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XXth Century
Sheet Metal Worker

H, E, OS3SOJUME

i
THE AMERICAN ARTiSAN
CH CACO
r

D1

fa

EiiSlilSliiaiffllMIBiaBiSBIllSil

Mi

x^'ZJ

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No. 27
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208

WATER

STREET,

NEW YORK

XXth

Century

Sheet Metal W^jrker

A Modern

Treatise on

Sheet Metal

Modern

Work

BY
H. E.

OSBORNE

THE AMERICAN ARTISAN


CHICAGO
1910

^0

Entered according to Act of Congress

in the

Year

by
H. E. Osborne
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress
at Washington, D. C.

CCI.A27S675

1908

TO

MY OLD TIME TEACHER


AND FRIEND
GRIFFETH

L.

JACKSON

THIS LITTLE BOOK


IS

AFFECTIONATELY

DEDICATED

PREFACE
"Waste no time worrying over
to correct

of

loss

to the best of

it

time

and

your

material

a mistake, but try

ability,

with as httle

possible."

as

G.

L.

Jackson.

And

if

from

my

spent in
I

this

book

shall

prove to be of

as-

much

help

one struggling' "tinker" as the above quotation

to just

old teacher has been to me. then the time


its

preparation has been well spent.

have endeavored

to give in this

work

short, con-

which should be easily understood


by the young apprentice, and at the same time, sufficise explanations,

ciently scientific for the practical use of the journey-

man.

Some

of the items are of so simple a character

seem to be almost unnecessary, but I have remembered that even the most simple things have to be
as to

learned.

H. E. Osborne.

XXth Century
Sheet Metal Worker.
Having; a e^^^ii circle, to find the Bide of an equivalent square.

Multiply the diameter by the decimal .8862, or, multiply the

circumference by the decimal .2821.

method gives

Either

the length of one side of an equivalent

square.

Having

a gk'oi

circle,

to

find

tJic

side

of an in-

scribed square.

Multiply the diameter by the decimal .7071, or, mulcircumference by the deciuidl .2251.

tiply the

The

first

method may

also be applied to find the

length of the chord of an arc of 90 degrees, a quadrant.

Find the radius and multiply

it

by 2 and then

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

by .7071. Because the side of an inscribed square


the chord of the quadrant.

To

i)iscribe

a square in a

is

circle.

two diameters BD and AC at right angles


to each other, and connect the extremities of the diameters by straight lines drawn from A to B, B to C,

Draw

the

etc.

To

find the radius of an arc.

To

the square of the sine

AC, add

the square of the

versed sine CD, and divide the result by twice the


versed sine.

To make
rical terms.

to

it

and dispense with the geometSquare the length from A to C, and add

this plain,

the square of the distance

to

and divide the

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


result

by twice C D.

The

of radius to produce the arc

To and

the center

quotient will be the length

ABD.

from ivhich a given arc

is

pro-

duced.

Draw any two

chords

AB

and CD, and

and from the points thus found

draw

bisect them,

lines perpendi-

meet.
cular to the chords, and extending until they
The point of meeting will be the center of the circle
is a portion.
describe a circle cutting any three points, arranged in any position other than a straight line.

of which the arc

To

Connect the points by straight lines; then


drawn perpendicular from the centers of these

lines
lines

will meet at the center of the required circle.


To find the length of an arc, zvhen the number of de-

contains and the radius are knozvn.


Multiply the number of degrees by the

grees

it

.01745, and

To

decimal

that product by the radius.

find the area of a sector zvhen the

grees and radius arc knoion.

number

of de-

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

Find the length of the arc by the preceding

rule,

and

multiply this length by one-half the radius.

To

find the area of an oral or ellipse.

Multiply the two axes together, and their product

by the decimal .7854 and the

result will be the required

area.

To
1st.

When

find th area of a clroalar ring.

the

circumference

and diameter are

both known, multiply the circumference by one-half


the radius (one-fourth the diameter), or multiply onehalf the circumference by one-half the diameter.
2d.

When

the diameter only

is

known, square the

diameter and multiply by the decimal .7854.

To find the area of a circular ring.


The space between two circles of unequal

size.,

and

having a common center. Square the diameter of each


and subtract the square of the lesser from the

circle,

square of the greater, and multiply the difference by


the decimal .7854.

XXTH CKNTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


To

inscribe an equilateral triangle in a circle.

With any point

(as

A)

as center,

and radius equal

to radius of the circle, describe arc cutting the circum-

ference in

B and

then in C.

Then

bisect the arc

C, and connect the points B, C, and D.

To

inscribe a

hexagon

in a circle.

Describe the eciuilateral triangle as before.

Then

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


bisect the arc C D in F, and the arc B D in G,

and

drew AC, CF, FD, DG, GB, and BA.

Or

may

it

be inscribed by applying the radius six

times around the circumference.

This

is

the most

common method.
To

inscribe a regular pentagon in a circle.

Draw

the diameters

AP

MN

and

each other, and bisect the radius

at right angles to

ON

at E.

From A

EA as radius, describe the arc SB. Join


and B, and the hne AB being applied
times around the circle will form the pentagon.

as center,

and

the points

five

To draiv squares rvhose areas


to the

shall be proportionate

areas of given squares.

Fig.

I.

To draw

struct a square

square.

the area of a given

Bisect one side of the given square, and con-

square.

Fig.

a square

2.

upon

half

its

length.

To draw a square J/2 the area of a given


Draw diagonal lines from corner to corner

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

Fig.

Fig, !
of

the

given

square,

half the length of

Fig.

2,
square upon

one of the diagonals.

To draw

3.

and construct

a square twice the area of a given

Fig. 3.
a diagonal line from corner to corner
construct a square upon the diagand
of the square,

Draw

square.

onal.

This

is

Fig. 4.

simply the reverse of Fig.

To

a given square.

2.

draw a square three times the area of


Extend the

to a length equal to

its

side of the given square

diagonal,

to B,

and from

XXTll

CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


draw a hne to the op(B to C), upon which

the extremity of the extension,


posite corner of

tiie

square

construct a square.
Fig.

I.

To draw

given square.

a square four times the area of a

Construct a square on a Vme twice the

Fig.
length of one side

tlie

4.
given square.

Just the reverse of finding one of one-fourth the


area.

Fig.

5.

To draw

given square.
its

original length,

the

square.

square

to

side of the square to twice

B, and from the extremity

draw a line to the opposite corner


(B to C), upon which construct a

of the extension
of

a square five times the area of a

Extend one

XXTii CENTL'RV SllKliT

METAL WORKER.

Pig. 5.
To

describe an

i\i:^g-sliapC(i oz'al.

Describe a circle the size desired for

the round
and draw two diameters at right
angles, as shown in cut.
Then draw a straight line
from each end of one of the diameters through the extremity of the other diameter and extending indefi-

end of the

nitely.

figure,

With each

enfl of the first

diameter for center,

and radius equal to the diameter, strike an arc from


tlie opposite end of the diameter just to the diagonal
line.

Then with

the intersection of the diagonal lines

with the other diameter for center, and radius to just

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

10

meet the previous arcs, or side arcs, draw the small


end arc, which completes the fig;urc.

To draw an

arc throngJi three points without locat-

ing the center.

A B

and C be the points.


and radius from A
and C indefinitely towards D.

Let

as centers,

from

through

AD

at

G.

Then with A and C


C make arcs from

Draw

a straight line

C D at F. And
C through B intersecting

intersecting the arc

another straight line from


the arc

to

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


Space the arcs between A and G. and between C

and
same number of equal spaces, continuing
one or two of the spaces beyond G and F towards D.
Connect the points marked on A D with the point C,
and the points marked on C D with the point A, and
draw a freehand line through the intersections of these

into the

lines.

To

draiv any number of concentric circles, the area


each
circular ring thus formed being equal to the
of
area of each of the others and to the circle in the center.

Draw

a straight line

B. and space

ber of equal spaces desired.

upon

it

it

into the

A B

num-

and draw

draw a line perpendicular to


each of the points to the circumference of

a semicircle, and

B from

Bisect

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


the semicircle, as c, d, c, and
Then with A as center
and rachus A c describe the inner circle. The next
with radius A d, &c., as shown in cut.
12

f.

To draw

from

a line

perpendicular

to

a gircii point in a straight line,

the gii'en line.

B
Let

be the given point, and

R C

Place one point of the dividers at

and

equal to each other.

the given line.

and

Tlien with

set off

B and C

B
as

centers, and with radius greater than A B, describe


two arcs intersecting at D. Draw A D and it will be

perpendicular to the line

C.

near the end of the giz'en line.


Place one foot of the dividers at anv reasonable
Or,

if

the point

point, as P.

is

and extend the other foot

to A.

Then with

XXTH CENTURY SHKET METAL WORKER.


P

as center and radius from

to

13

A, describe a semi-

complete circle would be better, perhaps.


Through C. where the circle cuts the line B A, and the
point P, draw the line C P D. Then draw A D, and it

circle, or a

will

be perpendicular to the line

To draw from
line,

i^ic'cii

B A.

point outside a given straight

a perpendicular to that line.

Let

be the given point, and

Then from

the point

as a center,

the given line.

and with

a radius

greater than the distance from the line to A, describe

14

an

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


arc cutting the line B D in the points B and D then
;

the point E, equally distant from

mark
draw
Or

given

line.

if

Draw
or

draw

will be

it

the point

FA

the line

Bisect

C.

E, and

is

perpendicular to

any point on the

Then with F

and

it

will be perpendicular to

Triangle
2nd position.

Triepi

1st pQS
tion.

D.

line

as center,

CD
B D.

as radius, describe the semicircle

AD

D, and

nearly opposite one end of the

to

at F.

B and

D, as

and F
A, and

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


To

draiv a line to a

to a i^h'cn line, iisini^

gkrn

p.oint,

only a rule and

AB

15

and pcrf^cndicidar
trianij^le.

be the given line, and C


Place the long edge of the triangle against the rule

Let

v^ath the

the given point.

other long edge resting on the line

AB. Then

holding the rule firmly, slide the triangle along until


Then draw CD
the short side touches the point C.

and

it

Of

will be

perpendicular to the line

AB.

course, only a right-angled triangle, as shown,

can be used.

With the same


and parallel to a

""
I

tools, to draiv a line to

gii'en line.

'TrlangTe
2nd position, jy

a given point,

i6

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


Let

be the given point, and

AB

the given line.

Place the rule and triangle the same as in the previous example, and slide the triangle until the top

edge just reaches the point C. Then draw a line along


the top edge from C towards D, and it will be parallel
to the line

To draiu

AB.
a straight line equal to a given arc, an arc

equal to a gii'en straight

curvature equal

line,

or an arc of different

to a gii'en arc.

1^

Pig. 1.
Space the given arc, Figure i, into 4 equal spaces
by the intermediate points i, 2, 3. Draw
tangent
to the arc at A, and with A as center and radius A i
mark D (the chord of yi the arcj. Then with D as

AC

center and radius


will be the

Or,

if

D B

same length

strike the arc

as

E, and

A K

B.

the straight line be given, space

it

into

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


equal spaces, and with the
center, strike the arc

Also,

A B

let

first

B, and

point of division

A B

will equal

be the given arc, and

unequal curvature.

Space

A F

B, as in the

17

D
A

as

E.

an arc of

first

proposi-

and set off D on the straight line tangent to both


arcs at A, and with D as center and radius D B, draw
tion,

the arc

To

to F.

develop,

Then

A F

will equal

B.

by the latter proposition, the pattern

for the envelope of a cone, the slant height

and

size

of base being known.

Fig. 2.

On

any straight line, Fig. 2, set off the required


C D, and with D as center and radius
D, describe the indefinite arc X X. Set off from C,

slant height

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

i8

on line A B, the radius of the desired base C to E,


and with E as center describe the complete circle.
Draw a radius E F perpendicular to A B and space
Erect a per-

the quarter circle into 4 equal spaces.

C which

pendicular at

will

be tangent to the circle

and to the long arc at that point, and on it set off


one of the 4 equal spaces of the quarter circle, marked
o.
With o as center and radius o F describe the arc
from
or

Then C G

to the long arc at G.

equals

F,

the circumference of the base.

Now

C to G, and step this


H, and two steps from C to I, and
with D. Allow edges for lock and

span the dividers from

distance from

connect

pattern

is

and

to
I

complete.

The Octagon.

To

lay off an octagon ziithout

or a

circle,

and with no internal lines whatever.


Use the steel square, and after drawing a

cfttier,

line the

length desired for one side of the octagon, place the

square on the line at 12 and

12,

or 6 and

6,

convenient numbers, using the same figure

or any
on the

blade as on the tongue, and with one of these


bers just at the end of the line,

along the blade of the square.


being caYeful to

make

draw

Continue

the sides exactly the

and to place the square so that the


crosses

it

num-

the next side


this process,

same

length,

last

drawn

line

just at the figures selected.

The accompanying cut fully shows the manner of


Here A B is the first side drawn,

using the square.

say 14 inches long, and the square

A B

is

then placed on

as shown, with 8 and 8 on the line and the edge

of the blade (long side) at the end

of the

line.

Then

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

19

draw B C 14 inches long, which would be just to 22 on


Swing the square around onto B C as
the blade.
shown bv the dotted outline and draw the next side.

'

//

'

S.

-V

^v.

k<The Octagon,

If the

work

is

done accurately the resulting figure

will be a perfect octagon.

In the cut the square


line

B C

is

shown

in order to show that

line.

little

But

off
if

from the

the square

was placed so that the 8 inch mark just coincides with


end B of the line A B, then B C would just reach the
22 inch mark on the blade.

Of

course anv size of octagon

may

be

made

in this

20

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

manner, by using smaller numbers on the square for


drawing those with shorter sides.
Diam.

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


Diameters and Circumferences of

To

find the

any given

in

21

Circles.

circumference of any circle greater than


the table, multiply by

2,

number of times. For instance


The circumference of 28 is 2 times
the circumference of 140

is

3, 4,

10 or any

that of 14.

And

10 times that of 14.

The

43.98. and to find the circumference of 140 multiply 43.98 by 10. which is done by
removing the decimal point one place to the right,
making 439.8.

circumference of 14

is

Short Method of Finding Circumferences Without Figures

Draw

a line 12 inches long, as

in Fig.

i.

Span

dividers to 3 13/16 inches, and with one point at

strike

an arc

D.

given diameter, as

through

Set

C E

ofi'

or

or F, another

line

on
F.

this arc

from C, the

Then draw from B

12 inches long,

and the

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


distance from A to G will be the circumference of
the diameter C E, or from A to H will be the circum-

22

ference of the diameter

inches

good

F.

small circles up to yy^


diameter which, being just 2 times 3 13/16,

This rule

is

for

all

12"

would make the arc C D a complete semi-circle, and


B G would be swung around to form a continuation of A B. thus making the distance from A to
G 24 inches, which is just a little more than the true
circumference of 7^, which is 23.955.
A very convenient way of applying this method is

the line

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

23

to mark across both legs of a two-foot folding rule,


3 13/16 inches from the center c f the rivet in the mid-

8 3/16 on one

and at
two end

dle joint,

which would be

15 13/16

on the other. Then by opening the


and spreading the legs so that the

at

leg,

joints of the rule

points at the inside edges will be just the dis-

marked

tance apart of the given diameter, the inside corners


will be the distance apart equal to the required cir-

cumference.

shows the application of the rule to the same


principle.
B is the hinged joint, and the lines from
Fig. 2

B
It

to 12" are the inside edges of the legs of the rule.


is

shown spread

here

measures

11 inches

to 3>^ inches diameter,

circumference.

Some Remarkable

We are

and

taught from our

Facts About Circles.


> outh up, that the diameter

of a circle multiplied by 3.1416 equals the circumference, and that the square of the diameter multiplied

by .7854 equals the area. Some of the following facts,


however, have not been so generally taught:
That the diameter divided by .3183 equals the circumference.

That the circumference multiplied by .3183 equals


the diameter.

That one-half the circumference multiplied by onehalf the diameter equals the area.

And

that the square

of the circumference multiplied by .07958 equals the


area.

That the area of a circle is greater than that of an)


plain figure bounded by an outline of equal

other

length.

That

in

any

circle

whose diameter

is

less

than 4

24

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER,

the area

is

less

than the circumference

ber of square units of area


lineal units of the

is

less

i.

e.,

the

num-

than the number of

circumference.

4 the circumference and


area are represented by the same number, each being
12.5664, while in all circles whose diameters are more

That

if

the diameter

is

than 4 the areas exceed the circumferences, and the


proportions of one to the other advance by a regular
ratio, or progression, as will

be seen by the following

table:
Diameter.

Table.

area equals circnm. divided by 40.


.4 area equals circum. divided by 10.
.5 area equals circum. divided by 8.

.1

area equals circum. divided by

4.

2 area equals circum. divided by

2.

3 area equals circum. divided by i^.

4 area equals circum..


5 area equals circum. multiplied by l546 area equals circum. multiplied by ij^.
7 area equals circum. multiplied by i^.
8 area equals circum. multiplied by
10 area equals circum. multiplied by
12 area equals circum. multiplied

14 area equals circum. multiplied


16 area equals circum. multiplied

18 area equals circum. multiplied


20 area equals circum. multiplied

2.

2^.

by 3.
by 3^.
by 4.
by 4^2.
by 5.

24 area equals circum. multiplied by


28 area equals circum. multiplied by

6.

32 area equals circum. multiplied by


36 area equals circum. multiplied by
40 area equals circum. multiplied by

8.

44 area equals circum. multiplied by


48 area equals circum. multiplied by

11.

7.

g.

10.

12.

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

25

To use the table: Find the circumference by reference to the table of diameters and circumferences
or
given in another chapter, or by any rule, and divide
number given

multiply by the

in

this table

opposite

For example: Diam. 2, the


6.2832, which divide by 2 and the

the chosen diameter.

circum. of which

is

found to be 3.1416. Again, diam. 12, circum.


to be
of which is 37.6991, which this table shows is
required
multiphed by 3. 37-6991 X3=ii3-0973- the
area

is

area.
ratio of increase of the multipliers continues

The
the

same

indefinitely, increasing ,^

for each unit of

used
increase of diameter, so that this table may be
than
for finding the area of circles of other diameters
If the diameter is 9 multiply the circum.
by ^Ya. If 49 multiply by 12^4. If 50. by I2>4.
The multiplier con51, by 12^, and if 52, by 13.
ditinuing to increase one unit for each 4 units of
whose
Hence, to find the area of a circle
ameter.
Thus,
diam. is 400, multiply the circumference by 100.

those given.

diam. 400, circum. 1256.64X100=125664.


In other words, multiply the circumference by onefourth the diameter to find the area of any circle.
Scale of Hundredths.

frequently happens in making particularly accurmeasure a cerate measurements that it is desired to


And someinch.
an
of
hundredths
tain number of
considerable
that
such
is
number
times the required
to retime, and much figuring would be necessary,
It

duce

it

to a

common

scale of

fraction.

hundredths

is

great convenience in

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

26

such cases, and


one,
a

it

may

be

the shop square does not contain

if

made very

accurately, by any one, with

few minutes careful work.

Near one end of a strip of tin, lay off a square inch,


and space horizontally into ten equal spaces by parallel lines, and it is a good plan to continue these lines
several inches along the tin.

Space

it

the other

parallel lines

draw the

way

into equal spaces,

having a slant of one space.

and draw
That is,

from one corner of the square to


side, thus forming e
triangle with one inch perpendicular, and one-tenth
the

first

first line

space

inch base.

mark on opposite

Draw

parallel to the

the remainder of the lines exactly

first,

and you

will

have a similar

tri-

angle at the opposite side only reversed.

To

use the scale extend dividers the required

num-

ber of whole inches and place both points on the reline, .01, .02, etc., according to the number of
hundredths to be added, with one point exactly on line
A B. Then hold the other point firmly and extend
the one resting on line A B to the intersection of the

quired

diagonal line with the one on which the dividers

rest.

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

2-

For example, to find 2.06", extend the dividers two


inches, and place one point on the intersection of the
line .06 with the line A B, and holding the other point
on line .06, extend the point on A B to the intersection
of the

first

With
readily

to X.

diasfonal line.

any number of hundredths may be


To find 1.99" extend dividers from

this scale

found.

Or

for 1.92,

from v

to v, etc.

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

28

Measuring Degrees on the


It

sometimes happens that

certain

is

it

number 'of degrees when

at hand.

Steel Square.

desirable to find a

there

is

no protractor

In such cases the steel square and the fol-

lowing table

will be

found to answer the purpose with

a reasonable degree of accuracy.


Table.

Inches.

No. I
Deg.

No. 2
Deg.

45
40

45
50

1-2

lo i/i6
8 13/32

;.

6 15/16
19/32

-35

55

30

60

25

65

22'{.

(,r/2

AVs
3 7/32

20

70

15

75

2 3/32

10

80

1/16

85

90

EXPL.\N.\TI0N OF T.^BLE.

line

tongue

is

drawn from 12" on

the blade to 12"

45 to either edge of the square.

on the

And

drawn from 12" on either edge to any number in


the column of inches, on the other edge, will be, at
the 12". the number of degrees indicated in the column
of degrees marked "No. i." And where it intersects
the outer edge of the other arm of the square, it will
be the number of degrees indicated in the column
line

marked "No. 2."


As the cut shows, the angles given

in

column No.

of Degrees are those at C, and the ones given in

column No. 2 are those between

and B.

XXTII CF.NTURY SHI'.F.T METAT. WORKER.


Chimney Tops.

An
try,

article of very general use

and yet one which seems

many

tinners to quickly

throughout the coun-

to be quite difficult for

draw patterns

for, is the gal-

Really this

vanized iron chimney top base.


sition piece,

29

being an article hav

is

a tran-

a square or rec-

tangular base, and round top.

The pattern
that

it

is

for this article

better to lay

and if made in two


and the other cut by

it

off

pieces,

may

e so quickly

on the sheet

drawn

to be used,

one only need be drawn,

it.

For the purpose of explaining the process we

will

take definite dimensions, say I3"xi7" with 4* perpenpipe, the height to


dicular base, and tapered to fit a

The seams

be just what will cut from 30-inch iron.


he in the middle of the narrow sides.

At
^ect

to

a distance of 17 inches from one end of the


B,
scribe at right angles across it, a line, as

letting the line extend indefinitely to A on the floor


or bench after reaching the edge of the iron. This
line is the center "\t

tl'

c half pattein.

Set off from

and the same distance to


center line at B W2
scribe
up from F to D 4^*,
Then with the square
F.
connect
C and D.
and
and from E to C 4^^",
to E,

set off a little less than


From the center line at
and H. For
the circumference of top each way to
7* pipe about 5 inches each way, making 10 inches for

G H. For other sizes of top use about the


same proportion 10 to 22, or 5 to 11 which would
be about 85^ for 6-inch pipe, and about 11^ for 8the chord

inch.

30

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


Next place the blade of square at G and 6J/2 inches

on the tongue at C, as shown in drawing, and scribe


from G to I, and from I to C, then slide the square
down 4^ inches, keeping the blade to the line G I,

and mark from J to

C.

Continue the

with the center

from

to A.

63/2 inches,

line J

line.

around to D,

Mark
etc.,

to

and connect

where

it

and

intersects

the other side the same

and continue the

line

from

XXTH CENTURY SHKKT MI'TAL WORKER. 31


With A as center and radius A G strike the arc G
H. Tlien draw lines from D to H, and from D to K,
also from C to G and C to K.
Lay off the allowance
for lock along- each edge as

shown by dotted

lines,

and

cut out.

The top should be cut on the arc G K


so the
bends can be the more easily made on the lines C K
and D K. Notch in from F to D and from E to C,
leaving an allowance to rivet.
Mark the other half
by this, being careful to prick the points K, C, and D.
Fold the bottom edge y\ inch over flat, and then
straight out, to make a good stiff edge at bottom.

Fig. 1.

32

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


Now fold the edg^e locks, one out and the other

in,

and then brake over stake,


or in the brake if you have one, on the lines G C, K C,
H D and K D, forming about square at C and D, and
running out to round at top end G K H. Lock the
the

same

as for stove pipe,

two halves together and groove down the seams, after


which bend on lines I C, C D, etc., to bring the 4-inch
base strip to perpendicular, and rivet the corners.
Chimney

The chimney saddle


is

Saddles.

a very

important

article,

and

better than a plain flashing behind the chim-

much

ney,

is

because being sloped both ways, it allows the


all run off quickly, while the flashing usually

water to

remains wet for some time, and soon rusts through.

Fig.
Fig.

shows the saddle

on a 1/3 pitch shingled

2.

in place

roof.

behind a chimney

A, B, C,

and

being

a side elevation.

develop the pattern, draw X X, Fig 2, the pitch


E the perpendicular line of chimney, B C
of roof,

To

the

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


width desired for high point of saddle, and E

33

the

width of ends at low point.


Suppose, for example, the roof is 1/3 pitch, and the
chimney is 26 inches wide, and the saddle to be 6
Make B C. at right angles
inches wide at high point.
to A E, and 6 inches long.
And E, i inch long, parallel

to

Next
and lay
[')

to

from

C.

cut a piece of galvanized iron


it

off as

shown

6 inches and

to B,

angles on line

E and C

E.

in Fig. 3.

and from
E E, and

Bend

at

to

B C

16x28 inches

is 4 inches,
Cut straight in
C.
Then bend at right
about 1/3 pitch on lines C

D6
D to

to

to

inches.

until the line

B C

is

as high

in

Fig. 2.

Pig. 3.
above the ends

at

as the distance

B E

on the bench in this position and solder a gore


over the V-shaped opening A B. Turn the wide side
E D E down flat on bench and solder a gore over the
opening D C. These gores should also l)c riveted to
prevent the solder breaking, and they should both be
Rest

it

XXTII

34

CENTURY SHEET .METAL WORKER.

put on the inner side, as they will not leak quite so

badlv in case the solder does become broken.

Fig, 4,
Fig. 4

shows the completed

article

with the riveted

gores.

Gutter and Gutter Aliters Octagon and Half Round.


i and 2 are shown square miter patterns
octagon and half round gutter, the inside and out-

In Figures
for
"^ide

of miter of each, and each taking the

same width

of stock, in this case Q inches.


In Fig.

the dimensions are as follows, tht^ugh these

XXTIl

CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

may

be varied at will: o to

2 to

3,

in.

}i in.

6 to

7,

3 to 4,

in.

in.

i.

I2

4 to

in.;
5,

in.

to 2.
;

35

-ji

in..;

5 to 6,

2/2

7 to 8, i>^ in.

This takes jnst

inches width of stock, and

is

Pig. 1.
very convenient size of gutter to make, as a 3()-inch
sheet of iron will cut 4 pieces without waste.

To
draw

develop the pattern, draw profile as shown, then


from o to 8, and any de-

a stretch-out 9 inches

sired len.Qth.

Space the stretch-out

same measurements

as

2 3,

0123.

etc..

etc., in profile.

the

Draw

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

36
lines

from the points of bend

in

profile to

intersect

the space lines in stretch-out as shown, and connect

these intersections by straight lines.

and prick both end? of each


ai d the two patterns are
complete, by which any nu nber of pieces may be
Cut on the miter

piece on

the

line,

space

marked and pricked

lines,

for bending.

In cutting out by

these patterns one piece of each pair should be cut a


half inch longer
to

form a

and notched

lap, as a

much

in at

each point of bend,

stronger job

is

made by

so

doing, than by butting them together.

For marking the long pieces which are

to

have no

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

i7

miters cut on them, a narrow strip of iron may be


Prick
prick marked i 2 3, etc., and cut 9 inches long.
each end of the piece by this pattern, and it is then

ready to form up in the brake.


In forming up, put the

0123

the brake to the third dot (dot 3).

Reverse and put the same edge


to dot 2, and bend square up.

in,

edge of piece into

Bend square

up.

the other side up,

Pull back to dot

and also bend square, this finishes the bead.


around and put in to dot 4, and bend up to
back to 5 and bend to 45, then 6 and 7 each
It is a good plan to cut a. stay the exact
profile, and form the gutter to the shape of

Turn

i,
it

45, pull
45.

shape of
the stay,

as nearly as possible.

In Fig. 2

is

shown

a very similar development of

the half round gutter miter.

The bead

pattern

is

complete two-piece elbow pattern, and the half round


part is just half of an elbow pattern, and each part
may be laid out by any method of elbow with which

workman is familiar.
The bead in Fig. 2 is shown somewhat out

the

portion, but the principle of development

is

of pro*

the sami

regardless of the size.

Box Gutter.
I

used to dread a job of box gutter. It seemed to be


me to put it in properly, and not

a hard matter for

spend too much time on the job.

For the benefit of others who may be troubled in


same manner, I will describe my present method.
And, by the way, I rather like the work.
We will suppose we have a box gutter job which is

the

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

38

to finish

over the edge of crown mould with a bead,

which

is

Make up
if

common

style of finish at the present time.

the bead in 28-inch lengths (or in 20-inch

you have only a 20-inch header

sufficient

width to cover the

face between the gutter

flat

in the shop),

and of

or slightly sloped sur-

and outer edge of cornice, and

a ^-inch allowance to turn up to lock the edge of

For instance, if the deck strip is 2^ inches,


to.
and you have a 30-inch header which turns a ^-inch
bead, cut the tin in 5-inch strips, and cut in with the
snips }i of an inch deep in each end of each piece, 2
inches from one edge, as shown at A, Fig. i.
Notch
gutter

Box Gutter

Fig. 1.

r
----

the other

enough

two corners, being careful

Next

to take off corner

to allow for a 34 -inch fold across the

along the side


opposite

---A?

fold both ends the


directions,

clear

down

edge

C D up

end and

also.

same as for

valley,

i.

e.,

in

one up and one down, turning

so as to lock

square, or a

them together, and


little

more.

Then

fold the

straighten

out the 2 inches of end folds which was previously cut,

as

XXTH CENTURY SHEET xMETAL WORKER.


shown by dotted lines B A at each end of cut Y
Hammer

these ends

down

pretty

flat

39

in

with the

Fig.
mallet, so they will slip into the header readily. Then
bead the edge B B, turning the bead on the side oppoI.

the bend of edge

site to

C D.

is shown in Fig.
down, the opturned
bead
the
shows
2, which clearly
of one end,
fold
the
up
and
turned
up,
posite edge
end.
other
the
of
fold
down
the
but does not show
deck
the
cover
to
pieces
these
of
Get out enough
for
enough
wide
(14-inch
is
strip, and enough valley

An

end section of the finished- piece

Pig. 2.

most ordinary gutters) being careful that

it

is

well

soldered.

Put on the bead first, by putting one in place, then


slip the bead of the next over that, and pushing them
together far enough to let the fold A C catch over the
fold A D, and then pulling back till they lock together.
Nail close to the fold C D, so the heads will be covered when it is hammered down, and put an occasional
slim nail through the bead into the edge of crown

mould

shown

as

When

at

the bead

in Fig. 3.

is all

in place,

measure from bottom

to a point about J4 inch above the turned


up edge at C, Fig. 3. Take this measure at the low
point of gutter, and again at the high point, and trans-

of gutter at

measurements to the edge of the strip of


and bend up with tongs or straight edge and
Then measure the width of gutter B to D, at

fer these
valley,

mallet.

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

40

both ends, as the width often varies as well as the


depth, and bend square up.

Next

set the tin into the gutter

one knee, or one

hold

foot, to

it

and get into it with


down, and start the
and hammer it down

edge C over with tongs or plyers,


to an angle, and then clinch it tight with cleating tongs

Fig. 3.
or plyers, and finish

Then,

still

the back at

E down

an occasional
it is

nail,

down

with the mallet.

flat

keeping the weight in the gutter, bend


onto the roof boards, and put in

nail if the roof

to be tinned, turn

thus leaving

it

is

porch roofs with


full

if

finish

so desired.

this

kind of

sheets instead of the

Slit

at

F and

if

blind

ready to lock the roofing on.

This same method of bead


without gutter,

to be shingled, but

up the back edge

finish.

narrow

may

also be used

have often put on


Using, however,

strips.

each end of the sheets, and, after folding the

two ends and one side, straighten out the narrow part
of the end folds, just as described, and turn the bead
the same as shown on the narrow strips.

XXTll CEX'IURV SIIF.ET

METAL WORKER.

In connection with the box c;ntter

mention
in their

it

my way of making the ends.


manner of doing things, and

41

might be well to
I

Tinners differ
do not claim

But I mention these mathoping to help some workman who has met with
the same difificulties that have hindered me so many
to

have the only right way.

ters,

times.

usually cut the tin enough longer than the gutter

depth of both ends, and a

to equal the greatest

Then

to spare.

little

slash straight in at the ends, at each

and E, about as far as the height of D E.


D E in towards each other, and the
bottom, BD, up. ^^rim off the surplus tin and solder

bend, B,

Bend C B and

the edges well.

An

end

cases this

And

in

may
is

be cut to fit and soldered in, but in most


no advantage, and takes much longer.

these days of competition, time

is

quite an

and the workman who can do things quickly


and well, stands a better show than the one who does
them ever so well, but works slowly.
object,

Tlie

ElUpse or Oval.

perfectly true ellipse can not be

drawn with the

But there are several methods


manner, which so nearly
approximates the true ellipse as to answer the purpose
for most tin shop work.
A very accurate method, however, is by the string
and nail process. Fig. i is drawn in this manner.
Draw A B the length of the major axis and bisecting it at right angles draw C D the length of the
minor axis. With C or D as center and one-half the
dividers and

of

two radii.
drawing them in

this

42

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

major axis as radius, mark the points E and F on the


major axis. Drive nails at E. F and C, and tie a
string tightly around the three nails. Remove the nail
at C and with a pencil or scriber draw the ellipse,
keeping the string

tight.

XXTH CKNTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


figure
is

bounded

43

y a curved line, every point of which


two points within, called foci."

equally distant from

In this figure,

E and F

from any point

in the

are the foci, and the distance

curve to

plus the distance from

XXTH CENTURY SHRET METAL WORKER.


same point to E is the same as the combined

44

the

two

tances from these


curve, and

is

any other point

])oints to

just equal to the

dis-

in the

of the major

lenj::^th

axis.

2 is shown a very near approximate to an


composed of arcs of circles, having three different radii and eight centers, hence it is called the

In

Fig".

elHpse,

"eight centered oval."

To draw an

oval by this method,

length of major axis, and bisect

C D

Mark

indefinitely.

points

it

O P

A B

draw

the

at right angles

on C

by

the length

of minor axis.
to determine the radii to be used, draw X Y
X Z, Fig. 3, forming any convenient angle at X.
With X as center and radius equal to half the short
axis strike the arc V W. With same center and radius

Now

and

half the long axis


S,

and

X U

parallel to

w^ill

draw the arc S T. Connect


S draw \' U and R T.

W and
Then

be the radius to use for the arcs at the ex-

tremities of the

major

and

axis,

XR

will be the radius

minor axis.
For the radius of the arcs to connect the side arcs
with the end arcs take the length of the semi-minor
for the side arcs at the extremities of the

axis plus half the difference between the semi-axes,

which

(in Fig. 3)

is

distance

On A B

U.
off from
to

and

S, hence

the distance

.\

plus half the

F, each equal

O.

of Fig. 2 set

And

X V

-\

oft"

and B

and

O to D and from P to C, each


from O to J and P to I each equal

With C

as center

and radius

O.

Lay

equal to

X R

each equal to

to

O.

draw the arc

2,

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

45

as center and same radius draw the arc 3


F as centers and radius E G or F H
and
With E
4.
intersecting the arcs
G and
through
strike the arcs
and
2 4. Draw a hne
i
points
the
3
I 2 and 3 4 at

and with

FiG. 4.

X Q, and
through E from i to 5 equal
F
through
same
the
from 3 to 6 same length, and
from 2 to 7 and from 4 to 8.
From C through i and 2 draw lines the length of
X R, and from D through 3 and 4 same length, endin

ing at

9,

10, II

and

12.

length to

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


With C as center and radius C P (or X R) draw
the arc 9 10, and with D as center and same radius
draw II 12. With E and F as centers and radius E A
(or X U
draw 5 6 and 7 8. Then with i, 2, 3 and 4

46

B
Pig, 5.
respectively as centers and radius

to 5

(or

Q)

draw the four connecting arcs 5 to 9, 7 to 10, 8 to 12


and 6 to II. This completes the eight centered ellipse,
which

is

a very near approach to the shape of that in

constructed with the string and nails.


Figures 4 and 5 are of the four centered kind, using

Fig.

I,

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


only two radii.

Eitlier of these will

for small articles.

\g. 4

to the perfect ellipse

To draw
and

Fig. 4

bisect

it

is,

AB

answer very well

however, slightly nearer

than Fig.

make

5.

the length of major axis,

with the indefinite line

C D

right

at

on which mark x x length of minor


set off the length of required minor

angles to

axis.

it

From A

marked E, and

divide

3 of these spaces,

E B

(which

47

into 4 equal spaces.


is

axis,

With

the difference of the

two axes) as radius, and F as center, mark G and H


and describe circles with radius A M or B G. Take
the distance from

to the nearest ei\s:;e of one of the


from x x marking the points I and
From I and J draw lines through H and G reJ.
spectively, as J to I and 2. and I to 3 and 4.

circles

and

set off

With I and
draw the arc

J as centers and radius I to opposite x


And with J as center and same
3 4.

radius strike the arc

For Fig.

5,

width desired.
then

E B

difference,

is

draw

completing the figure.

2,

From

15

and
set

D, the length and

off the width,

the difference of the axis.

which

is

center strike the arc

V, for radius,
I.

Draw

Take

and with

the chord

to E,

half this

G
I

as

and

With I as center and radius I J draw


With G as center and radius G K mark
Draw lines from L and N both ways
M
through K and M, and use K, L, M and N respectively for the centers from which to draw the four
bisect

it

at J.

the arc J K.
L,
and N.

arcs to form the oval.

These four figures are all drawn to the same dimeni.e, the same lengths of axes, and the different

sions,

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

48

degrees of variation from the nearest perfect form


(Fig. i) are readily detected.
Oval Flaring: Pan.

Having described

several methods of drawing ellipand oval figures, and knowing that many workmen have their own rules for drawing the oval, I will
omit that part here, and give an easy short rule for
pattern for the body of flaring oval pans.
tical

Around

ABC.
depth

B,

the corner of the square

indefinitely

I.

as the radius I

x of

B mark F

required flare

from B as the
of one side of pan,

once the

longer than

the side arc of the oval, Fig. 4.

as far

flare

distance from

to

On A

side radius plus the

e., make B F just


Then draw from F
intersect B C at C. The
i.

E.

a line through E, continued to

the radius of curvature of the

is

bottom of the portion of the


I

draw

From B mark D the perpendicular


of pan desired. From D draw D E parallel to
and make the distance from D to E the same
Fig.

body

to

fit

a side arc (as

X 2) of the oval.

D E

mark

end radius of
from
mark
f the same
B
oval (A H
plus
fee,
which
will be
distance
the flare, and draw
the
radii
for
end
portion
parallel to F E C, and gives
Next, on

the length of

e,

of Fig. 4). and

of body.

Now

draw

a center line

center and radius

C E

H^

of Fig.

Fig.
i.

2.

and with

describe the arc

as

measured with a
With same
bent strip or by stepping with dividers.
center and radius C F draw the arc K L limited by
Then K I J L
lines drawn from H through I and J.

equal in length to

x 2

of the oval,

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


is

the pattern for one side of pan.

pose the body

is

to be

made

in

No-.v

two

we

49

will sup-

pieces, with the

Fig,,

1.

complete the pattern we must


Set
I J L.
add half the end pattern to each end of

seams

at the ends.

To

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER,

so

from

off
I,

and L. towards H, the distance

c f of Fig.

here marked h h and with these points as centers

c e draw tlie arcs I i and J j each equal in


length to one-half the end arc of oval^ as
i or
4

and radius

of Fig.

to

k and

arcs

locks,

From

4.

1.

k and

h and h draw lines through

With same

1.

Add

and the pattern

centers

and radius

and

draw

allowance for wire, burr and


is

complete for one-half the

body.
If the

body

is

to be in four pieces,

make

lock allow-

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER. 51


ance at K I and L J, and draw the two end halves
in

one

and add locks


and 2 are drawn

piece,

Figs.

to both ends of

it.

to a smaller scale than the

ovals in the other chapter, and the measurements do

not exactly correspond with them.


F'\g.

is

to illustrate Figs,

and 2 of

Fig.

all

reason

is

radii,

i)

4.

things do not use

for radii, as

correct

this

this chapter.

0--

Above

For

here reproduced of a size and shape suitable

C D and

of Fig.

often done by some, they are not the

being only the perpendiculars of the

triangles the hypothenuse of

which are the true

radii.

Pan Corners.

There are several ways of cutting a pan corner so


come up true under the

that the folded corner will


wire.
at

And

there are

many workmen who

only guess

and make a poor corner in consequence.


In this chapter I will mention three methods, by
it,

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

52

any one of which the corner may be so quickly laid out


that it would not be profitable to use guess work, and
thev are

all

accurate methods.

Fig. 1.

The first is the: one I most often use, although I do


know that it is any better or quicker than either

not

of the others.

On

a perfectly square

corner of the sheet to be

ABC

used, lay off the allowance for wire


Parallel to these lines

and far enough

for the slant depth of the pan,

the points

and

set off

make

in

D E

Fig.

i.

from them
F.

towards B the desired

From
flare,

one-half the difference between the size of the top and

bottom.

and

I,

Draw

lines

from the points thus found

at

to J.

Next place the handle of

a bevel against the edge

of sheet, and adjust the blade until

it

coincides with

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


the line

handle

is

Then swing
J.
on H J as shown

the bevel around

till

53

the

with the inner

in Fig. 2,

angle of blade and handle at H, and scribe along the


blade from

to the center line J

B.

Reverse the

FiS. 2.

bevel, placing the handle


I

to the

on

same point on center

line as before.

Cut across the wire allowance


or square in to

and

drawn, being careful

may

at

any desired angle,

then through on the lines

to cut accurately

when

the piece

be used for a pattern by which to cut the other

three corners,
this

I,

and scribe from

line I J,

when you have them

measure from

along line

A B

located.

quired for width of top, inside of wire.

along

line

place the

B C
little

To

do

the distance re-

And from

the length of top, inside of wire.

corner pattern on with one

Then
of

its

straight edges coinciding with the edge of the iron,

54

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER,

and the point

Mark

or

at the point

found by measure.

the cut line and along the farther edge of pat-

tern which will give the point at which to square off

the sheet.

which

Square from both the corners thus found,

will locate the fourth corner.

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


because the line J

when

is in

J will

occupy

folded around against end of pan.

Span dividers from

mark B

J at

to o'

Nb

J to o

and swing around and

o'.

Scribe from

Si

the position

55

1/

and from

to o',

and cut out,

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

56

changed

and

Then

one foot at J and strike an arc cutting


and L.
J at
span dividers from
to L, and starting at
set

(two steps) to N. Draw


by the straight edge from H to N, and from I to the
point of intersection with B J, and cut out as before.
step off twice that distance

In the first method we obtained the angle of H J


by means of the bevel and by applying this angle again
we produced the line H N (or the line corresponding
to H N) at twice that angle with the line A B, and
in this case, by stepping twice the distance K to L on
an equal arc, we produce H N at just twice the angle

of

As

J.

before stated, the corner

may

be cut out and

used as a pattern for the other three corners, but


practice

prefer to lay out

all

the corners

first

in

except

the lines of cut, and then complete one, and use the
piece for pattern for the others.

J,

J and

bends when

A
of

Because the

J are needed as guides for


forming up.
I

snap bottom

lineJ

making the

Deflected Snap Bottom.

may

often be used on small articles

tinware, instead of a double seamed bottom, and

given a

deflection

in

the

"setting

down machine."

Cups, dippers, small basins and other small vessels


may be made in this manner, quickly and neatly.

Burr the bottom of body out nearly as much as for


a double steam, and perhaps just slightly wider.
too wide, however.

Not

Cut and burr the bottom so it will po on pretty snug,


and run it in the setting down machine, holding the

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

57

in the
article up enough to begin to just start a deflect
bottom, and continue to raise gradually until the seam

an angle of about 45 degrees, as shown in the section of bottom underneath the cup, in drawing.
With very little practice, and a good setting down
is

at

Section of Bottom.

machine, this can be done very quickly, and makes a


neat job.

double seamed bottom can also be deflected in


down machine, if it is a very small seam,

the setting

and pretty smoothly

finished,

and not too

tight.

If the

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

58

seam

is

small enough to allow of starting

the wheels of the machine, and care

is

the work, quite a neat looking deflect

it

between

used in handling

may

be made.

Farnac* Pipe Boot by Trlsngulation.

As

triangulation

is

more simple and accurate

method of obtaining patterns for some of the more


irregular and complicated shapes, this
ter is

second chap-

given for the benefit of those unfamiliar with the

And

process.

believe,

if

the reader will carefully

study this and the chapter on the "Transition Piece,"

he will be able to develop the pattern for almost any


desired article, by this very useful and simple process.
Figure i is a perspective view of a common shape

Fig.

1.

of boot for furnace pipe, and

more

a transition piece, or

body between the straight


transition piece, and is the portion for

strictly speaking, the

collars

is

which we

will develop the pattern.

This boot

is

to

fit

diameter, and to

in

is

a round pipe at one end lo inches


fit

a "riser" or wall pipe at the

other 2x14 inches.

In practice
tive.

workman has
his

it

And even

is

unnecessary to draw the perspec-

the elevations

may

be omitted,

if

the

the idea, or the picture of the article in

mind, and the work done entirely with the plan

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAE WORKER.


shown

at

the bottom of

Fig-.

2.

the

circle

SO

and the

parallelogram.

Space the

any desired nnmher of eqnal

circle into

parts, here 10 are used.

angles as

shown

Pig.

'

Construct a diagram of

at the right of "side elevation."

tri-

Make

2.

the j)erpen(Iicular

P>

equal to the vertical height of

the body of the article, and the base exactly at right

angles to

it,

and of

indefinite length.

With

the divid-

ers measure each of the distances from the corner

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

6o

4 and 5 and set each one as found, off


from E on tlie base Hne of the diagram of
triangles, marking each one for future references.
Then take the distances from X to 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and

to E,

I.

2,

3,

to the right

10.

being careful to number each one.

Now

draw

to develop the pattern,

BED,

making B E equal

the right angle

to the vertical height

of the diagram of triangles) and

ED

(BE

E D

equal to

of

the plan (one-half the length of one side of the par-

allelogram)

and with one pair of dividers take the

distance from

to

set to

one of the spaces on

these at

on the

foot at

of

and place one

on pattern, and with another pair of dividers

B on

circle place

one foot of

pattern describe a short arc to intersect

an arc made by the other spanned from D, thus locating the point i of the irregular curve of pattern.

Keep

the one pair of dividers set the length of one

of the spaces and continue in rotation, setting the other


pair

from B

to 2

on the

meet the space dividers


urements thus
pattern.

until 5

Then take

is

of

at 2,

and span from

to

and continue the meas-

located on the curve line of

the distance from

5-X from B

on the D of T and span downward from 5 on the pattern and meet it with a measurement from D equal
to D X on the plan (the width of the parallelogram)Then proceed with the remaining distances the same
as with the first quarter of the circle, except

from

instead of

to locate 6, 7, 8,

It was necessary for us


from 5 to X as well as from

9 and

to take the
5 to

we span

10.

measurement

on plan and trans-

fcr

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


point X
it to the D of T in order to locate the

6i

of

the pattern.

Now

to locate the point

of pattern take the dis-

"end elevation" and span it


tance lo to G shown
and meet it with the
pattern
on
lO
downward from
in

Fig.

distance

X G

of plan

3.

(half the length of parallelo-

Connect the points thus


to X, from X to G and
from G to lo, and by drawing a free hand curve
through B, 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6 7, 8. 9 and 10, which com-

gram) spanned out from X.


found by straight lines from

The other half may be


drawn in the same manner, or by cutting out this
half and scribing around it.
The end elevation was referred to once in the above
description, and a measurement from that elevation
pletes one-half the pattern.

was used in locating G on the pattern, but we could


have located it without the end elevation, by measuring across from 10 to G on the plan and transferring
the

distance to the base line

of the

from that point to B is equal to 10


tion, and of the pattern as well.

D of T, then
G of the eleva-

XXTH CENTURY SHEET ^lETAL WORKER.

62

Of

must be made all around


ends of pattern together, and

course, an allowance

this pattern, to lock the

to lock the collars on.

Tee on a Tapered Pipe.

For convenience

in

viz.: A

dimensions-

describing

we

tapered pipe

cone) 8 inches in diameter

will use definite

(frustrum

of

at base, 3 inches at top

and

8 inches i)erpendicular height, about S^i inches slant


height, intersected by a straight pipe 2 inches in
diameter, at an angle of 30 degrees to the axis of the

tapered pipe.

To

develop the patterns

for

the

above descril^ed

article

Draw

a center line

AB

and with

center construct the plan

C on

of the tapered

sisting of a circle of 3 inches diameter

pipe,

C(jn-

surrounded by

a concentric circle 8 inches in diameter.

an 8-inch diameter through

this line as

Then draw

at right angles to

B,

and from the ends of this diameter extend dotted linos


upward any convenient distance to the points D and
E.
Connect D and E by a straight line parallel to
the diameter drawn in plan, and at right angles to
A B, thus forming the base of an elevation of the
article.

On

the

where it
through

make

D E.
until

center

line

inches

intersects the base line

L draw G F

above the point X.


D E, mark Y. and

3 inches long, being careful to

Y and parallel to
Connect E F and D G and continue the lines
they meet on the center line at A.
it

just i>^ inches each side of

Next draw the 2-inch pipe projecting from

the side

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


FF

of elevation

center

line

J K.

Now

and

B,

63

an angle of 30 degrees to the


represented by the straight lines
at

This completes the elevation.

drop dotted

lines

from

and

K down

to the

transverse diameter of plan, and using for center a


point

midway between

these lines on this diameter,

describe a 2-inch circle and space


of equal spaces, here 12.
lines

circle

through

tliese

From

it

into

center

space points

just

any number

C draw

radial

the

outer

to

(base of tapered pipe), and from tliose inter-

sections above and including- the diameter line,

draw

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

64

parallel dotted lines

from

upward

meet these on

to

Find the center of the

D E,

to

and radial

lines

E.

line I J

representing the up-

per end of the 2-inch pipe, and draw a semi-circle

upon

it

as shown, and space

it

and from these points draw


each

in

into six equal spaces,

parallel lines to intersect

turn of the radial lines, and draw a free hand

curve through the points of intersection, which gives


us the true elevation view of the shape of the base of

the small pipe,

To

develop

stretchout

^Nl

semi-circle

shown by
the

XOP

pattern

J and space

this

pipe

into

it

K.

12 equal spaces as

lines at right angles to the pipe

making an elbow

Then

and stretchout,

HK

to inter-

on stretchout, and through

these points of intersection

To

to

draw the

parallel with the pipe.

the points of intersection on curve

sect with the space lines

as in

for

equal to 12 of the spaces on the

shown and placed exactly


draw
from

the heavy curve line

draw the curve

the

same

pattern.

develop the pattern for the tapered pipe, set the

dividers at A and with radius A D draw the arc O R


and with radius A G the arc S T. Step off one-quarter of the large circle in plan into any desired number

of equal spaces and,


in

found
nect

in

RT

if

only half the pattern

is

desired

shown, step twice the number


the quarter circle on the arc O R, and conand O S by drawing radial lines towards A.

piece

as

here

This will then be the pattern for half the tapered pipe.
If, however, it is desired to make the pattern in one
piece, step off four times the

number of spaces found

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

65

in the quarter circle of plan, onto the continued arc

OR.
To
to

cut the opening in this pattern for the small pipe

draw the

fit,

here shown

from

it

in

radial line

the middle

space off each

way

AU

wherever desired
and

of the half pattern

the spaces obtained in plan

by drawing the radial lines through the space points


The
in small circle to the circumference of tlie base.
line

AU

of pattern

hence we space on

is

the

OR

same

line as

L'

in

plan,

each way from U the same


Then
plan each side of U.

shown in
draw radial lines from A to all these points on O R.
Next draw parallel lines across the elevation from the
distances as

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

66

intersecting points on curve

HK

angles to

at right

AB

and intersecting the side D G and with the dividers draw curves from the points where the horizontal Hues meet D G, using A as center to intersect
the radial lines drawn from A to O R, and through
the points

of

intersection

draw the

irregular

egg

shaped oval which will be the shape of the opening.


All locks

and

laps

must be allowed outside of the

pattern lines.

To

develop patterns for the same article by trian-

gulation.

Draw

plan and elevation the 'same in outline as for

and the semi-circle T J on end of small


it the same as in the previous example.
Drop dotted lines from the points H and K to the
transverse diameter of plan and space the portion between them into 6 equal spaces, and with C as center
draw short concentric arcs through these space marks.
projection,

pipe and space

Draw

a dotted outline of the small pipe projecting as

far as the point

XY

dfaw

in

elevation and on

a semi-circle spacing

the

it

its

same

diameter

as the one

in elevation.

Draw

lines

from the semi-circle

XY

to intersect the

draw the
which represents the top

arcs and through the points of intersection


irregular curve as shown,

view of the small pipe intersecting the tapering

Now

pipe.

through the intersections above the diameter

draw 3 radial lines to the large circumference of plan


and project lines from these points up to base line
D E of elevation, and draw radial lines from A to
meet them.

Draw

parallel lines

from the semi-circle

CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

XXTII

67

and mark the curve

I J to intersect the radial lines

HK.
Space one quarter of the large circle of plan into
6 equal spaces, and make lines towards the center C
and just to the small circumference, thus spacing the
small circle into the same number of equal spaces as
the large one. Number the points on the inner circle

and those on the outer circle 8 to 14. Draw a


diagonal line from i to 13 and set off its length on
base line of elevation as shown from 14 to 13, then the
distance from the center of the line F G and i. to the
1

to 7.

marked

point

on the base

13

length of the diagonal line

GD

or

FE

is

Now draw

will

line,

to

the true length of

one side of pattern

13.
i

be the true

And

the side

to 14. 2 to 13, etc.

R. the length of

DG

and mark one end i and the other 14. With a


pair of dividers spanned to the length of the line i to
13 in elevation set one point at i at the top end of
the line T R. and with a second pair of dividers
spanned one of the spaces of the large circle of plan,
measure out from 14 at the lower end of the line T R
and mark a short arc across one made by the dividers
reaching from
tance

DG

i,

thus locating 13.

Next take

the dis-

of elevation and with one foot of dividers

at the newly found point 13 measure upward and


locate 2 just the distance of one of the spaces of small

a great convenience to have


and keep them set to this disAnd as i to 13, and D to G happen, in this
tance.
instance, to be the same length, they can be used without change for both measurements. Now mark from
circle out

from

i.

It

is

a third pair of dividers

2 to 12 measuring out from 13 with the dividers which

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

68

are set to the large circle spaces. Then from 12 to 3


measuring out with those set to the short spaces, and
so on until one-half, or if so desired, the whole pattern

is

To

completed.

get the opening for small pipe

center line of pattern

tl.^

mark down on

distance from

to

(eleva-

and up from 8 the distance from E to H, and


locate the center * where the side lines of pattern
would cross, and using center * draw short arcs
through the points marked. (T\y the way, if the work
has been correctly done, the distance from O or R
to * will be the same as from D or E to A of elevation.)
Next measure from point F to each in turn
of the intersection points in curve between K and
tion)

and transfer them to the center line of pattern, measuring down from 7 each time, and draw an arc through
each using * as center. Now take the distance from
the center line, or rather the transverse diameter of

on each of the arcs and

plan, to the intersection point

transfer each measurement to the corresponding arc

on pattern, and through these points draw the curve


for the opening.

For pattern

for small pipe,

draw

required for circumference of pipe,

6 5/16 inches, and


Space
elevation.
the center line

the length

in this

case about

AI

M P and N O each equal to J K of


M N into 12 equal spaces and draw

VW

from the space points

equal to

I,

parallel to

length but not longer than

V W,

then draw lines

VW

of indefinite

and measure the

distance from each of the points on the straight line


I

J to each corresponding point on the curved line


and transfer each in turn to each side of the pattern.

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

69

These measurements may be verified by a diagonal


measurement from each point as found, back to the
last preceding" point as sliown by the diagonal dotted
lines

on both pattern and elevation.


Fruit Jar Filler.

very convenient and ready selling fruit jar

and dipper combined

The

in

article is

Figs.

and

made

2.

is

in

two

Fig.

is

pieces,

which are shown

the dipper portion, and

should be raised slightly with the hammer.

A, of Fig.

I, is

The edge

to be double-seamed to the edge B, of

Fig. 2, between the points

C and D

filler

here shown.

marked

and

e.

The edges

are locked together forming the top side of

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

70

And those edges marked


hemmed and flattened down in the

the funnel portion.

a a a a

are simply

burring

machine.

wire makes the edge too thick to dip into

the fruit.
Fig. 3

shows the

finished article, with the exception

of the handle, which

may

be a dipper handle, soldered

and well bossed, or a large saucepan handle riveted


and soldered at the point marked E.

This dipper and


readily

filler,

when once

becomes a

tried,

with the ladies of the house, and will

favorite

when

its

many

uses

become known

in a

sell

neigh-

borhood.
Elbozi's, angles, tecs,
etc., all

We

cut
will

ill

the

first

roof saddles, chimney thiinhles,

same manner.
consider a

square two-piece elbow,

and a very convenient method of cutting


square elbow I mean one of 90 degrees

Lay cut

it.

the blank of sufficient length to

By

make

pipe of the desired size, 18^8 inches for 6-inch pipe, or

22 inches for 7-inch.

Then allow

as

much on each

side as will be required for locks, or lap

We

will

now suppose we

degree elbow
sheet

XY

in

two

OZ

to rivet.

are to cut a 7-inch 90-

We

will take a piece

of

x 14 inches arid mark tlie lines


22 inches apart and parallel. This will

iron about 23

and

pieces.

if

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


leave a half -inch for lock on each edge

previously cut

On

the line

it

71

we have

inches long.

27,

XY,

if

about 3

i'.iches

clown from

mark

from A
A:
dissame
the
and
at
manner,
same
the
In
mark B.
and
A
and
E.
F
points
D,
the
OZ
line
mark
on
tances
their
reapart
on
inches
each
are
E
7
P,. and D and
3>< inches from

A mark

C,

a' id

7 inches

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

72

D to E. Next draw the center line from C to F,


and with the dividers unchanged place one foot at 3
where the center line crosses the semi-circle, and
mark short arcs at i and 5. From A. same span,
mark 2, and from B mark 4. Proceed the same at the
other end of pattern, thus dividing each semi-circle
into 6 equal spaces.

Draw

parallel lines

XY

from

Elbows

to

OZ

rnrough these

Fig. 2,

points, dividing the pattern into 6 unequal spaces, as

chown

in Fig. i of Elbows.
Snace any one of the parallel lines, or the bottom
edge of sheet into 12 equal spaces, and draw lines

from the points perpendicularly, crossing the horilines as shown, and draw a freehand line
through the alternate points of intersection, from B
zontal

to

5,

to 8, to 7, to

10, to

and ending

at E.

This

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


line

is

Fig.

I.

clearly

shown by

the

heavy curved

line

72>

in

Cut on this line, and we have the two pieces A and


B shown in Fig. 2, which, when formed up and locked
will make a two-piece 90-degree elbow with one seam
in the throat,

and one on

top.

Elbows
To make

Fig, 3

a roof saddle for the side of a half-pitch

on same line.
But if for comb of roof, cut from B to 8, then down
to 9, up to 10 and down to E, and use the lower piece
shown by B of Fig. 3. The other piece resulting from
roof, cut

this cut

is

a tee pattern, but

without allowance for lap.

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

74

which may be added


lines in

tion

of

shown bv dotted

as desired, as

Fig'. 3.

It is,

however,

tlie

true intersec-

Hne of the Tee.

Fig. 3

is

also the pattern for a stove-pipe thimlile

And

the other piece, B,

to

fit

in a corner.

to

fit

the projecting corner of a chimney.

Thus

far

a thimble

is

we have only been working with angles


To make patterns for other angles it

of 90 degrees.
is

and
which
The semi-circles must be

only required to get the rise of the miter

span the dividers to equal one-half of


the process

is

the same.

of a diameter equal to the required

To Find the Rise

line,

after

rise.

of Miter Line for 90 Degree

Any Number

An

it,

Elbow of

of Pieces.

easy manner of finding the rise of miter line for

90 degree elbows of
lows:

Draw

a square

number of

shown by A,

Draw

B,

is

as fol-

to the

diame-

pieces,

having each side equal

ter of the pipe, as

and

an\-

C and D

of Figs.

from
and with the dividers set the length of one
side of the square, and one foot at C, draw a quadrant
from B to D, and divide one half of it into i less equal
I,

to C,

of Miters.

spaces than the

number

the diagonal line

of pieces desired in the elbow.

shows method of getting the miter line


for a three piece elbow. Fig. 3 a four piece, and Fig.
And Figs. 2, 4 and 6 show the pattern
5 a five piece.
Miters, Fig.

i,

developed.
In all cases the spacing on the quadrant must be
done accurately, and the miter line extended through

XXTH CKNTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

75

the point to the side of the square, and the true rise of
the miter hne is the distance from B to the point

where the miter Hne cuts the

in Fig.

side of square,

To prove

that this

mnhod

only necessary to refer to Fig.

gets the true


7,

rise,

it

is

which shows the out-

I
Fig.

Fig. 3.

^ifi

marked

r.

2.

Fig, 4.

Fig.

6.

Hne of the long, or outer, side of a three piece elbow


drawn within the square, and drawn to a larger scale.
This drawing also clearly shows the reason for spacing half the quadrant into one less than the
pieces

miter

desired.
lines.

.\

three piece

four piece, three,

number of
elbow only has two
etc.

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

76

The foregoing methods may

also be appliKl to the

cutting of patterns for angles of an}' shape ai well as

90 degrees.

It is

only necessary to find th? rise of the

Pig. 7.

miter

line,

and draw the pattern as described by using


whose diameter is the rise required.

semi-circles

Elbows of Less Than 90 Degrees, Called Angles.

As
we

may be obtained in
we have been studying, after

before stated, these patterns

the same

manner

as those

obtain the rise of the miter

We

will

line.

now suppose we have found

pitch of an angle to
bevel, or with

fit

the required

a certain place, by setting a

two pieces of iron riveted together, or


H and I of

with two pieces of lath or shingle, as


Fig.

I.

Draw

AB

and

BC

along the two blades of HI, and

bisect the angle thus formed.

This

may

be done by

spanning the dividers an equal distance each way from

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER. 17


B and marking points as A and C, then with these
points as centers and radius greater than A to B, strike

rig. 2

Draw BF indefinitely
the intersecting arcs at D.
through the intersection, and on this Hue locate a

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

78

point

just the diameter of the pipe distant

nearest point on

from the

AB, which may be done by spanning

the dividers to the diameter of pipe and striking the

AC. Then draw EF at right angles to AB by


means of one of the elementary rules for drawing a
line from a given point to a given line, perpendicuarc

lar to the

given

When E

is

line.

and the distance

hence

we

is

to

will be the miter

3.

Fifi.
line,

BF

accurately located,

is

the required

rise,

and

the diameter of the semi-circles from which

develop the pattern.

In other words, span the di-

viders one-half the distance

and proceed as

in the

to

for the radius,

development of elbows as before

given.

The angle shown in Fig. i, the complete elevation of


is shown in Fig. 2, is 45.
But it is not necessary that we should know the number of degrees.
which
If,

however, the required degrees are known, and

we have

a protractor, the process

Draw AD,

Fig.

3,

equal

in

is

even more simple.

length to the diameter

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER. 79


pipe, and by the protractor, draw DB at one-half

of

the required angle.

For

is

we draw DB at an
Then one-half the distance A to

instance, for a 30 angle,

angle of 15 to

AD.

the radius for our semi-circles.

Pig, 4.

The

elevation of the finished 30 angle

is

shown

in

Fig. 4.

To Draw Pattern

for

Any Regalar Tapering

The method here

or Flaring Article

described will apply in drafting

patterns for any of the round flaring and tapered articles

made

in

a tin shop, whether basins, pans, coffee

pots or "Sibley stoves."

Provided the bottom and top

are parallel, and the sides a regular taper.

Draw an

elevation of the article, full size, as A, B,

8o

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

C, D, of Fig.

and extend the

I,

meet, as at E.

Then with E

as center,

radius, describe an arc cutting

pattern
F.

is

And

to be in

side lines until they

and

ED

and C, and

if

as

the

one piece, continue indefinitely to

with the same center, and radius

to

A,

extending

in-

Pig. !
strike

an arc through

and

B and

definitely to G.

a circle the size the large end of the

Next draw
finished article

quarters,

as

is

only a quarter

and divide it into


more convenient, draw

to be, as Fig. 2,

shown.
circle.)

(Or

if

Space the quarter

circle into

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


4, 5,

as

8i

or 6 spaces, or any convenient number, (here 5)


to X, Fi,q-. 2, and step these onto the Hne D F,

shown from D to X
from D to X and step

as

Draw an

in

i.

off three

thus locating- the point F,

almost equal

Then span dividers


more times, 2, 3, F,
and making the arc D F

in Fig.

length to the circumference in Fig.

DC

arc outside of, and parallel to

2.

F, as

an allowance for burr or wire, according to whether


the large end is to be the top or bottom of the finished

Fig* 2.
job.

And

another arc inside of, and parallel to

Also, allow edges for lock or lap. parallel to

F, as
If

it is

shown by dotted
desired to make

only twice the distance

And

if

it

is

to

lines in Fig.

i.

the pattern in

two

DX

as

shown

AB

A D,

G.

and

pieces, use

at 2 in Fig.

i.

be in three pieces get one-third the

by stepping twice the radius, as O to P,


and divide this into a number of equal spaces (here 7),
which step on arc D F of Fig. i, from D to Y.
circle, Fig. 2,

It is

a mistake sometimes

made by

tinners, to step

6 times the radius of the required circle, on


locate F, as this will

make

F, to

the pattern too short. While

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

82

6 times the radius just measures around inside its own


circumference, yet it will not measure the same length

when

of line
ent

size.

shown

is

applied to the arc of a circle of a differ-

This
the

is

same

where the circle


and the radius

illustrated in Fig. 3,

size as that in Fig. 2,

Pig. 3.
shown stepped around it in six steps. Also, D F is
made the same as DF in Fig. i, and the six steps
shown only reaching to f, showing how much too
is

short the pattern would be

Even

the

method

if

measured

have described

in this
is

manner.

little

short

enough for
desired I would

of the true length but will be found near

most

cases.

If greater

accuracy

is

recommend cutting a narrow strip of light sheet metal


just the required length, and bending it to the proper
curve, measure from D to locate F.

XXTH CENTl'RV SHEET METAL WORKER.


Some Convenient DimensioBi

83

of Tinware.

In the following dimensions the locks, burrs, wire

have

locks, etc..

all

That

been allowed.

is

for small

Don't put a pint cup together with a

neat seams.

"stove pipe lock."

There are two regular sizes of No. 8 wash boilers.


8-18, and the small No. 8.
For the No. 8-18 cut 3 pieces 14 x 19, or i piece
56 X 14.
For the No. 8 small cut 3 pieces 13^ x 18, or i

The No.

piece 53-^ I3K'-

For No. 9
59 X

14 x 20, or

boiler cut 3 pieces

piece

14-

Covered Buckets.

2 quart
3 quart

2 pieces 10

4 quart
6 quart
8 quart

2 pieces 12
2 pieces
2 pieces

Flaring Pails. (Net Sizes

2 quart,

6yi

in.

quart,

7>4
9I4

in.
in.

8 quart, io'<

in.

4
6

quart,

10 quart,

UV2

14 quart, 13

in.
in.

5^

x7

12^ x 8>^
13^ x 9^

diam. top, 43^ diam.


diam. top, 5
diam.
diam. top, 5>4 diam.
diam. top, 6
diam.

diam. top, 7
diam. top, 9

10^ x 6

2 pieces

hot.,

bot., 5 '4
bot.,

deep
deep

6y2 deep
deep

bot., 7J/<

diam.

bot.,

diam.

bot.,

deep
deep

Pans. (Net Sizes.)

quart,

6 quart,

12^

in.

top,

in.

bot.,

3^)4

i"-

fleep

in.

top,

in.

bot.,

in.

deep

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

84

10

quart.

14

in.

top,

11

in.

bot.,

14

quart,

I5>:|

in.

top,

10

in.

bot.,

16

quart,

18

in.

top,

iii.

20 quart,

19^^

in.

top,

13

in.

To

Hold.

iii-

bot.,

4^4
6
6^/

bot.,

deep

in.

deep

in.

deep

in.

deep

Cans. (Cut to Bent Advantage.)

Size to Cut Sheet.


7

X 21 inches

2 gallons

10

X 25 inches

3 gallons
4 gallons

103/2

X 30 inches
X 32 inches
X 36 inches

gallon

5 gallons

12

6 gallons

13

8 gallons

14

10 gallons

16

15 gallons

20

20 gallons

20

25 gallons

22

40 gallons

.26

26

50 gallons
75 gallons
fr>o

To

12

30
36

gallons

x 40 inches
x 42 inches
X 46 inches
X48 inches
X 57 inches

X 60 inches
X 70 inches
X 76 inches
X 86 inches
X 96 inches

find the contents of cylindrical vessels.

Multiply the square of the diameter

in inches

by the

height in inches, and this product by the decimal .0034.

The

result will be the gallons,

and decimal fraction of

a gallon.

This

is

a shorter

method than finding the cubic

inches and dividing by 231, and the result

the same.

is

exactly

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.

85

Practical Suggestions.

To

Clean Water Backs

When

Up With Lime

Filled

or Alkali.

Pour slowly
chloric)

the

into

casting,

This must be done carefully, as

waste the acid unless care

When

muriatic

(hydro-

will boil

over and

acid.

the lime has

all

it

taken.

is

been removed, wash thor-

oughly, and replace.

To Cut Heavy

When

Iron With the Stock Shears.

very heav\- iron

is

to

be cut by hand,

it

will

often be found a great help to turn the shears wrong


side up and slip a piece of i-inch gas pipe, or larger if

necessary, onto the tang, thus

making

long leverage,

and the pipe stands so nearly perpendicular that the


workman can stand almost erect, and yet has a good
leverage on the work.

To Lock

the

Edges

of a Pitched Cover, or

Can Top.

Often when making a cover or can top with only


a slight pitch,
ficult to

in

the

do so

slot

the rod just

it

is

desirable to lock the seam, but dif-

in the folder.

Try

sli])ping

each edge

of the rod of gutter header, and turning

enough

to

break the aV^c up a little more


may be grooved down

than sciuare, when the seam


ver}' nicely.

Teiitporarx Handles for Soldering Coppers.


These may l)e (|uickly made by wrapping around
the shank several thicknesses of asbestos paper. Draw
answer
it snug with a wire, and it will be found to

the purpose very well,

86

XXTH CENTURY SHEET METAL WORKER.


To Tin Black Iron

Rivets, or Other Small Articles.

bowl of raw acid (hydrochloric) until


Rinse with water
the black scale is well eaten off.
and place in "killed" acid
i.
e., acid which has had
all the zinc it will eat, and then without rinsing, drop

Put them

in a

into a pot of melted solder.

Remove with

a strainer.

'V^/^T T
^ ^^ vJ
of

any

cannot afford to place your


order for Stoves or Ranges
kind without writing to the

MONITOR STOVE

AND RANGE

CO.

CINCINNATI
FOR THEIR

NEW CATALOG

Makers

of

the

MONITOR RADIATOR
The Greatest and Best Hard Coal
Base Burner

Stoves and Ranges for

all

kinds of fuel

MIONITOR
STOVES & RANGES

The Sheet Metal Worker With Ambition


To Get Ahead Needs

THE

AMERICAN

ARTISAN

AND HARDWARE RECORD


In His Business

PUBLISHED

EVERY SATURDAY

Slieet metal workers, tinners and roofers wlio knf)\v,


consider it the most authoritative and valuable pul)li<ation devoted to their interests

IT IS

Each

AND WILL CONTINUE TO BE

contains one or more tinshop proljlems


prepared and edited by experts.
Each issue contains a fund of practical and instructi\e
articles relating to the sheet metal industry.
Subscribers are always at liberty to submit tinshop
problems which puzzle them. In fact when we say that
no publication even attempts to prepare as interesting or
valuable a department for the sheet metal worker, we
speak the truth. If you want the most news, tlie freshest
news, the most instructive illustrated articles by the best
authorities on Sheet Metal Work, Cornice Work, Tin
Roofing. Furnace Installation, etc.,
issue

THE AMERICAN ARTISAN


is

your trade paper.

Subscribe To=day and Take Advantage of Our Special Offer

Subscription Price, $2.00

Year, 52 Issues.

DANIEL STERN,
Publisher and Proprietor,

355 Dearborn

St.,

CHICAGO

Books by Mail
position to supply Teclinical BOOKS and
characters, at lowest prices
.**.",''';*' ii'^l^i^'^'^ ^''C' most staiuianl works on Sheet

>1etal Work, Heating and Ventilation, Plumbing


and Drain=
age. Advertising and the Workshop.

D*TTCDMc''\'^
PATTERNS ot all

Some Books and

Patterns for the


Sheet Metal Worker

100

TINNERS' PATTERNS -Full sized patterns tor


ot tniware on lieavy manila
i)aper ready

complete hne
tor

use nowhere

can so complete a set be obtained a't


^1 ^^^
Gray's PERFECT ELBOW PATTERNS
absolutelv
-" <^0 Pattt-rns 2, 8. 4, T, pieces) $1.50
on'^'r^%
ro'J''
to 40" (SO
20
patterns 5, 6, 7, 8 pieces)
so
C'oinplete set of 1" to 4()" (2 to S pieces, 160
patterns)
with angle chart
3 qq
(hay's PERFECT SKYLIGHT PATTERNS -for sinHe
""
the very Iom- price of

and

pitch, hip

gal)le skyliglits.

24" bar::;: ;:;::: ::::;;::::::

'^aH

WORK /VlANUAL-240 pages (]S4'engn; vimportant information for cornice worker $3.50
TIN, SHEET IRON and COPPER PLATE
WORKER
^'^'""'' ''qiially valual)le
for beginner and
''X,,^^CORNICE

mg.s) of

skilled artisan

TINNERS' HELPER and PATTERN BOOK by

Vosburgh

valuable

rules,

edition

SHEET METAL WORKERS' QUIDE-with

ihagrams

for describing

used al.so
geometry

S;^
II

SO

diagrams and tabl(\s p,ke1


1 00

rulcs.md

most

useful patterns ordinarily


chapter on Sheet Metal Work, soldering and

MANUAL OF RECEIPTS-' 241


ceipts tor the worksliop

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for our complete


prepay express on
No books exchanged.

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DANIFI O^TFPIM
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q ^q
1718 usefulre$3 SO
prices.

pages',

353-357 Dearborn

CHICAGO,

St.

ILLINOIS

29

\^IQ

100

TINNERS' PATTERNS

THE AMERICAN ARTISAN FULL SIZE PATTERNS


Comprise patterns for a full line of tinware, in numerous sizes, square and round
elbows, cut-offs, etc. These full size patterns, numbering upward 100, are printed
on inanila paper, from which they are readily transferred fo heavy sheets and
cut out ready for use. The list contains the following patterns;

Tea Steeper
Fourteeii-quart Milk Pail Breast
Two-pint Tea Pot
Two-inch Four-piece Round Elbow
Three-pint Tea Pot
Three-inch Four-piece Round Elbow
Four-pint Tea Pot
Four-inch Four-piece Round Elbow
Five-pint Tea Pot
Five-inch Four-piece Round Elbow
One-quart Coffee Pot
Five-and-a-half-inch Round Elbow
Two-quart Coffee Pot
Six-and-a-half-inch Round Elbow
Three-quart Coffee Pot
Seven-and-a-half-inch Round Elbow
Four-quart Coffee Pot
Small Grocers' Scoop
Five-quart Coffee Pot
Medium Grocers' Scoop
No. 1 Coffee Boiler
Large Grocers' Scoop
No. 2 Coffee Boiler
Apple Corer
No. 3 Coffee Boiler
Oval Foot Bath
Lamp Filler
Oval Pudding Pan
One-Pint Dipper
Half-gallon Can Breast
One-quart Dipper
One-gallon Can Breast
Two-quart Dipper
Two-gallon Can Breast
Four-quart Flaring Pail
Three-gallon Can Breast
Six-quart Flaring Pail
Half-i)int Measure
Eight-quart Flaring I'ail
One-pint Measiue
Ten-quart Flaring Pail
One-quart Measure
Twelve-quart Flaring Pail
Half-gallon Measure
Fourteen-quart Flaring Pai
Ten-quart Dish Pan
Twelve-quart Dish Pan
Fourteen-quart Dish Pan
Sixteen-quart Dish Pai\
Dinner Bucket
I'^ive-inch T-Joint

One-i)int Basin
T wo-pint Basin

Three-pint Basin
Four-T)int

Pan

Six-quart pan
Ten-(iuart Pan

Small Cuke Pan

Medium Cake

Six-inch T-Joint

I'an

Eave Trough Mitre .Joint


"Snap" 2-inch Conductor Elbow

Large Cake Pan


Small Wash Basin
Cullender
Large Wash Basin
Two-inch Square Elbow
Sprinkler Breast
Two-and-a-half inch Square Elbow
Four-gallon Churn
Three-and-a-half-inch Square Elbow
Five-gallon Churn
Four-and-a-half-inch Square Elliow
Small Dust Pan
Five-and-a-half-inch Square Elbow
Large Dust Pan
Six-and-a-half-inch Square Elbow
Five Sizes Funnel Patrns.
Seven-and-a-half-inch Square Elbow
Oval Dinner Bucket
One-pint Funnel
Rain Water Cut-off
Two-pint Funnel
No. 7 Boiler Cover
Three-jiint Funnel
No. 8 Boiler Cover
Four-pint Funnel
No. 9 Boiler Cover
Small Milk Strainer
No. 7 Boiler Bottoms
f^arge Milk Strainer
No. 8 Boiler Bottoms
Ten-(iuavt Milk Pail Breast
No. 9 Boiler Bottoms

THE AMERICAN ARTISAN


other

patterns are a great convenience, and in no


so small a cost. Price, sent postpaid for the

full size

way can they be obtained at

FULL SET OF

100

PATTERNS $1.00
355 DEARBORN ST.

DANIEL STERN,

CHICAGO,

ILL.

REGISTERS

and

VENTILATORS

CAST

IRON

BBBBBBBHH

or

SEMI-STEEL
or

WROUGHT
STEEL

500,000

in

Stock

lY MFG. CO.
One copy

9tr::

del. to Cat.

29

1910

Div.

boston