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Bearings

Business Unit Tribology

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Table of Contents

Page
Characteristic Properties for Use as a Bearing Material ............................................

Bearing Design...........................................................................................

General Guidelines ......................................................................................

Installation ........................................................................................................

Pressing-in ...............................................................................................

Recommended Tolerance Zones before Cold Pressing-in ......................................

Shrinking-in ..............................................................................................

Recommended Tolerance Zones before Hot Shrinking-in ......................................

Bearing Clearance ...............................................................................................

Dry Running ..............................................................................................

Wet running ..............................................................................................

Counterpart Materials and their Surface Quality .................................................

Loading Capacity ................................................................................................

Fields of Application ...........................................................................................

11

Fields of Application and Material Recommendations ..........................................

11

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Characteristic Properties for Use

... as a Bearing Material


Carbon and graphite materials
exhibit the following
characteristic properties:
excellent sliding and dry running
properties, low coefficient of
friction,
good thermal conductivity,
high chemical resistance,
outstanding resistance to thermal
shock,
excellent dimensional stability,

Information on the production

In case of flanged bearings the

and physical properties of Schunk

flange thickness should follow the

carbon and graphite materials is

same recommendations like those

given in other publications.

for the wall thickness. Special

Please find these brochures at

instructions have to be observed

www.schunk-tribo.com.

regarding the flange design of


shrinked-in flanged bearing (see
radial and axial bearings lubrication

Standard DIN 1850, page 4

grooves are not necessary.

(Bushings for Carbon Bearings)


gives details on radial and flanged

This also applies predominantly to

bearings.

wet running radial bearings, though


these can be provided with spiral or

high fatigue resistance.

General Guidelines

Due to these properties, carbon

and graphite bearings are used in

figure on page 5). For dry running

Bearing Design

axial grooves in the bore. Facial


grooves, however, are recommended

= d1 to d2

for fluid lubricated axial carbon

Lmax = 2 x d2

bearings (flanged bearings).

and low temperature technology,

Recommendations on the design of

chemical and petrochemical

smin = 3 mm

many applications such as high

= 0.1 to 0.2 x d1

the facial grooves may be supplied


on request.

industries, food, pharmaceutical


and cosmetic industries,
automotive applications, and
nuclear reactor technology.

IT 8

d2

d1

f x 45

f x 45
1

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Installation

When installing carbon bearings,

Recommended Tolerance Zones

special attention has to be paid to

before Cold Pressing-in:

the lower coefficient of thermal

Inside diameter d1:

expansion of carbon and graphite

Shrinking-in
For bearing temperatures exceeding

F7 E7

of the carbon bearings into the

materials compared to that of

Outside diameter d2:

metals. Additionally, the lower

Housing bore for

strength and brittleness of carbon

carbon bearing:

materials have to be considered.

This results in a tolerance of H7 to

When shrinking-in, it should be

H8 for the inside diameter d1 after

possible to insert the cold carbon

Therefore, carbon bearings should


not be installed without support.
The normal press and shrink fits for
metals result in good fits having a
relatively low maximum temperature
operating limit, when using carbon
materials with metals, due to the
comparatively low thermal
expansion of the carbon materials.

Pressing-in
Therefore, a cold press fit of carbon

H7

pressing-in.
For cold pressing-in, a pressing-in
mandrel should be used with a
diameter of about 3 tolerance
zones below the bore tolerance of
the carbon bearing in its delivered
state. Additionally, the mandrels
shoulder should press onto the

housing or metal sleeves is the best


way of fitting the bearings.

bearings easily into the housings or


metal sleeves. These have to be
heated to temperatures exceeding
the maximum anticipated operating
temperature by 100 to 150 C. The
shrinking-in tolerance has to be determined according to the different
coefficients of thermal expansion.

entire bearing face. A chamfer of

In case the above-mentioned shrink

15 30 for the metal sleeve is

fits H7/x8 (shrinking-in temperature:

recommended.

appr. 300 C) and H7/z8 (shrinkingin temperature: appr. 350 C) are

bearings in steel housings according

not sufficient for the anticipated

to H7/s6 can only be used up to

operating temperature, shrinking-in

maximum bearing temperatures of

can be performed at correspondingly

approximately 120 150 C.

higher pre-heating temperatures of

The maximum allowable temperature is correspondingly lower for


housings or sleeves made of
materials possessing a higher
coefficient of thermal expansion
than steel.
A tolerance allowance on the
diameter exceeding H7/s6 is not
recommended for cold pressing-in
of carbon bearings, except for
plastic housings or sleeves, due to
the likely occurrence of shearing.
When cold pressing-in, particularly
thin-walled bearings, great care
must be taken that the bearings do
not tilt, as this may cause fracture.
The carbon bearing bore is reduced
by approximately 70 to 85 % of
the pressing-in size difference,
depending on the material, the wall
thickness ratio and tolerance
combination.

s6

120 to 150 C, direct shrinking-in

Carbon bearing with metal sleeve

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up to about 600 C to shrink fits

which can be pressed into the

H7/za8 or H7/zb8. In some cases

housing like metal bearings, are to

may occur during shrinking-in or

an additional locking mechanism

be preferred.

when the bearing is under load (see

may be required.

On request, carbon bearings can be

Otherwise, chipping-off of the flange

drawing).

When shrinking-in, the carbon

shrunk-in into metal sleeves by

Recommended Tolerance Zones

bearing bore is reduced; housings

Schunk Kohlenstofftechnik GmbH

before Hot Shrinking-in:

and sleeves, particularly thin walled

and delivered as a set ready for

ones, may increase in size. Depen-

installation. Tolerances up to IT7

Inside diameter d1:

ding on the diameter and the wall

for the bearing bore and IT6 for the

thickness ratio, a bore reduction of

outer diameter of the metal sleeve

about 3 to 6 tolerance zones or of

can be met.

80 to 100 % of the shrinking-in


tolerance can be expected with the
above-mentioned shrink fits H7/x8

After shrinking-in, the carbon


bearing in the metal sleeve is

D8

Outside diameter d2:

x8 to z8

Housing bore for


carbon bearing:

H7

Shrinking-in
300 C 350 C

temperature:

and H7/z8.

subjected to compressive strain.

This results in a tolerance of H9

The carbon material is supported

for the inside diameter d1 after

Detailed data on the reduction of

so well by the metal sleeve that,

shrinking-in. Finish reaming is

carbon bearing bores as well as on

subsequently, it can be turned to

recommended subsequent to

size increase of the sleeves cannot

very small wall thicknesses.

shrinking-in for staying exactly

be provided. Finish machining of the


bearing bore is always necessary in

When shrinking-in flanged bearings,

order to meet close tolerances.

it has to be ensured that the values

If close tolerances are required,

do not exceed more than half of the

metal sleeved carbon bearings,

value of the bearing wall thickness.

within the tolerances.

of flange thickness and flange width

u<
= /2 s
1

b<
= /2 s

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Bearing Clearance

When determining the bearing

If a very tight cold clearance is

Wet running

clearance, the carbon materials low

selected, the shafts may even seize

coefficient of thermal expansion

up in use.

at operating temperature 0.1 0.3 %


of the shaft diameter

compared to that of most shaft


materials, has to be taken into
account. Substantial differences
between the cold clearance and the

We recommended the following


data for the bearing clearance:

The cold clearance is obtained by


adding the difference in expansion
at operating temperature of the

clearance at operating temperature

Dry Running

can occur at elevated operating

at operating temperature 0.3 0.5 %

above-mentioned value of the

temperatures.

of the shaft diameter

bearing clearance.

carbon bearing and the shaft to the

In the case of pre-stressed shrunk-in


carbon which expand on heating at
Ambient temperature

the same rate as the coefficient of

Operating temperature

thermal expansion of the housing


or sleeve material, the difference in

Clearance

Clearance

Bearing

expansion is not to be considered


for the determination of cold
clearance.
As the clearance of carbon bearings

dL

dw

dw

dL

always has to be larger than that


of oil lubricated metal sleeves, a
bore tolerance closer than IT8/IT7
generally is not necessary.
Shaft

Clearance (ambient temperature) = clearance (operating temperature) + dW dL


dW dL = ( shaft bearing)dT

Counterpart Materials and their Surface Quality


Suitable Counterpart

Partially Suited

Unsuitable

Materials

Counterpart Materials

Counterpart Materials

Chrome steel

Nickel chromium steel

Aluminium

Cast chrome steel

Austenitic cast iron

Aluminium alloys

Nitrified steel

Nonferrous metal

Cast iron
Hard-chrome plated materials
Unalloyed steel
Silicon carbide
Hard metal
Sintered ceramics (Al2O3)
(only for wet running)
Chromium oxide
(plasma plated)
6

(even if anodised)

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The best running performance is


achieved with a surface roughness
of the counterpart material of
Rt <1
m. A higher surface roughness
of Rt ~
~ 2 m will only result in

higher initial wear during the


running-in period.

Finely ground shafts are recommended for carbon bearings. For


highly demanding applications we
recommend superfinished shafts.
Drawn shafts are only allowable for
applications at low sliding speeds
and loads. Surface hardened and
drawn shafts are not suitable for
carbon bearings.
Not only the surface finish of the

One-part/multi-part radial bearing with spiral groove

counterpart surface is highly


important for the running
behaviour of the carbon bearing,
but also the counterpart material

wear. Harder non nickel containing

Experience shows that the best

stainless steel types are preferred, at

running results are achieved by

The use of not particularly hard,

least for use at low or medium load.

using counterpart materials with

nickel containing stainless steel as

Hardened chrome steel (13 17 % Cr)

counterpart material is not recom-

has proved to be best, also at higher

a hardness of HRc > 40.

mended, especially if other more

loads.

itself has a certain impact.

suitable materials can be used. Dry


running, where there is insufficient

The preference for hard counterpart

fluid lubrication, or highly contami-

materials is mainly based on the

nated liquids may lead to undesired

fact that the harder the counterpart

scoring, resulting in an increase in

material, the easier the graphite


film on the counterpart material.

Axial bearing

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Loading Capacity

As carbon and graphite bearings

different sliding speeds and specific

are mainly used with dry and mixed

loads were applied for each test. The

shafts, material number 1.4122, with


~ 0.7 m
a surface roughness Rt ~

friction and, therefore, are subject

data obtained was the basis for the

were used for these tests.

to wear, it is possible to take the

pv charts which show the maximum

wear rate as a measure of loading

allowable specific bearing load as a

ability. So it is possible to provide

function of sliding speed.

capacity of dry running bearings

tion on the carbon bearing life.

Radial bearings, 12/18 x 10 mm

FH42 (carbon graphite), FH44Y3

and stainless steel shafts, material

(carbon graphite) and FE45Y3

As bearing wear is higher with dry

number 1.4104, with a surface


~ 0.7 m, were used
roughness Rt ~

(electrographite).

rather than mixed friction, pv


graphs using a wear rate of

for dry running tests. The tests

0.7 m/h for dry running carbon

were performed in air at ambient

bearings and of 0.1 m/h for wet

temperature.

and hard carbon material FH42 show

Wet running tests were carried out un-

under dry running conditions. Carbon

the design engineer with informa-

running carbon bearings were


established.

der tap water at ambient temperature.

Extensive tests on bearing test rigs

Radial bearings, 15/35 x 15 mm

were performed at Schunk, in which

and 20/35 x 20 mm, and steel

The pv chart 1 shows the loading


of our non-impregnated materials

According to the chart, carbon


bearings made from the very solid
the lowest load bearing capacity
bearings out of the carbon material
FH44Y3 exhibit a significantly
higher load bearing capacity due to
the higher graphite content of this
material.
The electrographite FE45Y3 has the
highest load bearing capacity of the

specific load
N/cm2

three tested non-impregnated


carbon bearing materials. Resin
impregnations lead to a substantial
increase in loading capacity of dry

140

running carbon bearings.

120

100
-FE45Y380

60

-FH44Y3-

40

20

-FH42-

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0
sliding speed
m/s

p v-diagram no. 1:
Loading capacity of dry running carbon bearings as a function of sliding speed

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An increase in loading capacity by

The following values have been

ed. Sliding speeds above 1.5 and

impregnation with antimony is only

determined for the different

2 m/s respectively, result in higher

achieved for low sliding speeds of

Schunk materials:

wear, assuming pv is constant.

FH42 pv = 11 N/cm2 x m/s

The maximum loading curves

less than 0.5 m/s. The most significant improvement can be observed
by special salt impregnations, as

FH44Y3 pv = 30 N/cm2 x m/s

shown in the pv chart 2.


This pv chart gives the loading
capacity of the non-impregnated
electrographite FE45Y3 compared

axial bearings.

FE65 pv = 190 N/cm2 x m/s

The pv chart 3 shows the maximum

In the pv charts the curves for

loading curves for wet running

sliding speeds of 0.2 to 1.5 and

electrographite FE65.

bearings also apply to dry running

FE45Y3 pv = 40 N/cm2 x m/s

maximum loads are given for

to that of the salt impregnated

determined for dry running radial

radial carbon bearings out of


material FH42Z2 (carbon graphite,

2 m/s, respectively.

impregnated with synthetic resin)

The pv charts show that the

At sliding speeds of v < 0.2 m/s the

product pv is practically constant

maximum load given for v = 0.2 m/s

impregnated with antimony).

for each material.

should not be substantially exceed-

specific load
N/cm2

and FH42A (carbon graphite,

500

400

300

200

100
-FE65-

-FE45Y3-

p v diagram no. 2:
0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0
sliding speed
m/s

Loading capacity of dry running


carbon bearings as a function of sliding
speed; comparison FE45Y3/FE65

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Loading Capacity

More than 70 running tests of at least

speeds. The maximum sliding speed

their validity for axial bearings is

500 h test period each have been

of 4.1 m/s in the pv chart does not

limited with respect to the design

necessary to obtain the values for

signify an application limit but was

of such bearings and the amount

one maximum loading curve. This is

determined by the available test

of achievable hydro-dynamic

why these maximum loading curves

conditions.

lubrication.

The maximum load curves in p v

Axial bearings, except segmented

chart 3 were determined for wet

axial bearings, should always be

running radial bearings. Therefore,

provided with lubricating grooves.

are not available for all Schunk


materials. However, supplementary
tests have proved that the loading
capacity of non-impregnated carbon
graphite materials is significantly
lower than that of materials impreg-

The bearing porosity of the material


has a decisive effect on the material
loading ability as also has the
material composition, strength and
hardness. Particularly at higher
porosities it can be observed that

specific load
N/cm2

nated with synthetic resins.

1000

the influence of hydrodynamic


lubrication decreases, especially

800
-FH42A-

with fluids exhibiting only a slight


hydrodynamic lubrication effect, as

600

a sufficient pressure in the clearance


between bearing and shaft cannot

-FH42Z2400

be generated.
Both impregnated materials (FH42Z2

200

and FH42A) in the pv chart 3


have the same base material (FH42).
1

If a more solid and harder basic


material is selected (e.g. material

impregnaions.

4
sliding speed
m/s

FH82), higher loading capacities


will be achieved with identical

pv diagram no. 3:
Loading capacity of wet running carbon bearings as a function of sliding speed

However, the use of these materials,


such as FH82Z2 or FH82A, requires
harder counterpart materials.
The pv chart 3 also shows that
carbon bearings can be significantly
higher loaded in wet running than in
dry running conditions. Additionally,
wet running carbon bearings can
be applied at much higher sliding

10

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Fields of Application

Fields of Application and Material Recommendations


The following summary of fields of

the improvement of our current

hesitate to contact our Department

application for carbon bearings is not

materials and development of new

of Application Engineering. We will

complete. It comprises the currently

grades in order to meet new

be glad to help you!

most important applications. We are

requirements.

firmly convinced, however, that the


outstanding properties of carbon and
graphite materials will open further
fields of application for carbon

The Schunk materials listed below


have been proved to be suitable for
the applications given and are to be

bearings.

taken as recommendations. Special

We are constantly engaged, in close

selection of different carbon and

cooperation with our customers, in

graphite materials. Please do not

applications may require the

Fields of Application

Material Recommendations

Dry running
Veneer dryers

FH42, FH44Z2

Plaster and plaster board dryers

FE45Y3, FE65

Glass furnaces

FE45Y3, FE65

Conveyor belts for furnaces

FH42

Cooling racks for roller mills

FE45Y3

Guide vane adjustment of turbo compressors

FE45Y3

Valve flaps

FE45Y3

Vane pumps and air compressors

FH42Z2

Wet running

Carbon bearings for


veneer dryers/plaster board dryers

Dyeing machines

FH42, FE45Y3

Bleaching machines

FE45Y3

Industrial washing plants

FH42, FH42Z2

Galvanic plants

FH42, FE45Y3

Flow meters

FH42Y3, FH42A

Gear pumps

FH42Y3, FH42A

Submergible pumps
radial bearings

FH42Z2, FH42A

thrust bearings

FH42Z5, FH82Z5, FH82A

Booster pumps

FH42ZP2, FH42A

Industrial water pumps

FH42ZP2

Chemical pumps

FH42Z2, FH42Y3, FE45Y3, SiC30

Circulating heating pumps

FH42A, FH42Z2, FH82A, FC941

Thermal oil pumps

FH42A

Pumps for liquid gases

FH42A, FH42Z2, FH82A, FH71A, FH71ZH

Industrial fuel oil pumps

FH42A

Fuel feed pumps and injection pumps


for automobiles
Pumps and units for use in food,
Split tube pump with carbon bearings

pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries

11

FH531A, FF521, FH541


FH42ZP2, FH42Z2, FH42Y3

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35.38e/1500/2009

35_38e_Gleitlager_engl.qxp

Schunk Kohlenstofftechnik GmbH


Rodheimer Strasse 59
35452 Heuchelheim, Germany
Telephone: +49 (0) 641608-0
Telefax:
+49 (0) 641608-17 26
sse@schunk-group.com
www.schunk-tribo.com