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5.

coordinate/dative bond
1. shared pair of e- provided by only 1 of the
bonding atom
2. donor to acceptor
3. for formation,
1. 1 atom lone pair of e- for donation
2. another atom vacant low-lying
orbital to accept pair of e3. e.g.
1. hydroxonium H30+
2. adducts
3. covalent metal molecules which
are dimerised in gaseous states
6. dot cross diagrams
1. achieve ns2 np6 where possible
2. diagrams should be drawn such as octet

CHEMICAL BONDING
CHEMICAL BONDS
1. binding forces of attraction
b/w particles
2. bond formation involves
redistribution of outer e- of
atoms
3. lower energy arrangement
OCTET RULE
1. atoms tend to lose, gain or share e- until
surrounded by 8 valence e1. to achieve same no. of e- as noble gases
closest on periodic table
2. except He, noble gases
1. 8 valence e-

rule is obeyed by max. no. of e-, particularly

2. high i.e.

side atoms, w/ exception of H (2 e-)

3. low affinity for additional e-

3. central atom usually less electronegative

4. general lack of reactivity

4. must show lone pairs!

5. many exceptions

5. exceptions to octet
1. molecules w/ < 8 e- in valence shell
e- deficient as can take in more e- to
complete octet (BCl3, BeCl2)
2. molecules w/ unpaired e- radicals
(NO/NO2)
3. molecules w/ > 8 e- in valence shell
only period 3 & beyond
1. for Expansion of octet, energy
required to promote e- from 3s or
3p to 3d not very large
2. period 2 etc. elements
1.

no low-lying vacant orbitals


for expansion of octet

2. promotion of e- to next
quantum shell requires too
much energy
3. period 2 elements
accommodate max. 8 valence eVSEPR - Valence Shell E- Pair Repulsion Theory
1 covalent bonds directional????
7. covalent molecules or ions w/ covalent bonds
definite shapes
8. VSEPR

IONIC/ELECTROVALENT BONDING
1 definition
3. electrostatic force of attraction
4. 2 opp. charged ions
5. transfer of e6. from one atom to another
2. metallic atoms
1. 1 - 3 valence e1. cations with stable octet e-ic config of noble
gases
3. non-metallic
1. 4 - 8 valence e2. Group V - VII tend to accept e3. anions with stable octet configuration of
noble gases
COVALENT BONDING
1 formation/definition
4. formed by sharing of e5. shared e- localised b/w 2 nuclei
6. attraction b/w localised shared e- & nuclei
4. energetically unfavourable for non-metal
atoms to lose e- share e- to achieve stable
e- configuration of noble gases

1. predicts molecular geometry of species

3. two atoms far apart = energy of 2


separate h atoms

2. e- pairs around central atom arranged as


far apart as possible in space to minimise

BOND, BOND
1 either or bond depending on overlap

repulsion
3. lp-lp> lp-bp > bp-bp > lone e- bond
pair(where does lone e- lone pair come
in?)

4. bond
1. orbitals overlap head on
1. e- density concentrated b/w nuclei of
bonding atoms
1. s-s overlap
2. p - p overlap
3. s-p overlap
5. bond
1. orbitals overlap collaterally(side on)
1. bonding orbital
1.

has an e- cloud above/below

MODIFICATION TO VSEPR PREDICTIONS


- bond angles depend on repulsion b/w e- pairs
- closer e- pairs are to nucleus of central atom,
greater repulsion power
- bond angles deviate from ideals - e- pairs
may have diff repulsion powers depending
on proximity to nucleus
- lp > bp repulsion

nuclear axis but w/ zero density

- lone pair closer to nucleus & attracted by

along axis
2. takes place when atoms
undergo multiple bonding
1. one
2. rest

only 1 positive nucleus


- bond pair attracted by 2 nuclei hence weaker
repulsion power
- for same e- pair geometry, bond angles deviate
more greatly from ideal angle as no. of lone

10. stronger than as head on overlap of


charge cloud has greater degree of overlap
than side on overlap

pairs
- bond pair repulsion w/ electronegativity
- the more electronegative atom tends to
draw e- density of bond pair towards itself
- the bond pair e- are thus nearer to nucleus
and exert greater repulsion

COVALENT BOND LENGTH


1

dist. b/w nuclei of two bonded atoms

11. stronger covalent bond shorter bond length


COVALENT BOND STRENGTH
1 bond energy(bond enthalpy)
1. average energy absorbed when one mole
of a particular bond is broken in gaseous
state
2. molecule w/ strong covalent bond less
tendency to undergo chemical change
than weak bonds large energy needed
to break bond before it will react with
other elements
12. affected by
1. number of bonds b/w atoms
1. for same bonding atoms, no. of
bonds no of shared e- b/w two atoms
electrostatic attraction b/w bond
pairs & 2 nuclei bond strength

COVALENT BOND FORMATION BY ORBITAL


OVERLAP
1

covalent bonding occurs when valence


orbitals of two atoms overlap
4. 2 orbitals are either both singly occupied
w/ e- of opposite spin
5. one is filled with e- pair & other is empty
(dative)

9. overlap must be effective so that e- density in


region b/w nuclei is max. overlap gives rise
to new orbital molecular orbital??
1. f
2. optimum bonding distance = most stable
when energy min. orbitals overlap and
e- pair spreads out over both orbitals??

INTERMEDIATE BOND TYPES


IONIC BONDS W/ COVALENT CHARACTER
1. attraction of cation for valence e- of anion
4. distorts/polarises??? e- cloud of anion
5. pulling it into region b/w 2 nuclei
6. some e- sharing covalent character
7. degree of covalent character
1. polarising power of cation charge
density charge/volume higher charge
+ smaller cation = stronger polarising
ability
2. polarisability charge & size e- clouds
of large anions easier to deform than
small anions
AlCl3 vs AlF3
AlCl3 high charge density of Al3+ distorts ecloud of Cl- such that e- sharing is predominant &
covalent, existing as di
screte molecules
F- smaller e- cloud than Cl- less polarisable
distortion of e- cloud by Al3+ less significant
predominantly ionic
Diff. in electronegativity b/w Al & Cl smaller than
b/w Al & F bonding in AlCl3 has higher covalent
character (although cation will attract, F will
retain)
Al203 ionic compound w/ covalent character
O2- not as polarisable as Cl- as smaller in size
COVALENT BONDS W/ IONIC CHARACTER
- same electronegativity shared e- pair
equidistant b/w both nuclei
- diff. electronegativity e- pair not equally
shared bond is polar ionic character
polar covalent bond
- degree of polarity dipole moment vector
qty w/ both magnitude & direction
POLAR MOLECULES
- dipole moment
- molecular geometry?
-

2. effectiveness of orbital overlap


1. larger orbitals more diffuse
overlap less effective in bonds formed
by larger atoms than smaller atoms
1. bond polarity
1. diff. in electronegativity of bonding
atoms
2. partial charges arise on 2 bonded
atoms asymmetrical electron density
distribution in bond polar bond
3. in electrostatic attraction b/w shared
e- & 2 nuclei due to partial charges +
existing covalent bond bond
strength
HYBRIDISATION
1. term applied to mixing of atomic orbitals in
atom to generate a set of hybrid orbitals
1. 1s + 1p 2 sp linear
2. 1s + 2p 3sp2 planar
3. 1s + 3p 4sp3 tetrahedral
2. unhybridised p orbitals
1. perpendicular to plane containing
hybridised orbitals(planar, linear)
2. form bonds
3. effect on bond length & strength
1. s orbital spherical & e- closer to nucleus
2. s charcter more effective orbital
overlap bond strength, bond length
3. S character from sp3(25) to sp2(33) to
sp (50)
RESONANCE
- resonance structures
- same arrangement of nuclei
- diff e- arrangement
- composite of resonance structures =
resonance hybrid
- bonding e- delocalised over all atoms via
overlapping of p orbitals which are perpendicular
to plane of molecule
- more stable than resonance structure
- bond strengths similar although diff no of
bonds