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Stress, Elasticity and Deformation

StressThe Response of Structural


Materials to Load:

Different types of stress:

Axial: Tension, Compression, Bearing, Shear


Flexural
Torsional
Thermal

Axial Stress

Compression stress depends on the


length of the material under
consideration.

Short members have stress behavior very


similar to tension, except that they are
being squeezed together versus pulled
apart
Long members are subject to buckling
behavior (a sudden warping out of plane),
which will be discussed as a separate topic.

Axial Stress
Also referred to as normal stress since
it acts in line with the material
Most simple form is tension stress
since effect is independent of the length
of the material
Next simplest form is bearing stress,
which is a form of compressive stress,
and relates to the contact of two
materials

Axial Stress

Definition of axial stress (and the units


for all stress types) is force area.
f = P/A (compression) or f =T/A tension)
P

Shear Stress in Connections

Shear Stress

Result of forces acting transversely to a


material

Can arise in conjunction with two materials


attached to one another and the transfer
of forces between them
Also arises in conjunction with flexural
stresses in bending members

Illustrations: Barry Onouye and Kevin Kane: Statics and Strength of Materials for
Architecture and Building Construction, second edition; Prentice-Hall, 2001

Stress, Elasticity and Deformation

Shear Stress in Connections


Shear Stress in a Flexural Member

Illustrations: Barry Onouye and Kevin Kane: Statics and Strength of Materials for
Architecture and Building Construction, second edition; Prentice-Hall, 2001

Illustrations: Barry Onouye and Kevin Kane: Statics and Strength of Materials for
Architecture and Building Construction, second edition; Prentice-Hall, 2001

Flexural Stress

Illustrations: Barry Onouye and Kevin Kane: Statics and Strength of Materials for
Architecture and Building Construction, second edition; Prentice-Hall, 2001 and
Malcom Millais: Building Structures, E & FN Spon, 1997

Flexural Stress

Result of bending behavior in beams

More complex than axial or shear stress


since the distribution of stress is not
constant across face of material
Magnitude of stress depends not only on
force and area, but on geometry of the
cross section

Torsional Stress

Torsional Stress

Result of a direct or indirect twisting in


a member

Less common type of stress in a building


structure, but still often present, especially
at spandrel (i.e. exterior) conditions
Also seen as a direct twisting, such as on a
rotating shaft

We wont be computing torsional stress,


but you should be aware of its nature.
Illustrations: Barry Onouye and Kevin Kane: Statics and Strength of Materials for
Architecture and Building Construction, second edition; Prentice-Hall, 2001

Stress, Elasticity and Deformation

Torsional Stress
Torsional
Resistance

Illustration: Architectural Structures, Wayne Place,


2007, John Wiley & Sons

Illustrations: Barry Onouye and Kevin Kane: Statics and Strength of Materials for
Architecture and Building Construction, second edition; Prentice-Hall, 2001

Stress, Elasticity and Deformation

Thermal Stress

Result from changes in temperature

All materials, to a lesser or greater extent, will


expand and contract with changes in temperature
Materials subjected to exterior exposure can have
dramatic changes in length if rather long (eg.
building facades and walls)
If materials are restrained against this movement,
then stresses internally will develop

A significant source of thermal stress in an


interior condition is from fire.

Under Stress, Materials Deform

Overall deformation under axial stress is called


total deformation (), under flexural stress is
called deflection ()
Unit deformation is called strain ()
By definition: = /L
(strain = total deformation / original length)
Strain is a unitless number, often expressed as
in/in or mm/mm, or sometimes as a percentage
(e.g., strain of 0.0035 in/in = 0.35%)

Material Elasticity
Lab Results

Material Elasticity Lab Results


Original dimensions: 1 wide x 0.004 thick x 5 long
Cross sectional area = 1 in(0.004 in) = 0.004 in2(2.54 cm/in)2 = 0.026 cm2
Recall stress in SI units is Pa = 1 N/m2, need to convert to m2
0.026 cm2(1 m/100 cm)2 = 2.58 x 10-6 m2
Measured force @ yield point 10 N
Stress @ yield point = (10 N)/(2.58 x 10-6 m2) = 3,906,250 N/m2 (Pa)
3,906,250 Pa (1 Mpa/106 Pa) F y = 3.91 Mpa

Stress, Elasticity and Deformation

Material Elasticity Lab Results


Approximate deformation at yield point: 5 cm = 0.05 m
Original length = 5 in(2.54 cm/in) = 12.7 cm = 0.127 m
= PL/AE (deformation = PLAY)

Material Elasticity Lab Results


How does these results for plastic compare to structural steel??
Esteel = 200 Gpa = 200,000 MPa

E = PL/A = fL/
Esteel / Eplastic = 200,000 MPa / 9.9 MPa 20,000 times stiffer!!

E [3,906,250 N/m2(0.126 m)] / 0.05 m = 9,921,875 Pa

Fy(steel) / Fy(plastic) = 200 MPa / 3.9 MPa 52 times stonger

9,921,875 Pa (1 Mpa/106 Pa) E = 9.92 MPa

Conclusion: Not so much that steel is stronger than plastic, but it is far
stiffer than plastic, as measured by modulus of elasticity.

Elastic Curves for Various Structural Materials

Design Properties of Various Structrural Materials