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DRAMA

What is a Drama?
Drama is a literary composition, which is performed by professional actors onstage.
Drama comes from Greek word dran meaning "to do" or "to act". It also referred as
play. Drama is often combined with music and dance: the drama in opera is generally
sung throughout; musicals generally include both spoken dialogue and songs.
The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division
between comedy and tragedy. They are symbols of the ancient Greek Muses,
Thalia and Melpomene. Thalia was the Muse of comedy (the laughing face), while
Melpomene was the Muse of tragedy (the weeping face). The early modern tragedy
Hamlet (1601) by Shakespeare and the classical Athenian tragedy Oedipus the King (c.
429 BC) by Sophocles are among the masterpieces of the art of drama.
HISTORY & DEVELOPMENT OF DRAMA
Ancient Greek Drama
Drama originated in Greece around 500 B.C. Ancient Greek Drama consists of three
kinds of play: Tragedy, Comedy & Satyr plays. The earliest dramas were designed to
worship gods and goddesses. Masks were used to represent characters. Antigone, Oedipus
Rex and Medea are among the famous plays written during this time.
Roman Drama
Roman drama refers to any dramatic form tragedies, comedy, farce, mime, and
pantomimecomposed in the Latin language. The Romans witnessed the first formof
dramatic performance in Rome in364 B.C. They performed some form of
danceaccompanied by flute music. Roman theaters were temporary wooden structures
taken down afterthe performance. With the fall of the Roman Empire, Roman drama comes
to its own end.
Moving on, as Mr. Regie tell us the fall of the Roma.Llet me discuss you The Death
of Drama and the Rebirth of Drama
The Death of Drama
From the fall of Rome in the late fifth century until the tenth century, the drama was
essentially dead. Drama remained dead for several years.
The Rebirth of Drama
Until, drama was reintroduced into Western Europe in the tenth century. Just as
drama was born among Greekas a part of religious observances, among Christians it too
was reborn asa part of religion. Drama was reborn during The MiddleAges (Medieval
Period).

Medieval Drama
This was the beginning of drama inpost-classical Western Europe. In the 10th
century bits of chanteddialogue, called tropes, were added tothe Easter celebration. These
little plays (troops) grew moreelaborate. Some of the later Latin plays were elaborate and,
taking well over an hour to perform. The purpose of these plays was to teach religion.

Renaissance Drama
The English Renaissance, a cultural andartistic movement in England from
16thto early 17th century. It paved the way for the dominance ofdrama in the country.
Queen Elizabeth I ruled during theperiod. Great poetry and drama were produced. The
renowned playwrights of this time include William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Ben
Jonson, and John Webster. The dramatists wrote plays based onthemes like history,
comedy and tragedy.
Modern Drama
Modern Drama begins in the late nineteenth century and continues to thepresent
day. Modern drama involved much experimentation with new forms and ideas. In the early
part of the 20th century, musical drama came to dominate stagesin New York and
England, although each theater season saw the release ofstraight dramatic plays as well.

SUMMARY OF THE HISTORY & DEVELOPMENT OF THE DRAMA


Drama was started By Greeks which influenced most of the dramas in Rome. As the
world saw the fall of Roman Empire, the drama died as well. Drama was reborn in the early
medieval time as part of religion. People like William Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, and John
Webster changed the way dramas were perceived during Renaissance. The modern drama
is still much alive but most people are starting to take more interest in other sources of
entertainment.
Types of Drama
Tragedy In general, tragedy involves the ruin of the leading characters. To the
Greeks, it meant the destruction of some noble person through fate, To the
Elizabethans; it meant in the first place death and in the second place the
destruction of some noble person through a flaw in his character. Today it may not
involve death so much as a dismal life; Modern tragedy often shows the tragedy not
of the strong and noble but of the weak and mean.
Comedy refer to plays that are light in tone, and that typically have happy
endings. The intentof a comedic play is to make the audiencelaugh.
Problem Play Drama of social criticism discusses social, economic, or political
problems by means of a play.
Farce a sub-category of comedy, characterized by greatly exaggerated characters
and situations.

Musical In musical theater, the story is told not only through dialogue and acting
but through music and dance.

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Types of Drama of Historical Interest:
Medieval mystery plays -- dealt with Bible stories and allegorical mysteries.
Chronicle plays -- dealt directly with historical scenes and characters.
Masques -- were slight plays involving much singing and dancing and costuming.
They were usually allegorical.
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As Jude tell us about the masterpieces of the art of drama, Hamlet and Oedipus the
King.
Hamlet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare (1601). The play dramatizes the
revenge of Prince Hamlet when his uncle Claudius murdered his own brother, Hamlet's
father King Hamlet, and seized the throne, marrying his deceased brother's widow,
Hamlet's mother Gertrude. The ghost of his father tells Hamlet who killed and Hamlet
tries to avenge him.
Oedipus the King, the story began with Oedipus, a man who becomes the king of
Thebes while in the process unwittingly fulfilling a prophecy that he would murder his
father Laius and marry his mother Jocasta. The play is an example of a classic tragedy, the
bigger they are, the harder they fall.