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MechanicalEngineering.
Autores: Komerath,NarayananM.,PhD
Fuente: SalemPressEncyclopediaofScience,January,2015.7p.
Tipode Article
documento:
Descriptores: MECHANICALengineering
Resumen: Mechanicalengineeringisthefielddealingwiththedevelopmentanddetaileddesignof
systemstoperformdesiredtasks.Developedfromthedisciplineofdesigningtheengines,
powergenerators,tools,andmechanismsneededformassmanufacturing,ithasgrowninto
thebroadestfieldofengineering,encompassingortouchingmostofthedisciplinesof
scienceandengineering.Mechanicalengineerstakethelawsofnatureandapplythemusing
rigorousmathematicalprinciplestodesignmechanisms.Theprocessofdesignimplies
innovation,implementation,andoptimizationtodevelopthemostsuitablesolutiontothe
specifiedproblem,givenitsconstraintsandrequirements.Thefieldalsoincludesstudiesof
thevariousfactorsaffectingthedesignanduseofthemechanismsbeingconsidered.
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MechanicalEngineering

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Lastreviewed:March2015
Summary
Mechanical engineering is the field of technology that deals with engines, machines, tools, and other
mechanicaldevicesandsystems.Thisbroadfieldofinnovation,design,andproductiondealswithmachines
thatgenerateandusepower,suchaselectricgenerators,motors,internalcombustionengines,andturbines
forpowerplants,aswellasheating,ventilation,airconditioning,andrefrigerationsystems.Inmanyuniversities,
mechanicalengineeringisintegratedwithnuclear,materials,aerospace,andbiomedicalengineering.Thetools
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used by scientists, engineers, and technicians in other disciplines are usually designed by mechanical
engineers. Robotics, microelectromechanical systems, and the development of nanotechnology and
bioengineeringtechnologyconstituteamajorpartofmodernresearchinmechanicalengineering.
DefinitionandBasicPrinciples
Mechanical engineering is the field dealing with the development and detailed design of systems to perform
desired tasks. Developed from the discipline of designing the engines, power generators, tools, and
mechanisms needed for mass manufacturing, it has grown into the broadest field of engineering,
encompassingortouchingmostofthedisciplinesofscienceandengineering.Mechanicalengineerstakethe
lawsofnatureandapplythemusingrigorousmathematicalprinciplestodesignmechanisms.Theprocessof
design implies innovation, implementation, and optimization to develop the most suitable solution to the
specifiedproblem,givenitsconstraintsandrequirements.Thefieldalsoincludesstudiesofthevariousfactors
affectingthedesignanduseofthemechanismsbeingconsidered.
At the root of mechanical engineering are the laws of physics and
thermodynamics. Sir Isaac Newton's laws of motion and gravitation, the
three laws of thermodynamics, and the laws of electromagnetism are
fundamentaltomuchofmechanicaldesign.
Starting with the Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century and going
through the 1970s, mechanical engineering was generally focused on
designing large machines and systems and automating production lines.
Everstrongermaterialsandlargerstructuresweresought.Inthe1990sand
Mechanicalengineersdesign first part of the twentyfirst century, mechanical engineering saw rapid
andbuildengines.ByFlorian
expansionintotheworldofeversmallermachines,firstinthefieldofmicro
Lindner(User:SuperFloh)
and then nano materials, probes and machines, down to manipulating
(Ownwork)[GFDL
individual atoms. In this regime, shortrange forces assume a completely
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)
different relationship to mass. This led to a new science integrating
orCCBY2.5
electromagnetics and quantum physics with the laws of motion and
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)],
thermodynamics.Mechanicalengineeringalsoexpandedtoincludethefield
viaWikimediaCommons
of system design, developing tools to reduce the uncertainties in designing
increasingly more complex systems composed of larger numbers of
interactingelements.
BackgroundandHistory
The engineering of tools and machines has been associated with systematic processes since humans first
learnedtoselectsticksorstonestoswingandthrow.Theassociationswithmathematics,scientificprediction,
andoptimizationareclearfromthemanycontraptionsthathumansdevelopedtohelpthemgetworkdone.In
the third century BCE, for example, the mathematician Archimedes of Syracuse was associated with the
construction of catapults to hurl projectiles at invading armies, who must themselves have had some
engineeringskills,astheyeventuallyinvadedhiscityandmurderedhim.Toolsandweaponsdesignedinthe
Middle Ages, from Asia to Europe and Africa, show amazing sophistication. In the thirteenth century,
Mesopotamian engineer AlJazari invented the camshaft and the camslider mechanism and used them in
water clocks and waterraising machines. In Italy, Leonardo da Vinci designed many devices, from portable
bridgestowaterpoweredengines.

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The invention of the steam engine at the start of the Industrial Revolution is credited with the scientific
development of the field that is now called mechanical engineering. In 1847, the Institution of Mechanical
Engineers was founded in Birmingham, England. In North America, the American Society of Civil Engineers
wasfoundedin1852,followedbytheAmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineersin1880.Mostdevelopments
came through hard trial and error. However, the parallel efforts to develop retrospective and introspective
summariesofthesetrialsresultedinagrowingbodyofscientificknowledgetoguidefurtherdevelopment.
Nevertheless,untilthelatenineteenthcentury,engineeringwasconsideredtobeasecondrateprofessionand
was segregated from the pure sciences. Innovations were published through societies such as England's
RoyalSociety only if the author was introduced and accepted by its prominent members, who were usually
fromrichlandednobility.Publicationscamefromdeepintellectualthinkingbyamateurswhosupposedlydidit
forthepleasureandamusementactualhandsonworkanddetailswerelefttopaidprofessionals,whowere
deemed to be of a lower class. Even in America, engineering schools were called trade schools and were
separatefromtheuniversitiesthatcateredtothosedesiringliberalartseducationsfocusedontheclassicsand
languagesfromtheEurocentricpointofview.
Rigorous logical thinking based on the experience of handson applications, which characterizes mechanical
engineering, started gaining currency with the rise of a culture that elevated the dignity of labor in North
America. It gained a major boost with the urgency brought about by several wars. From the time of the
American Civil War to World War I, weapons such as firearms, tanks, and armored ships saw significant
advancements and were joined by airplanes and motorized vehicles that functioned as ambulances. During
these conflicts, the individual heroism that had marked earlier wars was eclipsed by the technological
superiorityandscientificorganizationdeliveredbymechanicalengineers.
Concomitantly, principles of mass production were applied intensively and generated immense wealth in
Europe and the United States. Great universities were established by people who rose from the working
classesandmademoneythroughtechnologicalenterprises.TheGreatDepressioncollapsedtheestablished
manufacturingentitiesandforcedasharpriseininnovationasameansofsurvival.Newengineeringproducts
developed rapidly, showing the value of mechanical engineering. World War II and the subsequent Cold War
integratedscienceandengineeringinseparably.Thespaceraceofthe1960sthroughthe1980sbroughtlarge
government investments in both military and civilian aerospace engineering projects. These spun off
commercial revolutions in computers, computer networks, materials science, and robotics. Engineering
disciplines and knowledge exploded worldwide, and there is little superficial difference between engineering
curriculainmostcountriesoftheworld.
The advent of the Internet accelerated and completed this leveling of the knowledge field, setting up sharper
impetusforinnovationbasedonscienceandengineering.Competitioninmanufacturingadvancedthefieldof
robotics, so that cars made by robots in automated plants achieve superior quality more consistently than
thosebuiltbyskilledmastercraftsmen.Manufacturingbasedonroboticscanrespondmorequicklytochanging
specificationsanddemandthanhumanworkerscan.
Beginning in the 1990s, micro machines began to take on growing significance. Integrated
microelectromechanicalsystemsweredevelopedusingthetechniquesusedincomputerproduction.Oneby
one, technology products once considered highly glamorous and hard to obtainfrom calculators to
smartphoneshave been turned into massproduced commodities available to most at an affordable cost.
Other productsfrom personal computers and cameras to cars, rifles, music and television systems, and
evenjetairlinersarealsoheadingforcommoditizationasaresultoftheintegrationofmechanicalengineering
withcomputers,robotics,andmicroelectromechanics.
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HowItWorks
The most common idea of a mechanicalengineer is one who designs machines that serve new and useful
functionsinaninnovativemanner.Oftenthesemachinesappeartobeincrediblycomplexinsideorextremely
simpleoutside.Theprocessofaccomplishingthesemiraculousdesignsissystematic,andgoodmechanical
engineersmakeitlookeasy.
SystemDesign.Atthetoplevel,systemdesignstartswitharigorousanalysisoftheneedstobesatisfied,the
marketforaproductthatsatisfiesthoseneeds,thetimeavailabletodothedesignandmanufacturing,andthe
resourcesthatmustbedevoted.Thisstepalsoincludesanindepthstudyofwhathasbeendonebefore.This
leads to requirements definition, where the actual requirements of the design are carefully specified.
Experienceddesignersbelievethatthisstepalreadydeterminesmorethan80percentoftheeventualcostof
theproduct.
Nextcomesaninitialestimateoftheeventualsystemcharacteristics,performedusingsimple,commonsense
logic, applying the laws of nature and observations of human behavior. This step uses results from
benchmarkingwhathasbeenachievedbeforeandextrapolatingsometechnologiestothetimewhentheymust
be used in the manufacturing of the design. Once these rudimentary concept parameters and their
relationshipsareestablished,variousanalysesofmoredetailedimplicationsbecomepossible.Aperformance
estimationthenidentifiesbasiclimitsanddetermineswhetherthedesigncloses,meetingalltheneedsand
constraintsspecifiedatthebeginning.Iterationsonthisprocessdevelopthebestdesign.Innovationsmaybe
totallyradical,whichisrelativelyrare,orincrementalinindividualstepsoraspectsofthedesignbasedonnew
information,oronlinkingdevelopmentsindifferentfields.Ineithercase,extensiveanalysisisrequiredbeforean
innovationisbuiltintoadesign.Thedesignisthenanalyzedforeaseandcostofmanufacture.Thetooling,or
specificsetupsandmachinesrequiredformassmanufacture,areconsidered.
Acostevaluationincludesthecostsofmaintenancethroughthelifecycleoftheproduct.Theentireprocessis
theniteratedontominimizethiscost.Thedesignisthenpassedontobuildprototypes,therebygainingmore
experienceonthemanufacturingtechniquesneeded.Theprototypesaretestedextensivelytoseeiftheymeet
theperformancerequiredandpredictedbythedesign.
When these improvements are completed and the manufacturing line is set up, the product goes into mass
manufacture.Theengineersmuststayengagedintheactualperformanceoftheproductthroughitsdeliveryto
theenduser,thecustomer,andinlearningfromthecustomer'sexperienceinordertodesignimprovementsto
theproductasquicklyaspossible.Inmodernconcurrentengineeringpractice,designersattempttoachieveas
muchaspossibleofthemanufacturingprocessdesignandeconomicoptimizationduringtheactualproduct
design cycle in order to shorten the time to reach market and the cost of the design cycle. The successful
implementation of these processes requires both technical knowledge and experience on the part of the
mechanical engineers. These come from individual rigorous fields of knowledge, some of which are listed
below.
Engineering Mechanics. The field of engineering mechanics integrates knowledge of statics, dynamics,
elasticity, and strength of materials. These fields rigorously link mathematics, the laws of motion and
gravitation,andmaterialpropertyrelationshipstoderivegeneralrelationsandanalysismethods.Fundamental
toallofengineering,thesesubfieldsaretypicallycoveredatthebeginningofanycourseofstudy.
Instatics,theconceptofequilibriumfromNewton'sfirstlawofmotionisusedtodevelopfreebodydiagrams
showing various forces and reactions. These establish the conditions necessary for a structure to remain
stableanddescriberelationsbetweentheloadsinvariouselements.
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Indynamics,Newton'ssecondlawofmotionisusedtoobtainrelationsforthevelocityandaccelerationvectors
for isolated bodies and systems of bodies and to develop the notions of angular momentum and moment of
inertia.
Strength of materials is a general subject that derives relationships between material properties and loads
using the concepts of elasticity and plasticity and the deflections of bodies under various types of loading.
Theseanalyseshelptheengineerpredicttheyieldstrengthandthebreakingstrengthofvariousstructuresif
the material properties are known. Metals were the preferred choice of material for engineering for many
decades,andmethodstoanalyzestructuresmadeofthemwerehighlyrefined,exploitingtheisotropyofmetal
properties.Modernmechanicalengineeringrequiresmaterialsthepropertiesofwhicharemuchlessuniformor
exoticinotherways.
Graphics and Kinematics. Engineers and architects use graphics to communicate their designs precisely
andunambiguously.Initially,learningtodrawonpaperwasamajorpartoflearningengineeringskills.However,
students now learn the principles of graphics using computeraided design (CAD) software and computer
graphics concepts. The drawing files can also be transferred quickly into machines that fabricate a part in
computeraided manufacturing (CAM). Rapid prototyping methods such as stereo lithography construct an
objectfromdigitaldatageneratedbycomputergraphics.
Theotheruseofgraphicsistovisualizeandperfectamechanism.Kinematicsdevelopsasystematicmethod
tocalculatethemotionsofelements,includingtheirdependenceonthemotionofotherelements.Thisfieldis
crucialtodeveloping,forinstance,gears,cams,pistons,levers,manipulatorarms,androbots.Machinesthat
achieveverycomplexmotionsaredesignedusingthefieldofkinematics.
RoboticsandControl.Thestudyofroboticsstartswiththecomplexequationsthatdescribehowthedifferent
parts satisfy the equations of motion with multiple degrees of freedom. Methods of solving large sets of
algebraic equations quickly are critical in robotics. Robots are distinguished from mere manipulator arms by
their ability to make decisions based on the input, rather than depend on a telepresence operator for
commands.Forinstance,telepresenceisadequatetooperateamachineonthesurfaceoftheMoon,whichis
only a few seconds of roundtrip signal travel time from Earth using electromagnetic signals. However, the
roundtriptimeforasignaltoMarsisseveralminutes,soaroveroperatingtherecannotwaitforcommands
from Earth regarding how to negotiate around an obstacle. A fully robotic rover is needed that can make
decisionsbasedonwhatitssensorstellit,justasahumanpresentonthescenemightdo.
Entire manufacturing plants are operated using robotics and telepresence supervision. Complex maneuvers
such as the rendezvous between two spacecraft, one of which may be spinning out of control, have been
achievedinorbitsinspace,wherethedynamicsaredifficultforahumantovisualize.Flightcontrolsystemsfor
aircraft have been implemented using robotics, including algorithms to land the aircraft safely and more
precisely than human pilots can. These systems are developed using mathematical methods for solving
differentialequationsrapidly,alongwithsoftwaretoadjustparametersbasedonfeedback.
Materials.Thescienceofmaterialshasadvancedrapidlysincethelatetwentiethcentury.Woodwasoncea
material of choice for many engineering products, including bridges, aircraft wings, propellers, and train
carriages.Thefibrousnatureofwoodrequiredconsiderableexpertisefromthosechoosinghowtocutandlay
sections of wood being a natural product, its properties varied considerably from one specimen to another.
Metals became much more convenient to use in design and fabrication because energy to melt and shape
metals cheaply became available. Various alloys were developed to tailor machinery for strength, flexibility,
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elasticity,corrosionresistance,andotherdesirablecharacteristics.Detailedtablesofpropertiesforthesealloys
wereincludedinmechanicalengineeringhandbooks.
Materialsusedtomanufacturemassproduceditemshavemigratedtomoldedplasticsmadeofhydrocarbons
derived from petroleum. The molds are shaped using such techniques as rapid prototyping and computer
generated data files from design software. Composite materials are tailored with fiber bundles arrayed along
directionswherehightensilestrengthisneededandmuchlessstrengthalongdirectionswherehighloadsare
notlikely,thusachievinglargesavingsinmassandweight.
FluidMechanics.Thescienceoffluidmechanicsisimportanttoanymachineorsystemthateithercontains
or must move through water, air, or other gases or liquids (fluids). Fluid mechanics employs the laws of
physicstoderiveconservationequationsforspecificpacketsoffluid(theLagrangianapproach)orfortheflow
through specified control volumes (Eulerian approach). These equations describe the physical laws of
conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, relating forces and work to changes in flow properties. The
properties of specific fluids are related through the thermal and caloric equations expressing their
thermodynamic states. The speed of propagation of small disturbances, known as the speed of sound, is
related to the dependence of pressure on density and hence on temperature. Various nondimensional
groupingsofflowandfluidpropertiessuchastheReynoldsnumber,Machnumber,andFroudenumberare
used to classify flow behavior. Increasingly, for many problems involving fluid flow through or around solid
objects,calculationsstartingfromtheconservationequationsareabletopredicttheloadsandflowbehavior
reliablyusingthemethodsofcomputationalfluiddynamics(CFD).However,thedetailedpredictionofturbulent
flowsremainsbeyondreachandisapproximatedthroughvariousturbulencemodels.Fluidmechanicdragand
the movements due to flowinduced pressure remain very difficult to calculate to the accuracy needed to
improvevehicledesigns.
Methods for measuring the properties of fluids and flows in their different states are important tools for
mechanical engineers. Typically, measurements and experimental data are used at the design stage, well
beforethecomputationalpredictionsbecomereliableforrefinedversionsoftheproduct.
Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics is the science behind converting heat to work and estimating the best
theoretical performance that a system can achieve under given constraints. The three basic laws of
temperature are the zeroth law, which defines temperature and thermal equilibrium the first law, which
describes the exchange between heat, work, and internal energy and the second law, which defines the
concept of entropy. Although these laws were empirically derived and have no closedform proof, they give
resultsidenticaltothosethatcomefromthelawofconservationofenergy and to notions of entropy derived
from statistical mechanics of elementary particles traced to quantum theory. No one has yet been able to
demonstrateatrueperpetualmotionmachine,anditdoesnotappearlikelythatanyonewill.Fromthefirstlaw,
various heatengine cycles have been invented to obtain better performance suited to various constraints.
Engineers working on powergenerating engines, propulsion systems, heating systems, and airconditioning
andrefrigerationsystemstrytoselectandoptimizethermodynamiccyclesandthenuseafigureofmerita
meansofevaluatingtheperformanceofadeviceorsystemagainstthebesttheoreticalperformancethatcould
beachievedasameasureoftheeffectivenessoftheirdesign.
HeatTransfer.Heatcanbetransferredthroughconduction,convection,orradiation,andallthreemodesare
used in heat exchangers and insulators. Cooling towers for nuclear plants, heat exchangers for nuclear
reactors, automobile and home airconditioners, and the radiators for the International Space Station are all
designedfrombasicprinciplesofthesemodesofheattransfer.Somespacevehiclesaredesignedwithheat
shields that are ablative. The Thermos flask (which uses an evacuated space between two silvered glass
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walls)andwindowswithdoubleandtriplepaneswithcoatingsareexamplesofwidelyusedproductsdesigned
specificallytocontrolheattransfer.
Machine Design. Machine design is at the core of mechanical engineering, bringing together the various
disciplinesofgraphics,solidandfluidmechanics,heattransfer,kinematics,andsystemdesigninanorganized
approachtodesigningdevicestoperformspecificfunctions.Thisfieldteachesengineershowtotranslatethe
requirements for a machine into a design. It includes procedures for choosing materials and processes,
determiningloadsanddeflections,failuretheories,finiteelementanalysis,andthebasicsofhowtousevarious
machineelementssuchasshafts,keys,couplings,bearings,fasteners,gears,clutches,andbrakes.
Metrology. The science of metrology concerns measuring systems. Engineers deal with improving the
accuracy,precision,linearity,sensitivity,signaltonoiseratio,andfrequencyresponseofmeasuringsystems.
Theprecisionwithwhichdimensionsaremeasuredhasahugeimpactonthequalityofengineeringproducts.
Largesystemssuchasairlinersareassembledfromcomponentsbuiltondifferentcontinents.Forthesetofit
together at final assembly, each component must be manufactured to exacting tolerances, yet requiring too
muchaccuracysharplyincreasesthecostofproduction.Metrologyhelpsinspecifyingthetolerancesrequired
andensuringthatproductsaremadetosuchtolerances.
AcousticsandVibrations.Thesefieldsaresimilarinmuchoftheirterminologyandanalysismethods.They
deal with wavelike motions in matter, their effects, and their control. Vibrations are rarely desirable, and their
minimizationisagoalofengineersinperfectingsystems.Acousticsisimportantnotonlybecauseminimizing
noise is usually important, but also because engineers must be able to build machines to generate specific
sounds,andbecausetheaudiosignatureisanimportanttoolindiagnosingsystemstatusandbehavior.
ProductionEngineering.Productionengineeringdealswithimprovingtheplanningandimplementationofthe
production process, designing efficient and precise tools to produce goods, laying out efficient assembly
sequences and facilities, and setting up the flow of materials and supplies into the production line, and the
control of quality and throughput rate. Production engineering is key to implementing the manufacturing step
thattranslatesengineeringdesignsintocompetitiveproducts.
ApplicationsandProducts
Conventional Applications. Mechanical engineering is applied to the design, manufacture, and testing of
almost every product used by humans and to the machines that help humans build those products. The
productsmostcommonlyassociatedwithmechanicalengineeringincludeallvehiclessuchasrailwaytrains,
buses, ships, cars, airplanes and spacecraft, cranes, engines, and electric or hydraulic motors of all kinds,
heating, ventilation and airconditioning systems, the machine tools used in mass manufacture, robots,
agriculturaltools,andthemachineryinpowerplants. Several other fields of engineering such as aerospace,
materials,nuclear,industrial,systems,navalarchitecture,computer,andbiomedicaldevelopedandspunoffat
the interfaces of mechanical engineering with specialized applications. Although these fields have developed
specializedtheoryandknowledgebasesoftheirown,mechanicalengineeringcontinuestofindapplicationin
thedesignandmanufactureoftheirproducts.
Innovations in Materials. Carbon nanotubes have been heralded as a future supermaterial with strength
hundredsoftimesthatofsteelforthesamemass.Compositematerialsincorporatingcarbonalreadyfindwide
useinvariousapplicationswherehightemperaturesmustbeencountered.Metalmatrixcompositesfindusein
primary structures even for commercial aircraft. Several smart structures have been developed, where
sensors and actuators are incorporated into a material that has special properties to respond to stress and
strain.Theseenablestructuresthatwilltwistinadesireddirectionwhenbentorbecomestifferormoreflexible
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as desired, depending on electrical signals sent through the material. Materials capable of handling very low
(cryogenic) temperatures are at the leading edge of research applications. Magnetic materials with highly
organized structure have been developed, promising permanent magnets with many times the attraction of
naturalmagnets.
Sustainable Systems. One very important growth area in mechanical engineering is in designing
replacementsforexistingheating,ventilation,andairconditioningsystems,aswellaspowergenerators,that
use environmentally benign materials and yet achieve high thermodynamic efficiencies, minimizing heat
emission into the atmosphere. This effort demands a great deal of innovation and is at the leading edge of
research,bothinnewwaysofgeneratingpowerandinreducingtheneedforpower.
CareersandCourseWork
Mechanicalengineersworkinnearlyeveryindustry,inaninnumerablevarietyoffunctions.Thecurriculumin
engineering school accordingly focuses on giving the student a firm foundation in the basic knowledge that
enables problem solving and continued learning through life. The core curriculum starts with basic
mathematics,science,graphicsandanintroductiontodesignandgoesontoengineeringmechanicsandthe
coresubjectsandspecializedelectives.Inmodernengineeringschools,studentshavetheopportunitytowork
on individual research and design projects that are invaluable in providing the student with perspective and
integratingtheirproblemsolvingskills.
After obtaining a bachelor's degree, the mechanical engineer has a broad range of choices for a career.
Traditional occupations include designing systems for energy, heating, ventilation, airconditioning, pressure
vessels and piping, automobiles, and railway equipment. Newer options include the design of bioengineering
production systems, microelectromechanical systems, optical instrumentation, telecommunications
equipment,andsoftware.Manymechanicalengineersalsogoontomanagementpositions.
SocialContextandFutureProspects
Mechanical engineering attracts large numbers of students and offers a broad array of career opportunities.
Students in mechanical engineering schools have the opportunity to range across numerous disciplines and
create their own specialties. With nano machines and biologically inspired selfassembling robots becoming
realities,mechanicalengineeringhastransformedfromafieldthatgenerallyfocusedonbigindustrytoonethat
also emphasizes tiny and efficient machines. Energyrelated studies are likely to become a major thrust of
mechanicalengineeringcurricula.Itispossiblethatthefuturewillunfoldapostindustrialagewherethemass
manufactureparadigmoftheIndustrialRevolutionthatforcedtheovercrowdingofcitiesandcausedextensive
damage to the environment is replaced by a widely distributed industrial economy that enables small
communitiestobeselfreliantforessentialservicesandyetbeusefulcontributorstotheglobaleconomy.This
willcreateinnumerableopportunitiesforinnovationanddesign.
FurtherReading
Avallone,EugeneA.,TheodoreBaumeisterIII,andAliM.Sadegh.Marks'StandardHandbookforMechanical
Engineers.11thed.NewYork:McGrawHill,2006.Print.
Calvert, Monte A. The Mechanical Engineer in America, 18301910: Professional Cultures in Conflict.
Baltimore:JohnsHopkinsUP,1967.Print.

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Davies,MatthewA.,andTonyL.Schmitz.SystemDynamicsforMechanicalEngineers.NewYork:Springer,
2015.Print.
Freitas, Robert A., Jr., and Ralph C. Merkle. Kinematic SelfReplicating Machines. Georgetown: Landes
Bioscience,2004.Print.
Hill, Philip G., and Carl R. Peterson. Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Propulsion. 2nd ed. Reading:
AddisonWesley,1992.Print.
Lienhard,JohnH.,IV,andJohnH.LienhardV.AHeatTransferTextbook.4thed.Mineola:Dover,2011.Print.
Liepmann,H.W.,andA.Roshko.ElementsofGasDynamics.Reprint.Mineola:Dover,2001.Print.
Pelesko, John A. Self Assembly: The Science of Things That Put Themselves Together. Boca Raton:
Chapman,2007.Print.
Shames,IrvingH.EngineeringMechanics:StaticsandDynamics.4thed.UpperSaddleRiver:Prentice,1997.
Print.
Shigley, Joseph E., Charles R. Mischke, and Richard G. Budynas. Mechanical Engineering Design. 7th ed.
NewYork:McGraw,2004.Print.
Siciliano,Bruno,etal.Robotics:Modelling,PlanningandControl.London:SpringerVerlag,2010.Print.
Derivedfrom:"MechanicalEngineering."AppliedScience.SalemPress.2012.

CopyrightdeSalemPressEncyclopediaofScienceespropiedaddeSalemPress.Losderechosdeautor
de algunos de los artculos son propiedad de sus autores. El contenido no podr copiarse ni remitirse por
correo electrnico a distintos sitios Web, ni publicarse en ninguna lista de distribucin sin el consentimiento
expresoporescritodeltitulardelosderechosdeautor.Noobstante,losusuariospodrnimprimir,descargaro
enviarporcorreoelectrnicoartculosparasuusopersonal.Source:SalemPressEncyclopediaofScience,
January,2015,7p
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