidenceofitsauthenticity.
Summary of Philippine Legislation (complete chart and list: Legal research, Rodriguez,
pp.139141)

AdministrativeRulesandRegulations
>madeeffectivebyissuanceofexecutiveorders
>maybegroupedtogetheraccordingtotheirfunctionsandpowers
1. Agencieswithimpliedquasilegislativepowerse.g.DSWD,BureauofForestry,etc.
2. Agencieswithexpressquasilegislativepowerse.g.GSIS,SSS,DOLE,etc.
3. Publications on Administrative Rules and Regulations usually published in the official
gazette.Publicationsbytheparticularadministrativeagenciesareasfollows:
3.1. CivilServiceCommission
3.1.1. Book V of the Revised Administrative Code of 1987 on the Civil Service
Commission
3.1.2. Omnibus Rules Implementing Book V of Exec. Order 292 and other pertinent
CivilServiceLaws
3.1.3. UniformRulesonAdministrativeCasesintheCivilService
3.1.4. Rules implementing the Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public
OfficialsandEmployees(RA6713)
3.1.5. RevisedOmnibusRulesonAppointmentsandOtherPersonnelActions
3.1.6. OmnibusRulesonLeave
3.1.7. PersonnelOfficersManual

3.1.8. RevisedPoliciesonPerformanceEvaluationSystem
3.1.9. AgencyPerformanceEvaluationSystem(AModel)
3.1.10. MemorandumCirculars19922000
3.1.11. QualificationStandardsManual
3.1.12. CSCMemoCircularsIndex(19881998)
3.1.13. ManualonDefinitionsofAdministrativeOffencesintheCivilService
3.2. SecuritiesandExchangeCommission
3.2.1. SECPolio,19461976
3.2.2. SECBulletin
3.2.3. SECWeeklyBulletin
3.3. CentralBank
3.3.1. FinancialJournal
3.3.2. CentralBankAnnualReportsandCompilations
3.4. DOLE
3.4.1. RulesandRegulationsimplementingtheLaborCode
3.5. DepartmentofAgrarianReform
3.5.1. ComprehensiveAgrarianReformProgramandPresidentialIssuances
3.6. DOJ
3.6.1. DepartmentofJustice,RevisedCirculars,1963
3.7. DangerousDrugsBoard
3.7.1. DangerousDrugsBoardRegulations(1988)
3.8. BoardofInvestments
3.8.1. OmnibusInvestmentsCodeandImplementingRegulations(1989)
3.9. OfficeoftheInsuranceCommission
3.9.1. InsuranceReporter

OrdinancesEnactedbytheAutonomousRegion
>ordinancesenactedbyCARandARMMintendedtotakeeffectinthesaidregions

OrdinancesEnactedbyLocalGovernmentUnits
>ordinances passed by provinces, cities municipalities and baranggays which are mostly
concerninglocalinterests
>powersarestillsubjectedtothelimitslaiddownbytheconstitutionandotherpertinentlaws

ComputerizedLegalResearchServices
>LexLibris(CDAsiaInc.)
>Philjur(GigabytesResearchSystemsIncorporated)