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THE SURVEY
OF

WESTERN PALESTINE.
THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

X>

~"^

THE SURVEY
OF

WESTERN

PALESTINE.

THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

BY

H.

B.

TRISTRAM,

LL.D., D.D., F.R.S.,

CANON OF DURHAM.

PUBLISHED BY

THE COMMITTEE OF THE PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND,


i,

ADAM

STREET, ADELPHI, LONDON, W.C.


1885-

CONTENTS.
PAGE

PREFACE

FAUNA.
MAMMALIA

.......
.......
.......

AVES.
REPTILIA

OPHIDIA

.30

LACERTILIA

CROCODILIA

CHELONIA
AMPHIBIA

PISCES

MOLLUSCA, TERRESTR. ET FLUVJAT.

140
148
'55

156

-159
.162

.178

.......
......
.....
.......
FLORA.

THALAMIFLOR^E

CALYCIFLOR/-E POLYPETAL^E

CALYCIFLOR^E GAMOPETAL.E

COROLLI FLORAE

MONOCOTYLEDONEVE
.

262

-314
353
395

-415
.451

.,,'.....

LvcopODiACEiE
FILICES

MONOCHLAMYDE^
CONIFERS
CRYPTOGAMIA

207

.452
453

PREFACE.

VI

Dr. Gunther shortly afterwards, in an elaborate paper before


the Zoological Society, showed that an examination of the reptilian fauna
earth's surface into the same natural provinces
gives us a division of the
with the class Aves ; and since that time zoologists appear
as holds

of type.

good

by common

consent to have accepted Mr. Sclater's views as demonstrable

every province of life.


of boundary lines, Palestine
Accepting then Mr. Sclater's definition
forms an extreme southern province of the Palsearctic region, which
includes Europe, Africa north of the Atlas, Western Asia (but not
north of the Himalayan
Arabia, which is /Ethiopian), the rest of Asia
Northern China, and Japan. An analysis of each class of its fauna

in

range,
and of

its

phanerogamic

flora

shows that while an overwhelming majority

to the Palaearctic region, there are in each


species in all cases belong
class a group of exceptions and peculiar forms which cannot be referred
to that region, and the presence of many of which cannot be explained

of

its

merely by the
region,

fact of the

on the Ethiopian
but can only be satisfactorily

Palaearctic infringing closely

and not very distantly on the Indian

accounted for by reference to the geological history of the country.


These species are, almost all, strictly confined to the area of the Jordan
valley

and Dead Sea

basin.

The Analysis of the Results of the various

Collections

hitherto recorded from Palestine,

may

made, including all Species

be tabulated thus

PREFACE.

Of

vu

Mammalia, the Indian 16 include 9 which are also Ethiopian.


Five species are also Asiatic, but not Indian, and seven species included
as Palsearctic occur only in Syria and Asia Minor.
Those only elsewhere
the

Arabia Petraea are included as peculiar.


Of these 113 species of Mammalia, a very much larger proportion
belongs to the Ethiopian region than is found to be the case in the other

found

in

34 out of 1 13, or about VV of the whole. Of these, 9 species,


6
Felidce, a hyeena and a bat (R/iinopoma microphylluni), are
including
equally Indian, to which region may also be assigned 4 others, two of
classes, viz.,

Camelns dromedarius and Bos bubalus, introduced by


and another, Asinus hemippus,
man, can scarcely claim enumeration
equally pertains to the Palsearctic region, leaving only two doubtful
which, however,

species, Gazella cora

and

Mus prcetextus.

The

traces of Indian immigra-

tion or introduction are thus reduced to an infinitesimal quantity.

Of

mammalia which may be

referred to the Ethiopian region,


and which are certainly not Paleearctic, 4 antelopes, 2 hares, and 8 small
rodents of the genera Acomys, Gerbillus, and Psammomys, are species

the 34

and therefore with powers of traversing the


and settling themselves on their
great African and Arabian sand-wastes,
strictly desert in their habitat,

northern frontier.

The

is so rich,
possessing 6 species
larger Felicia, in which Palestine
are
Felis
besides the Palaearctic
pardina,
specifically identical in the two
we have not yet ascertained to which races the
regions, or if distinct,
Palestine
They may have arrived by way of Egypt,
belong.

specimens

But there are more sedentary forms, as


or from the Euphrates valley.
which seem to point to an earlier
Herpestes ichneumon, and the cats,
Besides, the transit from the
settlement than across the recent deserts.
not more physically difficult or distant than from Africa; yet
find no indication of such immigration in this class.

east

is

Of

the 13 peculiar

mammalian

forms, three,

we

Ursus syriacus, Lepus

and Sciurus syriacus are merely modifications of Palaearctic


Gerbillus tceniurus, Psasumomys myosurus,
six, Lepus siiiaiticus,

syriacus,

types

Acomys

russatus,

Mus

prcetextus,

Gazella arabica, are Ethiopian in their

and probably extend further into Arabia and East Africa.


seem decidedly peculiar. One
Eliomys melanurns and Dipus hirlipes
the hare of the Dead Sea basin
species, Lepus (Eulagos) judcce, Gray
character,

PREFACE.

vlii

is

different in the

form of

its

skull

from either the European or the Syrian

a deep notch,
species, the back edge of the orbit in the former having
while the edge of the orbit in L. judece is continuous, with an oval perforation, caused by the process of the notch being united to the skull at

The

the end.

notch,

if

more than double the depth of

open, would be

that of the other species.

The

last

peculiar species is
Ethiopian genus, of which Dr.

them merely
Cape.

local races.

Hyrax

syriacus, a

member

of a strictly

Gray enumerates 8 species, several of


The other species extend from Abyssinia to the

The

Arabia

Palestine coney, confined to the gorges of the Dead Sea and


Petreea, must not be confounded with Hyrax brucei from

Sch.
Here
Abyssinia = H. syriacus.
and isolated forms of the mammalian

Ethiopian region

we have one

of the most peculiar


class, exclusively confined to the

but with this representative extending beyond

region, yet specifically differing from

all

its

congeners.

No

that

theory of

immigration or dispersion can account for its presence, especially when


we bear in mind the sedentary character of the group.
The Avifauna of Palestine is, like the mammalian, unusually rich in
species for so small an area, covering not more than 5,600
It consists of 348 known species, which may be thus
square miles.
Palaearctic species, most of which occur elsewhere, 271
classified.

number of

inclusive cf 10

Ethiopian, 40,
Ethiopian, 7
the Avifauna

which are also Indian

Indian, but not

and species so far as is yet known peculiar to Syria, 30.


But
no
means
diffused
over
the
whole
area.
Of
the
by
equally

is

one (with the exception of the Accipitres,


which are indifferently ubiquitous, and some Natatores, which are winter
visitants) belongs to the coast area, and the highlands east and west of
Pala^arctic species, almost every

The Ethiopian and Indian types are almost exclusively confined


Jordan.
to the deep depression of the Dead Sea basin, which, with the exception
of some winter migrants, affords us very few Paleearctic species.
Of

the 30 birds pertaining to the Ethiopian Fauna, 18 species have not


The most remarkable
been found in Palestine out of the Dead Sea basin.

of these are the sedentary Cypselus ajfinis, Merops viridis, Colyle obsoleta,
Corvus affinis, Saxicola monacha. Ten others are desert forms, probably

common

to Arabia,

and reaching here

their northern limits, as Calandrella

dewti, Certkilauda alaudipes, Pterocles *xustns, Iloubarct undulata, and

PREFACE.

ix

As to the occurrence of
formerly, though now extinct, Struthio camelus.
these desert species no difficulty can arise, especially in the case of such
of them as extend through the whole belt of sandy waste which girdles
the whole Old

World from Scinde

to the Atlantic

Coast of Africa.

The most

interesting of the Indian non- Ethiopian species is Ketnpa


ceylonensis, and the occurrence of this great fish-eating owl is the more

exceptional, as not only are there no Strigidse in Africa bearing the least
affinity to this well-marked genus, but because it has not yet been found
in the

We

Jordan valley, but sedentary by the streams of the coast.


its occurrence elsewhere west of India.

have

hitherto no record of

Of

the Indian types, Reguloides superciliosus and Sylvia nana pertain


equally as straggling migrants to the western Palsearctic region Halcyon
;

smyrnensis and Turtur

risorius, which are both sedentary in the Jordan


a westward extension of
valley, are the only other instances of so great
But both have appeared as stragglers in Asia
purely Indian species.
Minor, where the former was known to Linnaeus, but lost to science till

rediscovered by Captain Graves, R.N.


Of the 30 species classed as either new or peculiar to Palestine, 13 are
merely modifications or representative forms of familiar Palsearctic types,

such as Garruhis atricapillus, Picus syriacus, Saxicola melanoleitca, etc.,


which take the place of the common western G. glandarins, P. major,
S. stapazina, etc.,

and which are

all

found

upper country or on the

in the

Several of the other new species are closely allied to known desert
coast.
or Oriental forms, and are found beyond the limits of the Dead Sea basin.

Such are Hypolais iipcheri, Erithacus guttumlis, Saxicola finsckii, Petronia


These are also clearly African in their affinities. One,
brachydactyla.
Ruticilla seinirufa, inhabiting the

hill

is

country,

closely affined to the

Indian group of Ruticillinee, and not to the Palaearctic or Ethiopian


members of the genus.
to as many different genera,
But there are
species belonging
to the Dead Sea basin, and not yet traced beyond its limits.

peculiar
Some of these belong to

common
affinities

genera exclusively Ethiopian, most of them


but of two at least the
to the Ethiopian and Indian regions
are Indian rather than African.
Caprimulgus tamaricis is
;

to C. asiaticus of India, but with the characperhaps most closely related


Passer moabtiicus, another
of C. isabellinus of Africa.
teristic

plumage

PREFACE.

very marked species,


basin,

strictly

Dead Sea
and
Indian, yet
genus equally Ethiopian

confined to the lower end of the

belongs to a

it

though
must undoubtedly be classed among the Indian section of this group.
By far the smallest species known of its genus in its coloration and
;

other peculiarities, it approaches in some respects to the Indian P. cinnabut it is not affined to any
moiiens, in others to P. russatus of China
;

known Ethiopian
range

Ammoperdix heyi, a partridge limited in its


round the Dead Sea and Arabia Petraea, belongs to a

Passer.

to the region

sub-genus of Caccabis, of which the only other member, Ammoperdix


Four other species of the Dead Sea basin, Drymceca
bonhami, is Indian.
inquieta, Sylvia doivmani, S. melanothorax, and Cercomcla melanura,

belong to genera common to both regions, though all are more nearly
affined to the African than the Indian members of their respective
groups.
Of the others, Ixus xanthopygius, belonging to a genus widely extended
through both regions, is yet by its sombre plumage and yellow vent close

and more decidedly separated from any of


Indian congeners.
Cinnyris osece, the only one of the sunbirds which
reaches so far north, represents a family very numerous in both regions,

to five or six Ethiopian species,


its

confined to the Jordan valley, though occasionally in summer


Though not far removed from
straggling a little beyond its limits.

and

is

Nedarinia

asiatica,

it

approaches

much

more

closely

C.

affinis

of

Abyssinia.
Argya squamiceps, yet more circumscribed in its range to
the lower part of the Jordan valley, beyond which it never ascends, is one
of a peculiarly well-defined genus, comprising about 15 species, African
and Indian; while Amydnts tristrami, the last to be named, limited in

range to the rocks that overhang the Dead Sea, is one of a restricted
genus of starlings, of which the other species are Abyssinian and South
its

None

African.

of the Indian Sturnidee have any near affinities with this

genus.

Thus
in

its

the Avifauna of the

species,

revealing

Dead Sea

sometimes

decidedly distinct and typical


Indian, more generally African
is

affinities.

examination of the Reptilian Fauna leads to the same conclusion,


intrusion of Ethiopian types.
though we find here a less prominent
Dr. Giinther has given it as his decided opinion, that herpetologically

An

PREFACE.
Egypt must be embraced

in

the

xi

Palcearctic

region,

and many of the

Egyptian snakes occur in Palestine. Of 91 known species of Reptilia,


Chelonia and Amphibia, 49 are Palaearctic among them
Eryx jaculus,
traced from Egypt to Siberia, four species of Zamenis, two of which,
Z. dahlii and Z. ventrimaculatus, reach Kurdistan
27 of the Reptilia
;

are

also

among them Monitor nilolicus,


spinipes, and Naja haje ; four are Asiatic

African,

Uromastix

Scincus

officiiialis,

exclusively, but

do

not extend into India beyond its frontier, as Vipera euphratica.


One
species of serpent, Daboia xanthina, belongs to a genus otherwise exclu-

and eleven species are peculiar. One of these is an


Ophidian, of the family Oligodonlida;, which stands as the type of a new
genus, Rhyncocalamus, Gtinther, of which the affinities are rather obscure.
Indian,

sively

From

evident that the herpetological fauna presents


But snakes, in particular, are
fewer anomalies than the other classes.

more

this analysis

it is

limited to the original locality of the individual.

In these cases the

agencies are wanting by which a species is rapidly spread over a larger


portion of the globe in course of time, thus becoming mixed with foreign

forms

and the groups,

like individuals, are

more

stationary.

Besides,

more

susceptible of climatic changes than any other,


of
excessive
cold, like the glacial epoch, had passed
any period
over the country, the reptiles would be the first to succumb, without any
this class of

and

life is

if

chance of their recovering their ground during subsequent modifications


Yet even here we can clearly trace anomalies in the

of the temperature.

distribution, corresponding to the anomalies already

which we do not elsewhere

The

mentioned, and to

find a parallel.

Fauna, though limited in number of


far the most distinct in its character.
species, is beyond comparison by
We find 43 species, of which only 8 belong to the ordinary ichthyological
fluviatile

ichthyological

But these belong to the rivers of the


In the Jordan system only one species out of 36 belongs to the
coast.
Two others,
ordinary Mediterranean Fauna, viz., Blennius lupnlus.
are
Nilotic.
Seven other
Clarias
Chromis niloticus and
macracanthus,
fauna of the Mediterranean rivers.

South-western Asia, the Tigris, Euphrates,


species occur in other rivers of
Ten more are found in other parts of Syria, chiefly in the Damascus
etc.

and the remaining 16 species of the families Ckromidtf, Cyprinodontidce and Cyprinidce, are peculiar to the Jordan, its affluents, and its

lakes,

PREFACE.

xii

This analysis points

lakes.

at

once to the close

affinity of the

Jordan

The affinity is not only of species,


with the rivers of Tropical Africa.
but of genera, for Chromis and Hemichromis are peculiarly Ethiopian
forms, while the other species are identical with, or very closely allied to,
But the African forms are a
the fishes from other freshwaters of Syria.
very large proportion of the whole, and considering the difficulty of
transportation in the case of freshwater fishes, the peculiarities of this
portion of the

Turning
and

Fauna are of great

to the

amount

fluviatile, to

significance.

Invertebrate Fauna,
to 213 species, of

we

find the Mollusca, terrestrial

which 57 are

common European

or Mediterranean forms, 8 Nilotic, and 8 other fluviatile species found also


in the rivers of the Indian Ocean, the Tigris, or Euphrates.
About

140 species occur which have not as yet been noticed out of Palestine.
But many of these have no special significance in a geographical point of

The

land shells are for the most part merely modifications of wideIt
spread Palsearctic forms, such as the 28 peculiar species of Clausilia.
must be remembered that in no department of zoology do we meet with
view.

so

many

localized forms in limited areas as

among

the Pulmonifera, where

cases rapidly to follow segregation, while other


Thus
species extend with but slight modifications over an entire region.
most of the species of Helix in the Southern Desert show affinities to the
variations appear in

many

Ethiopian type, while a peculiar group of Helices seems to have been


developed in the highland districts, between the desert and Lebanon of
;

which H. cariosa may be regarded as the typical species.


But in the
are
two
Jordan valley
groups of peculiar gasteropods. One group, found
only by the

Dead

Sea,

is

a series of modifications of desert forms, exempli-

Helix prophetarum'&'R&H. filia. Another group, ol which Bulimus


labrosus may be taken as typical, is found through the whole length of the
valley, and is a modification of a common Syrian and Asia Minor type.
But the fluviatile molluscs are far more distinct.
Besides such species
fied in

as

Melania

tuberculosa, extending from the west of Africa to

Southern India
form,

we

and Melanopsis

find various peculiar

bitccinoidea, a

China and

common Mediterranean

Unionidce and Melaniadcs, such as Unio

simonis and U. episcopalis, which indicate very ancient separation from


any adjacent district, and the affinities of which are certainly not
Palaearctic.

PREFACE.

xiii

The Amchnidce have

scarcely yet been sufficiently determined, to


enable us to add any important facts to the above induction.
But one
extensive family, the Drassidce, has been worked out by the Rev. O. P.

Cambridge and Dr. Koch, who report


this family,

that of the 13 known genera of


8 are represented in Palestine, of which 7 are European,

being also found

in

Egypt, none being peculiar to Palestine.

Of

46 species of Palestine Drassidce, 24 are, so far as our present knowledge


extends, peculiar, 13 are European, and 9 Egyptian.
Admitting therefore
that many of the new species will prove to have a wider
range, we have
here also a predominant Palaearctic character, with an infusion of African,
and probably a few localized types.
Similar inferences

may be drawn from an

examination of the Insect

Fauna, of which, however, our knowledge is merely fragmentary. The


determination of 380 species of Coleoptera and of 60 species of Orthoplera,
which are all that have been collected, no naturalist having as yet devoted
himself to them, has not yet been accomplished.
But of the Hemiptera, 59 in number, 16 species appear to be new,
the others with few exceptions being known from Northern
Syria and

Asia Minor.

Of

the Lepidoptera our knowledge

is

most imperfect.

But

the results of an examination of the existing collections are in harmony


with those of the rest of the Fauna.
Of 76 Rhopalocera, 68 belong to the

Eastern Mediterranean, and are therefore Palaearctic, 5 are Ethiopian,


being Nubian species, and 3 are new. These last 8 species are confined
to

the

basin

of the

Dead

and 30 Tineidcs are


the Noctuce hitherto known, belong

25 Noctiice

and

all

Of 166 Noctua, and 46


new. The 16 Tineidce previously

Sea.

to the

Tineidce,

described,

Eastern Mediterranean,

and do not indicate any Ethiopian affinities. But it must be mentioned


that no entomological collector has worked as yet in the Jordan valley
during the latter part of spring, when these insects would be most
numerous; and even as

it is,

14 of the 30 peculiar Microlepidoptera are

from the plains of Jordan only.


It may here be stated that an examination of sand from the roots Of
Anastatica hierochuntina gathered at the north end of the Dead Sea,
shows that the Rhizopod fauna was analogous to that of the Red Sea

and Indian Ocean, being composed of Gr. capreolus and other Indian
Ocean forms.

PREFACE.

xiv

The

Flora of Palestine

in its distribution parallel with its

is

Fauna.

About 3,000

Of

trict.

species of phanerogamic plants are recorded from the disthese my own herbarium contains about 1,400, collected by Mr.

As might be expected, by far


1863-64.
the larger proportion consists of the common Mediterranean forms.
The
Flora of the coast and southern highland region calls for no remark, as it
B. T.

Lownes,

my

companion

in

simply a reproduction of the Flora of Sicily, Greece, Asia Minor, and


Northern Syria. Of about 250 species or varieties which have not yet

is

been noticed elsewhere, there are none which

call

for special

remark, as

other representative species, and the additions are


proportion among the floras of each region, coast,

all are closely allied to

distributed in fair

Sir J. D.
highlands mountains and Jordan valley, and deserts.
Hooker has remarked that though a vast number of plants are common
to the whole country, and in no latitude is there a sharp demarcation

plains,

a great and decided difference between the


floras of such localities as the (i) Lebanon at 5,000 feet, (2) Jerusalem,
'

between them, yet there

is

Jericho or between (i) the tops of Lebanon, (2) of Carmel, and


for in the first locality we
(3) of any of the hills bordering the Jordan
are most strongly reminded of Northern Europe, in the second of Spain,

and

(3)

and

we
its

Western India and

Persia.'
For our present purpose
the
Flora
of
the
Dead
Sea
need only consider
basin, and especially of
In the little Wady Zuweirah, at the south-west
southern portion.
in the third of

corner of the

Of

Dead

we have collected over 160 species of plants.


common European forms, chiefly of very wide

Sea,

these only 27 are


distribution, as Tribulus terrestris,

Emex

spinosus, etc.

All of these 27,

The remaining
with one or two exceptions, also extend into North India.
are African, scarcely any of them extending into Europe, and
135
species
of them extremely local.

Thirty-seven of the Ethiopian are also


Indian plants, chiefly belonging to the desert Flora of Scinde, and others, as
Cordia myxa, though characteristic Indian plants, are equally Nubian and
Although the Dead Sea flora bears a very strong general
Abyssinian.

many

Arabia Petraea, yet there can be no question of


distinctness from the adjacent floras of the same latitude, east and

similarity to the flora of


its

west of

it.

few of the plants claim especial notice.


Cyf ems papyrus is locally abundant, covering

In the Jordan valley the


many acres in the marshes

PREFACE.

xv

of Huleh, though long since extinct in Egypt, and not now known in
Africa further north than on the White Nile, lat. 7 N.
Calotropis
procera and Salvadora persica are never found except close to the Dead

Engedi, Safieh, and Seisaban, and are separated by


of
degrees
longitude and latitude from their other known habitats.
also interesting to observe that of the 135 African
species in
Sea,

at

Zuweirah, 23 extend as

far

many
It is

Wady

west as the Canaries, and 17 are decidedly


the Flora of Aden.
None of these African

Arabian, being included in


forms occur in other parts of Palestine.

While

not probable that many other European plants have


escaped observation on the shore of the Dead Sea, as they would
naturally be early flowerers, many other decidedly tropical plants not
included in those gathered in Wady Zuweirah in February have been
is

it

noted in hasty visits to the district later in the year.


Such are Abutilon
muticum and A. fntticosum, Zygophyllum coccineum, Indigofera argentea,

Boerhavia phimbaginea, Conyza dioscoridis, etc.


There are other very remarkable contrasts

in

the affinities of the

Thus among

Flora.
the Leguminosce, there are no less than 50 species
of Trifolium, and 74 species of Astragalus in our list.
Of the former
only one, T. stenophyllum, is found in the south, and not one in the
Jordan valley and all of them are either European, or have European
;

There

no indication of any species connected with the


Himalayas or Central Asia. Of the 74 Astragali, on the contrary, only
all the others are either Indian, or
3 have any Palsearctic affinities
Yet the
or Ethiopian regions.
to
the
Oriental
belong exclusively

affinities.

is

No less than
Astragali are by no means confined to the Jordan valley.
35 species are strictly limited to the mountain and alpine regions of
Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon. The bulk of the remainder belong to the
Jordan valley and Southern Desert, and if found elsewhere are either in
Scinde or Africa.

The

Flora of the

Dead Sea

area

is

remarkable for a small average

number of orders. In 250


species distributed through a large
species collected on the east side of the Dead Sea in February, 58 orders
were represented, an average of 4^ species to each order.
may infer

number of

We

that in this borderland of Europe, Asia, and Africa, the more hardy and
more
accommodating plants of each area hold their own, while those
readily affected

by variation of

soil

or climate disappear.

PREFACE.

xvi

To sum

up our deductions, a review of the botany as well as the


zoology of the Dead Sea basin reveals to us the interesting fact that we
find in this isolated spot, comprising but a very few square miles, a series
of forms of
region, to

life

differing decidedly

from the species of the surrounding

which they never extend, and bearing a strong

affinity to the

Ethiopian region, with a trace of Indian admixture.


In order to form a just conclusion as to the mode by which this
isolated region became peopled by animals and plants, it is necessary to
Here is a patch of tropical
take geological causes into consideration.

and unique, that we canwith


not connect their presence
any existing causes or other transThe basin, at the bottom of which they are found, is
porting influences.
a depression in a mountainous country, sunk 1,300 feet below the level of
character, containing southern forms so peculiar
in

it

the ocean, and occupied, with the exception of a few acres here and there,
by the waters of a salt lake. It is hemmed in by two parallel mountain
ranges, rising from 3,000 to 5,000 feet above
ranges are rarely more than 20 miles apart.

As

its level,

and these enclosing

has been shown by Humboldt that zones of elevation on mountains correspond to parallels of latitude, the higher zones corresponding
it

with the higher latitudes, so here

one known

we

find a

zone of depression, the only

producing similar phenomena, and exhibiting in generic


correspondence, specific representation, and in some instances specific
As the flora and
identities, the fauna and flora of much lower latitudes.
to us,

insect fauna of the Scottish

mountain tops
so

we

German,
surrounding type
midst of a Mediterranean district.
is

is

Scandinavian, while the

find this islet of Ethiopian flora in the


If

we had

to deal only with a repre-

might have been assumed that it essentially depended


on the law that climatal zones of animal and vegetable life are naturally
But the
repeated by elevation (in this case depression) and latitude.
sentative

flora, it

transmission of a transported flora requires another explanation, which

can only be found by tracing geological history.


this area, or that
special creation within

its

That

it

became peopled

inhabitants can have had

by
an independent origin on the spot, would not only be a most unreasonable
assumption, but is negatived by the fact of the identity of many species of
animal life, and of almost the entire flora, with species now living in the

Ethiopian region.

PREFACE.
That

it

xvli

was peopled by migration, or

that

wandering individuals

in

new homes,

finding the conditions adapted for their existence,


settled and colonized, and, in the case of birds, abandoned their migratory
and unique
habits, is refuted by the fact of the co-existence of peculiar

search of

forms, with
colony.

others

now found

in

Besides which, there are

due allowance

for

all

from

regions widely separated

many

species which, after

making

this
all

probable modes of migration at present in operation,

could scarcely have been transported thither under present conditions,


since either their physical characteristics, or the phenomena of their

such a supposition.
present distribution, forbid
It must be borne in mind that deserts such as those which isolate
Palestine on the south and east are found to present far more insuperable
barriers to the transport of species (excepting of course the case of desert
E.g., it is the Sahara, and
forms) than either seas or mountain ranges.
not the Mediterranean, which separates the Ethiopian from the Palaearctic

fauna.
therefore, only the hypothesis of these species, and of
other peculiar inhabitants of the basin, having arrived there by migra-

There remains,

all

tion or general dispersion before the character of the surrounding region


presented the existing obstacles to their transport, and this at once
invites consideration of the

If their
geological problem.
before
the
isolation of the area, it
mainly due to migration
if

possible,

to

ascertain

two fixed points

migration must have taken place.


the close of the Eocene period.

most

superficial

deposits

of

all

The
The

in

position be
is

necessary,

time between which this

migration must have been after


palaeontological character of the

Southern

Palestine

is

unquestionably

There are no beds of fossils synchronizing with the Meiocene


The whole of
deposits of Sicily, North Africa, and the Greek Islands.
must
have
Arabia
Petraea
from
the ocean,
already emerged
Syria and
while the greater part of the Mediterranean and its adjacent coasts and
islands was the bed of a Meiocene sea, and must have had a fauna and
We have
flora contemporaneous with the Meiocene flora of Germany.
Eocene.

the clearest indications of this extension as far as Palestine.


J.

D. Hooker has shown

in tracing the glacial

This Sir

moraines which stud the

whole Lebanon range. There are also other indications of


which we may notice presently.

glacial action

PREFACE.

xviii

But the general question is not materially affected


by the precise
at
which the lake of the Dead Sea became reduced to its
epoch
present
dimensions.

its present
general form it must have
existed long before the glacial period.
know from the Norfolk chalk that in our own country a much

It

is

certain that in

We

warmer

climate existed previous to the


glacial epoch
reason to infer that throughout the Northern

and we have every


Hemisphere a proportionate
increase of temperature prevailed.
The Ethiopian fauna and flora,
more
in
than
the Palaearctic, must have had at
admittedly
antique
type
that period a more
extension
than at present.
The peculiarities
northerly
of the Dead Sea basin
may be exactly paralleled with the traces of the
yet lingering on the south-west of Ireland.

flora

Spanish

in origin

They were

during the period of the great Meiocene

probably synchronous
sea which covered the Mediterranean and Western
Europe. The great
Meiocene land extended, as it would appear, south and west of this from
Southern Asia as far as the Azores, or, as Professor Forbes has
suggested,

to the belt of

Gulf Weed.

There was then either continuous or


closely
which
would
enable South-west Ireland to be stocked
contiguous land,
by
the flora of the Asturias, and Palestine
by that of Abyssinia. The circumstances and chronology of these two isolated floras
appear identical.
But during this epoch, the whole
was
doubtless
covered and
country
peopled by the same forms, for which the warm climatal conditions were
suitable
and the fauna and flora of Palestine were East
either
;

identical or representative.

The

African,
actual present
of
the remnants
refuges

of this period, the nooks beside the Dead


Sea, were still under water, for
they do not now rise 200 feet above the lake.
Towards the close of' the
Pleiocene period the area of the waters of the lake was
diminished,' as we
may see by the marl deposits leaning against the inclosing ranges. Then
supervened the glacial period. The climatal changes
destroyed the mass
of existing life just as in South-west Ireland all the
Spanish flora except
the hardiest, such as the
saxifrages and the heath, have perished.
But, as subsequently with the returning warmth in the
British Isles,
the Scandinavian remnant continued to survive on
the tops of the Scottish
mountains, so in the period of cold those
species which were most
tenacious of life, retiring to the
of
the Jordan
depression
valley, then as
now, proportionally wanner than the
surrounding land, contrived' to
;

PREFACE.

xix

maintain the struggle for existence


and have survived to the present
and
form
a
which
of
we have no other terrestrial
day,
tropical outlier,
;

which

instances, but
arctic

marine

life

exactly parallel with the

is

which occur

northern outliers of

our British Seas.

in

Here, when the bed of the glacial ocean was upheaved, that upheaval
it as had been
formed at a

raised above water only such portions of

moderate depth. The deeper


arctic forms would still live

tracts

were

on, while

still

under water, and there the

climatal

changes altered the


So with our land flora.

zoological character of the shallows of our seas.


When the change of level connected the group of glacial islands, which
stood out from the sea, crowned with the Scandinavian flora, now the

mountain tops of Scotland, the original vegetation was preserved and


survived in isolation while on lower ground, the newly exposed land was
;

covered with a new temperate or Germanic flora.


Mutato nomine' for
boreal marine outliers, read tropical terrestrial outliers, and the history of
'

the biological isolation of the Dead Sea is solved at once.


The slight admixture of Indian types may be explained when we
consider that at that time, with a continuous Meiocene continent north of

the

line,

would have a wider range than

species

at

Since the change


migrate and spread without check.
some species may have become segregated in one
another.

The

regions far

glacial

action

beyond the reach of

species must

have

modifications

of

retired

which

and could

the coast outline,

part,

and others

in

must have affected the temperature of


its actual glaciers and
icebergs, and many

to

Ethiopian and

presents several instances,

present,
in

may

The
South, or perished utterly.
Indian types, of which the avifauna

the

yet be found in Arabia, the interior of

a zoological blank.
If absolutely peculiar, they must
either be the descendants of species which inhabited the country with
is still

to us

only a limited range prior to the glacial epoch, or are developments or


variations of other species stereotyped through long isolation.
Considerco-existence
with
their
other
ing, however,
unchanged forms, and the

comparatively recent date, geologically speaking, of the glacial epoch, the


former would seem to be the more probable solution.

The

fluviatile fishes claim special attention, dating, as

they probably

do, from the earliest time after the elevation of the country from the
Eocene ocean. In the Foramenifera, mentioned above as found in the

PREFACE.

xx

Dead Sea

sand, such as Gr. capreoliis, we have the relics of the inhabitants of that early sea.
But of the living inhabitants, we must place the
Jordanic fishes as the very earliest, and these, we have seen, form a group

and divergent from that of the surrounding region than


in any other class of existing life.
During the epochs subsequent to the
Eocene, owing to the unbroken isolation of the basin, there have been

far

more

distinct

no opportunities

for the introduction of

new forms, nor for the further


as we have seen, bear a striking

These forms,
dispersion of the old ones.
affinity to those of the freshwater lakes and rivers of Eastern Africa,
even as

far south as the

Zambesi.

But the

affinity is in the identity of

genera, Chromis and Hcmichromis being exclusively African, while the


species are rather representative than identical.

The

solution appears to be that during the

Meiocene and Pleiocene

periods, the Jordan basin formed the northernmost of a large system of


freshwater lakes, extending from north to south, of which, in the earlier

part of the epoch, perhaps the


Nyanza, the Nyassa, and the

Red

Sea, and certainly the Nile basin, the


Tanganyika lakes, and the feeders of the

Zambesi, were members.


During that warm period, a fluviatile ichthyological fauna was developed suitable to its then conditions, consisting of
representative and perhaps frequently identical species, throughout the
area under consideration.

The advent

of the glacial period was, like its close, gradual.


Many
The hardiest
species must have perished under the change of conditions.

some perhaps have been gradually modified to meet those


new conditions. Under this strict isolation it could hardly be otherwise
and however severe the climate may have been, that of the Lebanon
survived, and

glaciers probably corresponding with the present temperature of


the Alps at a proportional elevation (regard being had to the difference

with

its

of latitude), the fissure of the Jordan being, as


much depressed below the level of the ocean as

we
it

must have been an exceptionally warm temperature

is

know, as

certainly

at present

in its

there

waters in which

the existing ichthyological fauna could survive.


The glacial period has left its mark in the mountain range of Northern
and the
Palestine, not only in the moraines which stud the Lebanon
;

desolate heaps of which point out the position of the old glaciers as
shown by Sir J. D. Hooker; but even in the existing forms of life.

PREFACE.

Thus among mammals we


identical

the

on the top of Hennon Arvicola


with the mountain vole of the Alps and the Pyrenees.

non-migrant

nivalis,

xxi

birds

on the

traced

find

occurs

nivalis,

Among

the

exclusively alpine Montifringilla


mountain tops from the Pyrenees to Ararat

Otocoris penicillata, a slightly modified form of Otocoris alpestris, and


which never leaves the snow-line
Pyrrhocorax alpinus, an equally
;

and several others which move up and down the mounsides according to the season are also found.
These species on the

sedentary form
tain

Lebanon and Hermon form

The

a boreal outlier.

The vegetation of the


not analogous to that of the Alps of Europe and
boreal plants may be gathered on the Himalayas at from

however, forms an exception here.

flora,

summits of Lebanon
India.

in fact

More

is

io,coo to 15,000 feet, than on the analogous heights of Lebanon, i.e.,


from 8,000 to 10,000 feet.
Three hundred flowers of the Arctic Circle
inhabit the ranges of Northern India, while not half that number are

found on Lebanon.

Sir

J.

D. Hooker accounts

for this partly

by the

heat and extreme dryness of the climate during a considerable part of the
year to the sudden desiccating influence of the desert winds and to the
;

nature of the dry limestone soil


but still more perhaps to the
warm period which succeeded the cold one, during which the glaciers
were formed and which may have obliterated the greater part of the
sterile

Several of these causes do not apply with


equal force to the fauna, with their powers of vertical migration whicli
enabled them to remain.
There are other traces of a glacial fauna now
traces of the glacial flora.

remains of Cervns elapJms, C. tarandus, and Alces palmatus,


the Red-deer, Reindeer, and Elk, discovered in the breccia of cave floors
in the Lebanon.
may take these traces of the glacial inhabitants as

extinct, in the

We

the representatives of the fauna which then overspread the whole country,
synchronous with the introduction of the Scandinavian flora now lingering

on the tops of the Scotch mountains, and with the deposition of the
Pleistocene deposits of Sicily and Cyprus.
When afterwards the climatal conditions became less severe, the Mediterranean fauna and flora rapidly overspread the whole country, partly
by way of Asia Minor and the Greek Islands, partly by way of Egypt,
just as the Germanic flora overspread the British Isles, and has given its

predominant character

to the natural history of the country.

PREFACE.

xxii

The

conclusions at which

we

arrive are that while the fauna

and

flora

decidedly Pataarctic in type, and belonging to the


Mediterranean section of that type, there are traces of a boreal fauna in

of Palestine are

the north, and a large infusion of Ethiopian types in the Jordan valley
and that these exceptions can be satisfactorily explained only by a
reference to the geological history of the country, which shows that the
:

glacial period,

though not extending

left

yet larger proofs of

tropical outlier of the


origin,

and

its

intensity so far south, has left

while the preceding period of warmth


former northern extension in the unique

traces not yet wholly obliterated

has

in its

Dead Sea

basin,

which

in the present isolation of its

analogous both in its


various assemblages of life, to
is

the boreal outliers of our mountain tops and our deep sea bottoms ; the
concave depression in the one case being the complement of the convex
elevation in the other.

COLLEGE, DURHAM,
December iy/7/, 1883.

LIST OF PLATES.

......

1.

HYRAX

2.

CAPRA BEDEN

3.

ACOMYS RUSSATUS, AcOMYS CAHIRHTNUS, ACOMYS DIMIDIATUS

4.

ELIOMYS MELANURA, ARVICOLA GUENIHERI, ARVICOLA NIVALIS

5.

SPALAX TYPHLUS

6.

DIPUS HIRTIPES

7.

SYRIACUS

To face page

IO
13
14

15

ERITHACUS GUTTITRALIS

38

8.

CYNNIRIS

63

9.

SERINUS CANONICUS, PASSER MOARITICUS

OSE.*:

PETRONIA BRACHYDACTYLA

ii

AMYDRUS TRISTRAMI

12.

CAPRIMULGUS TAMARICIS

13.

PLOTUS LEVAILLANTII

14.

CCELOPELTIS LACERTINA

15.

DABOIA XANTHINA

1 6.

69
,,

,,

74

,,

85
108

,,

145
147

RHYNCOCALAMUS MELANOCEPHALUS, ZOOTOCA TRISTRAMI, TRAPELUS


SINAITA, SEPS MONODACTYLUS
.

17.

CHROMIS ANDREW.

18.

CHROMIS

19.

COBITES INSIGNIS.

BARBUS

CHROMIS SIMONIS

NILOTICUS.

LUPULUS.
20.

65

,,

10.

HEMICHRONIS SACER

C. GALIL/F.US.

BARBUS LONGICEPS

149
154

168

BLENNIUS

DlSCOGNATHUS RUFUS.

CLARIAS MACRACANTHUS

CANIS.

17?
,.

..

174

im. PI.

Dead
It

.n.

inao

to

but

is

ii

a u

not

ki

2.

THE

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.


MAMMALIA.
ORDER, PACHYDERMATA.
FAMILY, HYRACID^E.
i.

Hyrax

Coney.

Arab.

ISS^.

~..l=.,

Tubsun, or

PLATE
This singular

little

Symb. Phys. Mamm.

Hemp, and Ehr.

Syriacus.

Heb.

Mammal,

^\,

el

Wabr

(in

PI.

Sinai).

I.

neither ruminant nor rodent, but which

is placed by systematists among the Ungulata, near the Rhinoceros,


of the many peculiarly African forms which occur in Palestine.
It

uncommon round

2.

the shores of the

Dead

Sea, but

is

is

one

is

not

rare in the rest of

It is found
the country, and not known in Lebanon.
throughout the
but
is
not
known
Sinaitic Peninsula generally,
to extend further into

Arabia or Western Asia.

represented by a very closely allied species


Several species,
in Abyssinia, and by another rather larger at the Cape.
or varieties, occur in Eastern Africa, but this is the only one known

beyond the
hider,' and

limits
its

It is

of that

continent.

timid, cautious habits,

Its

Hebrew name means

and defenceless character are

'the
re-

marked by a yellow dorsal


The Syrian Coney
It is scarcely so large as a
otherwise uniformly tawny fur.
Its teeth and toes resemble those of the Hippopotafull-grown Rabbit.
mus in miniature. It lives exclusively among the rocks in Wadys, not

ferred to in Scripture.

spot on

is

its

but utilizing fissures in the cliffs, where it has its


generally burrowing,
inaccessible home, coming forth to feed only at sunset and at dawn.
i

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

Though

not

strictly

When

neighbourhood.

there

gregarious,
feeding,

are

generally

a sentry

is

several

in

close

usually placed on some

a
gives warning of approaching danger by
has four or five young at a birth.

who

commanding

outpost,

sharp bark.

The Coney

FAMILY, SOLIDUNGULA.
Equidae.
Syst. Nat.

L.

Equus caballus.

2.

Arab. ^La=, Hassan,

,j~>>*,

100.*

p.

i.,

The Horse. Heb.

DID-

Faras, Mare.

The Horses west


side,

of Jordan are generally inferior to those on the east


be found some of the finest bred specimens of the true

where may

The Syrian Horse is


Arab, with pedigrees going back several centuries.
generally a small animal of fifteen hands high, without much speed,
Breeds of Horses were known

but with great powers of endurance.


to the Jews, the

Horses.

Hebrew

Excepting

words

using distinct

for saddle

and

for chariot

Horse has never been much used

in the plains, the

in Palestine.

Asinus

3.

Arab.

_>U=>,

taller,

have

(L.

Syst. Nat.

p.

i.,

100.)

The

Ass.

Heb.

Homar.

The most
is

asinus.

important beast of burden

stronger,

visited.

and

Much

fleeter in

care

is

in the

west and north.

The Ass

Palestine than in

taken

in

any other country I


the selecting both of sires and

northern plains may be seen large herds of she-asses


The white Asses mentioned in Scripture are still
kept for breeding.

dams, and

in the

and command very high prices.


A good Syrian Ass
about ^40, the price of a good Horse.
The origin of the
Domestic Ass is from the African Wild Ass, the true Onager, a very
much finer animal than the Asinus hamar (Smith) of Southern

highly prized,
fetches

Asia.
4.
t.

ii.

Asinus onager. Pall. Act. Acad.


Wild Ass. Heb. "11*157. Arab.

S.

^&,

Imp. Petrop. 1777,


^Ls*,

Homar

p.

258,

wahshi.

This Wild Ass, the origin of the Domestic Ass, was


formerly well
*

The

Edition of the Syslcma Naturte quoted in this volume

is

the eleventh, Holmiae, 1766.

MAMMALIA.
known

in

I have seen
not extinct there, though very rare.
in
the Sahara, and have
state of nature frequently

Arabia, and

this species

in

is

handled captured though not tamed individuals. It no doubt, as the Arabs


assure me, occasionally enters the Hauran.
Their language, as well as
the

Hebrew, recognises two species of Wild Ass.

Asinus hanippHS. St. Hilaire. Compt. Rend,


Wild Ass. Heb. &O|>. Arab. >x*l, Akhda.
5.

xli., p.

1214.

Syrian

This, rather smaller than the true Onager, and confined to Syria, Mesopotamia and North Arabia, very rarely enters the north of Palestine from

the Syrian desert, but is


extend into India, but in

common

still

in

It

Mesopotamia.

does not

summer herds of this animal frequently visit


Armenian mountains. It is the Wild Ass of Scripture and of the

the

Ninevite sculptures.

FAMILY, SUINA.
6.

L.

Sits scrofa.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

102.

Wild Boar.

Heb.

TTPI.

Arab. _&j)U, Hallouf, jiyj^, Khanzir.

The Wild Boar

abundant

every part of the country, especially


It extends into the bare wilderness,
where there are marshes or thickets.

even where there

is

is

in

no cover, nor other food than the roots of desert

bulbs.

The Wild Boar


except South

is

found throughout the whole of the Old World


naturalists distinguish the Indian from the

Some

Africa.

Syrian must be classed with


the European rather than the Eastern form, though Mr. Gray has held
it to be a distinct species with the name of Sus libycus.

European.

If they

be

distinct species, the

ORDER, RUMINANTIA.
FAMILY, TYLOPODA.
7.

^03.

Cameius dromedarius.

L.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

90.

Heb.

Camel.

Arab. J**, Djimel.

The One-Humped Camel

It
the only species used in Palestine.
bred abundantly on the plains o Moab and in the south of Judaea but
is

is
is

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

not suited for


employment in the hilly and central districts of the country.
From the earliest records of man it was
in
and is

still
employed
Syria,
Bedawin east of Jordan.
The Arabian Camel is the beast of burden of
Egypt and all Southern
Asia, as far as India.
It was
the Moors.
only introduced into

the great source of the wealth of

In Central Africa

it is

all

universally

the

Barbary by
caravan traffic.

for

employed

FAMILY, ELAPHII.
Cervidae.

Cervtts capreolus.

8.
'

Fallow-Deer,' A.V.

L.

Syst. Nat.

Arab,

j^,

p. 94.

i.,

Roebuck.

Heb.

fl&rV

Yachmur.

have seen the Roebuck on the southern


edge of Lebanon, and found
its teeth in bone caves.
Captain Conder procured a specimen on Mount
Carmel, which proves its identity with the
English species, and it is also
found further south, round Sheikh Iskander.
Palestine is the most southern and eastern
where
I

still

exists.

species
9-

is

It

region
occurs through the whole of
Europe.

Roebuck
Asiatic

distinct.

Cervus dama.

L.

Syst. Nat.

The Fallow-Deer, which

is

the

i.,

Fallow-Deer.

p. 93.

Deer of

Cilicia and
exists very
sparingly in the north of Palestine.

found

the

The North

Southern Armenia
A few are to be

woods north-west of Tabor, and


by the Litany river
Hasselquist mentions it on Mount Tabor, and I met with it
not many
miles north of the same
place.
in

the

The Fallow-Deer

is still

well as in Asia Minor.


10.

Ccrvus elaphns.

^. Cervus tarandus.
12.

Cervus

The former

alces.

found wild in Sardinia,


Spain, and Tunis as

L.

Syst. Nat.

L.

L.

Syst. Nat.

Syst. Nat.

existence of

all

i.,

these

i.,

p. 93.

i.,

Red-Deer.

p. 93.

p. 92.

Rein-Deer.

Elk.

species
contemporaneously with man
proved by the existence of their teeth and
bones along with flints
the bone caverns of the
Lebanon.
is

MAMMALIA.

FAMILY, CAVICORNIA.
Antilopinae.
Pall.
Antilope bnbalis.
Heb. IKJjl (generic}. Arab, js.^1
13.

The Bubale

never saw

Zool.

Spicil.
yij,

Bck/cr

Palestine

in

eastern borders of Gilead and Moab, and

assure

me

16.

xii.

The

Bubale.

cl wach.

but

is

well

it

certainly exists

known

on the

to the Arabs,

who

sometimes comes down to drink at the headwaters of the

it

Dead

Sea, where they not unfrequently capture


it.
It roams through Arabia and North Africa, where in the beginning
of the last century, Dr. Shaw informs us, it was common, and where I

streams flowing into the

It is very like the Hartebeests oi South Africa.


have sometimes seen it.
It is the
Wild Cow' (BekKr el wacli) of the Arabs. In ancient times it
'

must have been much more common.


14.

Arab.

Antilope addax.

Act. Acad. Leopold,

Licht.

Heb.

xii.

U.*, Me/ia.

The beautiful milk-white Addax is a scarce and very large Antelope,


but has a wide range through Abyssinia, Nubia, and Egypt, as well as
Arabia.
It is the Strepsiceros
(Twist-horn) of Pliny, and is probably the
'

Pygarg of our Authorised Version. It is well known to the Arabs as


'Addas or Akas, and approaches the southern and eastern frontiers of
'

'

Palestine.

15.

'

Its

claim to be included here


Pall.

Antilope leucoryv.

Spicil.

rather historical than actual.


Zool., fasc.

xii.

17,

61.

The

Heb. 1KR

Oryx, or White Antelope.

Common

is

North Arabia, and found in the Belka and Hauran. Its


I
have been near enough to
horns may be purchased at Damascus.
is
horns.
It
the
Ted, or Wild Ox,' of the
probably
identify it by its long
in

'

an inhabitant of Kordofan, Senaar, Upper


Egypt, and Arabia, and, according to some authorities, extends into Persia.

translators of our Bible.

6.

Arab.

The

Gazella donas.

It is

(L.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 96.)

Gazelle.

Heb.

'3S.

Ui>, Ghazal.

Gazelle

is

extremely

common

of Lebanon, and the only large

in

every part of the country south


is really abundant.
I
have

game which

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

even seen

it

mentioned

on the Mount of Olives, close to Jerusalem.


It is frequently
and is a
and
rendered
Roe
in
our
translation
Scripture,
'

'

in

symbol both of fleetness and of beauty.

favourite

There are many species

or geographical races of Gazelle, some of them difficult to discriminate.


The Dorcas Gazelle is found from Algeria through Egypt, and thence

extends into Arabia and Syria.


17.

Gazella arabica.

Ehrenb.

(?)

Symb. Phys.

Mamm.

r.

This species, larger than the Dorcas Gazelle, is found in the desert
I
had formerly identified it with Ehrenberg's
country east of Jordan.
species from South Arabia but Sir Victor Brooke, while recognising its
distinctness, is inclined to believe it another race, less widely separated
;

from G. djrcas.

The

Persian G. subgutlurosa and the Indian G. benettii

are distinct.

Caprinx.
1

8.

Capra

He-goat

Tp,

The Goat

Syst. Nat.

L.

hircus.

She-goat.

Arab,

j*^,

i.,

94.

p.

The

Goat.

Heb.

"VStf,

Maz.

more abundant in this hilly and scantily watered country


There are many different
than the Sheep, and constitutes its chief wealth.
The ordinary Black Goat of Syria, universal throughbreeds or races.
is

out the country, with pendent ears a foot long, hanging down far below
the recurved horns, has been distinguished as Capra mambrica, L. Syst.

Nat.
is

i.,

95.

The Mohair-Goat (Capra

occasionally bred in
19.

Ehrenb.

some

L. Syst. Nat.
parts of the north of Palestine.

Schreb. Saug. V.

Capra bcdcn. Wagn.


Symb. Phys., t. 18.)

Ibex.

PLATE

The Syrian

angorensis,

Ibex, or Beden,

a.

Heb. D^S*.

i.,

94)

(C. sinaitica.

1303.

Arab.

^,

Beden.

II.

found, not only in the ravines of


Moab, but in the wilderness of Judaea, near the Dead Sea. I have proIt is not now known in
cured several specimens on both sides of Jordan.

the north or in Lebanon, where

is still

have found

teeth in cave-breccia, alono&

its

The Beden is of a much lighter fawn colour than


implements.
the European Ibex, with horns much more slender and recurved, wrinkled
with

flint

and knotted on the

front face only.

It is

the

'

Wild Goat

'

of Scripture.

rr:

md
butn

it

wii

MAMMALIA.
obtained

twice at Engedi, where

it

David's wanderings.

mentioned

is

it

in

connection with

range appears to be limited to Arabia Petrea

Its

and Egypt.
20.

Ovis aries.

Syst. Nat.

L.

i.,

Heb.

Sheep.

p. 97.

Arab.

IXy.

Glianam.

*JL

Two

varieties of

common, and

Sheep are bred

but by far the most


the Broad-tailed Sheep (var. :

Palestine

in

most parts the only race, is


Palestine Sheep are generally piebald or skewbald

in

The

latica^(data).

The habits of the Sheep, the


while the Goats are almost always black.
ways of tending them, and the life of the shepherds in Syria, remain
unchanged even

smallest

the

in

particulars

the

since

days

of

the

Patriarchs.
Bovinae.
21.

Ox

Bos

1p3,

jj, Suwr,

Neat

Cow

Syst. Nat.

L.

taunts.

Bull.

"IS,

i.,

The Ox.

p. 98.

Arab. j%, Dakar,

Ox

Heb. 9fh$, TIB',


a^, Bakara, Cow

Bull.
cattle are not suited to the hilly central districts,

and are not

reared extensively, excepting in the sea-board and southern plains, and in


On the east side of Jordan they are much more general.
the north.

The common

an undersized

cattle are

In the north there are

cattle.

much

race, not

larger

much

and

larger than Scotch


better breeds.
Every-

where Oxen and Cows are used almost exclusively

for agricultural

and

draught purposes.

Bos

22.
(

r-j*l=x,

bubalus.

L.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

99.

The

Buffalo.

Arab.

Djaunts.

The

only used in the northern parts of the Jordan valley,


especially about the marshes of Huleh, where both for the plough and for
milk it supersedes the ordinary neat cattle.
In
all

the

North

Buffalo

its

is

wild state

warmer

it is

a native of India, but has been domesticated in

parts of Asia, from

China

to Syria,

and along the whole of

Africa.

Bos primigeniits. Bojan. Nov. Act. Leop.


Heb. DX""!. Arab. ^), Rccnt.
Aurochs.
23.

xiii.

b.

422.

The

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

We

have abundant evidence of the former existence of the great Wild


Ox in Western Asia, and can with some accuracy fix the time of its final
It is spoken of familiarly in the Bible, where the word Re cm
extinction.
Unicorn,' down to the time of David,
unfortunately rendered
and afterwards only once, in a prophetical passage. On the
B.C. 1000
feat of
Assyrian monuments its chase is represented as the greatest
'

is

time of the earliest dynasties of Nineveh but does not


those of the later period of the Assyrian monarchy at
It was seen and described by Caesar in Germany, in the

hunting

in the

appear

in

Kuyonjik.

Hyrcinian forest

Middle Ages.
its

and did not become extinct


obtained

its

in Central

Europe

till

the

teeth in bone-breccia in Lebanon, proving

co-existence there with man.

24.

Bison urus.

(L.

Syst.

Nat.

98.)

p.

i.,

Lithuanian

Bison, or

Aurochs

The bones and

have also been discovered in


Lebanon.
It is known to have had

teeth of this species

the former in

company with those of

an equally wide distribution in


extinct, a few being preserved

historic times,

and even now

in

Lithuania and also

ORDER,

RODENTIA.

in the

is

not quite

Caucasus.

FAMILY, LEPORID.E.

Lepns

25.

Hemp, and Ehr.

syiiacus.

Symb. Phys.

ii., t.

15.

Heb.

Arab, s-^', Arncb.

The

Down

only Hare

the coast

it

have also found

it

Northern Syria.
about two inches
four

young

26.

in the

is

everywhere
It is

cultivated districts of Palestine.

very

in the

little

Hermon

to

Philistia.

wooded and mountainous

parts of

smaller than the English Hare, measuring


and with rather shorter ears. It has

less in total length

at a birth.

Lepus

wooded and

found from Lebanon and

sinatticus.

It

has not been noticed beyond Syria.

Hemp, and Ehr.

Symb. Phys.

ii.,

This species cannot be confounded with the preceding.

t.

15.
It is

much

M. IMAfALJA.

longer and narrower head, ears half an inch longer,


and the fur a much lighter hue. It is very rare in Palestine, occurring
It is the
the Dead Sea.
only, so far as we yet know, in the Wadys by
with

smaller,

Hare

of the Sinaitic Peninsula.

27.

Lcpus

Geoffr.

cegyptius.

dc 1'Egypte.

Descr.

Mamm.,

6.

t.

Egyptian Hare.

The Common Hare of the southern region of Judaea, of the wilderness


It is smaller than our Hare, the
of Beersheba and of the Jordan valley.
body from nose to root of tail measuring only eighteen inches. The ears
It is of a light sand colour
arc long, fringed inside with white hairs.
above, and almost white beneath.
It is found through all the desert parts of Egypt, reaching Palestine
from the south-west, as the preceding species does from the southcast.

28.

isabellimis.

Lepus

Riipp.

Atlas, p. 52, tab. 20.

Nubian Hare.

The Nubian Hare

is very rare, only found in the


sandy deserts of the
which
I
one
found
south-east.
there, and never have
possess
specimen,
It is of a rich fawn yellow colour, lighter than that of the
seen another.
I

Egyptian Hare, which


It is

the

Hare

generally resembles, but is decidedly smaller.


of Nubia and Senaar, but not of Abyssinia or Egypt. The
it

distribution of these various

Hares seems

as dependent on the character of the


cross each other most irregularly.
29.

Lcpus jiidaa.

Persia, vol.

ii.,

Dr. Gray

Gray.

(?)

to be not so

soil,

and

much geographical

their ranges overlap

craspcdotis.

Blanf.

and

Eastern

p. So.

named

as above a specimen collected by me,


forming for

it

and L. mcditerrancus, a new genus, Eulagos ('Ann. and Mag. Nat


It seems to me that it is sc
Hist.,' Third Series, vol. xx., p. 222).
near the
that

hardly

Palestine.

L. craspedotis, described by Mr. Blanford,


to separate them.
It is found in the north-east of

Persian species,
like

2-AUNA

10

AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.


1. \MILY,

HYSTRICID^E.

Hystracinse.

Arab.

"T)2p, generic.

The Porcupine

is

Syst. Nat.

L.

30. Jlyslrix cristala.


,j~-J,

i.,

p.

76.

Porcupine.

Heb.

7W>.

common

the rocky districts and mountain


nocturnal habits seldom seen.
It is especially
in all

though from its


abundant in the gorges abutting on the Jordan valley, where its quills
may be gathered in considerable quantity at any time. The Arabs pursue
it for the sake of its flesh, which is considered a
The
great delicacy.
glens,

Porcupine is found throughout Southern Europe, from Spain to Turkey,


and on the south of the Mediterranean, from the Gambia and Morocco to
Egypt. Syria seems to be its Eastern limit.
31.

375.

Hystrix

hirsutirostris.

Mem. Acad.

Brandt.

Petersb.

1835,

i.

Asiatic Porcupine.

Wagner
obtained

states that

this species

is

a native of Syria, and that he

near Jerusalem.
I have not met with it, but cannot doubt the
of
so
careful
an
observer.
It is found in India and Persia.
authority
it

FAMILY, MURID.E.

32.

Mouse, generic.

Heb. 133y.

cahirhinus.

(Geoffr. Descript.

Acomys

Arab. ^U, Far.

de 1'Egypte,

pi. v., fig. 2.)

Porcupine Mouse.

PLATE
Confined

on

it.

We

in Palestine to the

trapped

it

as far

III.

2.

Dead Sea

basin and the ravines abuttinoo

up the country as Mar Saba.

Common

in

Egypt.
33.

Acomys

dimidiatus.

Riipp.

PLATE

Atlas, p. 37, tab. 13.


III. 3.

More abundant than

the former species, but, so far as our observation


goes, not extending up the rocky ravines.
It may be seen on the
gravel
and sand in the day-time.
Its range extends
Nubia,

through

and Arabia Petnea.

Egypt,

pecially

The Arabs pursue


The
e,

jm the

from Sp
(

he

^CO
USSATUS.
DIMID1AT1
3. ACOMYS

MAMMALIA.
34.

Acomys

1 1

Wagn. Miinch. Abhandl.

russatus.

PLATE

III.

iii.

195.

i.

This diminutive species has only hitherto been found in Palestine near
It is only known elseMasada, towards the south end of the Dead Sea.
where from Sinai, where Wagner discovered it. These Porcupine Mice
are amongst the most beautiful of diminutive quadrupeds, of a rich fawn
colour,

and

delicately
35.

Brown

their backs

more or

marked black and

less

covered with spines instead of

The genus

white.

Mas

decumanus.

Rat.

Arab., ^^y^-, Djardoon.

Pall.

36.

Mus

alexandrinus.

Mus

musculus.

Geoffr.
is

L.

the

Mus

Found

in the plains.

is

i.,

common

Syst. Nat.

It is

i.,

a native of

in all

as

p. 84.

all

Field-Mouse.

Europe and Western Asia.

Brants. Muiz. 125.

On

the plain of Gennesaret, in the Jordan valley, and

Licht.

Mus

bactrianus.

Found about

Mus

Dead Sea

basin.

Syria.

Blyth.

J.

A. S. xv. 140.

and seems, indeed,

The Sandy Mouse.

to take there the place of

was first described from the Punjaub and Affghanistan,


been noticed by Blanford throughout Persia.

Mus musculus.
and has since

villages,

coast.

the towns.

Miis pratextus.

41.

is

Mouse.

83.

p.

39.

40.

and

Palestine,

The

Descript. de 1'Egypte.

Syst. Nat.

L.

sylvaticits.

Found through Arabia and

my

to

House-Mouse of the towns on the

The European House-Mouse


38.

way

164.

p.

i.,

there as elsewhere.

This Egyptian species


37.

its

fur,

a strictly desert one.

Ross.-Asiat.

Zoog.

This cosmopolitan pest has found

common

is

It

variegatus.

Licht.

Brants. Muiz. 102.

Said to inhabit the wilderness south of Judaea, but has not come under
It is abundant in Egypt and Nubia, and found also in Sinai
notice.

and Arabia.
42.

Cricetus

phceus.

Pall.

Zoog.

Ross-Asiat.

i.,

p.

163.

Hamster.
2

The

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

T2

common

neighbourhood of cultivated
It is known from Russia
beans and lentils.
ground, attacking especially
east of the Volga, and throughout Northern Persia and Armenia.

The Hamster

43.

is

very

in the

Brandt.

Cricetus nigricans.

Bull.

Acad. Peters,

i.

42.

This Caucasian species was found by Dr. Roth near Lebanon.


44.

Cricetus auratus.

Ann. and Mag. N.H. 1839,

Waterh.

iv.

445.

have frequently seen a large light-coloured Hamster about bushes,


and making its escape from wild palms but I never secured it. It cannot be mistaken for the much smaller C. phceus, and can be none other
than this species, first described from Aleppo, and well known from Syria.
I

have seen specimens


45. Nesokia.

Sp.

in the

museum

at Beyrout.

(?)

obtained one specimen of a Nesokia, now in the British Museum.


Mr. O. Thomas does not assign it positively to any of the Indian species,
I

and

in

more examples hesitates to describe it


removed from Nesokia hardwickii, Gray.

the absence of

If distinct,

it is

not far

as new.

SUB-FAMILY, MERIONINI.
46.

Gerbillus tceniurus.

Found on Mount Carmel, and


peculiar, so far as

47.

is

Schreb.

Wagn.
in

the

hill

Gerbillus melanurus.

Gerbilhis pygargus.

Occasionally met with


Egypt and Nubia.
49.

Psammomys

iii.

471.

country generally.

It

is

yet known, to Syria.


Riipp.

Mus. Senkenb.

In the Jordan valley and Dead Sea basin.


found also throughout Arabia Petraa.
48.

Saugth.

obesus.

Wagn.
in

Schreb.

An

iii.

Abyssinian species,

Saugth.

the southern wilderness.

Riipp.

95.

iii.

475.

Found

also

in

Atlas, p. 58, tab. 22, 23.

Extremely abundant in sandy places about the


the plains and uplands of Southern Judea.

Dead

Sea, and also in

2.ARVICOLA GUENTH

MYS MELANl
3.

AUV

jV/,

the whole of the sandy

regioM of

bey
5

Bias.

s.

Wirbi.

ly fron.

jverywh
'a socialis.

ind in the desei

:hern Judsea,

Onl

This spec!

where

by us

in the north.

MAMMALIA.
This Sand-Rat

is

13

found throughout the whole of the sandy regions of

Barbary and North Africa.

Psammomys

50.

This

Wiegm. Archiv.

Wagn.

myosurus.

from Syria by
the above in the higher ground.

species, described first

the place

of-

1848, 183.

Wagner, appears
It

to take

has not been noticed

beyond Syria.

Psammomys

51.

small rodent
to

appears

belong

Kuhl.

tamaricinus.

Beitr. 69.

met with beyond the south end of the Dead Sea


to this

species,

which

known from South-eastern

is

Russia.

SUB-FAMILY, ARVICOLINI.
52. Arvicolanivalis.

Wirbelth. Deutschl.,

Bias.

PLATE IV.

p.

Alpine Vole.

359.

3.

One

of the most interesting discoveries we made was that of the


Alpine Vole, which I took close to the snow-line on Mount Hermon in
The specimen, identical with those from the Alps and Pyrenees,
June.
is

now

in

the

British

Museum.

The

species

was hitherto known only

from the Alps, and rarely from the Pyrenees.


53.

Gm.

Arvicola arvalis.

Syst. Nat.

Very common everywhere on


54.

Arvicola

Desm.

socialis.

i.,

p.

134.

Field Vole.

cultivated land.

Mamm.

Sp. 447.

Found in the desert of Sahara near Damascus, and probably also in


Southern Judaea, where I have seen more than once a very light-coloured,
short-tailed Field Vole.

55.

Arvicola amphibius.

Only observed by us
and Western Asia.
56.

Desm.

in the north.

Arvicola guentheri.

Alston.

Mammal.,

species,

discovered

recently

Water

Found throughout Europe,

Vole.

Central

P. Z. S., 1880, p. 62.

PLATE IV.
This

p. 180.

2.

by Mr.

Danford

at

Marash

in

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALEST]NE.

Armenia, had long existed


known.

the

in

British

Museum

hidden

and un-

In a specimen of the large Snake, Calopeltis lacertina, taken by me in


on open1863 on the plain of Gennesaret, Mr. O. Thomas lately found,
the stomach of the Snake, a perfect example of this Vole, clearly

'ing

proving

its

existence in Palestine.

FAMILY, SPALACID.E.

Spahx

57
Ileb.

nn>

Arab.

1SPI.

Zoog. Ross.-Asiat.

Pall.

typhlus.

i.,

p.

159.

Mole-Rat.

Khliint.

-oJe>,

PLATE V.
very common throughout the country, where our
Mole (Talpa europcza) does not exist; nor has any species of the true
Mole been found there. It lives chiefly about ruins, and is an exclusively

The Mole-Rat

is

It is
vegetable feeder, attacking onions and other bulbs in gardens.
in
nine
inches
and
lives
or
than
our
societies
much larger
Mole, eight
long,
It is mentioned in
in burrows, rarely, if ever, coming to the surface.

Scripture (Isaiah

The Spalax
in

is

ii.

20).

found throughout the whole of South-eastern Europe,

Southern Asiatic Russia, and Syria.

FAMILY,
58.
=v>

Dipus

(egyptius.

Licht.

Springmause,

The

Djerboa,

The Jerboa

is

very

common

found throughout North Africa and Arabia.


further east than Palestine..

Dipus

sagitta.

Schreb.

Jerboa.

This species
has not been observed

Mamm.

It

iv., tab.

229.

Stated to be found in Syria.


Has not come under my notice.
a Mongolian and Central Asiatic
species, with a very wide range.
60.

Dipns

hirtipes.

Licht.

Springmause,

PLATE VI.

Found

in

Arab.

in all the desert districts.

is

59.

19.

the deserts east of Jordan.

20.

It is

Rough-footed Jerboa.

>pen-

59

re
CO

'

'
,

Thi
EuropeaiJ;

bu

(P.

F.hrenb.

i^U-^.

J.

Symb. Ph

5/W/
in

wo

'.on

and throughout the


of the country.
Its

Minor.

\sia

throi

rai.

63.
<Y

>

..

in

co:

'

discriminated
e in

its

[he oases of the Jord

round

MAMMALIA.

FAMILY, SCIURID.-E.
61. Spcrinophilus xanthopryinmis.

(Bennett.

P. Z. S. 1835, p.
90.)

Exceedingly abundant on the sandy and stony plains of the uplands


of Moab and Gilead, burrowing generally in the neighbourhood of ruins.
It lives in large colonies, and when camped near their warrens, we heard
their clear call-note,

a sort of whistle, incessantly through

the night.

are most difficult to catch, keeping very close to their holes, and
I
never met with this
dropping into them on the slightest alarm.

They

Marmot west

of Jordan.
This species of Pouched Rat has generally been confounded with the
European but Alston (P. Z. S. 1880, p. 59) has pointed out its distinct;

ness.

It

seems

to occur through the

Southern Steppes, Persia, and Asia

Minor.
62.

Sciurus

syriacus.

Ehrenb.

Symb. Phys. Mam.

i.

cc.

Syrian

Arab. <_*Ux~o, Sinjab.

Squirrel.

Extremely abundant in woods south of Hermon and throughout the


I have never noticed it in the southern part of the
Lebanon.
country.
In habits

it

is

Common

exactly like our

Squirrel.

range extends

Its

through Syria and Asia Minor.


63.

We

Scmrus

russatus.

Schreb.

Wagn.

by Wagner.

But

iii.

155.

numbers the variety discriminated

as

cannot bring myself to believe

its

collected in considerable

S. russatus

Saugth.

in

specific value.

FAMILY,
64.

Myoxus glis. Schreb. Mamm.

iv.

825, tab. 225.

Great Dormouse.

Very abundant in the oases of the Jordan valley,


It
Jericho, where it has its nest in every do in tree.
winter

in

when

especially about
is

very lively

in

disturbed.

This species is found throughout South Europe, from Spain to Greece,


Southern Russia, Asia Minor, the Caucasus, and the countries round

the Caspian.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

16

Myoxns

65.

Mamm.

Schreb.

nitela.

This smaller species seem

tab. 226.

iv.,

Palestine to prefer cultivated ground,

in

living chiefly in the olive groves.

a resident

It is

in

Southern and Central Europe

found further north

than the preceding species.


66.

Myoxus

dryas.

(?)

Schreb.

Mamm.

tab. 225. B.

iv.,

a third species of smaller Dormouse, differing in its habits


from the former, and making its nest in very low thick bushes in the

There

is

There can

desert regions.

assigned to this species, unless


is an Arabian species.
67.

Eliomys melanurus.

be,
it

think, little

doubt but that

be new, which

Wagn.

is

must be

scarcely probable.

Abhandl. Akad. Wiss.

PLATE IV.

it

iii.

It

176.

i.

Dormouse and
the Squirrel, I twice obtained among ruins on the upland plain of Moab.
It inhabits holes in the rocks, and, until we found it, was only known by
This beautiful

little

desert rodent, a link between the

the two type specimens procured by

NOTE.

far the

By

Von Schubart on

richest part of the

Sinai.

Fauna of the desert region

adjacent to Palestine is its rodents, and it is certain that of these we know


Almost all the small Mammals of the stony region south of
the least.
and
of the vast sandy and rocky expanses which stretch from
Judaea,

Moab

to

Damascus, are crepuscular or nocturnal

are well content

specimen

but

it

if

in their habits.

Explorers
can
fortune
shoot
or
they
by great good
trap a chance

is

impossible for them to note,

most interesting

The
I am

still

less

to study, the

have given includes


satisfied it could be very
thirty-one species obtained by myself; but
largely increased with time and opportunity, for I have observed many
species I could not succeed in capturing, especially Dormice and Hamsters.
One might easily be accused of exaggeration in describing the countless
habits of these

creatures.

list I

in regions which for a great part of the


year
of
utter
desert.
Sometimes for miles a district has
features
the
present

number of holes and burrows

MAMMALIA.

'7

the appearance of one vast warren of pigmy Rabbit burrows yet for days,
saving the bounding of a Jerboa here and there before one's horse, not
;

another trace of rodent

The
by

vast

life is

number of these

the nature of their food.

be seen.

to

little

This

rodents in apparent desert is explained


is chiefly supplied
by bulbous roots.

The

greater part of the desert plants are tuberous or bulbous, and after
nine months of utter barrenness, the first winter rains soon carpet the

waste with a

brilliant

spangling of bulbous flowers

asphodels, cyclamens, and others.

Their glory

is

crocus,

iris,

soon over

large succulent roots remain, retaining their moisture through the


to the little burrowers.

squills,

but the

summer,

and affording abundant nutriment

ORDER, FER^:.

CARNIVORA.

FAMILY,
68. Felis leo.

Syst. Nat.

L.

i.
The Lion. Heb. !V1K;
p. 60.
f
L
Dark
Lion; ty??, Strong Lion.
7(1^,
\

Old Lion; T$3, Young Lion;


Arab.

-~, Scba.

The Lion
tants there

is

has long been extinct in Palestine, and among the inhabino tradition of its existence. Yet of its former abundance

there can be no question.

under

five different

common

It is

mentioned about 130 times in Scripture


Within the historic period it was

Hebrew names.

Asia Minor, and Greece.


Not only by Homer, but by
Herodotus, Xenophon, and Aristotle, it is spoken of as inhabiting Greece
It seems to have disappeared
in the times of the respective writers.
in Syria,

altogether from Palestine about the time of the Crusades, the last mention
of it being by writers of the twelfth century, when it still existed near

Samaria.

Though

Atlas Mountains,

it

found throughout Africa, from the south to the


can scarcely be said now to exist in Asia west of the

still

Euphrates, unless in Arabia, the latest trace being that a few years ago
It is still common in
the carcase of one was brought into Damascus.

Mesopotamia, though becoming rare in India. The Arabs state it is


No specimens from thence have reached Europe, but
found in Arabia.
3

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

iS

there secnis

little

reason to doubt

The

existence.

its

range of the Lion

has become more circumscribed than that of other beasts of prey by the
The
settlement of man, from its habit of resorting to open country.
sculptures of

Nineveh abound with

most royal of

sports*

The

was formerly believed

Asiatic Lion

Africa, but

illustrations of

though frequently smaller,

be

to

Lion hunting as the


distinct

from that of

specific identity is

its

now

estab-

lished.

Arab.

y*.

Syst. Nat.

L.

69. Felis pardus.

i.,

The

p. 61.

Leopard.

Heb.

Nimr.

Unlike the Lion,

skulking Leopard still maintains itself in


It is found all round the Dead
Palestine, though in very small numbers.
in
and
Gilead
Sea,
Bashan, and occasionally in the wooded districts of
the west.

saw a

the

fine pair

which had been

on Mount Carmel.

killed

It

sometimes lurks near watering-places, to pounce at night upon the cattle.


Its ancient abundance in the Holy Land is testified not only by the

numerous
the

word

allusions in Scripture, but also

Nimr

names of

in the

The Leopard extends over

by the frequent occurrence of

places.

the whole of Africa, Southern Asia, Japan,

China, and the islands of the Malayan Archipelago.


Felis maniculata.

70.

Wild

Cat.

Arab.

Riipp.

tt*M ki,

Kot

Zool. Atlas,

i.,

p. i,

t.

r.

Egyptian

el khla.

The Wild Cat is scarce west of Jordan, very common on the east side.
Some of my specimens are the largest I have ever seen, the body being two
feet in length,

Cat.

and the

tail

eleven inches, more bushy than in the Domestic

the probable original of the Domestic Cat, now as


in Palestine as elsewhere, though not mentioned in ancient times.

This species

is

common
The Egyptian Cat is found throughout all
The Syrian has sometimes been held to be a
unable to recognise
71. Felis chaus.
p.

483,

pi.

14.

its

Africa, Arabia,

and Syria.

separate species, but


distinctness from Egyptian examples.

Giild.

Jungle Cat.

Nov. Comm. Acad.


Arab.

ks,

Kot

Imp.

Petrop.,

t.

am

20,

buri.

This large Cat, somewhat approaching the Lynx

in its characteristics,

MAMMALIA.
is

not

uncommon,

especially in jungle

and

i,,

thickets, as

by the Jordan.

It

can at once be recognised by its short tail and stout limbs.


The species is found throughout Northern and Central Africa, Western

Asia south of the Caspian, and

Temm.

Felis pardina.

72.

The

southern Spotted
very rarely seen, but

it is

obtained skins.

in India.

Lynx

is

well

is

These seem

vol.

Monog.,

p.

i.,

to identify

to the natives,
it

Spotted Lynx.

wooded

confined to the

known

186.

regions,

from

whom

where
I

have

with the Fclis pardina of Spain


in the Taurid mountains of

and Turkey, and which I have also obtained


It is a very beautiful animal.
Asia Minor.
73. Felis

caracal.

Nov. Comm. Ac. Pctrop. xx. 500.

Giild.

Red Lynx. Arab.


The Red Lynx is very rare

Caracal, or

in

Lebanon, and

in

all

it is

not so

Schreb.
Saugth.
Arab. J^s, Faked.

have seen skins obtained

uncommon.

iii.

The

el ard.

Africa, Arabia, Persia,

jubata.

Hunting Leopard.

Anag

Jj^o,

in Palestine.

Northern Syria

range, extending through


74. Felis

Ji>;

XI

and

has a wide

India.

The

392.

It

Cheetah,

or

This graceful Leopard is scarce, but still haunts the wooded hills of
Galilee and the neighbourhood of Tabor.
East of Jordan it is far more

common, and

is

much valued by

the Arabs.

It

can be at once distin-

guished from the Leopard by its more slender build, its much longer
limbs and tail, and by being dappled with black spots instead of rin<rs.
Some writers distinguish between the Indian Felis jubata and the
I am unable to
recognise the distinction, or to say
be
which,
different, the Syrian Cheetah belongs.
One or
they
other species is found throughout Africa and the warmer
parts of Asia.

African Felis guttata.


to

if

FAMILY, HY^NIDTE.
75.

Heb.

Hyana
.

striata.

Arab.

The Hyaena

is

(L.

& Debad.

common

in

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

58.)

Striped

Hyaena.

every part of Palestine, and indifferent as to

32

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

so

The

tombs and innumerable


Its wail may always bs heard after
caves afford it convenient covert.
burrows
into them, even in the close
It
attacks
and
graves,
nightfall.
It is mentioned once in Scripture, but translated
vicinity of towns.

the character of the country.

old rock-hewn

The Hyaena is common through the whole


speckled bird (Jer. xii. 9).
of Africa from south to north, and through Southern Asia, being very
'

'

abundant

in India.

FAMILY, VIVERRID^E.
Gennettavulgaris. G. R. Gray. P. Z. S. 1832,
The Genet. Arab. ^luJ, Nisnas.
gennctta,
L.)
76.

The

Genet, well

in

quent
Carmel.

known from Spain and North

Palestine.

saw

it

(=.Viverra

p. 63.

Africa,

is

not unfre-

several times, and procured

it

on Mount

occurrence is one of the many instances of the extension of the


African Fauna into Syria for
though found in South Europe and along
the whole Barbary coast from
Tangiers to Egypt, this is the only recorded
instance of its existence in Asia.
Its

77. Herpestes ichneumon.

Ichneumon.

Arab.

The Ichneumon

^^,
is

(Fischer.
Zerdi.

found

Sym. Mamm.,

p.

the scrub on the borders of

among

The

163.)

all

the

cultivated plains, living in the rocks.

possible

to take a

walk

at

It is very common.
It was scarcely
sunrise in any part of the country without

animal trotting away to its hole.


In Asia, excepting in Syria,
through North Africa.

meeting

this little

by representative

Its
its

range extends
place is taken

species.

FAMILY, CANID^.
78.

Cants lupus.

L.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 58.

Wolf.

Heb.

3NT.

Arab.

<_~.J, Dccb.

The Wolf

is

still

common

in

Palestine, but from the nature of the

country and the scarcity of cover or woods,

its

habits are very different

MAMMALIA.

ai

It cannot here be considered


Europe.
Probably from the
gregarious, though two may often be found together.
abundance of food, it is rather larger and stronger than European speci-

from those of the same species

mens.

It

lurks during the

about the sheepcotes.

day among the

every part of the country.

Northern Asia.

Palestine

Cam's attreus.

rocks,

and prowls

But when disturbed during the day

Its habits are often referred

fearless.

79.

in

L.

The range
is

of the

probably

Syst. Nat,

to in

its

i.,

Scripture.

Wolf

is

It

is

is

night
bold and

found

in

through Europe and

South-eastern

p. 59.

it

at

Jackal.

limit.

'Heb. D"J$-

Arab. -vlj, Wawi.

The

Jackal

is

most abundant

in

every part of the country.

Round

towns, in villages, fields, or wilderness, its voice is nightly heard, as it


hunts in packs, wailing and howling.
Ancient ruins are its special resort.
It is often mentioned in Scripture as Slmal,
always in our version translated

'

Fox.'

The Jackal is found in all the warmer regions of the Old World, from
the Mediterranean countries, through the whole of Africa and all Southern
and Central Asia.
80.

Cants familiaris.
Arab.
Kelb.

L.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

56.

The Dog.

Heb.

Dogs common in Palestine, the Pariah Dog,


and appearance to our Colley, or Scotch Sheep-Dog.
Of these there are two classes the Pariah Dogs of the town, which
support themselves by offal as best they may, and live in small commuand the same breed, belonging to private owners, generally to the
nities
There

is

only one race of

very similar in size

No Dog surpasses the


shepherds, and used for guarding the flocks.
Pariah in instinct and intelligence, neglected and degraded though it be.
Dogs are rarely used in Palestine for hunting, excepting the large
Persian Greyhound, with long silky hair on the ears, and a long fringe of
the same on its tail.
It is highly prized by the Bedawin, and is trained
to chase the Gazelle.

The Dog
man exists.

is

found in every country of the world, hot or cold, where

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

23

81.

Viilpes nilotica.

Heb. hw&.

Atlas, p. 41,

Riipp.

taf.

Egyptian Fox.

15.

Arab. ^JUJ, Taalib.

The Common Fox

of the southern

and central regions of Palestine,

In its habits it is very


extremely abundant in Judaea and east of Jordan.
from the Jackal, and in no way different from our Fox, which is

distinct

somewhat

larger.

The

Nilotic

Fox ranges through Egypt,

Arabia, and

the Syrian desert.

82.

Tawny

Gray.

Vulpcs flavescens.
Fox.

This

is

the species of the

Ann. and Mag. N.H. 1843,

wooded

districts of Galilee

xi., p.

and the

118.

north.

considerably larger than the last species, and differs from the English
Fox, of which perhaps it is only a local race, by its peculiarly bright light
It has black ears,
yellowish colour throughout, and finer and longer fur.
It is

and a splendid brush.

The Tawny Fox

ranges from Syria to Central Asia, and the north

side of the Himalayas.

FAMILY, MUSTELID^;.
83.

Putorius fcetidus. Gray. P. Z. S. 1865,

Arab. J~UJil j\,

Far

p. 108.

Heb.

Polecat.

el kheil.

Occasionally found in the north, under Hermon and Lebanon.


extends through all Europe and Northern Asia.

84.

Weasel.

Mustela boccamela.

Bechst.

Naturg. Deutschl.

p. 819.

It

Southern

Arab, j^**~, Samimir.

About Mount Tabor, and probably in other wooded districts. Extends


through South Europe and the Mediterranean coasts of Africa and Asia.
85.
I

Martes foina.

bought a skin

(Gm.

i.,

at Beyrout, taken in the

in the Taurid, as well as

region.

Syst. Nat.

p. 95.)

Marten.

neighbourhood.

It is

found

through the whole of the rest of the Patearctic

MAMMALIA.
Lutra vulgaris.

86.

Kelb

Erxl.

Syst. p. 488.

23

The

Otter.

Arab. UU

ma.

el

The Common

Otter was found by us only on the shores of the Lake


also heard its bark, but did
of Galilee, where it has abundant food.
not procure it, when camped by the seashore, close to the mouth of the

We

Litany

river.

The

Otter extends from the British Isles and North Africa to the

Himalayas.

FAMILY, MELINID^.
87.

Meles taxus. Schreb.

Saugth.,

^Uc, 'Anak u'lard.


The Badger is very common

t.

142.

Common

Arab.

Badger.

_^i>^l

in all the hilly

and wooded parts of the

country, but has not been observed in the Jordan valley.


The Badger extends through the whole of Northern

Northern Asia, but has not been found


to be the southward limit of its range.

The words

translated in the

in

North Africa.

Old Testament

'

Europe and

Palestine seems

Badgers' skins

Techashini), refer not to this animal, not procurable either in

'

(proth

Egypt or

in

the wilderness of Sinai, but to the Dugong, Halicore hemprichii, common


among the coral banks of the Red Sea, and pretty clearly identified by its
Arabic name Tucash, the equivalent of the Hebrew Tachash.

FAMILY,
88.

Bear.

Ehrenb.
Ursus syriacus.
Heb. an, Arab. n-A Dub.

Symb. Phys.

i.

a.

pi.

i.

Syrian

The Bear has become very rare in Palestine, though still not uncommon
on Hermon and the wooded parts of Lebanon.
I
only once saw it in
Galilee, in a ravine near Gennesaret.

It still exists

on the east side of

From the frequent references in Scripture,


Jordan, in Gilead and Bashan.
we see how familiar the Bear must have been to the ancient inhabitants,
when

the Judean hills were still clothed with wood, and


the primeval forests crowned the rugged heights of Galilee.
in

the days

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

24

The
Ursus

and

arctos,

Horsf,

linus.

Brown Bear of Europe,

Syrian Bear differs but slightly from the


is

still

It is

more

Ursus

closely allied to the Indian

isabcl-

found in Lebanon, the Taurid range, and Northern

Persia.

ORDER, INSECTIVORA.
FAMILY, SORICID/E.
Sorex

89.

Heb.

De

araneus.

Arab, (generic) IJ&JI^U,

npi.

Frequently found dead

in

Micromm.

Selys.

Shrewmouse.

18.

Far el kla.

Northern Palestine,

in the hilly districts.

Is a native of all parts of Europe except Scandinavia and Britain, and


extends into the Caucasus and Armenia.

Sorex tetragonurns.

90.

Mamm.

Desm.

Sp. 234.

In the north, on Lebanon.

The Common Shrew

De

91. Sorex pygmczus.


I

obtained a specimen

known

Sea.

It

North

Africa,

92.

Sorex

is

of England, and inhabits the whole of Europe.

among

the

93.

It is

cliffs

below

as a native of Central

Mar

i.,

p. 27.

Saba, near the

Dead

and South-eastern Europe,

and the countries bordering on the Caspian.


crassicaudiis.

Licht.

This pretty silver-grey species


ravines.

Schinz. Eur. Faun,

Selys.

Darstellg.,
is

found

also a "native of Arabia, Egypt,

Sorexfodiens.

Schreb.

Saugth.

t.

40,

f.

i.

in the desert

and southern

and Abyssinia.

p. 571.

Water-Shrew.

have several times seen, but did not procure, a Water-Shrew, both
It is most
on the banks of the Wady Kurn and by the Litany river.
from
known
Western
as
this
well
as
Asia,
universal,
species,
probably
I

though not

plentiful, in all parts of

Europe.

MAMMALIA.
Sorex.

94.

Sp.

(?)

obtained a sixth species of Shrewmouse, which,


the
cide,
specimen being in a bad state.
I

am

unable to de-

FAMILY, ERINACID^E.
Erinaceus brachydaclylus.
Schreb.
Wagn.
Arab. J^&Ji, Kanfood.
Hedgehog. Heb.

Saugth.

95.

ii.,

22.

TISf).

This species, rather smaller than our European,


south of Palestine.
closely allied to
96.

It

the

is

E. auritus,

in the

Common Hedgehog

Pall.,

Erinaceus europceus.

common

is

of Egypt, and very


from the Caucasus and Taurid.
Syst. Nat.

L.

i.,

Common Hedge-

p. 75.

hog.

The Hedgehog
European
translated
times.

species.

of

Lebanon and Hermon appears

The Hedgehog

erroneously

The Hebrews,

in

under the name Kippod,


Bittern,' is mentioned several

in Scripture,

our version

like the

to agree with the

'

Arabs, included the Porcupine and Hedge-

hog under the same name.


found throughout the whole of Europe.
Africa scarcely differs from it.

This species

is

That of North

ORDER, CHEIROPTERA.
FAMILY, PTEROPODID^.
Bats.

Heb.
97.
pi.

iii.,

ef?ej& (generic),

Arab, k^xlj, Wat-wat and JJJI

Cynonycteris agyptiaca.

Geoffr.

^,

Their

Descript. del'Egypte.

ellil.

ii.,p.

135,

fig. 3.

This fruit-eating Bat

is

found

in large colonies in

the caves of the

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

25

Northern Palestine, especially near the Plain of Acre, as in


Wady Kurn. Those from Kurn are much smaller than the specimens
from the hills behind Tyre, which are of the same size as those from

Wadys

in

Egypt and Cyprus.

The

length of body varies from 4/2 inches, Wady Kurn, to


7'9 inches near Tyre, and expanse from 13 inches, Wady Kurn, to
22 inches Tyrian specimen.

The range

of this Bat extends through Abyssinia, Egypt, Palestine,

Northern Syria, and Cyprus.


Contrary to the usual arboreal habits of this genus, this species has
been found only in caves.

in Palestine

FAMILY, RHINOLOPHID^;.
98.

Archiv

Bias.

Rhinolophus euryale.

Found in great numbers in the caves of


Lake of Galilee, also in tombs behind Tyre.
It

fiir

the

Nat.

i.,

p. 49.

Wadys opening on

the

ranges through South Europe, North Africa, and Asia Minor.

99.

Rhinolophus

blasii.

M.

Peters.

B. Akad. Berl. 1866, p. 17.

Abundant about Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Hebron.


Found also in South Europe and North Africa.
100. Rhinoloplius ferniin-eqiiinum.

The commonest Bat

Schreb.

Saugth.

i.,

p.

174

in Palestine, in all parts of the country.

Europe from England southwards through the


range extends
whole of Africa, from Algiers to the Cape, and across Asia from Syria to
the Himalayas and Japan.
in

Its

101. Phyllorhina tr ideas.

Occurs

in

caves in the

A common

Egyptian

Geoffr.

Dead Sea

species,

Descr. de 1'Egypte.

ii.,

p. 130.

basin.

and found as

far

south as Zanzibar.

MAMMALIA.

2?

FAMILY, VESPERTILIONID^E.
102. Plecotus auritus.

Syst. Nat.

(L.

i.,

p. 47.)

The Long-Eared

Bat.

Very common

in all the hill-country of Palestine, especially in

caves

and tombs about Bethlehem and Jerusalem, and by the Sea of Galilee.
This well-known Bat has a very wide distribution. It ranges from
Ireland throughout Europe; and on the south of the Mediterranean,
through Egypt and Syria as far as Nepal.
Vesperugo serotinus.

103.

Schreb.

Saugth.

i.,

p. 167,

pi.

53.

The

Serotine.

Occurs

in

Lebanon.

Found throughout

common

Bat

the whole of

Old and

the northern hemisphere, the only

New

Worlds.

ranges from England


to Siberia, through Africa as far south as Gaboon
Arabia, Asia Minor,
and
in
America
from
Lake
Persia, India;
Winnipeg to Guatemala and
to the

It

the

West India
104.

Met

Islands.

Vesperugo kuhlii.

Natt. Deutsch. Fled.

Ann. Wett.

iv., p.

58.

with at Jerusalem, in caves near Bethlehem, and elsewhere.

Extends through Southern Europe, North Africa, Persia, and India,


from north to south.
105. Scotophilus temminkii,

(and

plate).

(Horsfield's

work

is

which

Zool. Researches in Java

neither paged nor numbered.)

procured a Scotophilus under

Horsf.

(?).

Mount Carmel, on

the plain of Acre,

believe belongs to this species, which occurs throughout India,


South China, Java, and the Philippines.
But it may possibly be the

allied

African species, S. borbonicus.

to discriminate
1

06.

daubentonii.

Leisl.

was not easy

Deutsch. Fled.

Ann

to Siberia,

and south as

far as

Found from

the furthest north of

Tenasserim.

42
-4

Wett.

p. 51.

In a tomb near Tibnin, Galilee.

Europe

it

it.

Vespertilio

Ges. Nat.,

Being much damaged,

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

23

Vesperlilio emarginatus.

107.
p.

Geoffr.

Ann. du Museum,

vol. viii.,

Notch-eared Bat.

198.

In large colonies in tombs behind Tyre and on Mount Carmel.


species belongs to Southern and Central Europe, from France to
It

This
Italy.

has not hitherto been noticed further east, except in Palestine.

Vesperlilio murinus.
Mouse-coloured Bat.

108.

Schreb.

Saugth.

i.,

Tyre and Beyrout not noticed inland.


through Europe, from England and Denmark southwards
and also in India.
as far as Abyssinia
Obtained

165,

p.

Its

at

pi.

range

51.

is

North Africa

109.

Nat.

mysiacinus.

Vespertilio

iv., p.

55.

Whiskered

Deutsch.

Leisl.

Ann. Wett.

Fled.

Bat.

Found throughout

the whole of Europe, and


has also been received from the Himalayas and from Pekin.
In Southern Lebanon.

10.

Miniopterus

schreibersii.

Deutsch. Fled. Ann. Wett.

Natt.

iv.,

p. 41.

In caves overhanging the Jordan valley.

very pale grey colour.

from

Africa

The specimens

through
Southern Asia from Syria to Japan and the
countries

New

are of a

Widely distributed through Southern Europe


Algiers to the Cape and Madagascar; in all
Philippines,

the

Malay

Guinea, and Australia.

FAMILY, EMBALLONURID.E.

in. Taphozous
Afrik. Saug., p. 70,

We
on

found

to the

this

Sea of

nudiventris.
fig.

Bat

27

in

Cretzsch.

Riipp,

Atlas.

Reise. Nord.

b.

myriads

in the

caverns of the ravines opening

Galilee.

This and the following species belong to a tropical family of Bats, and
are the only two species of the family found in so northern a region
But even here they are confined to the subtropical ravines
as Palestine.

The

present species ranges from the


Egypt, and has also been brought from the Euphrates.

of the Jordan valley.

Gambia

to

MAMMALIA.
112.
p.

Rhinopoma microphyllwn.

Geoffr.

Descript.

de 1'Egypte.

ii.,

123.

caves of the Jordan valley and the Dead Sea basin,


Callirrhoe (Zerka Main) on the east side.
the
Like the
and especially by
preceding species, this Bat is tropical, belonging to the Indian Peninsula

Swarms

in the

and Burma, out of which region


Kordofan, and the Jordan valley.
Both species are remarkable and
fat at

the base of the

113

Nyctinomus

tail,

laid

cestonii.

it

has only been

peculiar, in

found

in

Egypt,

having large deposits of

on before the period of hybernation.


Savi.

In caves over the Jordan valley.


North-east Africa, and in China.

Nuov. Giorn.

de' Lett, p. 230.

Found

Southern Europe,

also in

in

AVES.
ORDER, PASSERES.
FAMILY, TURDID^E.
1.

Turdus

Syst. Nat.

Linn.

viscivorus.

i.,

p.

Missel-Thrush.

291.

barely claims a place in the Fauna of Palestine.


in winter, in a wooded district of Lebanon, but I have seen

The Missel-Thrush
I

once saw

it

after leaving the nest on the southern spurs of the


near
Marash.
Taurid,
It is found throughout Europe, the Barbary States, Asia Minor, the

the

young soon

Caucasus, and the North-west Himalayas.


2.

Ttirdtis mustcus.

The Thrush

is

not

Linn.

uncommon

occasionally noticed it in the


never found the nest.

The Song-Thrush
North

Africa.

It

Syst. Nat.
in

wooded

i.,

p. 292.

Song-Thrush.

winter in the higher ground.


districts of Galilee

in

spring, but

all
Europe, and in winter in
Asia
and Siberia, and has been
also inhabits Western
is

found through

obtained in Northern China.

3.

Turdus pilaris.

The

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 291.

Fieldfare.

very rare in Palestine, but is occasionally met with


found one close to Jerusalem in February.

Fieldfare

in winter.

Linn.

is

a bird of northern range, breeding in Northern Europe and


Asia, and descending in winter, though rarely, as far as the Mediterranean
It

is

countries,

and

to

Cashmere

in the east.

AVES.
/(.

Turdus mentla.

The

Blackbird

Linn.

3'

Syst. Nat.

295.

p.

i.,

Blackbird.

a permanent resident, scattered in every part of the


It is nowhere
country, and remaining to breed, even in the sultry Ghor.
one
of
the very rarest of all the resident species, and
abundant, perhaps
is

one of the most

The

is

and shy of the inhabitants of the

retiring

range of the blackbird

is

throughout

all

thickets.

Europe, except

its

Arctic

borders, and all North Africa, the Azores and Madeira.


It does not
to
roam
eastward
of
the
Ural
but
is
found
in Asia
appear
Mountains,
The species of
Minor, Syria, and sometimes, in winter, in Persia.

Affghanistan
5.

is distinct,

and has been named Merula maxima.

Monticola cyanus.

The Blue Thrush

is,

Linn.
in

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p,

the localities where

it

296.

occurs,

Blue Thrush.

one of the most

In all its habits it is very different


conspicuous birds of the country.
from the rock thrush.
It resides throughout the
year, singly or in pairs,
among rocky wadys, in ruins, and especially in cliffs by the sea-shore.
the habit of perching on conspicuous ledges, and does not avoid
villages where there is a ruined keep, on the top of which it perches,
Its breeding places are niches
uttering its somewhat monotonous song.
It is in

in

caves or in the vomitoria of

it

feeds

on shrimps.

alone on the house-top

It

is

Roman
to

supposed

On the shore
amphitheatres.
be the Sparrow that sitteth
'

'

of Scripture.

The Blue Thrush

ranges throughout Southern Europe, from the


and
Pyrenees
Alps, through Northern and North-eastern Africa as far
as Abyssinia, and eastward as far as Yarkand and North-western India.

Beyond these Eastern


Monticola
6.

limits its place

is

supplied by the Manilla Thrush,

solitaria.

Monticola

saxatilis.

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

5.,

p.

294.

Rock Thrush.

The Rock Thrush

is in Palestine, south of Lebanon,


only a passing
a
but
It
arrives
in
traveller, tarrying
night.
large flocks in the beginning
of April, hopping rather than flying over the country, as it
progresses
I saw one of these flocks on the 8th
northwards.
April, passing over
Mount Gerizim. In 1881 I saw another similar flock near Damascus.

In

Lebanon and Hermon

rocky

hills.

it

remains

in

pairs,

and breeds on the bare

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

3*

The Rock Thrush is a summer visitor to Southern Europe and


Northern Africa, and spreads through Central Asia to Cashmere,
Yarkand, Turkestan, as far as the Pekin Mountains.
7.

Saxicola cenanthe.

Syst. Nat.

Linn.

i.,

Wheatear.

p. 332.

The Wheatear is

only seen in Southern Palestine at the periods of the


and
autumn
In the hill country of Galilee, and in
spring
migrations.
the mountain ranges of Lebanon and Hermon, the Wheatear breeds and

remains

till

The

autumn.

on Mount Carmel.

first

numbers, close to the snow,

specimens

On Mount Hermon

noted were on igth March,


found it breeding in large

the beginning of June.

in

Many

of the

Palestine specimens are exceptionally large and very bright in plumage,


differentiated by Ehrenberg under the name of Saxicola rostrata.

and were

But, with a series of Palestine specimens before one,

draw the

it

impossible to

is

line.

The Common Wheatear

is

the most widely distributed of

Greenland and Iceland throughout

its

family,

Europe and
North Asia, and across Behring's Straits in Alaska. Southwards it
extends from the Azores and Canaries to Kordofan and Abyssinia, and as
far as the frontier of North India and Northern China.
being found from

8.

Saxicola

isabellina.

Riipp.

Atlas,

52,

p.

pi.

all

34.

Isabelline

Chat or Menetries' Wheatear.

The

Isabelline

In the north

it

Chat resides throughout the year

visits the

nesting about an

in

Southern Palestine.

Hermon and Lebanon to breed,


walk lower down than the Common

lower ranges of

hour or two's

Wheatear, and soon withdrawing with its young to the plains, where it is
very numerous. In North Syria and Mesopotamia it is the most abundant
of

all

the Passerine birds.

This bird only touches Europe in South-Eastern Russia, but extends


through North-east Africa, Asia Minor, and Arabia to Persia, North
India, Siberia, and North China.
9.

Saxicola aurita.

Temm.

Man. d'Orn.

i.,

p.

221.

Eared Chat.

The

Black-eared Chat returns to the Holy Land about the third week
in March, always a few days later than its congener, Saxicola melanoleuca,

and immediately spreads

itself

by twos and threes

all

over the plain

A VES.
country,

affecting

open

especially

33

tillage

and cultivated

It is

fields.

but they never interbreed, though


Most of the immithe habits, note, nest and eggs are precisely similar.
black and white
grants arrive before they have assumed their bright

found

in the

same

localities as its ally,

breeding dress, but in a few clays they lose all traces of brown and grey.
I should be inclined
myself to agree with Ehrenberg, and separate the
Eastern form as 5. amphileuca, never having met with the russet hue
so characteristic of Western specimens

but

am

assured that such occur

in Persia.

The

Black-eared Chat

Mediterranean, and

pi.

is

in Persia,

10.

Saxicola melanoleuca.

15.

Black-throated Chat.

This

is

and returns

found

in all the

countries bordering on the

which appears to be
Giildenst.

its

Nov. Com.

Eastern

limit.

Petr. xix., p. 468,

the Eastern form of the Stapazine Chat of Western Europe,


It is very
to Palestine for nidification about i6th March.

numerous, and universally distributed in the lower and cultivated grounds,


and less abundantly on the hills. On its first arrival it still wears the

tawny hue of the Stapazine, but in a very few days the head and back
become silvery grey, and then a pure silvery white, when the bird forms a
conspicuous feature of the landscape, perched on the tops of the thistles
and tall weeds of the plains. I never found a trace of buff on the

breeding birds.

This species is found in North-East Africa and South-East Europe,


It occurs in Persia, and has been met with in
Asia-Minor, and Syria.
its
Eastern
limit.
It appears to winter south of Egypt.
Yarkand,

11.

Saxicola deserti,

Temm.

PI.

Col.,

pi.

359,

fig.

Desert

2.

Chat.

The Desert Chat

only found in the desert portions of Palestine,


especially among the sand wastes north and south of the Dead Sea, and
south of Beersheba, in all which it is a permanent resident, nesting in the
is

holes of Jerboas and other desert rodents.


As its name implies, it is a strictly desert form, ranging from the
Sahara, through the desert regions of Egypt, Arabia, Persia, and Scinde,
5

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

34

as far as Cawnpore.

It

also found

is

in

Affghanistan, the Southern

Kcrghis Steppes, and Yarkand.

Saxicola finschii.
Palestine Chat.
12.

This

me

the

bird,

Orn. N.O. Afrik.

Heugl.

characteristic

Chat of

p.

350.

The

was discovered by
libanotica (Hemp, and

Palestine,

1863, but erroneously identified with S.

in

i.,

Ehrenb.), and, six years afterwards, was described by Heuglin from an


Egyptian specimen. It is the only chat, besides S. lugens, which remains

country in winter, scattered everywhere, but always solitary


very conspicuous with its white body and black wings.
Palestine is really its native country, but it is scattered, though very
in the hill

scantily,

over Western Persia, Arabia, Egypt, and Algeria, in

countries

it

is

extremely

Saxicola

13.

Tristram's Chat

Licht.

Tristram.

Verz. Doubl.,

p. 33.

Tristram's Chat.

Jbis, 1859, p. 58.

one of the best known of

is

which

rare.

iiKssta.

S. philothamna.

all

its

genus, occurring only

In
scrubby desert plains in regions far apart from each other.
Palestine it has been found only on the rolling plains south of Judaea
in Africa in the dayats of the Sahara.
It has been found also in Egypt
in

and Arabia.

It

breeds

in the desert,

making use of

lizard or jerboa holes

under the roots of bushes.

Saxicola lugens.

14.

The

Pied Chat

is

Licht.

very

Verz. Doubl., p. 33.

common

Pied Chat.

throughout the year

in

the rocky

regions overhanging the Jordan valley, in the Judsean wilderness, and on


I have never found it further north.
the highlands of Moab.
Where it is

found
but

it

affects the

may be

at

same

Palestine Chat (S. finschii],


black back and bufif under tail-

districts as the

once distinguished by

its

coverts.

The

headquarters of the Pied Chat appear to be Palestine, but it is


also found in Arabia, Egypt, Algeria south of the Atlas, and occasionally
in Nubia.

A VES,
Saxicola

15.

lencomela.

= S.
(

Eastern Pied Chat.

The Eastern
found

in

Nov. Coin.

Pallas.

morio.

Pied Chat

is

35

Petr.,

xiv.,

rare in Palestine,

584.

p.

Hemp, and Ehr. Symb. Phys.,

fol.

aa.)

and as yet has only been


seem to occur. It

the north, where the Pied Chat does not

breeds

in the

North

India,

neighbourhood of Beyrout.
The range of the Eastern Pied Chat very slightly overlaps that of its
Eastward it extends through Cyprus, the Caucasus, Persia,
congener.
Mongolia, to North- West China.

Westward

it

reaches in

winter as far as Abyssinia.


1

6.

Saxicola monacha,

Temm.

PI. Col., pi. 359, fig.

1.

Hooded Chat.

The Hooded Chat

is
very limited in its range, and within that range is
It is to be found sparsely scattered
few
individuals.
represented by very
over the salt hills and wastes at the south of the Dead Sea and the Arabah.

Among

the marl

Usdum

between Sebbeh and Jebel


to be seen.

hills

its

presence

is

the only sign of life


It has been taken in Egypt, Nubia, and the Sinaitic Peninsula, always
and eastward it is found in Baluchistan, but not in
in desolate districts
;

the most graceful and elegant of


indeed the sylph of the family.

Scinde.
It is

17.

This species

Saxuola

is

Itucopyga.

Brehm.

Vogelfang,

p. 225.

all

the Chats.

White-rumped

Chat.

The White-rumped

Chat, which has often been separated into two


species, from the fact of its not acquiring the white head until its second
moult, is found in Palestine only on the higher rocky ground of the
ravines and wilderness on either side of the

Dead

Sea, where

it is

a con-

stant resident.

The White-rumped Chat


Arabia.

It

is

is

found

in the

Algerian Sahara, Nubia, and

stated to have occurred at Sierra Leone,

and probably

ranges to the southern fringe of the Sahara.


1

8.

Cercomela melamira.

Temm.

PI.

Col.

No. 257,

fig.

2.

Black

Start.

The

Black Start

is

one of the most striking and characteristic birds of


Dead Sea and Jordan valley. Beyond

the bare ravines opening on to the

52

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

3<5

these limits, in which

is

it

sedentary,

we never saw

it.

It

has

all

the

habits of a Stonechat, not of a Wheatear, perching on bare twigs, jerking


and
its black tail, and not alarmed at the presence of intruders.

expanding

Among

the sparse desert shrubs and rocks,

fertile oases, is

There

home.

its

but not in the clumps or

no distinction whatever

is

in

plumage

between the sexes.

The Black

Start

is

found

throughout Arabia, and

in

in similar localities to his Palestine resorts

Egypt, Nubia and Abyssinia, but not further

east or south.

Pratincola rubetra.

19.

The Whinchat

not

is

Linn.

common

Syst. Nat.

in Palestine,

332.

p.

i.,

and

Whinchat.

believe only passes

through the country at the season of migration.


This well-known bird is spread throughout the whole of Europe, even
to its northernmost point in summer
and in Africa is found as far south as
;

the Gambia, Fantee, and Abyssinia, in winter.


Asia, Asia
in the

Minor being

its

ordinary

limit,

It

does not enter

far into

though occasionally procured

Punjab.
Linn.

20. Pratincola rubicola.

The

Stonechat

Syst. Nat.

p.

i.,

Stonechat.

322.

very common, scattered over the whole country in


winter, but appears to leave for the north in April, returning in
October.
is

This bird has a wide range throughout all Europe, except Scandinavia
and Northern Russia, North Africa, and throughout Asia, to China and

we

Japan, unless
naturalists,

am

Reis. II.

separate the Indian form,


disposed to do, under the

Anhang.,
China and Japan.
belongs to the
21.

p.

name

common
of P.

with

manra

the species are distinct, the

if

many

(Pallas.

Palestine bird

Western form.
Linn.

Ruticilla phcenicurus.

The Common
simultaneously

in

This race occupies India, Eastern Siberia,

708).

But

as,

all

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

335.

Redstart.

a very abundant summer migrant, arriving


over the country the second week in March, but remain-

Redstart

is

ing to breed only in the more wooded localities and the neighbourhood of
The Redstart is found in summer throughout the whole of
gardens.

A VES.
In North Africa and

Europe.

wintering in Central Africa.


22. Ruticilla mesoleuca.

Egypt

also only a summer migrant,


occurs as far as Persia.

is

it

Eastward
Ehr.

37

it

Sym. Phys. Aves,

fol. ee.

Ehrcnberg's

Redstart.

have found

same

same time as
migrant, and has
been procured on Mount Carmel, among the oaks of Bashan, and on
the plains of Moab.
I

this species in the

the closely allied

The

Common

limits of this

Caucasus, and Syria

in

places

It

and

at the

summer

is

species are very restricted,


;

Ehr.

Asia Minor, the

viz.,

summer Arabia and Abyssinia

Ruticilla semiriifa.

23.

Redstart.

Sym. Phys. Aves,

in winter.
fol.

bb.

Palestine

Redstart.

This bird

its

extremely close to the Indian R. rufivcntris, but differs in


smaller size and black under- wing coverts.
It resides in the Lebanon
is

and Hermon, and has been found nowhere

In Lebanon, though not

else.

uncommon, has escaped the notice of all naturalists, excepting Ehrenberg.


Whether it migrates, beyond descending and ascending the mountain
it

I found it
ranges according to the season, is not yet ascertained.
sitting
late as the 26th of June, under the cedars of Lebanon.

on eggs as

So

our present knowledge extends, this is one of the isolated


forms peculiar to Palestine, and separated from its closely allied relative
far as

by the vast extent of continent between Syria and


24. Ruticilla titys.

Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

India.

p. 335,

34

(3.

The Black

Redstart.

The Black

Redstart

is,

during winter, one of the most

common and

conspicuous birds on the rocky hills of Palestine, especially near the sea
It is partially migratory, ascending in spring to the
coast
spurs of

Lebanon and Hermon, very few remaining

further south to breed.

The

Black Redstart inhabits Central and Southern Europe, North


Africa, the Caucasus, and Persia.
25.

Cyanecula

suecica.

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

5.,

p. 336.

Red-spotted Blue-

Throat.
widely distributed in winter throughout the marshy
small numbers, generally consorting with the pipits.
plain, but in very

This Blue-throat

is

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

3&

found

it till

the end of April, in 1881, and noticed

it

through the winter

more numerous than on my previous visits.


Though they meet in Palestine and in North Africa
summer range of the two Blue-throats is very different.
as

in

winter, the

This species
Scandinavia and North-

passes annually over Heligoland, and breeds in


east Europe, wintering in North Africa and as far south as Abyssinia.
In Asia it goes to India, Ceylon, and China.

Brehm.

26. Cyanecula wolfi.

Beit, zur

Vdgelk.

ii.,

p. 173.

White-

spotted Blue-throat.

The White-spotted
as the last species, but

Blue-throat
is

is

by no means so common

in Palestine

occasionally to be found in winter, generally on

the maritime plains, with the habits characteristic of the pipits, with which
never noticed it after April.
it consorts.

We

The White-spotted

an inhabitant chiefly of central


It is common on passage in
Europe, breeding especially in Holland.
in
the
North
African coast, but has rarely
winter along
Spain, and occurs
Blue-throat

is

strayed further east than Palestine.


27.

Erithacus rubecula.

Our

familiar Redbreast

Linn.
is

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 337.

scattered everywhere

Robin.

by ones and twos

throughout the country in winter, singing lustily when all else is silent,
and as bold and familiar as at home. But not one remains after the end
of February.

The Robin

spread throughout Europe, and is generally a migratory


It breeds in the
bird.
In North Africa it spends only the winter.
Caucasus, winters in Asia Minor and Syria, and has been taken in
Westward it extends to the Madeiras and Canaries.
Persia.
28.

is

Erithacus gut^tralis.

GueVin. Rev. Zool, 1843,

p. 162.

White-

throated Robin.

PLATE VII.
This very remarkable and beautiful bird

is

one of those which connect

the ordinary Palsearctic fauna of Palestine with that of more tropical climes.
There, as everywhere else where it occurs, it appears to be very scarce.

We

on Hermon, among the vineyards near its northern


Last year, in travelling through
base, and afterwards on Lebanon.
first

discovered

it

.I
-^

Abyssinia.

White-

p. 173.

-'

no means so
.?

common

North-

in Palestine

found in winter, generally on


with which

central

ssage in

.illy

It

a migr;

br-

White-

162.

inch connect
i!

be very

climes,
so

northern

PI. VII.

X
(aMr

US GUTTURAL! 3.

A VES.

39

Southern Armenia, east of the Euphrates, I had


several opportunities of noticing its habits, which are very Robin-like when
The male has a magnificent
in the bushes, but Chat-like on the open.

some wooded

bell-like

note,

defiles

not

among

perched

in

much

to

inferior

the

Bulbul,

which

it

pours

forth,

The White-throated Robin has a

the thickest foliage.

found on the Abyssinian coast, in Asia Minor,


Palestine, and Persia, always rare, among bushes in rocky valleys.

very limited range.

29.

It is

Erithacus luscinia.

Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

328.

Nightingale.

Arab. JJj, Bulbul (generic for fine songsters).

The

Nightingale returns to Palestine in moderate numbers about the


middle of April, and remains to breed, frequenting especially the fringe of
I have found it also on Tabor and
trees by the banks of the Jordan.
in various

wooded wadys.

never observed or heard

it

in

the olive

groves.

The Nightingale summers

in

Western and Central Europe, England

being its Northern limit, and passes southward into Africa to winter.
Asia Minor, Cyprus, and Palestine appear to be its eastward boundary.

Erithacus philomela.
Eastern Nightingale.

Gem. Nat. Deutschl.

Bechst.

30.

iv., p.

536.

This bird was not obtained by me in Palestine but as it is a native


of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia, including the Caucasus and Asia
;

Minor, and winters

in

Egypt,

it

is

scarcely possible for it to escape


careful research will discover it.

where no doubt

passing through Palestine,

FAMILY, SYLVIID^.
Sylvia cinerea.

31.

Bechst.

Orn.

Taschenb.

i.,

p.

i/o.

White-

throat.

Our

familiar White-throat

is

very abundant everywhere, and remains

through the year, though its numbers are considerably increased in spring.
It is a very early breeder, its eggs being found from the
beginning of

March

to the

country.

end of Mav.

It

seems equally

at

home

in

every part of the

FAUNA AMD FLORA OF PALESTINE.

to

The

White-throat inhabits

Western Asia as far as


and in Africa, where it

in

summer

the whole of

Europe and

Persia, wintering in the Mediterranean countries


is found as far south as Kordofan and the Gold

Coast.

Linn.

32. Sylvia curruca.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

329.

p.

Lesser White-

throat.

The Lesser White-throat

is

summer

only a

visitant

to

Palestine,

March, and breeding all over


the country but it remains throughout the winter in the warm nooks and
side.
On
glens surrounding the Dead Sea, especially on the eastern
Lebanon it was breeding as late as the middle of June.

numbers

generally returning in great

in

The

Lesser White-throat

is

a bird of most extensive range, visiting

Europe and Northern Asia in summer, and Northern and


The Eastern race, which is slightly
Central Africa and India in winter.

the whole of

larger has, however, been separated as Sylvia affinis, Blyth.

specimens are intermediate in


33. Sylvia subalpina.

Palestine

size.

Bonelli.

in

Temm. Man.

d'Orn.

i.,

p.

214.

Subalpine Warbler.

The Subalpine Warbler was obtained by me once near Mount Tabor


towards the Jordan.
It is very shy, and probably not so rare as has been
supposed.

This bird

is

found

in small

numbers

in all the countries

the Mediterranean, frequenting thick low scrub.


Kordofan, and on the Gambia.

Sylvia conspicillata.
Spectacled Warbler.
34.

This bird

is

Marmora,

fide

It

bordering on

has been procured

Temm. Man.

d'Orn.

i.,

in

p. 211.

very generally spread, but in small numbers, over the

bare highlands of Judea, and on the plains of Jordan, throughout the year,
in dry stony places.
Its nest, in a low bush, is a very neat open structure,
and its habits are those of the Lesser White-throat.

The

Spectacled Warbler inhabits all the countries bordering on the


Mediterranean. Westward it extends to the Canaries, and eastward to
It is abundant in the Sahara, but has not been noticed in
Mesopotamia.

Egypt.

A VES.
Sylvia mclanothorax.
Warbler.
35.

One

Tristram. Ibis,

1872,

p.

296.

Palestine

new Warbler,

the type specimens, were obtained by


me at Engedi, close to the shore of the Dead Sea, on 2nd February, 1872.
I never observed
any other individuals. Since then Lord Lilford has
pair of this

obtained several specimens in Cyprus in the month of May, and one has
been procured on the coast of Phoenicia by Dr. Van Dyk, of Beyrout.
No other specimens are known. It can be at once distinguished from the

next species by

its

black throat and upper breast.

36. Sylvia melanocephala.

(Gmel.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

970.)

Sardinian

Warbler.

The

Sardinian Warbler

The

Sardinian Warbler

very generally distributed in Palestine, and


remains throughout the year in the scrub on the sides of the upland
wadys, secreting itself after the manner of our Wood- Wren in the bushes.
is

found

the districts bordering on the


Mediterranean, only migrating to a limited extent, and never wandering from the Mediterranean basin.

Sylvia bowmani.

37.

Very

little is

of the country.

known

is

in all

Tristram. Ibis, 1867,


of this Warbler, which

Bowman's Warbler.

p. 85.
I

obtained in various parts


very like the Sardinian

not a migrant, and is


Warbler in general appearance, but differs in various details, especially in
the shortness of the tail, and in the iris being lemon yellow.
It

was

first

It

is

obtained by Ehrenberg,

who named

it

Curruca

mom us,

but the description would be wholly unintelligible without the


It
type.
has been supposed to be the same as the Sylvia mystacca of Menetries
(Cat. Raisonn., p. 34), but I cannot agree with the identification for
several reasons, and therefore retain the

name of Sylvia bowmani.

The

bird has only certainly been found out of Palestine in Persia, and probably
It is the Sylvia rubescens of Blanford
also in North-east Africa.
(Ibis,

1874,

p. 77).

38. Sylvia orphcus.

Temm.

Man. d'Ornith.

i.,

p.

198.

Orphean

Warbler.

summer

visitant to Palestine, returning in the

beginning of April,
and affecting chiefly the groves and olive-yards of the northern part of the
country.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

4*

It lays

very

eggs about the beginning of June, and under Hermon is


The Indian form is distinguishable by its larger size and

its

plentiful.

bigger bill, and named S. jerdoni (Blyth, J. R. S. Bengal,


But both forms occur and interbreed in Palestine.

xvi., p. 439).

The Western form spends the summer in the Mediterranean countries,


and the winter on the Gambia and in Central Africa. The Eastern form
breeds in Persia and Turkestan, and winters in India and Arabia,

Temm.

39. Sylvia rueppellii.

PI.

Color,

iii.,

245,

fig.

i.

Rtippell's

Warbler.

This beautiful Warbler

is

scarce, but generally distributed in Palestine.

It
Judaea and Gilead, and on Lebanon.
appears to reside permanently in the warmer parts of the country.
It has seldom
Rlippell's Warbler is confined within very narrow limits.
I

have found

it

on Carmel,

in

been noticed beyond the boundaries of Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt,
It is very rare in Greece and Algeria.
including the Sinaitic Peninsula.
40. Sylvia atricapilla.

The Black-Cap
through the winter

i.,

p.

332.)

one of the commonest birds

is
it

Syst. Nat.

(Linn.

may be found

in small flocks, the

in

Black-Cap.
Palestine.

All

males having the

brown cap, which in summer is characteristic of the female. In spring the


numbers in the south are not much increased but it breeds by hundreds
about the Cedars of Lebanon and in the woods near Hermon. These
mountain denizens do not arrive until after the birds in the south have
begun the work of nidification.
;

The Black-Cap is found in every country of Europe, in the Caucasus,


and Asia Minor. In winter it is spread over Africa as far as the Canaries,
Palestine may be considered
Senegal, and Abyssinia.
though it has been once recorded from Persia.
41. Sylvia hortensis.

(Gmel.

The Garden Warbler


in

very small numbers

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 955.)

its

Eastern

limit,

Garden Warbler.

visits Palestine in spring,

this

remaining to breed, but


country appearing to be its extreme eastward

limit.

The Garden Warbler


through almost
winter.

all

Africa,

Europe in summer, and


Damara-land and Caffraria, in

ranges throughout

even down

to

A FES.
Sylvia nisoria.
Warbler.

The Barred
but

it

Europe as

eastern

far as

p.

is

Barred

580.)

rare in Palestine,

believe only on passage, as

breeding.
range of the Barred Warbler

The

iv.,

common bird,

Warbler, nowhere a very

the country in spring,

visits

found

Naturg. Deutschl.

(Bechst.

42.

43

is

never

and South-

limited from Central

Turkestan and Persia, and southwards

it

has

been noticed in Nubia.


43. Sylvia undata.

Tabl.

(Bodd.

PI. Ent., p. 40,

No. 655.)

Dart-

ford Warbler.

The

Dartford Warbler

is

very scarce

in Palestine,

being occasionally
found in the scrub in the neighbourhood of the Spectacled Warbler, which
It remains, I believe,
it much resembles in habits.
through the year.
It is found in the
probably its extreme Eastern limit.
south of England, but not in Germany or Central Europe.
Its headquarters are the countries bordering on the Western Mediterranean.

Palestine

East of Italy

is

it is

44. Sylvia

Pygmy

nana.

by

Dead

rare.

(Hemp, and Ehr.

Symb. Phys. Aves,

fol.

cc.)

Warbler.

This curious
list

very

its

desert bird only asserts its claim to a place in our


occurrence in the desolate Sebkha, at the south end of the
little

Sea.

It

is

found

in

the

deserts

of the

Sahara,

the

Sinaitic

Peninsula,

Southern Persia, Scinde and Turkestan.


45.

Regulns

cristatus.

The Gold-Crest

is

Hoch. Baiern.

Zool., p. 199.

found in Lebanon, which

is,

The

perhaps,

Gold-Crest.
its

southern

limit in the East.

It is spread through all


Europe and North Asia, down
and
also
inhabits
North-West
Africa, extending to the
Himalayas,
Canaries and Azores.

to the

46. Phylloscopris superciliosus.

(Gmcl.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 975.)

The

Yellow-browed Warbler.

The Yellow-browed Warbler

rests its claim to its place here on a


shot
solitary specimen
by myself at Jericho, ist January, 1864. I have

62

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

44

It

never seen or heard of another specimen.


chaff in the thickets

was skulking

like the Chiff-

by the waterside.

a strictly Asiatic species, breeding in Siberia and wintering in


in England, HeligoIndia and China; but stragglers have been obtained
It is

land,

and Germany.

47. Phylloscopus rufus.

Naturg. Deutschl.

(Bechst.

iv.,

682.)

p.

Chiffchaff.

The

Chiffchaff

swarms everywhere

in Palestine

during the winter, but

never seen after February.


In
This species is found in summer through all Northern Europe.
winter it is spread over Southern Europe, North and Central Africa, and

is

Western Asia, as

48.

far as Persia.

Phylloscopus trochilus.

Syst. Nat.

(Linn.

i.,

Willow-

338.)

p.

Wren.

The Willow-Wren

positively

in winter, especially in the

Jordan

North about the middle of March.

valley, but leaves for the

The Willow-Wren

swarms

a widely spread species, visiting the whole of


Northern Europe and Asia as far as the Yenesei in summer and in
winter extending through Africa as far as the Cape of Good Hope, but
is

in

Asia not further south or east than Persia, where

49. Phylloscopus sibilatrix.

(Bechst.

it is

not

common.

Naturg. Deutschl.

iv., p.

688.)

Wood- Wren.

The Wood-Wren

appears in Palestine in great numbers about the last


week in April, and has almost entirely disappeared by the second week in
May. I had formerly believed that it was here only on passage, but in
north near the Litany river.
visitor to nearly the whole of
Europe,
and is found in Barbary, Egypt, Nubia, and Abyssinia. It has been sent
from the Gold Coast, but I have not been able to trace it further east
1

88 1

found

it

breeding

The Wood-Wren

is

in the

summer

than Palestine, excepting a statement by Menetries


near the Caspian.

'.hat

he procured

it

AVES.
bonellii.

50. Phylloscopus

45

Nouv.

(Vieill.

Diet,

xxviii.,

p.

91.)

Bonelli's Warbler.

Warbler returns in considerable numbers at the beginning of


and
April,
immediately disperses to its various haunts, especially frequenting olive-yards and wooded hills, where it builds its domed nest on the
Bonelli's

ground well concealed.


Bonelli's Warbler visits Central and Southern Europe from the Atlantic
to Turkey in summer.
It is not uncommon in Asia Minor, but has not
been traced east of Palestine. It winters in North Africa as far as
Senegal and Nubia.

Hypolais olivetorum. (Strickland


Olive-tree Warbler.
107.)
51.

pi.

where

The
bird.

It

rare,

though

is

a denizen of Greece and Asia Minor.

have taken

has been taken also once

in

Nothing more

to be found in Fez.

most

ii.,

its

Olive-tree Warbler
it is

Algeria

it

Gould's Birds of Europe,

genus, is a late summer visitant to the north of


breeds in small numbers in olive-groves.

This, the largest of


Palestine,

in

its

nest

Egypt,
is

and

still

possess the parent

in Abyssinia,

known

In

and

is

stated

of the distribution of this

local bird.

52. Hypolais upcheri.


Warbler.

Tristram. P. Z.

S.,

1864, p. 438.

Upcher's

a specimen of this bird was taken in Palestine


by Ehrenberg,
it Curruca
languida, yet as his description is unrecognisable,
and has only been identified by the existence of the type at Berlin, the

Though
who named
name

excluded by the Stricklandian Code.

is

Upcher's Warbler

is

confined, in Palestine, to the lower

and cultivated

slopes of Lebanon and H-ermon. It is exactly intermediate in size between


the Olive-tree and Pallid Tree Warblers.
It is doubtful whether it
It breeds in Palestine,
migrates further than up and down the mountains.
South-east
Persia,
Baluchistan, and Turkestan.
In
Egypt, Abyssinia,
this last country it is only a summer visitor.

53.

Pallid

Hypolais pallida.

(Hemp, and Ehr. Symb. Phys. Aves,

fol.

bb.)

Tree Warbler.

This

is

the most

common

species of

and warmer parts of the country.

It

its

family, especially in the lower

reaches the Jordan


valley in March,

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

46

and the slopes of Hermon in April, and commences to build its very neat
It prefers
nest immediately on its return, in low bushes well concealed.
situations.

marshy

Tree Warbler appears to be confined to Greece, Asia


Minor, Syria, and Persia, and in winter retires to Nubia and Abyssinia.
In Western Europe and Central and Eastern Asia it is represented

The

Pallid

by closely
54.

allied species.

Aedon

galactodcs.

Man. d'Orn.

(Temm.

i.,

p.

182.)

Rufous

Warbler.

Of

all

the Warblers in Palestine, this

is

the most attractive and con-

spicuous, and perhaps the most abundant in

summer.

It

returns about

Its bright
1
4th April, and at once overspreads every part of the country.
chestnut plumage, with its black and white tipped tail expanded like a
Instead of skulking, it hops
fan, enlivens every thicket and thorn bush.

perches on the outmost bough of a bush or the stem of a tall


The nest is placed very
reed, expanding and jerking its tail like a wren.
conspicuously in a tamarisk bush, and invariably has the cast skin of a

in the open,

serpent loosely twined in the interior, perhaps to intimidate the lizards,


who prey on the eggs.

The Rufous Warbler

breeds in Spain and Portugal and throughout


North Africa as far as Abyssinia.
In Greece and Asia Minor it is
replaced by the following species
55.

Aedon

familiaris.

(Menetr.

Cat. Rais., p. 32.)

Grey-backed

Warbler.

This

species, the representative in

Greece, of the Rufous Warbler, to which


fully

claim to be of Palestine.

Dr.

North
it is

Asia Minor, and


closely allied, can only doubt-

Van Dyk,

Syria,

at

Beyrout, showed

me

specimen he had shot on the Phoenician plain, and it must pass through
It is most remarkable that
Palestine on its way to its summer quarters.
north of Lebanon

never once detected Aedon galactodes, so abundant

to the south, while throughout

everywhere
and Armenia,

never for an hour

North

lost sight of

Mesopotamia,
familiaris, most

Syria,

Aedon

appropriately so named.

The Grey-backed Warbler

is

Caucasus, Turkestan, and Scinde.

also

found

throughout

Persia,

the

47

AVES.
Acrocephalus streperns.
Warbler.
56.

Nouv.

(Vieill.

Diet,

xi., p.

182.)

Reed

the beginning of March, and

The Reed Warbler returns about


common in all suitable localities.

is

This bird ranges through all Europe, excepting North Scandinavia


and North Russia. It seems to be a permanent resident in North Africa
;

In Egypt, Nubia, and Arabia it


breeding
occurs on passage, and extends eastward to Persia, Baluchistan, and
I

have found

in Algeria.

it

Turkestan.

57. Acrocephalus palustris.


Warbler.

The Marsh Warbler


observation.

and winters

It

58.

doides.

scarce

where

it

Palestine, but

in

inhabits Continental

in Africa,

has been found

is

Orn. Tasch.

Bechst.

i.,

p.

may

186.

Marsh

easily escape

Europe from Holland southward,

goes as far south as

Natal.

Eastward

it

in Persia.

Acrocephalus arundinaceits

Syst. Nat.

(Linn.

(Meyer. Vog. Liv. and Esthl.,

p.

116).

i.,

p.

296)

tur-

Great Reed Warbler.

The Great Reed Warbler


March, and

may

returns to Palestine about the


beginning of
be
found
where
the
reed-beds
are
of sufficient
generally

extent, there often being several pairs in the

same swamp.

extends throughout Central and Southern Europe, but not further


and Western Turkestan. Elsewhere it is replaced by A. orientalis, an allied and
slightly smaller
It

east in Asia than the Caucasus,


Syria,

species.

Acrocephalus stentoreus.
(Hemp, and Ehr.
Stentorian
Reed
Warbler.
bb.)

59.
fol.

This bird

Symb. Phys. Aves,

have only observed in the marshes of the Huleh, where its


unmistakable and discordant note, or rather scream, may often be heard
I

from the wholly inaccessible papyrus swamps.


The Stentorian Warbler has a wide Eastern range from the Nile to
Turkestan, Inclio, Ceylon, and Java.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

48

60. Acrocephahis phragmitis.

(Bechst.

Orn.

Taschenb.,

186.)

p.

Sedge Warbler.

The Sedge Warbler


cover

very common wherever it can find suitable


from the end of March.
Probably some remain in the Jordan
is

valley throughout the winter.


It

Europe from the Arctic

inhabits

east as far as the Yenesei.

extends

Damara

its

flight

to

the

Circle southwards,

and extends

passes into Africa for the winter, and


furthest south, having been obtained in
It

land.

61. Liisciniola melanopogon.

(Temm.

Mous-

PI. Col., pi. 245, fig. 2.)

tached Warbler.

Once only

did

obtain

the Moustached Warbler, on the

plain

of

Gennesaret, 3ist March, nor am I aware I ever observed it elsewhere.


It is only met with in South
Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, and
thence eastward as far as the North-west Provinces of India.
62. Lociistella fluviatilis.

(Wolf.

Tasch. Deutsch.

i.,

p.

229.)

River

Warbler.

The River Warbler


Lake of

Galilee and at

occurs in the upper valley of the Jordan, by the

Lake

Phiala,

where

have procured

it

in April

and May.

The River Warbler


fined

to

is

everywhere a rare

Europe

(especially

and appears to be conGalicia), Asia Minor, and

bird,

can find no satisfactory evidence of


Egypt or North-east Africa.

Palestine.
in

South-eastern
I

63. Locustella hiscinioides.

(Savi.

its

having been obtained

Nuov.Giorn.

de' Lett,

vii., p.

341.)

Savi's Warbler.

Warbler appears to be a scarce summer visitor in Palestine.


I obtained it on the
plain of Gennesaret on ist May, and heard its
note in the Huleh marshes later in the spring.
This rare Warbler visits England occasionally, and Holland but with
Savi's

this

exception

ranean, where
Palestine

is its

it

would appear

to be confined to the coasts of the Mediter-

very sparingly distributed, and only in some countries.


In Egypt it is comparatively not rare.
Eastern limit.

it is

AVES.
Cettia sericea.

64.

Temm.

49

Man. d'Orn.

i.,

p. 197.

Cetti's

Warbler.

Cetti's Warbler may be frequently heard, but rarely seen, among the
willows by small watercourses.
Its note is very fine and powerful, but
suddenly broken, like the first part of a nightingale's abruptly cut

short.

formerly described the Palestine bird as distinct, Cettia orientalis


(Ibis, 1867, p. 79) ;" but though there is a slight difference in colour, and
the bill is much longer and wider at the base than in any European
I

specimens, the differences are scarcely sufficient on which to found a


species.
Cetti's
in

Warbler

is

found resident on both shores of the Mediterranean,

Egypt, Turkestan, and Scinde.

FAMILY, TIMELIID^.
65.

Atlas, p. 19.)
squamiceps.
(Riipp.
Hopping Thrush.
birds have a more circumscribed limit than this Bush Babbler,

Argya

Few

one of the peculiar denizens of the Dead Sea basin. It does not even
extend up the valley of the Jordan, but is strictly confined to the larger
oases round the

observation

belonging

Dead Sea

Nowhere

itself.

and thus we find a

distinct

to a tropical family, limited to

else did

and most

it

come under our

characteristic species

an area of forty miles by twenty,

and not occupying more than ten square miles of that area. The
Hopping
Thrushes are sociable and noisy birds, always in small bands, though not in
large flocks, hopping along the ground in a long line, with jerking tail, and
then one after another running up a bush, where they maintain a noisy
the stranger's approach, when they drop down in
single
and run along the ground, to repeat the same proceedings in the next

conversation
file

The

till

a large structure of strips of bark loosely woven


very centre of a zizyphus thorn-tree, containing
four to six glossy dark-green eggs. Beyond the Dead Sea basin this bird is
said to be found in Arabia, near Akabah, and in the Hedjaz in bushes and

tree.

nest

is

together and placed

trees.

Its food,

in the

so far as

my own

berries of the zizyphus, which

may

observation goes, is exclusively the


be found all the year round.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

So

SUB-FAMILY, ACCENTORIN^E.
66.

Accentor modularis.

Nat.

Syst.

(Linn.

i.,

Hedge-

329.)

p.

Sparrow.

The Hedge-Sparrow
where, however,

resides

very scarce.

it is

The Hedge-Sparrow

is

Lebanon throughout the

the

in

spread over

all

year,

near Beyrout.
Europe, being a summer visitor

obtained

it

becomes very scarce in the south-east.


once taken near Smyrna, and was found by Mr. Blanford in
this exception Palestine is its Eastern and Southern limit.
to the north, but

It

has been

With

Persia.

SUB-FAMILY, DRYMCECIN^E.
67. Drymcecagracilis.

Verz. Doubl.,

(Licht.

p. 34.)

Streaked Wren-

Warbler.

This bird
and

in the

bird.

is

common

It builds

the year round in the plains, on the coast,


It is a lively, active, and conspicuous
valley.

all

whole Jordan

a very neat

domed

nest near the ground, with four or five

richly coloured pink eggs.

The
in

Streaked Wren-Warbler

found

in

North-east Africa as far as Abyssinia,

in

68.

Drymceca

inqidcta.

is

Asia Minor,

Arabia, Persia,

Atlas, p. 55.)

(Riipp.

its

Northern

and

limit,

India.

The Hermit

Fantail.

76) as D. eremita, not


having recognised the very bad representation of it by Riippell, is an
Arabian and essentially desert form, which resorts throughout the year to

This

which

bird,

described

(Ibis,

the most desolate ravines round the

1867, p.

Dead

Sea, hopping

among

the retem

It
very scarce wherever found, and so far has only been
noticed in the Sinaitic Peninsula and South-east Palestine.

bushes.

is

Cisiicola

69.

cursitans.

(Frankl.

P.

Z.

S.,

1832,

p.

118.)

Fantail

Warbler.

The
plains,

Fantail

where

it

is

be found throughout the year in the moist maritime


continually start up from the long grass, jerking up

to

will

A FES.
in the air for

a few seconds as

it

rapidly repeats

and then drop perpendicularly again.

pink,'

its

'

single note, 'pink

Its nest is fixed

among

grass

stems after the fashion of a Reed Warbler.


It is common in all the countries
has a wide range.
through the whole of Africa to the
bordering on the Mediterranean
Cape and in Asia resides in India, Ceylon, China, and Japan. Many of
the Fantails of the eastern islands seem scarcely separable from it specifi-

The Fan tail

cally.

FAMILY, CINCLIDyE.
70.

Cinclus rufiventris.

Hemp, and Ehrenb. Symb.

Phys.,

fol.

bb.

Ruddy-bellied Dipper.
is confined exclusively to the mountain streams in the
It is particularly
of
the
deep gorges
Litany river and of the Lebanon.
numerous about the magnificent springs of Afka, the ancient Adonis. It
The white extends lower down the
differs slightly from our Dipper.

This Dipper

abdomen

of a lighter chestnut colour, and the back of the


I have therefore venhead and the shoulders have a rather rufous tint.
breast, the

is

tured to distinguish it specifically by the name which Ehrenberg gave it


There is, perhaps, in reality only one true species of
only as a variety.
White-breasted Dipper, but as authors have made many species on no

stronger grounds,

conceive that the Lebanon bird

is

equally entitled

it
The birds
corresponds exactly with no other.
from Scandinavia, Switzerland, and Spain have been distinguished from
Mr. Dresser groups the Lebanon form with that
peculiarities as trifling.

to specific rank, for

from Spain, which is decidedly a darker bird, and more like the Scandinavian form, while Mr. Sharpe unites it with C. cashmeriensis, but admits
that it is a peculiar form, with more of a brownish red shade on the breast,

somewhat to the C. aquaticus (the English bird) group. I


cannot find that any Dipper has been found nearer Palestine than Greece,
where C. albicollis is stated to occur and Erzeroum, where the species is
which

allies

it

stated to be C. mdanogaster.

7-2

FA UNA

52

AND FLORA OF

PALESTINE.

FAMILY, PANURID^E.
71.

Panurus

biarmicus.

The Bearded

Syst. Nat.

(Linn.

i.,

p. 342.)

Bearded

Tit.

Tit has been taken in the reed-beds ofArututo donax in

the maritime plain south of Beyrout.


it in any other part of the country.

have not myself seen or heard of

The Bearded Tit has a considerable


From the south-east of England
range.
Southern

Russia,

Smyrna.

Palestine

Italy,
is

stretches through Holland to


Danube, and down to Greece and

and the

thus

its

longitudinal but not latitudinal


it

extreme Southern and Eastern

limit.

FAMILY,

Parus major. Linn. .Syst. Nat. i., p. 341. Great Titmouse.


This is the only Titmouse which is common in Palestine. It is found
throughout the year in all the woods and olive-yards east and west, but
72.

never in the Jordan valley.

Its

coloration

is

brighter than in British

specimens.

The Great

an inhabitant of the whole of Europe, Barbary,


Siberia to the Amoor, Asia Minor, Armenia, and Persia.
73.

Parus

The Coal

Tit

aler.

is

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

341.

Coal Titmouse.

very abundant in all the wooded parts of Lebanon,


and especially about the cedar groves, where it breeds early in the season.
The range of this bird is not easily defined. The British Coal Tit
Tit

is

from the Continental, and in Eastern Asia Parus pekinensis


it
But the typical form ranges through
very closely.
Northern and Central Europe as far as the Caucasus, and extends into
Western Siberia. It is very common in the Taurid range, but becomes
differs slightly

also approaches

very scarce in Southern Europe, and


ranean.
74.

Parus

lugubris.

Temm.

is

not found south of the Mediter-

Man. d'Orn.

i.,

p. 294.

Sombre

Tit-

mouse.

The Sombre Titmouse, which

extremely plentiful in the wooded


parts of Northern Syria and Southern Armenia, does not appear to
is

A VES.
extend further

in Palestine

at the Cedars,

and

Tit,

and

range.

than the Lebanon.

few wooded

in all the

The Sombre Titmouse

53

is

It is to

be seen and heard

districts.

very different in

its

habits from our

Marsh

It is a bird of very limited


higher branches of trees.
Its centre is Greece, where it extends westward to Hungary,

affects the

eastwards to Palestine and the Taurid range.

FAMILY, SITTID^E.
75. Sitta

Michal.

neumayeri.

Isis,

1830, p.

814.

Syrian

Nut-

hatch.

No one who has

noticed and heard the Syrian Nut-hatch on the side of


some rugged Lebanon ravine can ever forget it. The startling cheery
note, and the movement of the bird among rocks and boulders, as easy in

motions over a moraine heap as a railway train on the rails, cannot be


This species is very common all through Lebanon, while
forgotten.
its

north of these mountains

found both

identical with

large species,

this

and the true Sitta

that of Central

syriaca, the

Asia, inhabiting the

same

localities.

Neumayer's Nut-hatch

is

resorting exclusively to rocks


76.

Sitta

ccesia.

only found in Greece, Asia Minor, and Syria,


and bare gorges, and never visiting trees.

Wolf. Tasch. Deutsch. Vogelk.

i.,

p. 128.

Common

Nut-hatch.

The Common Nut-hatch

is

resident in the

wooded

parts of Galilee,

round Hermon and throughout the Lebanon.


It is especially abundant
in the Leontes (Litany) glen, but never found further south.
I have not
been able to trace it east of Jordan.

The range

of Sitta ccesia

uncommon

in

the only species of the


found
in
but
on
the
Continent
it
is not found north of
England,
genus
Holland.
It is sparsely scattered through all Southern
Europe, and is

not

77.

Ab.

i.,

peculiar.

It

is

Asia Minor and Armenia.

Sitta krueperi.
p. 149.

is

Von

Pelzeln.

Sitz.

Akad. Wissen. Wien. 48,

Kriiper's Nut-hatch.

have only noticed in the wooded walls of the


stupendous gorge of the Leontes, where it may be seen among the trees
Kriiper's Nut-hatch

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

54

which sparsely stud the chasm, while Neumayer's Nut-hatch gambols over
the bare rocks.

This very peculiar species

is

only

known from Asia Minor and

Syria.

FAMILY, TROGLODYTID^;.
Koch.

Troglodytes parvulus.

78.

Common
The Wren

Saiig. u.

Vdgel Baierns,

p.

161.

Wren.

Palestine.

Morocco

It

to

by no means plentifully, on the northern hills ol


over Europe in the Barbary States from
North-Western and Central Asia, Asia Minor and

occurs, but

found

is

Tunis

in

all

Persia.

FAMILY, MOTACILLID.E.

White Wagtail.
The White Wagtail is very abundant everywhere in winter, but becomes
scarce as the spring advances, and is not seen at all in the south in

summer.

Syst. Nat.

Linn.

79. Motacilla alba.

few remain to breed

i.,

p. 331.

in Galilee,

where

in the hills

have

taken the nest.

The White Wagtail


North and

universally spread over Continental Europe


Central Africa as far as Senegal and Abyssinia Northern

Asia as far as
80.

is

Lake

Baikal, and southwards

Motacilla vidna.

Sund.

to Persia

and Scinde.

Oefv. vet. Forhdlg. 1850,

p. 158.

White-

winged Pied Wagtail.

Has been

obtained by Dr. Herschell in the Jordan valley, and I have


seen a second specimen in Jerusalem. It is essentially an African species,

found over the whole of that continent, except the Barbary States.
8 1. Motacilla sulphurea.
p.

This bird

swamps.

M.

Gem. Naturg. Vog. Deutsch.

ii.,

Grey Wagtail.

459.

are

Bechst.

the

is

not

uncommon

Never observed
long-tailed

after

European,

winter by the banks of streams and


All I have examined
early spring.

in

not

the

shorter-tailed

Asiatic

bird,

melanope.
It

Persia.

is

found throughout Europe,

North Africa and Asia, as

far

as

AVES.
82. Motacilla flava.

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

35

p.

i.,

Blue-headed Yellow

331.

Wagtail.

Generally distributed in winter throughout the country, but not seen


at any other season.
This may be looked on as the typical form of Yellow
Wagtail.
It breeds in Central Europe and Asia, and is found all over Central
and Southern Europe the whole continent of Africa the whole of Asia,
;

north and south

and Alaska.

83. Motacilla cinereo-capilla.

Savi.

Nuov. Gior.

d.

Lett.,

Grey-headed Yellow Wagtail.


This species or variety also occurs commonly, but only

190.

p.

in winter.

preserved several specimens in the winter of 1881.


This is a more northern form than the last, though trending eastward,
and goes as far south as Abyssinia and as far east as China. In fact, it
occupies the country enclosed by lines drawn from Finland to Abyssinia
and China, thus crossing at an angle of 45 the region of the previous
species.

84. Motacilla

melanocephala.

Licht.

Verz. Doubl,

36.

p.

Black-

headed Yellow Wagtail.

The Black-headed

is

Palestine, only occurring


than any of the others.
I

ascertained this

fact,

by

in

far

the

scarcest

of the

three

species

in

winter in small numbers, but remaining later

was only on my fourth visit to Palestine that


which is accounted for by its breeding in Greece
It

and Asia Minor.

The range

of the Black-headed Yellow Wagtail


Asia Minor, the Caucasus, and North-east Africa.

85.

Anthus pratensis. (Linn.

The Meadow

Syst. Nat.

Pipit occurs in small

i.,

is

limited to Greece,

p. 287.)

numbers throughout the

a few pairs remain and breed in favourable localities.


young birds in the upper plains of the Hasbany in 1881.

The Meadow

Pipit

South of Europe.
scarce.
Eastward

On
it

is

a migrant

Meadow

in the

winter,

found

ranges

and

many

North, and a resident in the

the southern shores of the Mediterranean


to the

Pipit.

it

is

Indian frontier, but only as a straggler.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

5<5

Not uncommon
South-eastern

Palestine appears to be

Asia Minor.

its

ordinary

limit.

Anthus

86.

in

trivialis.

Syst. Nat.

(Linn.

i.,

p. 288,

No.

5.)

Tree

Pipit.

In spring I
in winter.
Pipit occurs throughout Palestine
in 1881, in the very places
paired and very abundant in the "north

The Tree
found

it

had appeared scarce in 1864.


The Tree Pipit enjoys a wide range over the whole of Northern
Europe and Asia in summer, and in winter as far south as Caffraria
in Africa, and India and China in Asia, and has even been found at

where

it

Batchian.

Anthus

87.

cervinus.

(Pall.

Zoog. R. A.

i.,

p.

511.)

Red-throated

Pipit.

This

is

a scarce winter visitant to Palestine.

found throughout Europe, North Africa as far as Abyssinia, and


the whole of Asia, but more plentiful in the eastern than western
It is

regions.

Anthus spipoletta
Water Pipit.
288.)
88.

p.

The Water

is

Pipit

Linn.

(\_spinoletta misprint].

found in winter

in

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

the lower and moist localities,

especially in the Jordan valley.


It

is

found

in

moderate numbers

in suitable

situations

throughout

Central and Southern Europe and Asia, and North Africa.


89.

Anthus

The Tawny

cawpestris.
Pipit

year, and breeding

is

(Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

288.)

Tawny

Pipit.

the Pipit of Palestine, residing throughout the


In
uplands and open parts of the country.

in all the

the semi-tropical Jordan valley I have not observed it.


The Tawny Pipit occurs scantily in Northern Europe, more plentifully
in all the countries bordering on the Mediterranean
and extends very
;

south in Africa.

In Asia

does not extend far north, but is found in


Persia and the North-west Provinces of India, which appear to be its

far

limit.

it

AVES.

57

FAMILY, PYCNONOTID^:.

Hemp, and Ehr.

90. Pycnonotus xanthopygns.


bb.

Palestine Bulbul.

Arab

Symb.

Phys.,

fol.

Jj J}, Bulbul.

one of the most characteristic birds of the warmer


Never found in the hills or upper country, it is
regions of Palestine.
universally diffused through the Jordan valley and the lower parts of the

The

Bulbul

is

adjacent wadys, and throughout the whole of the maritime plain, from
Gaza to Sidon, wherever there are olive-yards, groves, or even dwarf
It is a permanent resident
wood, and especially by the sides of streams.
;

never gregarious, but scattered throughout the year in pairs.


It is the
finest songster of the country, and the fame of the Bulbul as a musician is
It is inferior only to the Nightingale in power and
variety
of song.
The nest is a small neat structure in the fork or on the branch
of a tree, and the eggs are like those of the other species of the family

well deserved.

and pink blotches and

white, thickly covered with rich crimson, chocolate,


spots.

It is

by no means shy

is

easily

tamed, and

is

a favourite cage-

bird with the natives.

The

Out of Palestine
range of the Palestine Bulbul is very limited.
it is nowhere abundant, though I have found it
occasionally in the warmer
nooks of the lower valleys of Northern Syria. It inhabits the date and
tamarisk groves of the Sinaitic Peninsula, and is stated to have occurred
in Cyprus and Rhodes.
Thus it may be looked on as one of the peculiar
denizens of the Holy Land.

FAMILY,
91.

Oriolus galbula.

The Golden

Linn.

Syst. Nat. i, p. 160.

Oriole passes through the country in

Golden Oriole.

May.

Very few

remain to breed.

The Golden

Oriole passes the

and Southern Russia, wintering


ing the

line,

in

summer

Mediterranean countries
Central Africa, and occasionally crossin the

migrating as far as Damara-land.

Northern Persia

but

its

place

is

taken

It

in India

breeds commonly in

by the

allied

species,

O. kimdoo.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

58

FAMILY, LANIID^.

Lanius

92.

aucheri.

Bp.
Trans.

Finsch.

'L.fallax.

Arab. JJj^^l,

Pallid Shrike.

Rev.

et

Z. S.,

Mag.

vii.

Zool.,

1853,

1872, p. 249,

Abou seround ;

<_/=>_>},

pi.

p.

xxv.

294.

The

Booras.

The

non-ornithological observer would probably pronounce this great


It certainly is everyShrike to be the most common bird of the country.
where except in the deserts and mountains, and at all times takes good
care to be seen, perched motionless on a bare bough, or on the top of a
tree, and placing its nest in the most conspicuous situations, but generally

by the masses of thorns which encircle it and defy the


In former writings I erroneously
very confident and tame.

well protected

hawks.

It is

The Palestine bird has


with the European Lanius excubitor.
identified with the Indian L. lahtora, which it resembles so
closely that only the most minute examination can detect the distinctions.
identified

it

usually been

These, however, appear to be permanent.


'

Birds of Europe,' identified the Palestine and


Indian birds, but Dr. Gadow, in the Catalogue of Birds, British Museum,'
vol. viii., has by various subtle discriminations nearly doubled the number

Mr. Dresser,

in his

'

of species of this genus.


I therefore,
merely for convenience, distinguish
my Palestine friend as separated from its congeners, only giving it BonaThus restricted,
parte's name, which claims priority over Finsch's.

L. aucheri has not a very wide range, being found


Palestine, Persia, and Baluchistan.
93.

Lanius minor.

Gm.

Syst. Nat.

This bird seems uncertain

i.,

p.

in its visits.

308.

in Abyssinia,

Nubia,

Lesser Grey Shrike.

In 1858

it

was almost the

shot on the plain of Sharon, where it was common.


In 1863,
1864, and 1872 I never saw it, while in 1881 it was very common, and
breeding as late as June, while the Pallid Shrike had hatched in March.

first

bird

The

Lesser Grey Shrike inhabits in summer South-eastern Europe


and South-western Asia, not going further east than Persia, and in winter
it

retires to

94.

Eastern Africa, and reaches even to Damara-land.

Lanius

colhtrio.

The Red-backed

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 136.

Red-backed Shrike.

Shrike returns to the northern mountain regions about


the end of April in vast numbers, and
I
immediately begins to build.
have not observed it south of Esdraelon.

AVES.
This bird

found

is

59

summer throughout Europe, but

in

is

rare in the

Southern and Western Spain, or Ireland.


Its North-eastern limit appears to be the Caucasus.
It occurs all down
the east coast of Africa, and breeds in South Africa.
west, and not found

in Portugal,

Mull.

95. Latiius auriculatus.

Natursystem. Suppl.,

Wood-

p. 71.

chat Shrike.

The Woodchat

is

summer

of March, from which time


of 4,000

Above

feet.

resident in Palestine, returning at the

may be

it

that line

its

end

seen on every bush to an altitude


place is taken by the Red-backed

Shrike.
It is a bird of
comparatively restricted latitudinal range, though it is
found from Spain to Persia but it does not reach Northern
Europe, nor
far
as
we
far
south
in
in
the west, and
(so
Africa, Senegal
know) proceed
;

Upper Egypt

Lanius

96.

appearing to be

in the east,

nubicus.

This beautiful

its limits.

Verz. Doubl.,

Licht.

p.

Masked

47.

Shrike.

Shrike returns about 2oth March, confining itself


to the bushes and scrub-covered hills and wadys of the north, where it

among

perches

little

the foliage, not on exposed twigs.

The

nest

is

very neat,

built after the fashion of the Chaffinch.

The Masked

Shrike

only found in Greece, very sparingly in Turkey


and Asia Minor, and in winter in Egypt and Nubia, and sometimes as
is

far as Abyssinia.

FAMILY, MUSCICAPID^E.
Muscicapa grisola.

97.

Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

328.

Spotted Fly-

catcher.

Our well-known Flycatcher


spread

at

once over

all

arrives the last

week

in April,

the olive-yards, gardens, and stunted

and

is

woods of the

country.

The Spotted

Flycatcher

and Western Asia as

far as

taken, though rarely, in


the whole of Africa.

is

summer

visitor to the

Persia and Ladakh.

North

India.

At

whole of Europe
In winter it has been

that season

it

is

spread over

82

FA UNA

Co

Muscicapa

98.

AND FLORA OF

Syst. Nat.

Linn.

atricapilla.

PALESTINE.
i.,

Pied Fly-

326.

p.

catcher.

The

Pied Flycatcher visits Palestine for nidification in small numbers,


returning about the last week of April.
It

rather a local bird everywhere, but

is

in

of

summer, and

Europe
Northern Persia.
99.

It

Muscicapa

in

North

does not appear to go

collaris.

Bechst.

is

found in

far

the countries

all

Eastward

Africa.

it

extends to

south in Africa.

Gem. Naturg.

Deutschl.

iv., p.

495.

Collared Flycatcher.

During a year devoted to ornithology in Palestine, in 1863-64, I only


In 1881 I came upon it
once had a glimpse of the Collared Flycatcher.
overspreading all the country from Nazareth to Hermon, and for one
individual of the Pied

we had

Flycatcher, which

at least ten of this species.

remembered

as so

common,

Its migrations, therefore,

must be

irregular.

The

Collared Flycatcher visits Southern and Central Europe in


but
does not appear to retire far into Africa in winter. With
summer,
the exception of one recorded occurrence in Persia, Palestine is its Eastern
limit.

From

bable that
100.

its

its

very limited range and

its rarity in

Egypt,

it

seems pro-

winter-quarters are in Arabia.

Miisdcapa parva.

Bechst.

Gem. Naturg.

iv.,

p.

Red-

505.

breasted Flycatcher.

have not myself found this bird


specimen obtained near Beyrout.
The Red-breasted Flycatcher is found
I

in

Palestine,

in Central

but have

seen a

and Southern Europe,

South Russia, the Caucasus, Arabia, and Persia.

FAMILY, HIRUNDINID^E.
101.

Hirundo

savignii.

Steph.

in

Shaw. Gen.

Zool.

x.,

p.

90.

Oriental Swallow.
Oriental Swallow, differing only from our Common Swallow in the
rich chestnut red of the whole lower parts, is a constant resident in the

The

Holy Land.

Along

the coast, in the maritime plains,

and along the

AVES.
whole Jordan

valley,

<5

numerous during

it is

winter,

when

not an individual

In spring the numbers of this swallow


rapidly increase, and from the middle of March they become distributed
over the whole country, when along with them appears the common
In the higher ground the latter predominates; in the lower,
species.

of the other species

certainly this

is

is

to be seen.

the most numerous.

The

only other country inhabited by the Oriental Swallow is Egypt,


where also it is sedentary. It is not met with south of Egypt, nor in
In its habits and architecture
Syria north of the Lebanon.
resembles the Common Swallow, but never interbreeds with it.

102.

Heb.

Hirundo

"llT] (generic],

From

Linn.

rustica.

the end of

Arab.

j)jj-<*,

Nat.

Syst.

The

343.

p.

i.,

it

closely

Swallow.

Sunnmi.

March the Swallow swarms

all

over the country.

In

winter not a solitary individual is to be seen.


The summer range of the Swallow is over nearly the whole northern
Old World, though most naturalists would separate, I think rightly, the
birds from Eastern Asia.

whole of Africa as

103.

Hirnndo

In winter

far as the

Cape.

rufula.

Temm.

it

seems

to be scattered over the

Man. d'Orn.

p.

iii.,

298.

Red-

rumped Swallow.
This handsome Swallow returns to Palestine

at the

end of March,

plentiful everywhere, but most numerous in the lower and warmer parts
of the country.
The nest is a remarkable structure, attached to the flat

surface of the under side of the roof of a cave or vault, with a long neck a
foot or more in length, like a retort, and
large bulb, larger than a Thrush's
nest.
The eggs are pure white.

The Red-rumped Swallow

is

ordinarily only found

Europe bordering on the Mediterranean,

in

in

South-eastern

Asia Minor, and Syria, and

also rarely in North-east Africa-

East of the Caspian


77. erythropygia

it is

and other

represented by

species.

H.

daurica, and in India by

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

62

104.

Chelidon urbica.

Syst. Nat.

(Linn.

i.,

344.)

p.

Martin.

arrives in great numbers about the 5th April, and having


to be utilized, builds on the faces of cliffs in all the valleys

The Martin
no windows

and ravines.
The Martin inhabits Europe generally during summer, migrating in
It has not been traced east of Western Siberia and
winter to Africa.
Persia.

105.

Cotile riparia.

The Sand Martin

(Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

Sand Martin.

p. 344.)

returns about the end of March, and while

numbers

pass on, small colonies remain and breed in the localities adapted for the
purpose.

No
It is

Passerine bird has such a world- wide range as the Sand Martin.
found in summer in the whole of Europe, Asia, and North America,

north as Melville Island, and passes in winter through Africa


as far as the Transvaal, into India, and in South America as far as Brazil.

even as

106.

far

Cotile rupestris.

(Scopoli.

Ann.

Hist.

I.

Nat,

p.

Crag

167.)

Martin.

The Crag Martin

the glens of Palestine throughout the


year, not generally in large numbers, and only in a few places appearing
It breeds early in March, laying, unlike most other
decidedly gregarious.
resides in

all

Martins, spotted eggs.


Though confined entirely to the localities indicated by its name, the
Crag Martin has a wide range from Spain to China, not extending, however, very far north or south of that line.

So

the Atlas, Greece, Asia Minor, and Palestine,

107.

Cotile

obsoleta.

Cabanis.

Mus.

far as

it is

Hein.

have observed,

in

sedentary.

i.,

p.

50.

Pale Crag

Martin.

This small species is in Palestine entirely confined to the Dead Sea


Round the sea itself it is the only species,
basin, where it is sedentary.
but at the north end
the

same caves
This

is

it

mingles with C. rupestris, and they both breed in

in Jebel

Quarantania.
a
desert
essentially
species, as the

last is a

mountain one.

It

CINNYR1S

byssinia,

id the Persian
icr,

mountain

and Indian

sweeping the desert plains

common

ich, is

Central and

Northern
to the

:ret

more interesting
;

it

the face

flit

Ft.

2,

p.

765.

VIII,

haps

Lai:

ies

tli

of the

belongs to a truly tropical


absolutely peculiar, so far as we know, to
is confined to a
very narrow strip of

In the

first place, it

very far from Palestine east or south


lerous Sun-bird family. \V
to

Nubia.

At

least

135 species of
f

the Old

Morth Australia, to
J

Mada
:iabits

ti

AVES.
is

63

Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia, Arabia, and the Persian and Indian


In habits it differs from its congener, sweeping the desert plains

found

in

deserts.

rather than soaring over the mountain

cliffs.

FAMILY,
Tichodroma muraria.

108.

(Linn.

Nat.

Syst.

i.,

184.)

p.

Wall

Creeper.

The

beautiful Creeper, the

'

Butterfly Bird

'

of the French,

common

is

throughout the year in all the rocky gorges of Central and Northern
Palestine, from the glens opening on the plain of Gennesaret to the
No ornithological sight is more interesting
highest cliffs of Lebanon.
than the movements of this richly coloured bird as it flits along the face
of a line of cliffs, spreading its brilliant crimson wings at each
sidling
jerk.

The Wall Creeper


and Southern

found

is

mountain regions of all Central


from Spain to the Himalayas and

in the

Europe and Asia,

China.

FAMILY, NECTARINIID^E.
109. Cinnyris

osece.

Bonap,

Comptes Rendus.

xlii.,

Pt.

2,

p.

765.

Palestine Sun- Bird.

PLATE VIII.

To

the naturalist this

perhaps the most interesting species of the


In the first place.it belongs to a truly tropical

is

whole Palestinian Avifauna.

In the second place, it is absolutely peculiar, so far as we know, to


the Holy Land, and within its limits is confined to a very narrow
strip of
family.

territory

and

lastly,

we must

travel very far from Palestine east or south

to find another representative of the

go

either to India or far

up

numerous Sun-bird

family.

We must

At least 135 species of


warmer parts of the Old

the Nile into Nubia.

Sun-bird are known, confined entirely to the


World, to Southern Asia and all its islands, as far as North Australia, to
Africa, south of the Sahara, and to the Mascarene Islands and Madagascar.

They

are

unknown

in the

New World

and

in

Oceania.

In habits they

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

<54

are

more

like

our Titmouse than the

Humming

Birds, not hovering over

the flowers, but clinging to the stems.


The nearest allies of Cinnyris osece are the

and C. venustus, but


As has been said,
either of them.
C. bouvieri,

it

its

is

West African

very distinct

range

is

species,

in coloration

from

its

head-

extremely limited,

quarters being the oases at the north-west and south-east extremities of


the Dead Sea, while it spreads in smaller numbers up to the Lake Huleh.

Beyond the gorge of the Jordan

Mount Carmel,

at the south of

never but once found

it,

marshes of the Zerka

in the

and

that

was
It is

river.

everywhere very shy and restless, flitting in the foliage after the manner
of a Tit, and with a note not unlike the call of the Blue Tit. Sometimes it
perches on the top of a bush, and jerks for a moment into the air after an
insect

but more generally

it

may be

seen prying into flowers on the same

quest.

The

nest

bough of

and looking

The

flood.

is

suspended from the extremity of a lower


few feet from the ground,
of straw and weeds left entangled by some winter

pensile, always

some

tree or shrub, generally but a

like

tuft

outside

and finished within

is
;

studiously untidy, but the structure most compact


domed, with a small entrance at one side. Thus

suspended,
perfectly secure from the attacks of snakes or tree
the great foes of small birds' eggs and young in this country.
it is

lizards,

FAMILY, FRINGILLID^:.
Carduelis elegans.
Goldfinch.
1

10.

The

Steph.

in

Shaw.

Gen. Zool.

xiv.,

p.

30.

found in every part of the country at all times of the


year ; the great variety of composite plants, some of which are always to
be found in seed, affording it an abundant supply of its favourite food.
Goldfinch

is

Olive-yards are its favourite breeding places.


The Goldfinch inhabits the whole of Europe, except the extreme
North Africa and Asia, as far as Persia and Turkestan. At its
north
;

Eastern limit
the border line

may be

meets another species, Carduelis caniceps, Vig., and on


the two species appear gradually to run into each other, as

it

seen by Mr. Seebohm's fine series from Central Asia.

Mil.

I.

SKR1NUS CANONIC US. 9.

3.

4.

PARSER MO ABIT]

'

icts

and

little

inland.

The

is the representative of th<


African coast, and /
the
North
pe,

Serin

tern limit.

112.

Serinus pusillus.

Zoo

(Pall.

Siskin.
Tl:

'

It is
e,

inch occurs

in

a bird of South-east Asia, a

and along the mountain

an uncertain

visitor to the

Nor;

^'erittus can.

The nam

i
.

A FES.
Koch.

in. Serinus hortnlamts.

The

Salig. u.

Vog.

Baierns.,

p.

229.

Serin.

The
to

65

the

Serin, so far as

wooded

districts

have been able

and

little

only a winter visitor


It has not been
glens near the sea.
to observe,

is

noticed inland.

The

Serin

is

the representative of the Siskin in Central and Southern

Europe, the North African coast, and Asia Minor.


Eastern limit.

Serinus pusillus.

112.

Zoog. R. A.

(Pall.

Syria

ii.,

p.

is its

extreme

Red-fronted

18.)

Siskin.

The

Red-fronted Finch occurs

It is

a bird of South-east Asia, a resident in the Caucasus and Taurid

Lebanon.

in

range, and along the mountain region as far as Ladak.


an uncertain visitor to the North-west Himalayas.

113.

Serinus canoniciis.

Dresser.

It

appears to be

Birds of Europe, vol.

iii.,

p.

555.

Tristram's Serin.

PLATE IX.

The name which

was Serinus aurifrons

gave

FIGS,

to this Siskin

i,

2.

when

(P. Z. S., 1864, p. 447).

discovered

But

once used, though afterwards abandoned by Blyth,


been discarded by the purists of nomenclature.

This

for

in

1864
having been
another bird, has
it

this,

one of the interesting peculiar forms of Palestine, though


belonging not to the Dead Sea valley, but to the Lebanon and AntiLebanon exclusively. It is a true Siskin in its habits, note, and nidificais

never migrates, but descends to the villages on the edge of the


I
snow-line in winter, re-ascending as high as there are bushes in spring.
southwards, either from Hermon or
cannot trace it on
of the
tion.

It

any
Lebanon, and there it

spurs

is

very

local.

Its

nest,

very like a Goldfinch's, is


In winter it lives
shrub.

rather conspicuously placed in the fork of a tall


in little flocks, and is wild and shy.
In spring the male bird always
revealed the nest by his persistent return, after a minute or two, to recom-

mence

his

song close to

it.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

66

114.

Coccothrattstes ckloris,

(Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

The Green-

304.)

finch.

The Green Linnet is very common throughout the


maritime plains, on Mount Carmel, and other wooded hills

winter in

the

near the coast,

but disappears in spring.


The Greenfinch is spread throughout Europe, except in the extreme
north, but is not found further east than Asia Minor, the Caucasus, and the

115.

though the North African


and can always be distinguished.

It is also resident in Algeria,

Syrian coast.

bird has been separated

by many

writers,

Coccothraustes chlorotica.

(Licht.

Nom.

Av.,

p.

Syrian

46.)

Greenfinch.
I
believe, been rightly separated by
Syrian Greenfinch has, as
It is very much smaller and more brightly
Lichtenstein and Bonaparte.
coloured than the Common Greenfinch, the length of the largest I can find

The

being, culmen 0-4,

wing

3', tail 2'i,

tarsus cv6.

The

forehead, too,

is

of a

rich gold, without the greenish tinge of the ordinary Greenfinch and the
brilliant yellow of other parts cannot be equalled by any other specimen I
;

have seen.
is very noticeable.
Very soon after the
is
about
which
the
end of February,
has
Common Greenfinch
disappeared,
this bird about the middle of March makes its appearance in very great

But the

distinction in habits

numbers among the olive-groves and gardens, where


differ from those of

cation in no

its

habits

and

nidifi-

its

congener.
way
can find no trace of any Greenfinch visiting Egypt or Persia, and
must conclude, therefore, that the Syrian Greenfinch winters in Arabia.
I

1 1

6.

Coccothraustts vulgaris.

Zoog. R. A.

Pall.

ii.,

p.

12.

The

Hawfinch.

The Hawfinch may be more common

than

generally supposed in
have only twice detected it, once
is

I
very seldom seen.
in Gilead, and once near Tabor.
The Hawfinch has a wide longitudinal range from Spain to China
and Japan but it does not reach to the extreme north, and except in Algeria
it is
It has not been found south of
only a straggler to North Africa.

Palestine, but

it is

the Himalayas.

A VES.
Passer domesticns.

117.

Heb. 11SV

Sparrow.

The Sparrow

(Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

House

323.)

Arab. j;i*a>, 'Asfnr (generic),

(generic).

of the Syrian cities

abundant and bold there as

67

is

here.

our

It

is

own domestic

species,

and as

found also in flocks

in the

southern wilderness of Beersheba in winter.

Assuming the Indian Sparrow

be identical with our own, though


always a smaller and brighter bird, the Sparrow covers nearly the whole
of Europe, North Africa, and Asia.
But it is not found further east than
to

I have
Siam, being absent in China, East Siberia, and Japan.
recently
received it from the Albert Nyanza, Central Africa, agreeing exactly with
Indian examples.

Passer

18.

Vieill.

italice.

Nouv.

Diet,

xii.,

p.

Italian

199.

Sparrow.
In some of the

districts the Sparrows have the chestnut


and
head of this species,
cannot possibly be separated from it.
It
has been generally stated that this bird is peculiar to the Peninsula, and

that in

beyond its limits the Passer hispaniolemis has been misBut as a matter of fact, both in North Africa and Syria,

cases

all

taken for

interior

it.

Passer italic does occur, without a vestige of the longitudinal stria:


which mark the flanks of the other species. Moreover, the two differ
widely in their habits, and no one familiar with them in life can mistake
the two.
\

119.

Passer hispaniolensis.

(Temm.

Man. d'Orn.

i.,

Marsh

p. 353.)

Sparrow.

The Marsh Sparrow

chiefly confined to the

Jordan valley, where it


at
all
times
of
the
in
countless
congregates
year
myriads, breeding in
is

crowded that I have seen a jujube-tree broken down simply


the
by
weight of their nests, while their noise is so deafening that it is

colonies so

The Arab boys


impossible to carry on conversation in their rookeries.
would bring in their eggs by the bushel. This bird feeds
largely on the
leaves of leguminous plants.
In other parts of the country
but not in such numbers, and never in the towns.

it

is

92

found,

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

63

The Marsh Sparrow seems

be confined chiefly to countries bordering on the Mediterranean but extends eastwards in small numbers to the
western frontier of India.

Passer moabiticus.

20.

to

Tristram.

PLATE IX.

FIGS.

3, 4.

our present knowledge extends, this bird is the most limited


And
the world in its range, and the scarcest in number of individuals.

So

in

P. Z. S., 1864, p. 169.

far as

yet it is marked off from its allies more distinctly than any other member
In three successive expeditions I have searched for
of the genus Passer.
reeds in two spots on the west
it, but never obtained it except among the

the

Ghor

far as

party in

Dead

Sea, close to the shore, and again in the reed-beds of


nor has it, so
es Safieh, at the south-east end of the Dead Sea

side of the

know, been ever obtained by anyone except the members of our


It is the most diminutive member of the Sparrow tribe,
1864.

feeding on the seeds of the


Its bright chestnut back and the bright yellow
great feathery Donax.
once mark it as distinct. The female, in other
on
each
shoulder
at
spot

very shy and wary, and extremely

respects clad in the

restless,

quiet hues as our hen Sparrow, has also the

same

The Yellow-necked
yellow spot on either side of the neck.
Sparrow of India, P. flavicollis, has a yellow spot on the throat, none on
the sides of the neck.
bright

For the convenience of reference


and measurements of

Ex

this rare bird

append the

original description

cinereo isabellinus, tectricibus alarum laete-castaneis

superciliis et

dorso medio, cum remigum et rectricum maginibus rufescenti-isabellinis


dorso medio nigro-striato
macula
gutture medio cum cervice nigris
:

macula cervicali utrinsuboculari et gutturis vitta utrinque lateral! albis


crisso
rufescenti
flava
ventre
rostro
albo,
superiore plumbeo,
que
:

inferiore

cum pedibus

flavis.

Total length 3'8 inches, wing


121. Petronia stulta.

The Rock Sparrow

(Gmel.

2 '3, tail

rS.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

919.)

Rock Sparrow.

not unfrequent in the open rocky country along


the central ridge of Palestine up to the highest part of Lebanon.
I had
is

pq

<

LO.

A VES.
found

:\ever
I

met with it twice


The Rock Spar

in winter, but

It

y.

irs

69

jwn

In 1881

error.

the wells.

over a wide
'

ary, Southern and

Thibet as

Europe, Cent

North

:
,

Persia,

N<

far as

122. Petronia b

onspect.

Gen. Av.

i.,

513.

p.

PLATE X.
This very plain
first found it in

1
cry scarce
under Hermon, and took two nests in

bushes not two

the ground.

i'e

with a few marone

of

Nat.

i.,

p.

has only

be seen on
r

perhaps, of the glacial

relic,

Snow

321.)

Snow Finch may

Hermon and Lebanon, descending

mountains, a

to the
ej

does, tp these southern mountain tops, identical in sp


) the Cauc..

Linn.

124. Fringillel cosltbs.

The

Syst.

of the

It

Arabia, North-east Africa, the

.n.

lentary, a

-.hitc

'!

diminutive Golden Oriole's.


HI

.t

1.

:>

Chaffinch

non

Syst.

Nat

affinch.

in win;

inariiime plains an
.

in

n the north

number.

among

the mulberry gi

y are especially numerous


with our own, while Alg

at

the C.

^pecies.

from the North of Europe to the Medicerytern


the forest region of Persn
\\-.

A VES.

69

formerly stated it to be never found in winter, but was in error.


I met with it twice in
It breeds down the wells.
February.

In 1881

The Rock Sparrow

occurs over a wide range, from the Canaries across


Barbary, Southern and Central Europe, Central Asia, North Persia, and

Thibet as

far as

North China.

122. Petronia brachydactyla.

Bp. Conspect.

Gen. Av.

i.,

p.

513.

Desert Rock Sparrow.

PLATE X.
This very plain and meanly coloured bird is very scarce and local.
first found it in a bare desert plain under Hermon, and took two nests

in

low bushes not two feet from the ground.


The eggs are glossy white
with a few marone spots, like a diminutive Golden Oriole's.
It has only

been found on bare desert ground


Persian desert plateau, and Palestine.

123. Montifringilla nivalis.

in

(Linn.

Arabia, North-east Africa, the

Nat.

Syst.

i.,

p.

321.)

Snow

Finch.

and sedentary, a few pairs of the Snow Finch may be seen on


the snowy tops of Hermon and Lebanon, descending in winter to the
Isolated

base of the mountains, a stranded


clinging, as

it

relic,

does, to these southern

perhaps, of the glacial epoch,

mountain

tops, identical in species

from the Pyrenees to the Caucasus.

124. Fringilla ccelebs.

The

Chaffinch

is

very

Linn.

common

Syst. Nat.

i.,

in winter in

p.

318.

flocks, the

Chaffinch.

sexes apart, on

the maritime plains and southern uplands, the male flocks appearing
Early in spring they disappear,
greatly to exceed the female in number.
but numbers breed in the north among the mulberry groves under Hermon

and Lebanon, and they are especially numerous at the Cedars. The
species is identical with our own, while Algeria and the Canaries and
Azores have their peculiar species.
The Chaffinch ranges from the North of Europe to the Mediterranean, and as far as the forest region of Persia,

its

Eastern

limit.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

73

125.

Linola cannabina.

Syst. Nat.

(Linn.

Linnet.

p. 322.)

i.,

The Linnet roams through the lower country in flocks during the
winter, and in summer ascends to the mountain regions, where it breeds,
on the summits of Lebanon and Harmon, consorting with the
Snow Finch and building in tufts of Alpine plants close to the snow.
The plumage on the whole is more brilliant than in Western specimens.

especially

It

is

widely spread throughout Europe, Barbary, and Western Asia,

not passing into Siberia or beyond Persia.


126. Carpodacus sinaiticus.
Sinaitic

(Licht.)

Bp. and Schl. Mon. Lox.,p.

17.

Rose Finch.

have only seen this rarest of the Rose Finches in the desert south
of the Dead Sea, and between that region and Beersheba, where it was in
I

the

company of

small flocks of the Trumpeter Bullfinch.

desert and ground bird, and has never been taken


Sinaitic Peninsula.

127. Erythrospiza

Trumpeter

(Licht.

beyond the

Verz.

limits of the

Doubl.,

p.

24.)

Bullfinch.

The Trumpeter
Judaea.

githaginea.

It is strictly

Bullfinch

have never seen

it

is

confined to the southern wilderness of

in the

Ghor.

Its true

home

is

the African

it is
It
widely spread, never coming north of the Atlas.
of
tracts
Persia
and
the
desert
Scinde
and
also inhabits
;
Egypt, Arabia,

Sahara, where

westward extends

to the Canaries.

128. Erythrospiza

sanguined.

(Gould.

P.

Z. S.

1837,

p.

127.)

Crimson-winged Finch.
This lovely Finch is extremely rare, even in its favourite districts. I
only twice saw it in the Lebanon in 1864, and my fellow traveller,
Mr. Cochrane, secured a nest of eggs with the parent cock-bird, which he
In 1881 I again met with it
shot off the nest, and which I still possess.
in the

very same place,

among low

The Crimson-winged Finch


in

the mountains of North

Severtzoff.

fir

trees.

has been obtained in the Caucasus, once


Persia by Blanford, and in Turkestan by

A FES.
Euspiza melanocephala.
Black-headed Bunting.
129.

The Black-headed Bunting


May, and from

that time

Ann.

(Scop.

returns

H.

I.

Palestine

to

very abundant

N.,

p.

142.)

the beginning

in

upper country and on


bright plumage, powerful and cheery note, and habit of
on
the
very top of the highest tree or bush in its neighbourhood,
perching
Its nest is on or near the
always attracting attention to it.
ground, and
of

the coast

is

in the

its

There

lays blue eggs with fine russet spots.


in its habits and character.
it

Though taken

is

nothing of the Bunting

Heligoland, and it is said once in England, this is a


Eastern form, never having been found in Africa, and rarely west

strictly

of Greece.

It

in

is

abundant

Caucasus, and winters in

Asia Minor,
North-west India.
in

Emberiza miliaria.

130.

Linn.

all

through Syria and the

Nat.

Syst.

i.,

Common

308.

p.

Bunting.

The Common Bunting

is

common

as

as the Skylark in

England on

all

the lower plains throughout the year.


It

inhabits

extend

Europe, excepting Northern Scandinavia, but does not


In Siberia it is
though it has been taken in Turkestan.

all

far east,

not found, but southwards


plains of

131.

is

Mesopotamia and

common

not only in Syria, but on the corn-

Persia.

Emberiza horlulana.

Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

p.

i.,

809.

Ortolan

Bunting.

The Ortolan
April,

is

very abundant

and resorting much

The

in spring,

to olive-yards

returning in the beginning of

and gardens.

Ortolan, though only a straggler in England,

Europe

in

summer,

its

is

generally spread

distribution

is
perplexing.
rare
in
Holland
and
eastward,
Generally speaking,
being
Denmark, common in Finland yet found in Spain and Morocco, not in
It is plentiful in Southern Russia, but scarcely known in
Algeria.
Egypt,

throughout

its

distribution

yet

is

though found on the Abyssinian Highlands; and eastward


Persia.

is

found

in

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

73

Emberiza

.132.

striolata.

(Licht.

Verz.

Doubl.,

p.

24.)

Striolated

Bunting.

Bunting occurs on the bare desert hills and rocky


Of
ravines round the Dead Sea, remaining there throughout the year.

The

Striolated

not expect to find a bird so strictly of the rocky desert


The Striolated Bunting has been found in restricted
in any other district.
localities and in small numbers throughout the desert belt which girds

course

we should

the Old

World from the Western Morocco


Emberiza

133.

piisilla.

coast to North-west India.

Reis. Russ. Reichs.

Pall.

p.

iii.,

The

697.

Little Bunting.

Rather a straggler than an inhabitant of the Lebanon, where


know of one undoubted instance of its capture.

only

Bunting is an inhabitant of North-east Europe and Siberia,


migrating southwards in winter, principally to India, very few straggling

The

Little

westwards.

Emberiza

134.

da.

Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

310.

Meadow

Bunting.

Emberiza da, certainly not a Meadow Bunting in Palestine, is found


in the mountain regions in summer and winter alike, but in small numbers.
We found it on Mount Carmel, about Galilee, on Hermon, and all through
Lebanon.

Europe

It

is

an .inhabitant of the mountain

as far as the Caucasus,

Palestine appear to be
135.

Emberiza

its

ccesia.

and

Eastern

districts

in the Atlas range.

of Southern

The Taurid and

limits.

Cretzschm. in Riipp. Atlas, p.

15.

Cretzsch-

maer's Bunting.

Cretzschmaer's Bunting, which takes the place of our Yellow Hammer,


returns simultaneously in great numbers about the third week in March,

and peoples

every part of the country, except the woods and olivethe


scrubs or bare hill-sides or rocky wadys.
It builds
groves, preferring
a neat nest on the ground under a tuft, or low bush, and its eggs are
in pairs

easily distinguished

from those of any other species.

continually flitting in front of the traveller.


This Bunting appears to be restricted in

summer

Minor, and Syria, and in winter to North-east Africa.

It

is

to

Greece, Asia

very tame,

AVES.

FAMILY, STURNID/E.
Stimius v ulgaris. Linn.
Arab.
Zcrzour.
).

136.

lin.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

Common

290.

Star-

The Starling is only a winter migrant, visiting the maritime plains in


tens of thousands, with a few of the Sardinian Starling in their company.
The latter does not, as in Algeria, remain to breed. The Starlings all
depart at the end of February.

The

found throughout Europe, the Atlantic Islands from


the Azores eastwards, North Africa, all Northern Asia, and down to
is

Starling

Persia and India.

137.

Sturnus unicolor.

De

la

Marm.

Temm. Man.

d'Orn.

i.,

p. 133.

Sardinian Starling.

This

which

species,

is

never spotted,

confined to

is

bordering on the Mediterranean, and is scarce


much rarer than the other species, even where
less migratory.

138.

procured

Pastor roseus.

it

three times in

(Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

in the

the

countries

eastern parts.

does occur, and


winter in Palestine.
it

i.,

p.

294.)

is

It is

much

Rosc-colourcc!

Pastor.

The

Rose-coloured Pastor

is

well

known

to the natives as the Locust

its habit of preying on that pest, whose flights it


generally follows.
than
a migratory bird.
in
rather
uncertain
its
an
erratic
visits, being
very
I found it in
In 1881 I came across mar1858, not in 1864 or 1872.
vellous flights of this bird in Northern Syria, which for three days (26-28

Bird, from
It is

May) passed us on the Orontes, near the ancient Larissa, in countless


There must have been thousands
myriads, all travelling to the westward.
upon thousands. The locusts were there, and on one occasion we rode
over some acres alive with young locusts, which absolutely carpeted the
whole

One

of these flocks suddenly alighted, like a vast fan


dropping on the earth and dappling it with black and pink. Soon they
rose again.
See
returned, and not a trace of a locust could we find.
surface.

We

Ibis, 1882, pp.

may add that

410-414, for a full account of this marvellous migration.


these myriads were in fully adult plumage.
10

all

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

74

which
Rose-coloured Pastor appears to range from India, east of
of the Himalayas,
never found, through Persia, never going north

The
it is

to Syria, Asia Minor, Turkey,


reo-ions
&

and

139.
p.

in

North Africa

it

and Southern Russia. Westward of these


is only an occasional straggler.

Amydrus tristramii Sdater.

465.

Ann. and Mag. N. H., 1858,

vol.

ii.,

Tristram's Grakle.

PLATE XI.
in the desolate ravines opening on the
discovery of this bird
Dead Sea is one of especial interest, as it belongs to a group exclusively
This Grakle, known to the visitors to Mar Saba as the
Ethiopian.
to be confined to the immediate neighOrange-winged Blackbird, appears
of the Dead Sea, where it resides throughout the year in small

The

bourhood

varied notes, but a rich musical


bands, feeding at dawn and sunset. It has no
and sweetness, which makes
roll of two or three notes of amazing power
and shyest
the cliffs ring again with its music. The Grakles are the wildest
Mar Saba have
of the denizens of these desolate gorges, yet the monks of
while
succeeded in bringing them into a state of semi-domestication,
I have never seen this bird elsewhere than
enjoying unrestrained liberty.
In the ravines of the Arnon and Callirrhoe it is
round the Dead Sea.

more numerous than elsewhere.


Four other species of Amydrus
which (A.

blythii)

are

known from East

one of

Africa,

has also recently been found by Professor

Is.

Balfour

in the island of Socotra.

FAMILY,
Pyrrhocorax alpinus.
Alpine Chough.
140.

The Alpine Chough


Hermon and Lebanon,
billed or

Koch.

Saiig. u.

Vog. Baierns.

i.,

p. 90.

inhabits in small parties the higher grounds of


always keeping close to the snow. The Red-

Cornish Chough

we never

observed.

the highest mounrange of the Alpine Chough is restricted to


tains of Southern Europe and Asia, the Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines, Greek

The

Mountains

rarely in

Caucasus, the

the

Himalayas, beyond which

it

Persian

has not been traced.

Demavend, and the

AVES.

Gamtlus

141.

Arab.,

Syrian Jay.

The Jay

Isid. Geoffr. St. Hilgire. Et. Zool., fasc.

atricapillus,
'

Jjl&fr,

Akak

common

75

(the

name elsewhere

i.

of the Magpie).

the olive-groves from Lebanon to


It
Hebron, and equally so in the true forests of Gilead and Bashan.
seemed to have increased greatly in numbers between 1864 and 1881. In
its

is

very

note and habits

descends into the

The

it

in

in all

no way

differs

from the European Jay.

It

never

Jordan valley.

confined to Syria and the northern hills of Persia.


In Asia Minor and the Taurid it is represented by a very closely allied

Syrian Jay

is

species, G. krynicki.

Corvus monedula.

142.

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

156.

The Jackdaw.

Arab., ^jU, Kak.

The Jackdaw
others, as we note

is

very numerous in certain

localities,

and absent

in

There are populous colonies at Jerusalem


England.
Elsewhere it is scarce and local.

and Nablus.

in

In the Jordan valley and in Gilead the place of our Common Daw is
taken by the silvery white-necked variety, described by Drummond as

While I quite agree with Mr. Dresser in declining to


value
to this variety, it is worthy of note that there is here
give specific
a distinct geographical line of demarcation between the two races or
Corvus

collaris.

varieties.

The Jackdaw is found throughout Europe and Barbary, and reaching


Asia Minor, the Caucasus, and Palestine.
It is only in Northern
Persia, in what is in fact really Armenia, that the Jackdaw is found, and
this is about its Eastern limit, though Jerdon states it is found in

to

Cashmere.

Other

allied

closely

species

take

its

place

in

Eastern

Asia.

143.

Corvus agricola.

The Rook

Tristram.

P. Z. S., 1864, p. 444.

Syrian Rook.

intermediate between our species, C. frugiThe head of the


legus, Linn., and the Chinese, C. pastinator, Swinh.
Chinese bird is glossed with purple, of the English with blue-black, of the
of Palestine

is

The latter very rarely has the forehead,


green-black.
In this it seems to
throat, and chin denuded, as in the English adult.
Palestine

with

10

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

76

Only two
agree with the Chinese.'"
spring had the slightest denudation.
the coloration,

if

specific

rank be granted to the Chinese form

impossible to deny it to this one.


The rook in Palestine is very

local,

seems

it

owing, no doubt, to the scarcity

Jerusalem and Nablus possess the chief rookeries,


groups on the tops of buildings and ruins may be so termed.

of well
if

twenty of adult birds we shot in


Both from this peculiarity and from

in

grown

timber.

the companion of cultivation throughout Europe and


Asia, from Ireland to Japan, under one of its three forms above mentioned.

The Rook

is

and then apparently accidental, south of the MediterIn


ranean, nor does it extend beyond the western frontier of India.
The Chinese form appears to run through Eastern
Persia it is very rare.
It rarely is found,

Siberia, Japan,

144.

Arab.,

and North China.

Corvus comix.

cl_),

Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

156.

Hooded Crow.

Zagh.

The Hooded Crow


constant resident, but

met with

is

is

common

in

never found

Southern and Central Palestine, a


in

the Jordan valley, and

have

north of the country.


It is very plentiful on the
rarely
east side of Jordan, both on the bare highlands of Moab, and in the
Its nest is the favourite fosterundulating country of Gilead and Bashan.
it

in the

home of the eggs of the Great Spotted Cuckoo.


The Carrion Crow, C. corone, has never been noticed in Palestine.
The Hooded Crow is spread through the whole of Europe, North
The Carrion Crow thenceAfrica, and Western Asia, as far as the Lena.
forwards supplants it as we go eastward.
The two birds are generally
now admitted to be specifically identical, but they have different ranges,
But in Palestine, Asia Minor,
though inter-breeding when they meet.
and Egypt, the Hooded is the only form.
Corvus

145.

affinis.

Neue. Wirb.,

Riipp.

p. 20.

Fantail Raven.

This interesting and litlle-known miniature Raven is only found around


the Dead Sea, in the most desolate and rugged cliffs, where it is very wild
*

The

'

British

immature, an easy

Museum Catalogue in error marks my


mode of settling the question.
'

specimens shot in February as

AVES.
and wary.

There

is

a large colony

77

in the ravines of the

Zetka Main or

Cullirrhoe.

has a rich musical note, and stately flight.


Palestine is its only known habitat out of Africa, but
It

found

it

be

will surely

appears to be confined to
Abyssinia and Kordofan, thus giving another instance of the connection between the Jordan and Abyssinian Faunas.
in

Corvus corax.

146.

Hebr.,

the Sinaitic Peninsula.

TW.

In Africa

Linn.

it

Nat.

Syst.

i.,

p.

155.

The Raven.

Arab., ^>\>, 'Orat.

The Raven

common

every part of the country, altitude or


In winter it is gregarious
character of region being quite indifferent.
about the Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem, consorting by the hundred with
the

is

in

Brown-necked Raven, Hooded Crow, Jackdaw and Rook,

all

five

species roosting together.

The Raven

found through the whole of Europe, Northern Asia,


dowrrto the Indian frontier, and across the whole of North America.
In Barbary
147.

is

it is

replaced by a very closely allied species, C. tingitanus.

Corvus umbrinus.

Brown-necked Raven.

p. 198.

This

is

the

Sund. K. Vet. Ak. Handl. 1838,

Hedenb.

common Raven

tf

of Jerusalem and the Jordan valley, but

not of the coast or maritime plains, and only rarely seen north of Jerusalem.
It is
Its note is very
gregarious in winter, but breeds solitarily in cliffs.
different

from that of any other species.

The Brown-necked Raven

is

native

of

North-east Africa,

but

ranges as far as Baluchistan, being, however, very rare east of the Holy
Land.

FAMILY, ALAUDID/E.
148.

Certhilauda alaudipes.
Long-billed Lark.

(Desf.

Mem. Acad.

Roy., 1787,

p.

50^.)

The Desert

This largest and most beautiful of the Lark


the desert regions south of Judaea and east of

which

districts

have frequently met with

it.

tribe

Moab

is

not

uncommon

aivJ Gileacl, in

in

both

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

a bird essentially of the sandy, not the rocky deserts of North


But unlike most other desert species, it does
Africa and Western Asia.
It is

not range higher than Scinde, not having been noticed in the steppes of
Northern Asia.
It is

which

is

a most aberrant Lark, both in

and

that of a Plover,

the Larks and the curious North

Desfontaines
tainly its flight,

and the white wings with

would very naturally

Arab., y.j,

Kenbar

alaudipcs,

Linn.

Syst.

and

cer-

their conspicuous black bars,

Nat.

p. 288.

i.,

Hoopoo.

Crested Lark.

{generic}.

The Crested Lark


ground of the

Upupa

at first sight suggest a relationship to the

149. Alatida cristata.

flight,

some

in

described this bird as

first

and

striking plumage,

respects a link between


Asiatic desert genus of Podoces.

seems

it

its

is

commonest

the

bird of the country in the open

and northern regions, remaining

central, coast

all

the year,

The pale form, Galerida abyssinica, Bp., is


but generally a late breeder.
But it differs only in
the form found in the south and in the deserts.
colour.

The

Crested Lark extends through Central and Southern Europe,


North Africa, and eastward as far as India and China.
150.

Alauda

isabellina.

(Bonap.

Consp.

Gen.

Av.,

p.

245.)

Isabelline Lark.

This small and short-billed species inhabits only the sandy desert at
the south end of the Dead Sea.
Elsewhere it is confined to the most
arid parts of the

Sahara and Egyptian deserts, and has not been noticed

east of Palestine.

151.

Alauda arve nsis.

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 287.

Sky Lark.

The true Sky Lark, of the European type, is found in large flocks on
the coast-plains through the winter, but does not remain to breed, and
never penetrates far inland^ Notwithstanding the very able and exhaustive

my friend, Mr. Dresser (' Birds of Europe,' vol. iv., pp. 310cannot
be persuaded to reject the claims of the next species,
313),
(A. cantarella) to specific rank, chiefly from my observation of the
disquisition of
I

different habits of the

two forms.

AVES.

The Sky Lark

found

T.J

over the Palcearctic region, from the British


Isles eastward to Siberia and Northern China.

Alauda

152.

Sky

is

all

Bp. Consp. Gen. Av.,

cantarella.

245.

p.

Southern

Lark.

This species (or form) congregates by thousands in the southern


deserts, where there are none of the ordinary Sky Lark, during the

We

winter hanging about the Bedavvin camps and herds.


shot scores of
them for food, and never detected a specimen of the other species.
did not discover them breeding.

We

This
of

line

bird, the

A.

Europe),
China.

the

arvensis, through North Africa (rarely in the South of


Egypt, Southern Palestine, Southern Persia, India, and

Alauda

153.

Alauda intermedia of Swinhoe, extends south of

arborea.

Linn.

The Wood Lark remains

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

287.

Wood

Lark.

the year in the country, wintering in the


hills of Benjamin and elsewhere in small flocks, and dispersing into
the neighbourhood of the olive-yards and woods to nest in spring.

The Wood Lark


and winters
Asia.

154.

summer

visitor to Central

and Southern Europe,

It is resident, but in very small


Barbary States.
Turkey and Asia Minor, but does not reach further into

in

in

numbers,

is

all

Thus

the

Palestine

Ammomanes

is its

South-eastern

deserti.

Licht.

limit.

Verz.

Doubl.,

p.

28.

Desert

Lark.

The Desert Lark

has been found in some plenty on the highlands


on both sides of the Dead Sea and in the salt plains of the Ghor.
It
lives in small

scattered.

bands

in winter,

and pairs

in spring,

when

it

becomes more

Palestine specimens are paler and less rufous than those from

the Sahara.

The Desert Lark

confined to the south of the Atlas in


Barbary,
and thence spreads over the sands of Egypt and Nubia, and as far as
Eastward it inhabits the deserts as far as Scinde.
Abyssinia.
is

FAUNA AND ILORA OF PALESTINE.

So

155.

Ammomanes

fratercnlus.

Tristram.

P.

Z.

1864, p.

S.,

434

Lesser Desert Lark.

The

which does not consort with its congener, is to be


very short and conical bill, and by its throat, which is

lesser species,

distinguished by its
It is far
isabelline colour instead of white, as well as by its smaller size.
the
barren
and
desert
districts than A. deserti.
more
spread over

widely

have not seen

it

from any other

locality,

though

brachydactyla,

Leisl.

vVett.

it

is

probably the

Arabian form.

156.

Calandrella

Ann.

iii.,

p.

357.

Short-toed Lark.

The

Short-toed Lark

central country

is

and the north

summer
later in

visitor to

spring,

Palestine, re-visiting the

and not occurring

in

the

winter.
plains or desert in
all
the countries
It inhabits

bordering on the Mediterranean, and


extends thence to India, but does not extend into Northern Europe
or Asia, and seems to be an inhabitant of the plains, as C. /termonensis
is

of the mountains.

157.

Calandrella

hennonensis.

Tristram.

P. Z.

S.,

1864, p.

434.

Mountain Short-toed Lark.


regret that I must venture to differ from my friend, Mr. Dresser, and
maintain the distinctness of this species, in which opinion I was more than
I

ever confirmed when in the spring of iSSi I had opportunities, being on


the snow-line of Lebanon in April, of observing the Short-toed Lark
breeding lower down in the Buka'a, and this species on the highest parts
The note and flight differ, especially the former, and
of the mountains.
a far more powerful and varied songster, pouring forth its melody,
not on the wing, but perched on the top of a rock, a few yards from his
this is

larger size, bright rufous coloration, and the distinctness of


This species extends over
the black collar, are recognisable at a glance.
nest.

Its

the Persian and

Armenian Highlands, and

very probably to be found


further west in mountain regions near the Mediterranean, according to the
researches of Mr. Dresser.
is

AVES.
158.

Calandrella minor.

gi

Mus. Hein.

Cab.

Lesser Short-

p. 123.

i.,

toed Lark.
This, the smallest of the Larks of the country, is a strictly desert bird,
less gregarious than most of its congeners, sedentary
throughout the year
in the few localities where it is found.
It seems especially to affect salt
plains

and hard, not

soft, soils.

The Lesser

Short-toed Lark has been found only in the desert south


of the Atlas, in those of Egypt, Nubia, and Arabia.
Further east its
place

is

159.

taken by C. pispoletta.

Melanocorypha

calandra,

(Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

288.)

p.

Calandra Lark.
extremely common in spring all over the
cultivated open ground, whether on the plains or the hills, where it breeds
abundantly. In winter it congregates in large flocks on the maritime plains.

The Calandra Lark

The Calandra seems


Mediterranean

to

be confined to the countries bordering on the

but in Egypt

60.

Melanocorypha
Eastern Calandra Lark.
1

is

only accidental.

bimacrilata.

The Eastern Calandra


Lebanon and Hermon.

it is

(Men^tr.

Cat.

Rais.,

p.

37.)

breeds abundantly on the higher slopes of


did not at first, until Mr. Dresser directed my

attention to the fact, detect the differences between this

and the

Common

Calandra, which prove that we have here, in close proximity to the other
It may be distinguished from
species, the Oriental Mountain Calandra.
the other by its shorter tail, and by having all the rectrices tipped with
white, while the

and

European species has the outer

rectrix almost

all

white,

diminishing towards the centre of the tail.


The Eastern Calandra inhabits Abyssinia, the Caucasus, Central Asia,
and North-west India.
this colour

161. Otocorys penicillata.

Gould.

P. Z. S.,

1837, p.

Eastern

126.

Horned Lark.

The Eastern Horned Lark

confined to the heights of Lebanon and


very numerous, descending in winter to the villages
at the foot of the range, but not migrating further.
I have
always found

Hermon, where

it

is

is

ii

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

82

and summer close to the snow-line.


I found
many
Hermon
2nd
on
the
of
most
on
hatched
June,
top
pairs breeding
having
The nests are very compact, neat, and deep, imbedded
out their young.
it

in winter, spring,

Astragalus or Draba, lined with grass roots.


The Indian O. longirostris, from the Himalayas, can always be
discriminated, and the Chinese birds collected by Swinhoe are O. albigula
in

tuft of

of the Russian naturalists.

The

true Olocorys penicillata appears to be confined to Palestine, the


Taurid, Caucasus, and the mountains of Northern Persia.

ORDER, PICARIjE.
FAMILY, CYPSELID^.
(Linn.
Syst. Nat. i.,
Cypselus apus.
DID
and
Crane.'
Hebr.,
D^D, A.V., erroneously,
162.

p.

344.)

Common

Swift.

'

The

Swift leaves Palestine in

November and

myriads at the beginning of April. Clouds pass


north, but still leave prodigious numbers behind.

abundant

be found

countless

long streams to the

These swarm about

more

the streets in pursuit of the gnats.


desolate parts of the country, though

in flocks in the ravines,

and houses
I

in the

in

returns in

down

the towns, darting up and


less

Arabic, ,^~G>, Sis.

but

it

seems to prefer

ruins,

all

It is
it

may

mosques,

for its nesting places.

was enabled

to detect the true rendering of the

Hebrew word

sods or

had noticed that the Swallow, or at least many


individuals, remain through the winter, and had been therefore perplexed
by the expression, the Crane and the Swallow (Sis], observe the time of

sis in

a curious way.

'

'

and by the soft note of the Swallow being used


symbolize the cry of pain, Like a Crane or a Swallow (Soos) so did I

their
to

coming

(Jer. viii. 7)

'

chatter' (Is. xxxviii. 14:) when in the beginning of April, being camped
under Mount Carmel, the Swift suddenly appeared.
had shot several,

We

which were spread out in front of my tent.


crowded round, what the birds were, and they

asked the Arab boys who


all called them Sis.
I asked
I

them if they were not Sununu (Swallow). They took up a Swallow which
was lying there and pronounced it to be the Summit, Here, then, we have

A yS.
name handed down unchanged from

the local
at

culties

83

the Hebrew, and

The most unobservant Arab must

once solved.

sudden return of the Swift, while

its

my

diffi-

notice

the

note admirably expresses the cry of

pain.

The

Swift

is

found

in the

whole of Africa,

visits

Europe

in

summer,

and in Asia extends as far as Mongolia, but does not pass south of the
Himalayas.
163.

Cypselus melba.

(Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

345.)

White-bellied

Swift.

The Alpine

or White-bellied Swift, though very abundant in places, is


It reappears in the middle of
rather a local bird in the Holy Land.

February, and soon the various flocks take to their respective quarters,
generally some of the wildest and most inaccessible ravines in the Jordan

gorges of Moab, and those near the plain of Gennesaret.


Their nests are in deep chinks, almost always in the most inaccessible
valley, in the

Their swiftness

cliffs.

Swift, our swiftest


from their nearest

164.

all

resort.

summer migrant to Central and Southern Europe,


and
Asia as far east as India and Ceylon.
Africa,

This bird
inhabits

amazing, far surpassing that of the Common


They are known to feed often a hundred miles

is

bird.

is

Cypselus

White-rumped

affinis.

J.

E. Gray.

111.

Ind. Zool.

i.,

pi.

35,

fig.

2.

Swift.

This interesting little Swift was first described from Palestine by


Antinori, under the name of Cypselus galilceensis, but it is proved to be
identical with the Indian species, and seems to have had nine different

by various writers. In Palestine, it is, unlike the two


other species, a permanent resident, but strictly confined to Ghor or
Jordan valley, which it inhabits from Lake Huleh to the south end of the
Dead Sea. It flies at a great height; has, instead of the scream of its

names given

to

it

congener, a soft or melodious wail of three semitones, sharply repeated


when alarmed. It breeds in colonies, and has laid its eggs when C. melba
arrives,

and hatched

its

young before the return of

C. apus.

The

nest

peculiar, attached to the roof of a cave or an overhanging ledge


of rock, at a height of from 30 to 400 feet above any accessible standis

most

II

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

C4

point.

The

nests

are

like those of

formed not

agglutinated

strongly

by side, or one under another,


but of straw and quill-feathers,
other
Swift,
any
with the bird's saliva, and without any lining.
side

clustered

Sometimes

it

mud-nest of the

the

appropriates

of
especially the bottle-shaped structure

Hirimdo

different

rufiila, to its

Swallows,

own

use,

simply adding an agglutinated straw and feather entrance to the original


edifice of clay.

See

Ibis, 1865, pp. 76-79.

The White-rumped Swift has a wide geographical range, though more


circumscribed than that of the other species, but within that range is confined to comparatively few localities.

and

It is

found

in tropical

West

Africa,

North-east Africa, Arabia, Syria,


But in all these
Persia, India, Ceylon, China, Formosa, and Hainan.
It is
countries vast tracts may be traversed without one being seen.

and nearly

to

Cape Colony

i:i

remarkable that the single sedentary member of the family should be the
In many genera of birds it may
one which has the most limited range.

be observed that those species which have the most extended northerly
have also the most extended southerly range, and that those which resort
to the highest latitudes for nidification also pass further to the

southward

Thus

the migrating Fieldfare and Redwing,


visiting regions north of the Thrush and the Blackbird, on their southward
The Brambling,
migration leave their more sedentary relatives behind.
in

winter than do the others.

which passes the Chaffinch in Norway, leaves


crosses the Mediterranean every winter to the

it

also in Europe,
States.

and

The

Barbary
Turtle
Doves
remain
and
Collared
throughout the year in
Egyptian
North Africa and Syria; but the Common Turtle (T. auritits), so

abundant

summer, never leaves a straggler behind in


spring advances 1,000 miles nearer to the Pole

in these countries in

November, and yet

in

than they do.

FAMILY, CAPRIMULGID^E.
165.

Caprimulgus europcsus.

Visits Palestine in spring

The

Linn.

and summer.

Syst. Nat.

Not

i.,

p.

346.

Night-jar.

noticed in winter.

Nightjar inhabits Europe and North-western Asia in summer,


Northern and Central Africa in winter. Eastward it has

retiring into

been found

in Persia

and Turkestan.

>^l

Arab.,
-.o^JI

the on
>rvly in

the

The

j\&,
f

VVoodpe.

distric

general paucity
beautiful g;

bring

j\&.

Nakar el Hask*

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

C4

point.

The

nests

are

side

clustered

by

side,

one under another,

or

formed not like those of any other Swift, but of straw and quill-feathers,
bird's saliva, and without any lining.
strongly agglutinated with the
Sometimes it appropriates the mud-nest of the different Swallows,
structure of
especially the bottle-shaped

simply adding an agglutinated straw and


edifice of clay.

See

rufula, to its own use,


feather entrance to the original

Hirundo

Ibis, 1865, pp. 76-79.

Swift has a wide geographical range, though more


than
of the other species, but within that range is conthat
circumscribed
It is found in tropical West Africa,
fined to comparatively few localities.

The White-rumped

and

North-east Africa, Arabia, Syria,


But in all these
Persia, India, Ceylon, China, Formosa, and Hainan.
countries vast tracts may be traversed without one being seen.
It is

and nearly

to

Cape Colony

in

remarkable that the single sedentary member of the family should be the
one which has the most limited range. In many genera of birds it may

be observed that those species which have the most extended northerly
have also the most extended southerly range, and that those which resort
to the highest latitudes for nidification also pass further to the

winter than do the others.

Thus

visiting regions north of the

Thrush

in

southward

the migrating Fieldfare and Redwing,


and the Blackbird, on their southward

migration leave their more sedentary relatives behind.

which passes the Chaffinch in Norway, leaves


crosses the Mediterranean every winter to the

it

The Brambling,

also in Europe,

and

Barbary States. The


Turtle
and
Collared
Doves
remain
Egyptian
throughout the year in
North Africa and Syria; but the Common Turtle (T. auritus), so

abundant

in these countries in

November, and yet

in

summer, never leaves a straggler behind

in

spring advances 1,000 miles nearer to the Pole

than they do.

FAMILY, CAPRIMULGID.E.
165. Caprimiilgus europceus.

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

346.

Night-jar.

Visits Palestine in
Not noticed in winter.
spring and summer.
The Nightjar inhabits Europe and North-western Asia in

Northern and Central Africa


been found in Persia and Turkestan.
retiring into

in

winter.

summer,
Eastward it has

AVES.
66.

Caprimulgus

83

Temm.

ruficollis,

Man. d'Orn.

i.,

p.

Red-

438.

necked Nightjar.
This Nightjar is only found ordinarily in South-western Europe and
North-western Africa.
It has straggled as far as England, and I have
seen a specimen in Jerusalem, which
shot close to the city.
167.

tamaricis.

Caprimulgus

have every reason to believe was

Tristram.

Proc. Zool. Soc.,

1864,

p. 170.

PLATE XII.

We

obtained this bird, till then unknown, both at the northern and
southern ends of the Dead Sea in the month of January, at Ain Feshkah
and at Jebel Usdum. It must therefore be a permanent resident in this

most desolate region.


but

is

larger.

In form and size

C. rufigcna, Smith,

but from both of them

it

somewhat resembles

C. asialiciis,

from South Africa, corresponds

in size,

I
decidedly in colouration and markings.
have seen a specimen in the collection of the late Rev. Dr. Herschel,
which was obtained near Jericho. These are the only specimens known.

It

differs

from Caprimulgus inornatus from Abyssinia, with


has erroneously been identified, and, so far, remains
peculiar to

certainly differs

which
the

it

it

Dead Sea

basin.

FAMILY, PICID^E.
168. Picus syriacus.

note

Hemp, and
Arab.,

Syrian Woodpecker.
Tree- Drummer,' and u_,iwJI ^l5i,
5.

This

Ehr.

ys^\

Symb. Phys. Aves,


j}&,

Nakar

fol. v.,

shajar, 'the

esli

Nakar el Hashab.

the only species of Woodpecker found in Palestine, and of


course only in the few wooded districts.
To th.2 Jordan valley it never
descends.
The general paucity of timber is quite sufficient to account
is

for the scarcity of this beautiful

that further research

may

group of

birds,

though

it is

bring to light other species in

very possible

Lebanon.

It

closely resembles our Greater Spotted Woodpecker in size and coloration,


but may be at once
recognised by the continuous white band from the
bill
through the eye and ear coverts to the nape of the neck.

The
Persia.

species seems to be strictly limited to Asia Minor,

Syria,

and

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

86

Ywtx

169.

torguilla.

The Wryneck

is

Syst. Nat.

Linn.

summer migrant

i.,

p.

Wryneck.

172.

to Palestine.

have observed

it

there is wood, and sometimes in mere scrub.


occasionally wherever
Isles to Japan, and down to Central Africa,
It extends from the British
India,

and China.

FAMILY, ALCEDINID^E,

Arabic,

fisher.

Syst. Nat.

Linn.

170. Alcedo ispida.

k~^-, Mekhiet

t-JI

el

i.,

p.

179.

Common

King-

ma.

scattered everywhere throughout the


are streams, and also on the shores of the Medicountry where there
It is nowhere abundant, and is unaffected by climate, fishing
terranean.

Our

English Kingfisher

little

columns of Tyre, or

Lebanon, among the ruined

of the Jordan valley.


In the
All the three indigenous species of King-

in the seething

the only species.


fisher resort to the shores of the
fishes

of the

in the little torrents

indifferently

Lebanon

is

it is

swamps

Dead

Sea, attracted by the shoal of

which are brought down by the fresh water streams, and stupefied

by the brine of the

The Common
Africa and

lake.

Kingfisher inhabits

Northern

China, and Japan,

it

Asia,
is

as

far

represented

all

temperate

Europe,

North

in

India,

as

Scinde.

by

a closely allied species, Alcedo

Eastward,

bengalensis.

Ceryle rudis.

171.

~JI J~o,

Arabic,

This

is

(Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

181.)

Pied Kingfisher.

Saiad el semahk, 'The Fish-hunter.'

the most conspicuous and

country where there

is

common

water, salt or fresh.

species in every part of the


It

is

particularly

abundant

about Tyre and Sidon, and round the lake of Galilee. On the plain of
Gennesaret there is a great breeding place in the bank of a tiny streamlet,
where I found thirty nests. The holes are burrowed a few inches above
the water's edge, and unlike the burrow of the Bee-eater, which has a
sharp turn about a yard from the entrance, the nest is in a hole scooped

a beautiful sight to watch a party of


birds hovering petrel-like over the water, and now and again

by the side of the


these

little

tunnel.

It is

AVES.
making a sudden dive, and
their silky plumage gleaming

The

extremely
Sahara is rare
;

in

resuming their places

in

the

air,

in the sunlight.

It is
only an occasional straggler to Europe.
all Africa, south of the
and
throughout
Egypt,

Pied Kingfisher

common

instantly

87

is

in Persia,

and frequent throughout

India,

Burmah, and

China.

Halcyon smyrnensis.

172.

(Linn.

Nat.

Syst.

i.,

p.

186.)

Smyrna

Kingfisher.

The Smyrna
that district,

Kingfisher was first noticed by Albin in 1760 as from


and so named by Linnaeus. But it was never again detected

Western Asia till Captain Graves, R. N., re-discovered it near Smyrna,


as noticed by Mr. Strickland in an interesting paper.
(Ann. Nat. Hist.,
in

vol. ix., p. 441.)

We
to the

were the

first

to find

in

it

Palestine,

where

in the last

Jordan valley, though Russell

it

is

strictly

confined

century mentions

it

near

therefore not exclusively tropical in its habitat.


In its
It is shy and
very different from the lively Pied Kingfisher.
never
and
sits
for
hours
on
its
over
a swamp, its
hovers,
solitary,
perch
It

Aleppo.

is

habits

it is

bright

plumage well concealed by the

under the oleanders.


Like

Its

food

is

foliage,

not

fish,

and when alarmed,

slinks

away

but reptiles, frogs and locusts.

the other tropical birds of the Jordan valley, it remains throughout the year, from the Dead Sea to the Upper Jordan.
It breeds in
all

April in holes on the banks of streamlets on the plain of Gennesaret.


The Smyrna Kingfisher is strictly Asiatic, and as we have seen, most
rare

seen

and
it

local in

in

and China.
the Indian

Western

Asia.

Eastward

it

is

more

plentiful.

have

Mesopotamia, and it inhabits Southern Persia, India, Ceylon,


It is one of the most
interesting instances of the extension of

Fauna

to the

Jordan

valley.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

83

FAMILY, CORACIID^.
Coracias

173.

Arab.,

Jj^A^

Linn.

garrula.

Nat.

Syst.

i.,

p.

Roller.

159.

Schurkrak.

Roller appears in large flocks about the ist April, and they very
over the whole country, breeding in
gradually disperse themselves
burrows in sand or gravel banks, very often in small colonies, and more
in a hollow tree or a
rocky cleft.
frequently a single pair by themselves,
in
both
and
Brilliant and conspicuous,
manners, the Rollers
plumage, note,

The

everywhere, and are found in every kind of country

attention

attract

woodland, plain, desert, ravines, ruins, always perching where they


can see and be seen.
alike,

The

Roller visits

all

Europe

in

summer, though only accidental

in

Cape of Good Hope.


swarming in Mesopotamia

the British Isles, and in winter goes as far as the


Its

in

I found it
Eastern range is more limited.
88 1, and it extends to Cashmere and the Altai mountains.

FAMILY, MEROPID^E.
174.

Merops

Arab., y)y),

A
April,

Linn.

apiaster.

Nat.

Syst.

p.

182.

Bee -eater.

Warwar.
numbers

regular migrant, returning in great

and

i.,

in the

living in large societies, breeding in colonies in

beginning of

deep holes

in

which, when the young are fledged, we may find handfuls


Since the introduction
of
of the elytra
beetles, on which they have fed.
of the electric telegraph, its wires are the favourite perch of the Bee-eater,

low banks,

in

which returns
for

to the

hours together.
The Bee-eater

Western Asia, as

same spot

summer

is

far as

after short flights exactly like a Fly-catcher,

Persia;

visitor

Southern

to

Scinde appearing to be

Europe

and

its

Eastern

ii.,

p.

limit.

175.

Merops

persicus.

Pallas.

Reis.

Russ.

Reichs.

708.

Blue-cheeked Bee-eater.

The
passage.

Bee-eater

But

it

is

is

rare

in

Palestine,

extremely abundant

in

and

have only seen it on


Mesopotamia, where I have
I

A VES.

89

both by themselves, and also, as at Jerabulus


(Carchemish), in company with a great rookery of the Common Bee-eater,
burrowing and nesting in the same bank but the two species always

found large colonies,

hunted separately, the Persian bird generally skimming closer to the


ground, of weaker flight, and often alighting on a thistle-tuft or flowerstalk.
It

ranges

down

the

West Coast

of Africa and up to Natal

is

very

Egypt, rare in Algeria, extends eastward to India, but


only an accidental visitor to Europe.

abundant

176.

in

Linn.

viridis.

Merops

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 180.

Green Bee-Eater.

Not common, and apparently only on passage.


It is a native of Egypt and Abyssinia, is recorded from West
and inhabits

Persia, India, Ceylon,

is

Africa,

and Burmah.

FAMILY, UPUPIDyE.
177.

Upupa

n.

A. V.,

epops.

Linn.

'

Lapwing,'

Syst. Nat.

in error.

i.,

183.

p.

Arab. J^AJ&,

Hebr.

Hoopoe.

Hudfmd (from

its

cry).

The Hoopoe, which


ning of March

leaves Palestine in winter, returns in the


beginnot seen in flocks, but suddenly spread over the whole

in pairs or in small parties.

It resorts alike to the desert


country
wadys,
the woods, gardens, and villages, where it is very tame,
on
feeding
dungIt does not
hills, indifferent to the presence of man.
appear to migrate
far, as it remains all winter in Egypt and in the oases of the Sahara.
The Hoopoe is found in Southern and Central Europe, the whole of
Asia, and Northern and Central Africa.

FAMILY,
178. Cuculus canorus.

(doubtfully) t)n^.

The Cuckoo
when

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

returns to Palestine at the

particularly obnoxious to
which
ckalybeus),
clamorously pursues it
spread generally over the whole country.
April,

it is

The Cuckoo

i.,

p.

168.

Cuckoo.

Hebr.

Arabic c^/3, Tekook.

end of March or beginning of


the Bush Dabbler
(Crateropus
in

has a very extensive range

the Jordan valley.

through

all

It

is

Europe and
12

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

yo

Asia up to the Arctic Circle in summer, and as


India in winter.
It goes even as far as Celebes.
179.

glandarius.

Coccysles

Nat.

Syst.

(Linn.

South Africa and

far as

i.,

p.

169.)

Great

Spotted Cuckoo.

This Cuckoo returns nearly a month earlier than its congener.


For a few days large flocks of them may constantly be seen on their
passage northwards, but many remain scattered in the wooded parts
of the country.

They have

the

same

parasitic habit as

most of the other members of the

Cuckoo family. In Algeria they deposit their eggs in the nests of the
In
Mauritanian Magpie, the eggs of which they very closely resemble.
the Holy Land I have found them only in the nest of the Hooded Crow

No doubt they will

(Corvus comix), and that very frequently.


in the nest of the

Syrian Jay, which

is

common

also be found

in districts like

Carmel,

where there are no Crows, and where the Spotted Cuckoo abounds.
The Great Spotted Cuckoo has been twice taken in England.
migrates to South-western Europe in summer, and is found through
Africa, but not further east than Syria, excepting that

it

It
all

has been recorded

once from Shiraz.

ORDER, STRIGES.
FAMILY, STRIGID^'.
1

80.

Dnn.

Strix flammed.

Linn.

A. V., Night-hawk.*

Boomeh

Syst. Nat.

Arab.

Heb.

p. 133.

abiad, 'White Owl.'

The Barn Owl may be more


known

Barn Owl.
LL*.., Masdsah, and
i.,

to the natives.

We met

often heard than seen, but

with

it

is

well

occasionally, generally about ruins.


of
this
bird
is
almost
world-wide.
range
Excepting in the
extreme northern regions of the Arctic Circle it has been noted
everywhere in the Old and New World, and through the islands of the
Pacific and Indian Ocean.
It has only not been recorded from
Japan,
China, and New Zealand.
it

The

Nat

Hist. Bible, p. 191.

AVES.

9I

FAMILY, ASIONID^R.
18 1. Ketupa ceylonensis.

(Gmel.

Syst. Nat., vol.

i.,

Brown

p. 287.)

Fish Owl.

The appearance

of this Great Indian

Owl

Palestine

in

is

one of the

most remarkable features of the singularly mixed character of the Fauna


of the country.

Acre,

it

Prior to our discovery of

existence near the plain of

its

had not been noticed west of India.

and saw three others

in the

Wady

obtained one specimen


Kurn, close to the great ruin of

el

Kulat el Kurn, north of the plain of Acre, in December, 1863. The bird
had been roosting, hidden among the dense foliage of a carob tree, under
which we halted, and startled by our voices, scrambled out bewildered,

and perched on a rock on the opposite side of the Wady.


The Wady possesses a perennial stream, well shaded by evergreen
timber, and with its cliffs full of caves, while fish and crabs swarm in the
water and supply abundant prey for the owl.
I never saw the species
elsewhere, but five years ago a traveller shot and preserved another
specimen in the Wady Hamam, opening on to the plain of Gennesaret,

thus rendering

it

probable that the bird

throughout the country.


Ketupa is a peculiar Indian form.

will

be found

suitable

in all

localities

They

are

Owls of the

largest

size,

Only three species are known.


distinguished by their bare tarsi,

adapted for diving into the water and seizing their prey. One species is
confined to the sub- Himalayan region, a second to Java and Sumatra,
Borneo, and the Malayan Peninsula, and the present, K. ceylonensis, to
India generally, Ceylon, and the provinces on the east coast of the Bay
It
was also discovered by Mr. Swinhoe at Hongkong,
Bengal.
not elsewhere in China, so that its range may possibly stretch across

of

from Assam to China.

But the present

is

the one isolated instance of

its

occurrence west of the Indian Peninsula.


182.

Asia

otus.

(Linn.

The Long-eared Owl

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

132.)

Long-eared Owl.

found in the wooded

districts, especially in
rather plentiful in the forest district west of Safed,
and there are several pairs which breed in the Cedars of Lebanon.

the north.

It

is

is

12

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

9a

far
Europe and Asia south of latitude 64 as
In North Africa it
as North-west India, and also China and Japan.
The North American Long-eared Owl is barely
occurs in winter.
It inhabits

the whole of

separable.

Asio

183.

brachyotiis.

(}.

R.

Forster.

Trans.

Phil.

Ixii.,

p.

384.)

Short-eared Owl.

found it once
I
only a winter visitant.
in the hill country of the south, and sometimes in the north.
No Owl, except the Barn Owl, has so extensive a range. The whole

The

Owl

Short-eared

is

except Australia and Oceania, is inhabited by


Oceania it is found in the Sandwich Islands.

world,

Syrnium

184.

aluco.

Heb., rv'r? (probably).

all

Not uncommon in
over the wooded

Syst.

(Linn.

A. V.

'

Nat.

i.,

it,

102.)

p.

and even

in

Tawny Owl.

Screech Owl.'

the forest districts of Gilead and Bashan, and also


portions of Lebanon.

It

is

seldom seen, but

its

unmistakable hoot can often be heard at night, when encamped in the


woods. It descends into the Jordan valley, and I found a nest in a tree in

The

Gilead.

Palestine specimens are, so far as

much greyer than

those

from

England, and

have noticed, always


not

are

in

the

least

tawny.

This Owl inhabits the whole of Europe, North Africa to the Atlas
range, and Asia Minor and Syria, but has rarely if ever been found east
of the Ural mountains.

185. Scops giu.

Hebr.,

fiSj?

Scop.

(probably).

Very common

Arab.,

in spring

about the middle of April.


in hollow trees.
Its

note

Ann.

I.

Hist.

Nat.,

p.

19.

Scops Owl.

<-4U, Maroof.

about old ruins and olive-groves, returning


It breeds both in the walls of ruins and

very peculiar, represented by its Arabic name, or more


kiu kiu, repeated monotonously at regular intervals.
a summer visitor to Southern
Europe, retiring to Africa in
is

accurately like
It is

winter.

Japan

It is
it is

found eastward as far as Turkestan.

represented by closely allied species.

In India, China, and

A VES.
1

Bubo ascalaphus.

86.

Eagle Owl.

Savigny.

Hebr., fpBty.

93

Descr. Egypte,

Egyptian

p. 295.

Arabic, U*j, Bafa.

This takes the place of the Eagle Owl of Northern Europe, and
occurs more frequently than most of the other species, except the Little
In the rolling uplands of Beersheba it resorts to burrows in the
In Rabbah (Amman) it has its home among the ruins, and in
ground.

Owl.

the ravines of Galilee and in the Jordan valley


most inaccessible caverns.

it

retires in security to the

The Egyptian Eagle Owl

has a very limited range, extending from


It has
Algeria eastward to Palestine, and especially abundant in Egypt.
not been observed in Persia or Asia Minor, nor does it seem to reach far
into Africa.

Athene glaux.
Southern Little Owl.
187.

There are

five

(Savigny.

Syst.

Hebrew words employed

de PEgyptc,

Ois.

p.

45.)

Owl, and though


denoted by each word,

to express the

to decide definitely which species is


reasonable to assign the names to the five species most common in
In the determination we are aided sometimes by the derivaPalestine.

it is difficult
it is

tion

and the context.

spoken of (Psalm
species

cii.

in Arabic,

The Hebrew D13, A. V., Little Owl,' lit. Cup,' and


6) as the Owl of ruined places, probably denotes this

<c*_>!,

'

'

Boomeh, and often called

'

the mother of ruins.'

one of the most universally distributed birds in every part of the


Holy Land. In the olive-yards round the villages, in the rocks of the
Wadys, in the thickets by the water-side, in the tombs, in the wells, or on
the ruins
among the desolate heaps which mark the sites of ancient
It is

Judah, on the sandy mounds of Beersheba, or on the spray-beaten fragments of Tyre, his low wailing note is sure to be heard at sunset, and
himself seen bowing and keeping time to his own music.
The Little
Owl is a great favourite, and considered lucky by the Arabs. This bird
was the symbol of ancient Athens, admirably represented on its coins, the

badge of Minerva or of wisdom.


It is very like Athene nociua, the
only in its smaller size and much paler

Little

Owl

coloration.

of Europe, differing
It is not found north

of the Mediterranean, and seems confined to North Africa, Syria, Persia,

and Affghanistan.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

94

ORDER, ACCIPITRES.
FAMILY, VULTURID^;.
No.

6.)
Syst. Nat. i., p. 123,
(Linn.
Gypaetus barbatus.
Breaker.'
'the
Hebr. Dng), i.e.,
Lammer-Geier, or Bearded Vulture.
the other large
and
Arab.
Bidj ;
generically j~J, Nissr, along with

188.

'

gJ^,

Vultures.

A. V., 'Ossifrage'

(i.e.,

Bone-Breaker) (Lev.

xi.

13).

This magnificent bird, the prince of Vultures, may still be seen in


most of the mountainous regions of Palestine, but only singly, or a pair
Its favourite resorts are the gorges opening on the Dead Sea
together.

and the Jordan Valley, especially the ravines of the Arnon and the
Callirrhoe, where one of the grandest sights a naturalist can enjoy, as he
stands on the brow of a gorge, is the spectacle of one of these majestic
apparently motionless
up and down the valley, close to the crest, and often within a hundred yards
of the spectator.
Though so conspicuous, the number of Lammer-Geiers
birds, with a stretch of

wing ten

feet across, sailing

might, probably, be counted on the fingers. They are carrion


but
feeders,
marrow-boiies, tortoises and snakes are also favourite deli-

in Palestine

these up to a great height in the air, and then drops


them on a rock or stone, repeating the operation till the prey is thoroughly
shattered.
From this habit is derived its Hebrew name. The poet

cacies.

It carries

^Eschylus met his death from a tortoise dropped on his bald head by
one of these birds.
The Lammer-Geier's range extends from the
Pyrenees, Alps, and Carpathians eastward to China and Tartary, south of
Altai, being found in all the mountainous regions south of 45 N. Lat.,
in the Atlas range of North Africa.
The species of Eastern
and Southern Africa very slightly differs from the northern race. Everywhere, even in Tartary, its numbers are rapidly diminishing, and it will

and also

probably soon be added to the already long


189.

Vulture.

Vultur monachus.

Not

Linn.

Syst.

list

of extinct species.

Nat.

i.,

p.

122.

Cinereous

distinguished specifically by the natives from the following

species.
It occurs
sparingly throughout the country, being chiefly seen in the
wild uplands of the south and on the
seldom more than
plains of Moab
;

AVES.
two together.

Its

95

black plumage distinguishes

it

at a glance

from the

Its range extends from


frequently consorts.
of North Africa,
Portugal and Spain through Sicily, Greece, the whole
the Caucasus, Himalayas, North-west India; and it has been found in

other species, with which

it

China.

Gyps

190.

ftilvus.

'

Hebr.

Vulture.

(Gmel. Syst.
A. V. Eagle.'

"!#).

There can be no doubt of the

Nat.

i.,

p.

249.)

The

Griffon

Arab. ^J, Nissr.

identity of the

bird called

'

Nesher

'

'

the Griffon Vulture, though


by the Hebrews with the Arabic Nissr,'
Not only is this evident philologirendered Eagle by our translators.
in Micah (i. 16),
Enlarge thy baldness as
cally, but the expression
'

'

'

'

It is unfortunate that
to the Griffon.
(Nesher), can only apply
our language has only the one word Vulture for the noble Griffon, and

the eagle

'

'

the despicable, though very useful scavenger,


Europeans in the East call the Egyptian Vulture.

'

for

Pharaoh's hen,' as

employed by Orientals as the type of the lordly and


noble.
Nisroch, the Eagle-headed god of the Assyrian sculptures, was
the deification of the Nissr, the standard of the Assyrian and Persian

The

Griffon

is

From
Calling a ravenous bird from the East,' i.e., Cyrus.
Assyria and Persia the Romans probably borrowed the ensign which has
been adopted by so many modern nations, with more appropriateness of
'

armies.

bearers would be willing to acknowledge.


Griffon is the most striking ornithological feature of Palestine.

character than

The
It is

its

impossible in any part of the country to look up without seeing

of them

abound

majestically soaring

at

some

an immense height, and their eyries


The most

in great colonies in all the ravines of the country.

notable colonies of eyries, some of them containing over one hundred pair
of birds, are in the Wady Kelt, near Jericho, the ravines of the Jabbok,

and Arnon, the gorge of the Litany river, some ravines near
in the
Carmel, and, the most numerous of all, the great Griffonries
Wady Hamam and the Wady Leimun, opening on the plain of GenneThere toward evening every jagged rock in the cliffs is the perch
saret.

Callirrhoe,

'

of one or more of these noble birds.


habits of the Eagle
'

They

shall

(i.e.,

Many

'

of the characteristics and

Its soaring,
Griffon) are alluded to in Scripture.
as eagles (Isaiah xl.
Its swiftness,
31).

mount up with wings

'

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

55

As

swift as the
'

hasteth to eat

xxviii. 49).
eagle flieth' (Deut.
Its
power of sight,
(Hab. i. 8).

'As the eagle that


She dwelleth and
'

abideth on the rock, upon the crag of the rock, and the strong place.
From thence she seeketh the prey, and her eyes behold afar off' (Job
'

thou that dwellest in the


Its nesting in the cliff,
xxxix. 28, 29).
clifts of the rock, that holdest the height of the hill, though thou shouldest
as the Eagle, I will bring thee down from thence,
nest as
make
high

thy

saith the

Lord

'

(Jeremiah

xlix. 16).

The range of the Griffon Vulture is most extensive. It is found in the


whole of Europe from the Pyrenees and Alps southwards, in Southern
Russia, through

all

Asia south of the Altai range, to India and Burmah,

and throughout Africa down to the Cape of Good Hope.

Neophron percnopterus. (Linn. Syst. Nat.


Hebr. D^ ?. (A.
Egyptian Vulture, Pharaoh's Hen.
191.

Arab.

123 (1766).)
Gier
V.,
Eagle.)

i.,

p.

i, Racham.

This feeder on

filth

and

offal

is

universally spread over the whole

It does not breed, like the


country in summer, but never seen in winter.
Griffon, in colonies, but is scattered abundantly and almost equally over
all

parts of the country, returning from the south about the

It is

tame and

fearless,

and

bourhood of man, whether

is

found

in pairs,

end of March.

hanging about the neigh-

in the Fellah village or the

Bedawin camp.

The nests, huge clumsy structures of sticks, are generally in the


lower parts of the cliffs, and easily accessible, in this respect differing very
The birds in the brown plumage of the
decidedly from the Griffon's.
first

year are rarely seen in Palestine, and probably do not migrate from

the south.

The range of the Egyptian vulture extends from the south of France
eastward to Western India, but it is only a straggler north of the

Alps
found throughout the whole of Africa and its
islands down to the Cape.
The Indian species is very
allied to

and the Caucasus.

It

is

closely

it,

and has often been

identified with

it.

A VES.

97

FAMILY, FALCONID^E.
Circus aruginosus.
(Linn.
Harrier.
Arab. <$*j_>j, Derfah.
192.

The Marsh
marshes and

Harrier

in all

is

Syst.

Nat.

p.

i.,

common throughout
As many as twenty may

very

the plains.

not together, but quartering the plain independently.


generally in very rich plumage, with shoulders and

Marsh

130.)

the

year over

often be seen,

The males
tails

are

silver grey,

and the pinions black.


range is from the British Isles through Europe and Africa as far
as the Transvaal, and eastward as far as Ceylon, Formosa, and Japan.
Its

193.

Circus

cineraceus.

Ornith.

Montagu.

Diet.,

vol.

i.,

k.

3.

Montagu's Harrier.
Probably not uncommon, though it has not often come under my
I obtained it twice
observation.
by the Lake of Galilee in 1864, and on

same spot in 1881


on the very same clump of rock
revisiting the

it

Moab

in

as

secured another, which rose, I believe,


had the former bird. I also noticed

in 1872.

This bird

found sparsely through all the temperate regions of the


Old World, as far as the Cape and China.
194.

Not

is

Circus cyaneus.
at

all

(Linn.

uncommon on

Syst. Nat.

the plains at

all

i.,

p. 126.)

Hen

Harrier.

times of the year.

has a less extensive range than Montagu's Harrier,


being found
and
Northern
and
Central
Asia
as
far
as
China and
through Europe
It

Japan

195.

but in North Africa

it is

Circus swainsoni.

a scarce winter

Smith.

S.

visitant.

Afr. Quart.

Journ.

i.,

p.

384.

Pallid Harrier.

This Harrier

more abundant than either of the preceding species,


It is
though not a tenth in number of the Marsh Harrier.
especially to
be found along the sea-coast and the maritime plains.
I
noticed, last
is

one of these

almost white plumage, sail for a whole


morning round the rock on which a Philistine village was perched, and
year,

birds,

in

13

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

98

measured beat approaching every ten minutes within a few yards of


one of our party who was sketching.
It is a native of Southern Europe, Central and Southern Asia, and
in its

found throughout Africa.


Leach.

196. Butco vulgaris.


'

System Cat.

Heb. HSn.

A. V.

applied to

smaller Eagles and Buzzards).

all

Glede.'

The Common Buzzard


Lebanon

in winter.

The Buzzard
beyond
in

its limits.

is

plentiful

on the

Arab.

Buzzard.

0gab

<^>\te>,

coast, in the plains,

(a

term

and on

appears to migrate northwards in spring.


found over the whole of Europe, but not generally
It

occurs in winter on the north coast of Africa and

It

Asia Minor, while


197.

is

(Generic^

Common

p. 10.

its

Eastern limit appears to be Western Siberia.

Daud.

Buteo desertorum.

Traite d'Orn.

ii.,

162.

p.

African

Buzzard.

This may probably be counted among the birds of Palestine (though


it is found in all the
surrounding

have never obtained a specimen), as

countries.
It is

198.

Buzzard.

found throughout Africa, and ranges eastwards as

Buteo ferox.
Arab.

(.j^teU^,

Gmel.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

far as India.

260.

p.

Long- Legged

Shahin.

This magnificent and aquiline Buzzard is the Buzzard of the country,


numerous in all parts and at all seasons of the year. It is gregarious in
winter, segregated in pairs in spring, breeding in

The Long-legged Buzzard

cliffs in

inhabits Southern

the

Russia,

Wadys.
Asia Minor,

North-east Africa, Persia, India, and Turkestan.

Golden
(Linn.
Syst. Nat. J., p. 125.)
all the
for
Heb.
A.
V.
rv^y {generic
Eagles).
'Osprey.' Arab.
Eagle.
c_te*, 'Ogab (generic for all the larger Eagles).
199. Aquila.

chrysaetus.

The Golden Eagle


In summer it
country.

is
is

* See
Tristram,

uncommon in winter over the whole


found
in the northern mountain
only
ranges
not

'

Natural History of the Bible,'

p.

186.

AVES.
of Lebanon and Hermon.
natives do

99

scarcely necessary to state that the


not discriminate the various species of Eagles.

The home

It

is

Golden Eagle embraces the whole of the northern


hemisphere, from Lapland, Siberia, and Arctic America southwards to the
Sahara, the Himalayas, China, Pennsylvania and California.

200.

of the

Aquila

heliaca.

Savigny.

Descript. Egypte,

p.

459.

Imperial

Eagle.

The

Imperial Eagle is more numerous throughout the country than


the Golden, nor does it, like its congener, disappear in summer, breeding

some

in

probably

The

of the isolated terebinths in retired districts.

Imperial, unlike the Golden Eagle, prefers trees to cliffs for its nidification.
It is bold and comparatively indifferent to the near approach of man, and

dark plumage, white shoulders, and bronzy head may often


I have had the
be admired at leisure.
young of this Eagle brought to
thus

me

its

rich

in the

Lebanon, proving that

The range
It

Eagle.

it

is

Southern Asia, from Asia Minor as

by

must breed

in the

neighbourhood.

of the Imperial is more limited than that of the Golden


found in South-eastern Europe, North-east Africa, and
far as

China.

In Spain

it

is

replaced

the closely allied form, Aqiiila adalberti.

201.

Aqnila

clanga.

Pall.

Zoogr.

Rosso-As.

i.,

p.

351.

Greater

Spotted Eagle.

This Eagle
be seen

is

not

uncommon,

sailing over the plains.

especially in winter,

have observed
in Lebanon in the spring, and found its nest once
between Nazareth and Acre.
This bird

It

when

it

may

often

it

two or three times

in

a tree in the woods

only a rare straggler in Western and Central Europe.


resides in Southern Russia, Turkey, North-east Africa, Asia Minor,
is

Southern Siberia and India, where

it is

most numerous, but rarely wanders

further east.

The
p. 27, is

There

is

Lesser Spotted Eagle, Aquila pomarina, Brehm.,


Vog. Deutschl.,
to
be
enumerated
the
birds of Palestine.
only doubtfully
among

one specimen from Beyrout

in the

Norwich Museum.

132

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

ioo

202.

(Temm.

Aquila rapax.

Col.

PI.

livr.

76,

Tawny

455.)

pi.

Eagle.

The Tawny Eagle


wooded and inhabited

is

not

districts.

uncommon
It

in

breeds in

chiefly in

Palestine,

cliffs,

and

is in

the

the habit of

Palestine is the extreme Eastern


plundering other birds of their booty.
limit of its range, it being an essentially African species, through the

whole of which continent

it is

found, from Barbary to the

Cape

of

Good

Hope.
Aquila pennata.

203.

(Gmel.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

Booted

272.)

Eagle.
This, the smallest of our Eagles, occurs, but not commonly, in PalesIt appears to be confined to the wooded region of Galilee and
tine.

Lebanon, where we frequently met with it.


found throughout Africa, in Southern Europe, and in Southern

Phoenicia,
It is

Asia as

and

far as

to the

India and Ceylon.

Aquila

204.

nipalensis.

Asiat.

Hodgs.

Res.

xviii.,

pt.

2,

p.

13.

Steppe Eagle.

One specimen
But

it is

Its
I

of this Eagle in Beyrout was procured on the Lebanon.


probably not uncommon, but confounded with its congeners.

range comprises

South-eastern

Europe, Southern Siberia and

ndia.

205.

Aquila

bonelli.

(Temm.

PI.

Col.

i.,

pi.

288.)

Bonelli's

Eagle.

This active and beautifully marked Eagle is not uncommon in the


Wadys and rocky terraces of Central Palestine, but appears to avoid
It breeds in the ravines running up from the Plain of Genthe plains.
nesaret.

Its

general behaviour and habits are more like those of a Falcon

than an Eagle.

Eagle is an inhabitant of warm and temperate climates, being


found in Southern Europe, Northern and Central Africa, and
ranging
eastward to India.
But it does not occur in China, nor in Africa south
Bonelli's

of the Equator.

AVES.
Circaetus gallicus.
Short- toed Eagle.
206.

This Eagle, which

lizards

Nat.

i.,

No.

295,

p.

52.)

on reptiles, is beyond all doubt the


from early spring to the commencement
few remain throughout the year, but the

tribe

Palestine.

number

greater

Syst.

lives entirely

most abundant of the Eagle


of winter in

(Gmel.

101

probably to Arabia, during the period when the


It is a very fearless bird, sitting on a tree

retire,

and snakes hybernate.

or a rock

till

closely approached,

and with

its

flat

large

head,

its

huge

yellow eyes glaring round, and brightly spotted breast, is one of the most
The enormous number of lizards and serdignified of the Eagle tribe.

The tesselated scaling of


pents in Palestine accounts for its abundance.
its tarsi is a remarkable
provision against the possibility of injury from
its
It breeds in trees, not in rocks.
serpent quarry.
The

Short-toed Eagle is found throughout Central Europe, but very


It is not unfrequent in all the countries
sparingly.
bordering on the
Mediterranean, in Arabia, Persia, Southern Turkestan, and India.
207. Astiir pahimbarius.

(Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

Goshawk.

p. 126.)

No

record of the capture of the Goshawk south of the Lebanon is


known. But it has been obtained in the mountains near Beyrout, where
I have seen it.
I have observed it more than once in the mountains of

Northern Syria.

Though
is

only an occasional wanderer to the British

found throughout Europe and Asia, as


In North Africa

China.

it is

208. Accipiter nisus.

Hawk.

Hebr.,

j*}

far as

(generic

for

Syst.
all

the

Goshawk

North India and Northern

occasionally met

(Linn.

Isles,

with.

Nat.

small

i.,

p.

130.)

Hawks.)

Sparrow

Arab.,

^^,

Bashik.

Very common about olive-groves and clumps of wood


south,

and also

in all the oases

and Jordan

valley.

salicarius),

which swarms

in

winter in the

and shrubby places about the Dead Sea


on the Marsh Sparrow (Passer

It feeds especially

in

from the lower country, but

Lebanon, and Hermon.

these localities.

It

disappears in April
remains in the hilly parts of Galilee, in

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

102

The Sparrow Hawk

found in the Northern Old World, from

is

Ireland to Japan, and as far south as Northern India, South China, Egypt,

and Kordofan.
Bull. Soc.

Severzov.

209. Accipiter brevipes.

Imp. Nat. Mosc.

xxxiii.,

Levant Sparrow Hawk.

p. 234.

The Levant Sparrow Hawk does not appear to be common in


Palestine, but it may easily have been overlooked or mistaken for the
other species.
its

did not notice

movements than the

other,

short thick

its

more

It is

stealthy in

the ground under

generally skimming
in the hand it is at once recognised

When

bushes and up watercourses.

by

the spring.

it till

tarsi.

This bird has a very limited range, and is nowhere abundant.


It
appears to be confined to Southern Russia, Turkey, Asia Minor, and
Syria.

210.

Kite or

Milvus

Red

ictinus.

Kite.

Savigny.

Hebr.,

!TN,

Ois.

Syst.

A. V.

d'Egypte,

'Vulture.'*

p.

Arab.,

28.

<_aU,

Essaf.

very common in winter, and gregarious, tame, and fearoften hovering over camps, or in rain sitting in rows motionless on

The
less,

Kite

rocks or trees.
central

is

Only a few

and northern

The Red

Kite,

pairs remain to breed,

and that only

in the

districts.

once so

common

England, is now found but


North-western Africa. Asia Minor
in

sparingly throughout Europe and


and Palestine seem to be its Eastern limits.

perhaps the keenest-sighted of all the birds of prey, whence the


allusion in Job xxviii. 7, where A. V. reads Vulture.
It is

211.
Kite.

Milvus viigrans. Bodd. Tabl. Planch. Enl.,


Hebr., HNH or Pl H.t Arab., diUa., Hadaiyeh.

Black

28.

p.

No
Red Kite begun to retire northwards than the
Black Kite, never seen in winter, returns in immense numbers from the
south, and about the beginning of March scatters itself over the whole
sooner has the

country, preferring especially the neighbourhood of villages,


* See
Tristram,

'

Natural History of the Bible,'

p.

188.

where

f Ibid,

p.

it is

181.

AVES.

103

welcome and unmolested guest, feeding on garbage, and not,


It breeds
gener, making raids on the poultry.
generally in

like its contrees,

and

many

of the

is

fond of decorating

The range

its nest with rags of various colours.


of the Black Kite is more limited than that of

larger birds of prey.

many, scanty

in Italy,

It is

found

common

Southern France, Spain, and Geron the North-African coast, and occasional
in

It occurs in the Volga


throughout that continent.
which
it
Persia, beyond
very rarely straggles.

212.

Milvus

cegyptius.

Gmel.

Syst.

Nat.

district,

261.

p.

i.,

and

is

rare in

Egyptian

Kite.

This

only distinguished from the former by its yellow bill


and more deeply forked tail, replaces it in Africa, but is rarely found outspecies,

side that continent, excepting in Arabia

and

Palestine.

by no means so abundant as the Black Kite, and


the hot Jordan valley and the adjacent ravines.
it is

213.

Elanus

Mem. Acad.

Desf.

cneruleus,

R. du

is

Here, however,
chiefly found in

Sci.,

1787, p. 503.

Black-winged Kite.

Rare

seen occasionally in different parts of the


country, as in the Jordan valley, and in woods west of Nazareth.
This elegant little Hawk has its true home in Africa, throughout the
in

Palestine, but

whole of which continent

it

seems

to occur, being

most common

in

Upper

has not been observed in Asia Minor, is only a straggler in


inhabits India in small numbers,
but
Eastward its place is
Europe,

Egypt.

It

supplied by representative species.

214.

Perms

apivorus.

(Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

130.)

Honey

Buzzard.

The Honey Buzzard


scarce, though found in
Jaffa, at Nazareth,

is

all

a constant resident in

Palestine,

parts of the country.

but rather

have noticed

it

near

and near Beyrout.

It is found throughout Europe, though nowhere very numerous, and


has been procured in West Africa, Natal, and Madagascar.
Palestine is

probably

its

Easternmost

limit.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

104

GENUS, FALCO.
215. Falco peregrinus.

Arab.

^U *,

Tir

'

el /tor,

Ornith. Britann. p.

Tunstall.
i.e.,

The

i.

Peregrine.

noble bird.

to observe the clearly denned geographical


very interesting
Falcons in Palestine, which they would appear
ranges of the different
The Peregrine, nowhere numerous, occurs at all
never to
It

is

transgress.

the coast, and on the


times of the year, in all suitable localities near
To the eastward
western slopes of the watershed of Central Palestine.
It extends from the Lebanon to the
of the crest we never observed it.
as far inland as
it
During winter I noticed
olive-groves of Gaza.
in a garden at Jaffa, where it was
Nazareth, and in March I obtained it
replaced by the next species.
There seems to be no Hebrew word specially to denote the Falcon,

evidently incubating.

Inland

it is

This is easily explained


while each species has its distinct Arabic name.
who are keen falconers, and take
by the fact that the Bedawin Arabs,
their Falcons, are well aware of the comparative
great pains in training
But though regarded as
merits and powers of the different species.
scattered to
valuable for the chase, the tame Falcons are far too sparingly
claim a distinct notice in the catalogue of unclean birds in Leviticus.
It has been obtained
almost a cosmopolitan bird.
from the polar circle
in Greenland, and ranges over the whole Old World
the New
to the Cape of Good Hope, Java, and Sumatra, and through
Australia, the Pacific Islands,
to the La Plata.
World from Hudson's

The

Peregrine

is

Bay

and the southern extremity of America, are inhabited by species barely


separable from the Common Peregrine.
216. Falco lanarius.

Abh. Geb. Zool.

iii.,

p.

Schl.
3.

Rev.

The

Crit., p. 2.

Lanner.

Arab.

Falco fildeggi.
^-ftU,

jO**,,

Schl.

Sakkr

Shaheen.

most common of the large Falcons in Palestine,


on both sides of the
universally distributed throughout the rocky Wadys
north as the foot of Hermon, being
Jordan and the Dead Sea, and as far
This

is

by

far the

No region is too desolate or dreary for it. It


a permanent resident.
resorts to the most arid salt wastes south of the Dead Sea, and breeds in

AVES
the ravines of Moab.
train the

young

It

Arab falconers, who


Hare and Bustard.
somewhat restricted. Its true home is

highly esteemed by the

is

birds for the chase of the

The

range of the Lanner


North Africa and Syria, but

is
it

the Sahara and east of Palestine


I

occurs in Spain and Turkey.


it is
replaced by other species.

have retained the name lanariiis

though fcldcggii has

strictly the

Gmel.

217. Falco sacer.

=U

Arab.

s*-=.,

105

Sakkr

for

South

of

bird for convenience,

this

precedence.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

The Saker

p. 273.

Falcon.

el hor.

The Saker Falcon

appears to be confined

in

Palestine to the wild

It is the
uplands of forests east of Jordan, where it replaces the Lanner.
most highly prized of all the species by the Arabs, and the chief tribe of
the district, the Beni Sakk'r, take their name from it, and adopt it as their

badge.

The Saker is only a straggler to Southern and Central Europe. Its


home is east and south from North Africa it ranges through Western
;

and China.

Asia, Persia, Mongolia, to India

In North-western China

it

replaces the Peregrine.


218. Falco snbbuteo.

The Hobby
in spring,

Syst. Nat.

Linn.

i.,

p.

The Hobby.

127.

summer

visitant to

Palestine, returning

and resorting only

to the few

wooded

is

districts

rather late

and the olive

groves.

The

extends over the whole of Europe, Africa,


and Asia, though rare in Northern Europe and Eastern Asia.

range of the

Hobby

219. Falco eleonora.

Rev. Zool.,

Gene.

1839,

p.

105.

Eleonora

Falcon.

This

fine large

Hobby

is

another scarce

summer

visitant.

have

only noticed it myself in the plain of the Buka'a (Ccele Syria).


It is a gregarious rock-frequenting bird, in contrast with all the habits
of the

Common Hobby.
seems

be the islands of the Greek Archipelago, and it


seldom has been found beyond the Mediterranean coast, with the singular
Its centre

to

exception of Madagascar, which

it

inhabits.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

io6

220. Falco asalon.

This northern bird


occasionally in

all

Tunstall.
visits

Ornith. Brit,

Palestine

The

i.

p.

winter.

in

Merlin.

have found

March.

parts of the country as late as the middle of

The Merlin breeds in Northern Europe and Asia, and


extends its visits as far as North Africa and China.
Linn.

221. Falco vespertinus.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

129.

p.

it

in

winter

Red-legged

Hobby.

summer

returning earlier than the Hobby, but scarce,


there being few woods suited to its habits. Its food is beetles and locusts.
It is a native of South-eastern Europe, and is found throughout
Africa,

but not further in Asia than

Minor and
222.

visitant,

westernmost countries, Asia

Syria.

Linn.

Falco tinnunculus.

Heb. p. {generic

The

its

familiar

for all small hawks).

Kestrel

is

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

127.

Kestrel.

Arab. <^i*j, Bashik.

extremely

common

in

every part of the

country, east and west, to the confines of the southern desert, throughout
It abounds alike in the desolate gorges of the Dead Sea and
the year.
in the sacred recesses of the

Mosque

of Omar.

It

is

here more or less

gregarious, and associates not only with its own kind, but shares caves
with Griffons or Eagles, or utilizes the fringe of the huge nest of the
Egyptian Vulture.

The Kestrel inhabits


and West Africa.
223. Falco cenchris.

Unlike

the whole of

Cuv.

Europe and Asia, and North, East,

Regne Anim.

i.,

p.

322.

Lesser Kestrel.

congener, the Lesser Kestrel does not remain in Palestine


but returns in March, and at once consorts with the
Common Kestrel. It is seen everywhere, especially towards evening, in
the cultivated grounds about the villages, in pursuit of Cockchafers and
its

for the winter,

breeds in communities, in very deep fissures in the rocks,


The Arabs dischoosing sometimes clefts in a town, as at Nazareth.
from
the
other species, calling it very
tinguish it
appropriately the
White-nailed Bashik.'
Beetles.

It

'

The Lesser

Kestrel inhabits Southern Europe,

North

Africa,

and

AVES.
South-western Asia, migrating

in

winter into Central and Southern Africa.

The

species of India and China is very closely allied to


of recent years been discriminated.

Pandion haliahis.

224.

Heb. H^JJ.

Osprey.

The Osprey

(Linn.

Syst.

affects especially

the

from

likely,

have a

its

i.,
129 (1766)).
p.
Bou-khatcm.
j,

Syrian shores and the streams


may always be seen by the little

It
which flow into the Bay of Acre.
lagoons near the mouth of the Kishon.

to

and has only

Nat.

Arab. oiUS", Ketaf ;

it,

not numerous,

Though

it

was

fish-eating habits, so different from those of other Eagles,

specific

name among

on the Lower Jordan, but


marshes under Hermon.

the Hebrews.

have seen

it

It

has not been observed

on the Jabbok and

in the

Huleh

'

The Osprey

It is found throughout
cosmopolitan.
the whole northern hemisphere, from the Arctic Seas southward ; through
Africa as far as the Cape through Australia, New Zealand, and South
is

almost

literally

America as

far as Brazil.

ORDER, STEGANOPODES.
FAMILY, PELICANID/E.
Linn.

225. Phalac rocorax carbo.

f#.

Hebr.,

Arab.,

The Cormorant

&&,
is

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

216.

Cormorant.

'Akak.

found on the coast and on

all

the inland waters

It is always to be seen sitting on a


very plentifully.
snag at the mouth
of the Jordan, watching for the fishes, stupefied by the brine as they enter

the sea.

The Cormorant
Africa,

New

and Asia.

is

found

Some

in suitable situations

identify with

it

throughout Europe,

the species of Australia and

Zealand.

226. Phalacrocorax pygmeeus.

(Pall.

Reise.

ii.,

p.

712,

Anhang.)

Cormorant.

Pygmy
The Pygmy Cormorant

is

to be found

streams flowing into the Mediterranean.

on the Leontes and other


did not observe

it

142

on the

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

JoS

Lake of
in

88

where our Cormorant

Galilee,

is

very common.

discovered

a great breeding colony of Pygmy Cormorant in the reedy islets


Lake of Antioch, where this bird was nesting in hundreds in

of the

society with

Snake Bird of Africa (Plotus

the

levaillantii),

and the

Common Tern

(Sterna liirundd), hatching about the end of May.


Pygmy Cormorant is found in South-east Europe from the

The
Danube southwards,
India,

North-east Africa, and Southern Asia, as far as


Borneo but it does not appear to extend towards

Java, and

in

China.

Linn.

227. Pelecanus onocrotalus.


Pelican.

Abu

Hebr.,

^;U

J*^,

Nat.

p.

i.,

Djemel

el

Roseate

215.

bahr,

<^->^

cjl,

djirab.

The Roseate

frequently found on the Sea of Galilee, though


never myself was fortunate enough to find it there until my visit in

I
1

Arab.,

J"INp.

Syst.

88 1.

Pelican

is

also observed a flock of this species

mingled with the next

off

Tyre.

The Roseate
east of the

Pelican has a limited range from the

Danube

to the

North-east Africa, and Syria, to the Black

Mediterranean,

Sea and the Caspian.


228. Pelecanus

Bruch.

crispus.

1832,

fsts,

Dalmatian

p.

1109.

its

congener.

Pelican.

The Dalmatian

Pelican

is

more abundant than

have

seen an immense flock pursuing their singularly gyrating flight near


Mount Carmel. It is generally to be found at Lake Huleh.

The

winter limits of the Dalmatian are

But

Roseate Pelican.
in

Western

it

much

the same as those of the

extends further to the eastward, being frequent

India.

FAMILY, PLOTID^i.
229. Plotus

levaillantii.

Licht.

Verz.

Doubl.,

p.

87.

African

Darter.

PLATE XIII.

Though I have not actually obtained this bird within the confines of
Palestine proper, yet, as I have discovered a great
breeding colony on

AVES.
the

109

Lake of Antioch, which the

withovt

passing through

bird could not


possibly have reached
I
think
it
Palestine,
fairly deserves a place

here.

The

Lake of Antioch, extending over many miles, is very


The Darters arrive from the south
shallow, and swarms with eels.
about the end of April, and have not hatched out till the beginning of
As soon as the young can fly they at once suddenly depart, and
June.
are never seen again till the end of the next spring.
The lake is full of
and
a
dwarf
marsh
For
with
coarse
sort
of
islets, covered
grass
myrtle.
vast shallow

nest the Darter merely seems to tread down a tuft of coarse grass or
Wherever there is a
rushes, or press down the centre of a little bush.

its

stick

may

it

down

its

wings as

if

they were

the bird were hanging itself out to dry.


What makes the discovery of this breeding colony most interesting
that Syria would appear to be entirely beyond the range of the African

broken, or as

is

be seen perched, hanging


if

Darter, while the Indian species (Plotiis melanogaster) might


Plotus levaillantii is known
ably have been looked for.

more reasonfrom South


.

Africa, the Zambesi, the Niger, Senegambia, and the Suaheli country,
but has not yet been noticed in North-east Africa, neither in Egypt,

Nubia, nor the

Red Sea;

while in Madagascar the Indian species alone

is

found.

ORDER, HERODIONES.
FAMILY, ARDEID^;.
230.

Hebr.,

Ardca

!"l$3i$.

cinerea.

Arab.,

Linn.

dAbCjj,

The Common Heron

Syst.

Nat.

Dunkaleh, and

i.,

p.

Common

236.

Heron.

'

$)&, Armig.

scattered in suitable situations through


every
part of the country, especially about the marshes of Huleh, on the Jordan,
Lake of Galilee, Kishon, and the coast.

The Heron
231.

is

inhabits Europe,

Ardea purpurea.

all

Linn.

and

Africa,

Syst.

all

Nat.

Asia.

i.,

p.

236.

Purple

Heron.
Purple Heron inhabits the same
but in smaller numbers.

The

districts as the

former species,

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

no
It is

found

Central and Southern Europe and Asia, and throughout

in

Africa.

Ardea

232.

Linn.

alba.

Nat.

Syst.

i.,

Great White

239.

p.

Egret.
is to be found in small numbers by the Sea of
Lake Huleh throughout the spring and summer. I am

The White Egret


Galilee and the

not able to state whether

observed

it

until

it

remains through the winter, never having

March.

The Great White Egret

Europe, Western

South-eastern

inhabits

Asia, and North Africa.

233.

Ardea garzctta.

The

Lesser Egret

Linn.

the country, generally occurring singly

swamps. It is a shy and


the Huleh swamp.

i.,

p.

Lesser Egret.

237.

be found throughout the year scattered over

to

is

Syst. Nat.

by

pools, ditches, or in stagnant

solitary bird, but breeds in a large colony

on

Lesser Egret is found in South Europe, the whole of Africa,


Southern Asia, the Malay Archipelago, and Australia.

all

The

Ardea

234.

backed Heron.

Common,

Arab.,

Expl. de 1'Egypte,

Audouin.

bubulcus.

j&> jjl,

Abou

large flocks, in the

in

i.,

p.

298.

Buff-

bekkr.

swamps of Huleh, and

in smaller

numbers on the marshy spots of the whole country.

The

Buff-backed

Mediterranean, but

Heron

is

is

found

bordering on the
It extends through

in all the countries

not recorded from Asia Minor.

the whole of Egypt, but Palestine is the only country within the limits of
Asia where it has yet been noticed.
235.

Ardea

rallo'ides.

Scop.

Ann.

I.

Hist.

Nat., p. 88.

Squacco

Heron.

Found

in

the

same

localities as the preceding,

but in

much

smaller

numbers.

The Squacco Heron


and

inhabits the whole of Africa

and Madagascar,

the countries bordering on the Mediterranean and Black Sea, and


as far as the shores of the Caspian.
all

in

AVES.
236. Ardetta mimita.

The

Syst. Nat.

(Linn.

Little Bittern.

p. 240.)

i.,

is plentiful in the rushes and reeds round Lake


have occasionally flushed it in swamps in other parts of
the country. "It is probably far more numerous than it appears to be,
from its habit of skulking among the rushes and refusing to take wing

Little Bittern

Huleh, and

when

disturbed.

The Little

We

Bittern

found more nests than


is

we saw

birds.

found throughout temperate and Southern Europe,

Northern Africa, and as

far east as the

237. Nycticorax griseus.

(Linn.

Himalayas.
Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

The Night

239.)

Heron.

The Night Heron

is

found

Lake Huleh and Gennesaret.


The Night Heron is found

in small

numbers, never

in flocks,

about

Southern Europe, the whole of Africa,


Asia, even to Japan and the Philippines, and North America.
238.

Heb.,

Botaurus

stellaris.

in

(Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 239.)

The

Bittern.

1SJ5.

Inhabits the marshes of Huleh, and probably other suitable localities


The Bittern is found throughout Europe and Asia, except in the

extreme North, and throughout the whole of Africa.

FAMILY,
Bechst.

239. Ciconia alba.

Heb., nTOp.

Arab., &ti,

The White Stork

is,

Nat. Deutschl.

iii.,

p. 41.

White

Stork.

Laklak ; g^OU, Balarcdj.

in Palestine, a regular,

though

for the

most part a

During the whole of April it covers the land, suddenly


the south, and moving northwards a few miles a day.
Thus

passing, migrant.
in

appearing
we heard at Gennesaret that the country about Samaria was covered with
Storks, when we had not seen one. Two days afterwards they overspread
our neighbourhood not close together, but scattered over hill and
valley,
;

plain and marsh


apart, picking

and quite

alike,

steadily quartering the

up snakes,

lizards, frogs, or fish,

indifferent to the presence of

man.

ground about 100 yards


according to the locality,
A few pairs remain here

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE,

in
and there

to breed, notably about the ruins of deserted cities.

are

They

never molested by the natives, and are looked on as a sacred bird.


The Stork, though now only a straggler in Britain, is a summer
visitant to all the

In North Africa also

are marshes.
in

neighbouring countries of the Continent, wherever there


it is

only a

summer

Through Asia

Central and Southern Africa.

it

resident, wintering
is

found as

far as

Japan, and in winter in India.


240. Ciconia

Arab

^b,

nigra.

(Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

Black Stork.

235.)

p.

Balazan.

The Black Stork

through the winter in small bands on


I
the barren plains near the Dead Sea, never visiting the upper country.
have been told it breeds on oak trees in Bashan, but have not met with it
there in

my

is

found

all

short visits to that region.

The Black Stork is found, though in scanty numbers, throughout


Central and Southern Europe, from South Sweden and Denmark eastIt is also an
wards, especially near the Danube and the Caucasus.
inhabitant of North and North-eastern Africa.

common on

the

Amoor.

It

have frequently met with

is

rare in India, but

it

on the Euphrates,

but always solitary.

FAMILY, PLATALEID^E.
241. Platalea leucorodia.

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 231.

Spoonbill.

I have seen
Spoonbill is only an occasional visitor to Palestine.
only in a local collection at Jerusalem.
countries bordering on the
It inhabits Central Europe, all the

The

it

Mediterranean,
Persia, India,

North-east Africa,

Asia,

the

Caspian,

and China.

242. Ibis falcinellus.


I

South-western

(Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

have only occasionally seen the Glossy Ibis

p.

241.)

Glossy

in Palestine,

and

there, as in Algeria, a certain companion of the Buff-backed


in the same proportion of the black sheep to the white in a flock.

The Glossy

Ibis ranges

Ibis.
it is

not

Heron

over the greater part of the temperate and

AVES.
tropical

Old

both of the

regions,

113

and

New

the

Worlds,

including

Australia.

The Hebrew
'

'

Gallinule,' or the

Ibis,'

'

rendered A.V.

fi&KOPl,

by which words

probably the Purple


rendered in the LXX. and

Swan,'

it is

is

other ancient versions.

FAMILY, niOENICOPTERID^
roscus.

243. PJicenicoptcrns

Arab.,

Flamingo.

The Flamingo

<-iW.5,

Pall.

Zoog.

Ross-As.

ii.,

207.

p.

Nihaf.

frequently seen in all suitable parts of the country,


I have obtained
breeding place has not been discovered.
is

although its
both adult and young near the mouth of the Kishon, where
observed it at all seasons of the year, but never in large flocks.

The Flamingo
Asia as

far

as

inhabits Southern Europe, the

India.

It

is

have

whole of Africa, and


in salt lakes and

especially abundant

lagoons.

ORDER, ANSERES.
FAMILY, ANATID^E.
244.

Anser

Grey Lag

cinerats.

Goose.

Arab.,

Our Wild Goose

is

Tasch.

Meyer.
jj,

Wuz

Vog.

ii.,

p.

552.

(generic].

a winter visitant

The Wild Goose summers

Deutsch.

in all

saw

it

at Jaffa in 1881.

Northern Europe and Asia, winter-

ing as far south as North Africa and India.

245.

Anser

segelum.

Gmel.

Syst. Nat.

Occasional in winter on the coast.


all

It is

i.,

p. 512.

Bean Goose.

brought into the markets of

the sea-board towns.

The Bean Goose


go so

far south

in

breeds in Northern Europe and Asia, but does not


winter as the Grey Lag, seldom either crossing the

Mediterranean or visiting India.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.


246.

Anser

Ann.

Scop.

albifrons.

I.

Hist.

Nat.,

No. 87.

69,

p.

White-fronted Goose.

The

White-fronted Goose has been to

Beyrout, and

am

It

told that

it

Northern

the

inhabits

my

knowledge procured

the coast every winter.


Pakearctic region, is very

off

visits

common

in

winter in Egypt, and also reaches India.

Anser

247.

Pall.

brcnta.

Ross-As.

Zoog.

ii.,

p.

Brent

229.

Goose.
Accidental in winter.

never heard of the Barnacle Goose being

found.

The

Brent Goose breeds

Arabic,

Cygnus

On

^1,

olor,

249.

Europe,

Asia,

and America,

(Gmel.

Nat.

Syst.

i.,

p.

501.)

Mute

Swan.

Ardef.

passage

in winter.

The Mute Swan


Africa,

Arctic

in winter.

migrating south
248.

in

and Asia as

Cygnus

Northern and Eastern Europe, North-east


as Kashgar and the Punjaub.

inhabits

far

Bechst.

musicus.

Gem.

Nat.

W hooper Swan.

Vog.

Deutschl.

iii.,

p.

830.

specimen of Cygnns ferus was brought to me at Jerusalem on


26th December, which had been shot on the pools of Solomon a day or two
fine

before by Dr. Chaplin.


to the Arabs.

The Swan, on

The Whooper Swan

or other species,

inhabits the whole of

is

well

known

Northern Europe and

in summer, migrating in winter sometimes as far south as


Egypt.
has not been observed south of the Himalayas.

Asia
It

250. Chenalopex (egyptiaca.

Goose.

Arab.,

j,_j,

(Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

197.)

Egyptian

Wuz.

The Egyptian Goose

is

frequently

to

be seen by the

Dead Sea

throughout the year, and occasionally on the coast.


It is found through all Africa from North to South, and has been

AVES.
introduced and semi-domesticated in

been recorded from Asia, except

Tadorua

251.

Ruddy
of

cas.irca.

115

many

parts of Europe.

It

has not

in Palestine.

(Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

App.,

iii.,

p.

224.)

Sheldrake.

The Ruddy Sheldrake resides in the Sebkha Safieh,


the Dead Sea, and probably breeds in the cliffs of

the north

it

breeds

among

at the south

the Arabah.

the Griffon Vultures, in the

cliffs

end
In

of ravines

near the Lake of Gennesaret.

The Ruddy Sheldrake

is an inhabitant of Southern and Eastern


and
of
the
Europe,
greater part of Asia as far as India, China, and Japan.
It is very different in its habits from most ducks, breeding in cliffs and

holes in trees, and seems to affect especially glens in the neighbourhood


of salt lagoons.

252.

Arab.

Anas

Itj,

boschas.

Batta

Common

Linn.

J}^, Brack

Syst.

inhabits

i.,

p.

205.

Wild Duck.

(generic).

throughout the country

The Wild Duck

Nat.

all

in winter.

Europe, North Africa, Asia and North

America.

253.

Anas

strepera.

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 200.

Gadwall.

The Gadwall

occurs, mingling with other species, in winter.


This bird has an extensive range, being found throughout Europe,
Asia, North Africa, and all North America.

254.

Anas

angustirostris.

Menetr.

Cat.

Rais.,

p.

58.

Marbled

Duck.
This rare Duck resides throughout the year in the swamps of the
Huleh, in great numbers, very wary, and breeding in papyrus swamps
In summer it is almost the only Duck to be found
wholly inaccessible.
In flight and manners it much resembles the Teal.
there.

The Marbled Duck

is

found sparingly

in

Spain, Algeria, the Cau-

I obtained a
casus, and Scinde.
specimen at Alexandria.
be very local in all the countries where it resides.

It

appears to

152

PA UNA

Il6

AND FLORA OF

255.

Anas

acnta.

Not

at all

uncommon

Syst. Nat.

Linn.
in

PALESTINE.

i.,

202.

p.

Pintail.

winter on the coast, on the Jordan, and on

streams by the Dead Sea.


My companion, Rev. Mowbray
Pintail and Mallard one morning,
Trotter, shot a fine hybrid between
close to our tents, when encamped on the upland plains of Moab, in
all

the

little

March, 1872.

The

America almost
256.

inhabits

Pintail

Anas

The Teal

to

Panama.

crecca.
is

swamps and by
it

Syst. Nat.

Linn.

i.,

Common

204.

p.

Teal.

scattered everywhere in small numbers, not only in


streams, but even by isolated little springs where there

are a few patches of rushes.

found

and North

Europe, Asia, North Africa,

all

think

it

must remain

to breed, as

have

in pairs in June.

The Teal extends over


eastern Africa, and

all

the whole of

Europe, North and North-

The North American

Asia.

species

is

very closely

allied.

257.

Anas

circia.

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

204.

p.

Garganey.

have not taken the Garganey myself, but have seen


collections, both at Jerusalem and Beyrout.
I

The Garganey

it

in

local

an inhabitant of freshwater lakes, streams, and


swamps throughout Europe, North and North-east Africa, and all Asia
sparingly towards the east, though it reaches the Philippines and even
is

Celebes.

258. Spattda clypeata.

The
swampy

(Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 200).

Shoveller.

Shoveller visits Palestine in winter, resorting to little pools and


I
spots by the streams, but never in large numbers together.

have seldom flushed more than a pair together.


The Shoveller inhabits all Europe, North Africa, the whole of Asia,
and North America.
259.

Mareca penelope.

The Wigeon

is

with the Pochard.

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

common everywhere

i.,

p. 202.

Wigeon.

in winter,
especially in

company

AVES.

The Wigeon

is

117

an inhabitant of Europe, North Africa, Northern and

Central Asia as far as China.

260. Fuligiila marila.

Occurs

in winter

The Scaup

(Linn.

on the

Syst. Nat.

The

196.)

p.

i.,

Scaup.

coast.

breeds in Northern Europe, Asia and America, retiring


North Africa, India, China, and Mexico.

in winter as far as

261. Fuligula fcrina.

The Pochard

is

by

Syst. Nat.

(Linn.
far

Pochard.

p. 203.)

i.,

the most abundant of

all

the

Duck

tribe

throughout the winter, and its numbers possibly exceed those of all the
other species combined.
Wherever there is a little bit of water screened

from observation there

is

a flock of Pochards.

They

are found sparingly

on the Dead Sea, where certainly they can find no food, but are themWe once shot a Lanner
selves the chief prey of the Lanner Falcon.
with

its

The
Africa,

captured Pochard, both of which fell into the Dead Sea.


Pochard is found throughout Europe, North and North-east

and Asia.

262. Fuligula cristata.


p. 39.)

(Leach.

Syst.

Cat.

M. and

B.

Br.

Mus.,

Tufted Duck.

The Tufted Duck

occurs

with flocks of other species, in


elsewhere.
It is

found

263.

Nyroca fermginea.

in all

in

winter

all

in

small

numbers,

mingled

the reedy spots of the Jordan and

Europe, Asia, and North Africa.


(Gmel.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

528.)

White-eyed

Duck.

The White-eyed Duck

is very
generally distributed in winter, consortwith
the Pochards, but remaining when the latter have left.
ing especially
I believe it breeds in the
upper parts of the Jordan valley, but have not

found the nest.

The White-eyed Duck

has a more restricted range than many of its


congeners, extending through Central and Southern Europe, North Africa,
and Central Asia as far as India.

PA UNA

n8
264.
I

CEdemia

AND FLORA OF

nigra.

under Carmel, on the sea. I


but it has been suggested to
it

Syst. Nat.

(Linn.

p.

i.,

196

flock of Black Scoter in winter

have noticed a

Scoter, yet were

PALESTINE,

so

felt

me

Common

more than

Scoter.

once, close

certain they were of the common species,


that more probably they were the Black

could scarcely have failed to observe the white

speculum.
Both Scoters are natives of Northern Europe and Asia, and rarely go
so far south as Palestine in winter.

Erismatura
White-headed Duck.
265.

(Scop.

leucocephala.

Ann.

I.

Hist.

Nat., p. 65.;

The White-headed Duck may be

seen at any time of the year on the


Lake of Galilee and on Huleh, swimming and diving with its tail upright.
It probably breeds in the recesses of Huleh,
certainly nowhere on the

Lake of

Galilee.

It inhabits

lagoons and lakes in Southern Europe and North Africa,


Minor and Syria, and has been found as far eastward as

as well as Asia

Turkestan.

266.

Mergus

serrator.

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

208.

Red-breasted

Merganser.

The Merganser
It is

is

common on

the coast in winter.

a native of North Europe, Asia, and America,


descending in

winter as far as North Africa, North China, and the Southern United
States.

267.

Mergus

albellus.

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 209.

Smew.

obtained one specimen on the coast near Carmel.


is a native of Northern
Europe and Asia, ranging in
winter to the Mediterranean, North India, and North China.
I

The Smew

A FES.

119

ORDER, COLUMB/E.
FAMILY, COLUMBID.E.

Columba palumbus.

268.

Wood

Pigeon.

ffamamat

Linn.

Heb., rUT, Pigeon

Nat.

Syst.
;

7T1J,

i.,

p.

89.

Young Pigeon.

Ringdove

or

Arab., S*L=.,

(generic).

The Ringdove

spread in countless myriads over the wooded parts of


the country at the season of migration, both vernal and autumnal.
In
Gilead I have seen a migration which can only be equalled by the
is

we read

of the flights of Passenger Pigeons in America. The


bulk of these prodigious flocks pass on, but a considerable number remain

descriptions

throughout the winter, and are taken in great quantity by the villagers by
means of a decoy-bird with its eyelids sewn up, tied to a perch. Its
of its fellows.
The Ringdove, like the other
struggles attract a crowd
Columbidee, feeds largely on the leaves of the leguminous plants, which
abound in the country, coming into leaf in the Jordan valley throughout the
winter.

The Ringdove

is

found throughout the greater part of Europe, and

in

the Barbary States, breeding in the Atlas, but generally there migratory. It
does not appear to pass the Ural range, and Asia Minor and Palestine
are

its

south-eastern limits.

Colnmba

269.

Linn.

cenas.

The Stock Dove

is

Syst. Nat.

rare in Palestine, but

i.,

is

p.

to

Stock Dove.

279.

be met with any day

in

the regions of Gilead and Bashan, as well as near Jericho.


The Stock Dove inhabits the temperate parts of Europe, the Barbary
States,

Asia Minor, Syria, and Persia.

270.

Colnmba,

livia.

Bonnat.

Encycl.

Mth.

i.,

p.

227.

Rock

Dove.
This species
of Jordan.

The

extremely abundant on the coast and the highlands west


specimens from this district are identical with those from

is

Northern Europe.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

,,

of Europe and Northspread over the whole


Eastward its place is taken by closely allied species.

The Rock Dove


Western Asia.

is

Columba schimperi.
rumped Rock Dove.

Consp.

Ep.

271.

Gen Av.

ii.,

p.

Ash-

48.

In the interior of Palestine and in the Jordan valley this species takes the
Its ashy rump, and the lighter
northern form, C. livia.
place of the more
The myriads of these birds
a
it
at
hue of the lower parts, separate
glance.
The Wadys, with precipitous cliffs of soft limeare beyond computation.
by caves and fissures, are admirably adapted for

honeycombed

stone,

from them Wady Hamam'


them, and several are named
Their swift flight, and their roosting-places
of Pigeons.
'

secure them from the attacks of the

fissures,

bird which

Ravine
in

far

many hawks which

the

share

alluded to by the Prophet


that dwell in Moab, leave the cities and dwell in the rock,

the caverns with them.

Ye
Jeremiah
and be like the
'

Dove

It is this

that

is

maketh her nest

sides of the hole's

in the

'

mouth

(xlviii. 28).

This race of Rock Dove seems to be peculiar

and

i.e.,

to

Egypt, Abyssinia,

Palestine.

Turtur communis.
Heb., TIR

272.

Dove.

The
epochs

return of the

Nat. Lib. Orn.

Sclby.

Common

Turtle

in the ornithological calendar.

Swallow observe the time of

Dove

is

v.,

Turtle

one of the most marked

*-The Turtle and the Crane and the


'

their

169.

p.

coming

'

(Jer. viii. 7).

The

voice of

our land' (Cant. ii. 12).


Search the glades and
in
and
a
not
Turtle
Dove
is
to
be
seen.
Return at the
March,
valleys
beginning of April, and clouds of Doves are feeding on the clovers of the
plain. They stock every tree and thicket. At every step they flutter up from
the Turtle

is

heard

in

the herbage in front


they perch on every tree and bush they overspread
the whole face of the land, and from every garden, grove, and wooded
hill

pour forth their melancholy yet soothing ditty unceasingly from early

dawn

till

sunset.

The native regions of the Turtle Dove are the countries surrounding
the Mediterranean, not extending eastward of Persia.

AVES.
Turtitr risorius.

273.

(Linn.

121

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

285.)

p.

Collared

Turtle Dove.

No

birds better illustrate the geographical position of Palestine than

the Turtle Doves.

Here we

find three

species,

one

European,

oni:

Of
Ethiopian, and one Indian (the present one) all meeting together.
these the European, T. communis, is by far the most abundant, but only
in spring and summer.
T. senegalensis, on the contrary, the Ethiopian,
a permanent resident, not increasing its numbers by immigration, confined chiefly to the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea and the Lower Jordan,

is

but residing throughout the year in the court-yards of houses in Jerusalem


and the Temple Area, where, from its tame and confiding habits, it
appears to be semi-domesticated. The present species, the Indian Collared
Turtle, perhaps the handsomest as well as the largest of the group, is
also a permanent resident round the Dead Sea, but in winter only in small

In spring its numbers are largely increased,


and it spreads itself through the greater part of the country up to Galilee,
and breeds everywhere, in trees and bushes, usually in small colonies of

numbers, very shy and wary.

eight or ten together.


71 risorius has been obtained at Constantinople,

ception
Asia.

274.

is

strictly Asiatic

Turtur

but with this ex-

form, extending over the whole of Southern

senegalensis,

(Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

283.)

Palm

Turtle Dove.

As

is permanently resident in the warm


round
the Dead Sea, and about Jerusalem
nooks of the Jordan valley,
and Gaza. It never there migrates, and in summer is the least abundant

stated above, this species

of the three species.


The Palm Turtle

Dove

inhabits the whole of Africa,

except the
It
of
the
Atlas.
north
affects
especially
palm groves.
Barbary States,
The Indian and Asiatic form, Turtur cambayensis, is, I consider, clearly

separable.

16

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

FAMILY, PTEROCLIDJE.
275. Ptcrocles arenarius.

Black-bellied

Nov. Com. Petrop.

(Pall.

Arab.

Sand Grouse.

Iks,

xix., p.

418.)

Kliata (generic).

This large Sand Grouse inhabits the sandy wastes to the north-east
and south of Palestine more plentiful towards the north, in the Lejah,
;

where we obtained

also

it.

met with

it

Moab.

in

It inhabits Spain, the northern deserts of Africa, North Arabia,


Persia, and the southern deserts of Central Asia as far as Scinde,

276. Pterocles

alchata.

(Linn.

Nat.

Syst.

p.

i.,

Pintail

276.)

Sand Grouse.
In

the desert regions round Palestine

all

more common

in the south,

near Beersheba.

The

Sand Grouse inhabits Spain, North


the Punjab and Scinde.

Pintail

thence to

277. Pterocles senegalus,


PI.

Enl. 130.)

(Linn.

Nat.

Syst.

Africa, Arabia,

i.,

p.

277

and

Buff.

Senegal Sand Grouse.

The Senegal Sand Grouse

the most universally distributed on all


sides of Palestine, and the only one which actually breeds in the Jordan
It is scattered all over the highlands of Moab, where we
valley.

obtained

many specimens

is

in spring.

which P. guttatus (Licht.) is the female, is found


North-east Africa, Arabia, and the deserts west of the Tigris.
This

bird, of

278. Pterocles

coronatus.

Licht.

Verz.

Doubl.,

p.

65.

in

Crowned

Sand Grouse.
but found in the Syrian desert.
inhabits the Sahara, North-east Africa, Arabia, and Syria.

Very
It

rare,

279. Pterocles exustus.

Temm.

PI.

Col.

359, 360.

Singed Sand

Grouse.

This Sand Grouse


cast of Jordan.

It is

is

very

common

in the

amazingly abundant

Damascus and Palmyra.

southern deserts and on the

in the

Syrian desert between

A FES.
The Singed Sand Grouse

is

I23

abundant

Egypt, and

in

in the

Sahara, to

the southward of the Black-breasted and Pintail species.


It is common
in all the deserts of Western Asia and India, but not further eastward.

ORDER, GALLIN/E.
FAMILY, PHASIANID^;.

Chukor

It is

Hebr.,

Partridge.

The Chukor

Partridge

wonderful to find

among

(G. R. Gray, in Cuv. ed. Griff.

chukar.

280. Caccabis

it

p. 54.)

Arab., Jse, Hadjel.

Spis

Hi.,

the

game

bird,

par

of Palestine.

excellence,

so plentiful everywhere in the hill country,


it has no
protection and every con-

the rocks and bushes, where

Yet from the Lebanon to the south of Judaea it is found,


except in the low-lying plains and in the Jordan valley. The former it
surrenders to the Francolin, the latter to the Sand Partridge (A. heyi).

ceivable foe.

Its

eggs are quite distinct from those of the closely

and are smaller than those of any of


largest species of

its

genus.

its

Greek Partridge,
congeners, though it is almost the
allied

Moab we

In the east of

which has been named C.

and

sinaica,
pale variety,
form of the Sinaitic Peninsula, but the distinction

is
is

find only the very

the characteristic

only in the paler

coloration, doubtless from the arid and hot climate, and


looked on as a climatic variety.

The

can only be

it

only part of Europe where the true Caccabis chukar

is

found are

It inhabits Asia Minor, Syria,

North Persia, Scinde,


the Greek Islands.
and the region to the immediate north and south of the Himalayas, and
extends into Northern China.
281.

Ammoperdix

heyi.

(Temm.

PI.

Col. 328, 329.)

Hey's Sand

Partridge.
little Partridge takes the place of the Chukor in the
In its restricted
basin and the ravines of the Jordan valley.

This beautiful

Dead Sea
habitat

it is

very numerous.

It

lays

its

eggs

in fissures of the

rocks and

holes in caves.

16

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

,a 4

'

This

is

doubtless

'

the Partridge in the wilderness

history of David, being plentiful about Engecli,


is found.
to

Hey's Partridge appears

alluded to in the

where no other Partridge

be exclusively confined to the rocky

Dead Sea, very rarely in Nubia,


regions of the Sinaitic Peninsula and the
and perhaps Abyssinia. In Northern Syria and Mesopotamia its place
is

taken by Bonham's Partridge, an allied species.


Steph. Shaw.

282. Francolinus vulgaris.

The

Francolin.

Arab.,

Gen. Zool.

xi.,

p.

319.

U, KohaL

The Francolin is found in all the swampy parts of the Holy Land, in
the plains of Sharon, Acre, and Esdraelon, Gennesaret, and Shittim, and
also

by the Huleh.

widely spread.
The Francolin

It is

not numerous, except in Gennesaret, but

is

now

extinct in Europe, though it formerly inhabited


and
the Greek Islands.
It still exists in
Spain, Sardinia, Candia,
Cyprus,
Asia Minor, and Syria, and thence through Mesopotamia, where I

shot

it,

is

Southern Persia, and North India by the Ganges as

far

as

Assam.

283.

Hebr.,

ty.

Arab.,

but in

remain to breed

Ghor and

Enc. Mdth.

i.,

p.

217.

Quail.

\J~,, Saliva.

few pairs of Quail

winter;

Bonn.

Coturnix communis.

may be

March they
in all the

found here and there

return by myriads

open

plains,

in

marshes and

through the
a single night, and
all

cornfields,

both in the

the upper country.

The

geographical range of the Quail is immense,


comprising the
whole of Europe, Asia, and Africa,
except the Arctic regions, being
everywhere more or less migratory, and the only bird of its
family

which

is so.

AVES.

ORDER,

125

FAMILY,

The Water

Rail

is

Syst. Nat.

Linn.

Rallus aquaticus.

284.

found

at all seasons of the year.

i.,

p.

262.

Water

in suitable situations in all parts

obtained

it

even

Rail.

of Palestine,

in a salt pool at the

south

end of the Dead Sea.


found through Europe, North Africa, Asia as

It is

in

Japan
285.

is

far as

China, but

replaced by a closely allied species.

Porzana maruetta.

Leach.

Syst. Cat. Br. Mus., p. 34.

Spotted

Crake.

stream flowing into the sea, in a


thin fringe of rushes, in 1881, not having previously met with it.
I

found the Spotted Crake

in a little

The Spotted Crake

ranges through Europe, North


Asia as far as India, but very scarce towards the east.
Baillon's

Crake and the


but

most probably occur,

and

Africa,

in

Crake (P. bailloni and P. parva)


have not myself met with either of

Little
I

them.
286.

Crex

pratensis,

Bechst.

Orn.

Taschenb.,

p.

Corn-

336.

Crake.

The Corn-Crake

met with
being perhaps more common in winter than summer.
The Corn-Crake inhabits Europe, Western Asia as
Africa

down

is

universally diffused and

far

seasons,

as

India,

Van

delli.

Mem. Acad.

Real. Lisb.

780,

Purple Gallinule.

Only observed

The

all

to the Cape.

287. Porphyrio ccernleus.


p. 37.

at

in the

marshes of the Huleh.

Purple Gallinule inhabits the countries bordering both sides of the


Mediterranean, and extends as far as the Caspian, but not south of that
sea.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

25

288. Gallimila chloropus.

The Moorhen

is

very

(Linn.

common

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 258.)

Moorhen.

in all suitable localities at all

times of

the year.

found throughout Europe and the Moorhens of Africa down to


the Cape, and of Asia to Japan, the Philippines, Celebes, Java, and Borneo
been discriminated. The American
scarcely differ, though they have
It is

Moorhen

is

also very nearly allied to the

Linn.

289. Fulica atra.

Syst. Nat.

Old World form.


i.,

p.

257.

Coot.

Arab., &^>,

Ghurrah.

The Coot

common

in all the waters of any extent in the country,


and
fountains
and
streams
by the Dead Sea.
The Coot is found through Europe, Asia, the greater part of Africa,
and Australia.
is

in the

ORDER, ALECTORIDES.
FAMILY, GRUID^E.

Grus communis.

290.

Heb., lUy.

Arab.,

<//,

Bechst.

Vog. Deutsch.

iii.,

p.

60.

Crane.

Kirki.

Cranes spend the winter in the open plains and downs


of Southern Judaea, but I have never been able to find any evidence of
The Cranes appear to have fixed roostingtheir remaining to breed.

Large

places.

flocks of

There

another not

is

many

one near Moladah, south-west of the Dead Sea, and


miles south-east of Gaza.

Towards sunset the

birds

begin to return home, flying in order like Geese, with outstretched necks,
keeping up a ceaseless trumpeting, which continues till morning, with only

During the whole night there is a succession of fresh


The howl of some wandering Jackal would rouse the whole

an occasional
arrivals.

lull.

pause, the wail of an Hyaena awakened a


and
before
deafening chorus,
daylight began an angry discussion, perhaps
on the next day's journey. Parties of some hundreds departed for the

camp

then, after a slight

south with the

dawn

broken slumber,

till

others remained, probably to make up for their


sun had risen for a couple of hours. The

the

AVES.
roosting-place at

Moladah was a group of

127

hillocks extending over several

and covered with the mutings of the birds as thickly as the resort

acres,

of any sea-fowl.

The Crane
in winter to

inhabits Northern

North

Africa, India,

Europe and Asia


and China.

in

summer, migrating

FAMILY, OTID^E.
291.

Arab

Linn.

Otis tarda.

^s-y,

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

264.

p.

Great Bustard.

Rdad.

The Great

not quite, extinct on the Plain of Sharon, and I


have several times seen it on the wide, grassy plains of Northern Syria,

Bustard

is

neighbourhood of the unfenced corn patches.


The Great Bustard, once a native of England,

in the

is
rapidly yielding
of
human
It
is still found in
population.
everywhere to the advance
Southern and Central Europe, Barbary, and Western and Central Asia.

292. Otis tetrax.

The

It

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 264.

Little Bustard.

found on the plains, but not in great numbers.


I
never met with it in the Ghor,
breeds in the Plains of Sharon.
Little

Bustard

where the Houbara


Oorfa, in

The

is

is

common.

Eastward

met with

it

in

1881 at

Mesopotamia.
Little

Bustard inhabits

all

the countries which border on the

Mediterranean and Black Sea, reaching eastward through Persia as far as


the Punjab.
293. Hoiibara undidata. Jacq.
Bustard.
Arab., a^L&., Hubarah,

Beitr,

Gesch.

Vb'g., p. 24.

Houbara

The Houbara Bustard, though very shy and wild, is yet not at all
uncommon in the plains of the Jordan valley, and at the south end of the
Dead Sea. I have only once seen it on the uplands east of Jordan. It
is

a permanent resident.

The Houbara

a native of Northern and North-eastern Africa, but


very rare in Egypt and Nubia. Its true home is the Sahara, and probably
North Arabia. Syria appears to be its eastward limit, as the Houbara of
the other side of the Euphrates is the Indian species, H. macqueeni.
is

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

Ia8

ORDER, LIMICOL^E.
FAMILY, CEDICNEMID^:.

294 CEdicnemus
Stone Curlew.

(S.

scolopax.

Arab.

o l^/,

G. Gmel.

Reis. d. Russl.

iii.,

p. 87.)

Kerouan.

The Stone Curlew is plentiful in the Ghor, at the north end of the
Dead Sea, remaining throughout the year and breeding there. When
camped at Jericho we heard its cry continually through the night. In
winter it is common in the southern wilderness, and we found it breeding
in the north

above Huleh.

The Stone Curlew


India,

inhabits temperate

and North-eastern

Europe and Asia as

far as

Africa.

FAMILY, GLAREOLID^;.
295. Glareola pratincola.

The

Pratincole

in colonies

Acre, in

all

is

(Linn.

Syst. Nat.

not found in winter, but

is

i.,

p.

345.)

Pratincole.

very plentiful in spring

the marshy plains, especially Huleh, Gennesaret, and


which it breeds, laying its eggs in the barest places.

on

all

The

Pratincole inhabits Southern and Central Europe, Asia as far as


India, and Africa almost to the Cape.

FAMILY, CHARADRIID^E.
296.

Cursorius gallicus.

(Gmel.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

692.)

Cream-

coloured Courser.

Rare

in Palestine proper.

twice obtained

it

near Acre, where the

specimens are of a much deeper hue than any I have seen elsewhere.
also saw it in the southern wilderness and on the uplands of Eastern

We

Moab.

The Cream-coloured Courser is really an inhabitant of the Sahara


and of the deserts of Western Asia as far as Scinde.
Elsewhere it is
a
and
is
nowhere
numerous.
only
straggler,

AVES.
297. Charadrius pluvialis.

Linn.

129

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

Golden

254.

Plover.

The Golden Plover

very common in the plains and cultivated lands


but leaves early.
never met with the Asiatic
species.
The Golden Plover is found in Iceland and
every part of Europe as
far as the Caucasus, in Asia Minor and
It has occurred in Persia.
Syria.
In winter it
a
ranges through
East of the Ural its
great part of Africa.
place is taken by C. fulvus.
is

We

in winter,

Charadrius

298.

helveticus.

(Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

250.)

Grey

Plover.

The Grey
It

only

is

in

Plover has been obtained on the coast south of


Beyrout.
spread over the whole world except South America,
breeding

the far north.

299. ^gialitis geoffroyi.

(Wagl.

Syst. Av.,

fol. 4,
p.

Sand Plover.

Greater

13.)

Very common in the southern wilderness in winter,


mingling with the
much more numerous common Dotterel. I have
occasionally met with it
in all parts of the
country, in winter

This

It

plumage

only.

a truly Asiatic bird,


only accidentally straggling westward.
reaches to Japan, and has been recorded as far
south as Cape York

North

is

Australia.

300. sEgialitis asiatica.

Reise Russ.

(Pall.

ii.,

p.

715.)

Plover.

Occurs occasionally in winter.


The Caspian Plover's habitat
in winter

is

the country round the


Caspian, but

it

passes through Syria into


taken in South Africa.
301. ^gialitis mongolica.
throated Plover.

Caspian

(Pall.

Nubia and Abyssinia, and has been

Reise Russ.

iii.,

p.

700)

Red-

This, like the preceding, is a scarce winter visitor to


Palestine.
It is a Central Asiatic
species, but winters not only in India and China
but along the shores of the Red Sea and the
East African coast.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

3o

302. sEgialitts hialicula.

Syst.

(Linn.

Nat.

p.

i.,

Ringed

253.)

Plover.

A
the

Lake

of Galilee, and

seen in winter on the shores of

may always be

few Ringed Plover

All I have proas either the Kentish

breeds on the Upper Jordan.

it

cured are of the large race.


or the Little Ringed Plover.

It is

common

not so

found throughout the whole of Europe, and sparingly throughout


Africa, but does not appear to go further east than Asia Minor and
It is

Syria.

cantiana.

303. sEgialitis

Suppl.

(Lath.

ii.,

Gen. Syn.,

p.

66.)

Kentish Plover.

The Kentish

Plover

and breeds

spring,

is

very

common on

in the country.

the banks of the Jordan and

its

the coast both in winter and

found, but not so plentifully, on

It is

lakes.

Central and Southern Europe, in


Africa as far as the Cape, and in Asia as far as Japan.

The Kentish

Plover

is

found

304. sEgialitis curonica.

in

(Gmel.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

602.)

Little

Ringed Plover.
This pretty

little

wader

throughout the country.


spring and summer, but

The

is

It
I

the gravelly banks of streams


must breed there, as we found it through the
plentiful

on

all

have not found

its nest.

Ringed Plover inhabits the edges of rivers throughout


It goes as
temperate Europe and Asia to China and the Philippines.
Little

all

far

south as Central Africa.

305.

Eudromias morinellus.

The

Dotterel

is

found

(Linn.

in vast flocks

the south of Judaea, near Beersheba.

Syst. Nat.

on the

i.,

p. 254.)

Dotterel.

rolling pastoral plains in

Once during

the course of a three

whole country continuously. The myriads


of Helices, clustering on all the bushes and on every straw, till the
whole looked like a sheet of white blossom, no doubt provided sustenance
days' ride they overspread the

for

all.

The

Dotterel

migrating to

Northern Europe, Siberia, and


North Africa and Palestine in winter.
inhabits

Turkestan,

AVES.
306. Pluvianus cegyplius.
Plover.

far

(Linn.

'3'

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p. 254.)

Egyptian

This Plover, sometimes called the Crocodile Bird, very rarely straggles
from the Nile, along the whole course of which it is found.
It only

accidentally visits Palestine.

which

Mr. Herschell shot on the Jordan a specimen

have seen.

Syst. Nat.

307. Hoplopterus spinosus. (Linn.


Plover.
Arab., ^LJU, Zikzak.

The Zikzak

i.,

p. 256.)

Spur-winged

returns from

the south just as the other Plovers are


leaving, and vociferously proclaims its arrival in all the pools and marshy

remains in pairs by streams and

It

spots.

strays far'from

its

in little

morasses, and seldom

selected home.

The Spur-winged

a native of North-eastern Africa, ocIts range is thus very


casionally reaching Greece and Asia Minor.
Plover

is

limited.

Vanellus vulgaris.

308.

The Lapwing

is

Orn. Tasch.,

Bechst.

plentiful in flocks

Lapwing.

p. 313.

on the coast plains

in winter,

and

have shot a straggler by the Dead Sea.


It is a native of Northern Europe and Asia, descending in winter
as far as North Africa and Northern China, but not crossing the
Himalayas.

FAMILY, SCOLOPACID^;.
309. Recurvirostra avocetta.

The Avocet
lakes.

few

is

may

scarce in

Linn.

Palestine,

Syst. Nat.

and

i.,

p. 256.

resorts to the

often be seen near the north

Avocet.

few shallow

end of the Lake of

Galilee.

found

It is

in

Central and Southern Europe and Asia, and through the

whole of Africa.

Himantopus

310.

winged

candidtts.

Bonn.

Encycl.

Mdth.,

p.

24.

Black-

Stilt.

The
the year.

not unfrequent in lagoons and shallow waters throughout


found a colony breeding in a swamp near Jenin.

Stilt is
I

172

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

I3 a

The

a native of Southern

Stilt is

Europe, Southern Asia, and the

whole of Africa.
Linn.

311. Scolopax rusticula.

The Woodcock

is

not

Syst. Nat.

rare in winter,

i.,

and

Woodcock.

p. 243.
is

found sometimes

in

Upcher on one occasion brought down Bubo


a double shot, out of a cave high up in a
ascalaphus and a Woodcock by
bare ravine, near Gennesaret, whence they were startled together by my
unlikely

Mr.

places.

shooting a Wall-creeper.
The Woodcock is found throughout Europe, Asia, and North Africa.

312.

Gallinago

(Gmel.

major,

Nat.

Syst

i.,

p.

Double

66 1.)

Snipe.
I

have only once met with the Double Snipe.

specimen was shot

by Dr. Van Dyck near Tyre, in the winter of iSSi.


The Double Snipe spends the summer in North-eastern Europe and
North-western Asia, wintering as far south as Natal.
been noticed further than Northern Persia.

313. Gallinago

Common

p. 58.

The Snipe
It is

ccelestis.

T. Frenzel.

it

has not

Gegend. urn Wittenberg,

Snipe.

common

is

J. S.

In Asia

in winter.

found throughout Europe, North Africa, and Asia.

314. Gallinago gallimda.

(Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

244.)

Jack

Snipe.

The Jack Snipe

though rarely, in winter.


It is a native of Northern Europe and Asia,
visiting the Mediterranean coast of Africa in winter, and also India, which seems to be its
Eastern

315.

limit.

Tringa alpina.

The Dunlin
It

occurs,

is

Linn.

common on

inhabits Europe, Asia,

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 249.

Dunlin.

the coast in winter.

North America and Northern

Africa.

AVES.
316.

Tringa minuta.

Leisler.

J33

Nachtr. zu Bechst. Nat. Deutsch.

i.,

Little Stint.

p. 74.

The

Little Stint

at the south

obtained on the coast.

end of the Dead Sea, on the

salt

small flock

was observed

February, and a

flats, in

pair secured.

The

Little Stint breeds in Siberia, but

in winter is scattered over


Africa to the Cape, and over Asia as far as
India, but not further east.
Temminck's Stint has not yet been noticed in Palestine.

Tringa subarquata,
Curlew Sandpiper.

317.
471.)

Occurs on the coast

in

company with

The Curlew Sandpiper


but breeds only

in

Nov. Com. Ac.

(Giild.

Petrop.

xix.,

the Dunlin in winter.

found throughout Europe,


Asia, and Africa,
the extreme north.
is

318. Calidris arenaria.

(Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 251.)

Sanderling.

Found among

the other Sandpipers on the coast in winter.


The Sanderling breeds only in the far north of the Old and New
Worlds, but is found at other seasons on the coasts of the whole world.

319.

Tetanus hypoleucm.

(Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

250.)

Common

Sandpiper.

The Sandpiper
breeding, though

it

is

common

remains

in winter

and spring.

The Sandpiper

inhabits Europe, Africa, Asia,


out their whole extent.

320.

have not found

it

late.

Totamis ochropus.

(Linn.

Syst.

and Australia through-

Nat.

i.,

p.

250.)

Green

Sandpiper.

The Green Sandpiper

is

the most generally distributed of

all the
the
and
remains
until
winter,
genus during
June, long after the other

Waders have
It

left.

ranges through Europe, Africa, Northern and Central Asia.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

34

Totai:iis glareola.

321.

(Gmel.

Nat.

Syst.

i.,

Wood

677.)

p.

Sandpiper.

The Wood Sandpiper

uncommon

winter in the inland parts


of the country, though by no means so frequent as the Green Sandpiper.
It is found through the whole of Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Totanus

322.

not

is

Orn. Taschenb.,

Bechst.

stagnatilis.

in

Marsh

292.

p.

Sandpiper.

The Marsh Sandpiper

is

scarce,

and appears

be confined to the

to

southern part of the country.

The Marsh Sandpiper

is

South

and African

Asiatic

bird, only
and
of
the
south-east
corner
rarely straggling further.
Europe,
entering

Totanus

323.

calidris.

Syst.

(Linn.

Nat.

Common

252.)

p.

i.,

Redshank.

The Redshank

common and

vociferous in

marshy places
winter, and extends to the few moist spots of Bashan and the Hauran.
It inhabits all Europe and Northern and Central Asia, migrating
winter to

324.

all

is

very

in

in

parts of Africa.

Totanus canescens.

(Gmel.

Nat.

Syst.

i.,

p.

668.)

Green-

shank.

Obtained

in winter

The Greenshank

on the coast and

in the plains.

inhabits Europe, Africa,

and Asia generally, breed-

ing only in the northern latitudes.


325.

Numenius

arquat^ls,

The Curlew may


the south end of the

often be seen

Dead Sea

326.

Numenius phaopus.

The Whimbrel

and heard

i.,

p. 242.)

in winter.

Curlew.

found

it

at

in 1872.

ranges over the whole Old

It

Syst. Nat.

(Linn.

World

(Linn.

to Borneo.

Syst. Nat.

occurs in winter, but

is

i.,

scarce.

p. 243.)
I

Whimbrel.

never obtained

it

88 1, though I often saw it.


until
Like its congeners, the Whimbrel wanders over the whole of Europe,
Africa, and Asia, as far as New Guinea.
1

AVES.

135

ORDER, GAVI^E.
FAMILY, LARID^E.
327.

Sterna

Naum.

fluvialilis.

'

Tern.

Heb.,

S|fl8?

[A. V.,

his,

Cuckoo

1819,

Common

1848.

p.

'

in

for

(generic

error],

all

sea

fowl).

The Common Tern

is

plentiful

on the

coast.

It

breeds in a great

Antioch.
colony on the Lake of
It

is

generally

distributed

on

coasts

the

of

Europe,

Asia,

and

Africa.

Linn.

328. Sterna minuta.

The

Little

Syst. Nat.

Tern may be found

in

i.,

p. 228.

Little

Tern.

winter on shallow lagoons near the

coast.
It is

inhabitant of temperate Europe,

Horsf.

329. Sterna media.

Western Asia, and

Tr.

Linn.

It is

found on

Soc.

xiii.,

p.

Africa.

Allied

198.

Tern.

Once observed on
and Indian

the coast.

the African, Arabian,

coasts.

330. Sterna anglica,

Mont.

Orm.

Found on

Diet. Suppl.

sand-spits and lagoons near


to breed in the neighbourhood.

The

all

Gull-billed

Tern

is

Gull-billed Tern.

Tyre and Beyrout, and believed

an inhabitant of the Mediterranean coasts,

the China and Australian seas, and the east coast of both Americas.

331. Sterna

caspia.

Pall.

in winter,

but not

Nov.

Comm.

Petrop.

xiv.,

p.

582-

Caspian Tern.
Off the coast

The Caspian Tern


World and

in

common.

has a wide range, occurring throughout the Old


the north of North America.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

Ij6

On

Swift Tern.

Verz., p. 80.

Lichst.

332. Sterna, bergii.

the Sea of Galilee in winter.

This Tern extends from the Red Sea through the Indian and Eastern
Oceans.

Pacific

333. Hydrochelidon hybrida.

(Pall.

Zoog. Rosso-As.

ii.,

p.

338.)

Whiskered Tern.

The Whiskered Tern

is

seen

in

winter about the Sea of Galilee, and

breeds in the marshes of Huleh.


spread in particular localities through South Europe, Africa, Asia,

It is

and Australia.
334. Hydrochelidon leucoptera.

White-winged Black Tern.

Schweitz.)

This beautiful

little

Tern may be constantly seen throughout the

up and down the

sailing

Mein. and Sch. Vog. der

(Schinz.

little

year,

streams that run into the Mediterranean,

generally near the sea.

The White winged Black Tern

found

in

Central and Southern

North and North-east Africa, and has straggled as


as the Transvaal and New Zealand.

Europe and
far

is

Asia, in

335. Hydrochelidon

nigra.

(Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

227.)

Black

Tern.

Not

so

common as//,

leitcoptera,

but scattered on the coasts, generally

about the marshes near the mouths of streams.

The
Asia,

found in Europe, North Africa, North-western


America from the north to Chili.

Black Tern

and

in

is

Larus ridibundus.
Arab., ,j~.y5, Nurss

336.
Gull.

The Black-headed
where there
where

it

Gull

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p.

225.

Black-headed

(generic).
is

scattered

all

over the country, not only

water, salt or fresh, but in the dreary waterless desert,


feeds on the snails which cover the stems of the desert
is

shrubs.

The Black-headed
the

NorA

Gull ranges from Northern Europe and Asia to


African coasts, and as far as the Punjab.

AVES.

Larus melanoccpkalus.

337.

137

Natt.

fsis,

1818,

p.

816.

Adriatic

Gull.

The

Adriatic Gull

Minor

to Asia

This bird

338.

flits

about the coast

all

winter, but appears to retire

for nidification.

is

almost confined to the Mediterranean and Black Seas.

Lams

ichthyaelus.

Pall.

Reis. Russ. Reichs.

ii.,

App.,

p.

713.

Great Black-headed Gull.

This royal Sea Gull is to be found on the coast in winter plumage,


and later on is frequent on the Sea of Galilee in its full nuptial dress. It
indeed the Eagle of the Gull
where it breeds I know not.
is

But

tribe.

it

leaves the lake in

May, and

The Caspian
through

appears to be the headquarters of this Gull, which ranges


Egypt and Nubia, and is found on most of the rivers of

India.

339.

Larus

canus.

Linn.

Frequent on the coast


It

through

ranges

Syst. Nat.

i.,

Common

p. 224.

Gull.

in winter.

Europe and Asia,

as

far

south

as

Northern

pi.

v.,

China.

340.

Larus

Licht.

gelastes.

in

Thein.

F. Vog. Eur.,

p. 22.

Slender-billed Gull.

Occurs on the coast


It inhabits

341.

No.

Larus

leucophccus.

((Licht.)
Yellow-legged Herring Gull.

8.)

Common
This bird

342.

in winter.

South Europe, North Africa, and South-western Asia.

on the
is

Larus

Bruch.,

J.

F.

O.,

1853, p.

101,

coasts.

almost confined to the Eastern Mediterranean.

argentalus.

Gmel.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

600.

Herring

Gull.
I

obtained this bird off Tyre.


It appears to be not rare in winter,
common as the yellow-legged species.

but not so

18

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

I3 8

343.

Larns

fuscus.

Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

Lesser Black-

225.

p.

i.,

backed Gull.

This Gull

is

very

common on

the coast, on the

Southern Desert, and on the uplands of Moab.


it

Lake of

Galilee, in the

In the latter localities

feeds on the desert snails.

North Africa,
according to the season, is through Europe,
and Asia down to the South China coast.
Its range,

ORDER, TUBINARES.
FAMILY, PROCELLARIID^.
344.

Temm.

Puffinm anglorum.

Man. d'Orn.

ii.,

p.

806.

Manx

Shearwater.
after a gale in winter, under
picked up a specimen in a fresh state,
Mount Carmel.
I

It is

an inhabitant of the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean.

ORDER, PYGOPODES.
FAMILY, PODICIPIDyE.
345. Podiceps cristatus.

Grebe.

Arab.,

^.......t^,

Syst. Nat.

(Linn.

i.,

p.

222.)

Great Crested

Ghutis (generic).

All through the winter and spring, to the middle of April, the placid
surface of the Lake of Galilee is dotted over from end to end by Grebes

amazing numbers. They begin to assume the breeding plumage by


the end of February, but I could not ascertain that there were any nests

in

neighbourhood of the lake in fact, there is no cover for them.


I found them
swarming on Huleh in May, they probably retire thither
safe quarters.
In winter the Grebe goes as far as the south end of

in the

As
for

the

Dead Sea.
The Great Crested Grebe

New

Zealand

inhabits Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia,

but in the tropics

it is

very scarce.

and

AVES.
346. Podiceps

(L.

nigricollis.

139

Brehm.

Deutschl.,

Vog.

963.)

p.

Eared Grebe.
This

the most abundant species on the lakes of Galilee, remaining


in hundreds on the Lake of Gennesaret long after it has assumed the
is

nuptial dress, but retiring in May to Huleh.


The Eared Grebe inhabits South Europe
Africa,

and North and South


and the greater part of Central and Southern Asia.

347. Podiceps fluviatilis.

The

Little

(Tunstall.

Orn.

Little

Brit., p. 3.)

Grebe.

Grebe, though not so abundant on the Lake of Galilee, is


little piece of fresh water in the country, and breeds

found on almost every

everywhere.
It has a wide range through Europe, Asia, and Africa.
bird can hardly be separated.

The

Australian

ORDER, STRUTHIONES.
FAMILY, STRUTHIONIDjE.
348. Strut/no camclus.

Heb., nyo.

The

Arab., <uU3,

Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

265.

The

Ostrich.

Ndameh.

Ostrich only just claims a place in the Fauna of Palestine, by its


in the further parts of the Belka, the eastern plains of Moab.

occurrence

no doubt now but a straggler from Central Arabia, though formerly


Xenophon speaks of its abundance in his time in
i.
Assyria (Anab.
5), and we have traditional accounts of its former
It is

far

more abundant.

existence as far as Scinde.

named by Xenophon are


Euphrates and Tigris, a fact which makes

All the other wild animals

region of the
cession of the Ostrich the

still

found

in the

the rapid retro-

more remarkable.

possess a portion of an Ostrich's skin, the back, neck, and wings,


captured in the Belka by the late Sheikh Aghyle Agha, and given by him
to my friend, T. B. Sandwith, C.M.G., then Consul at Haiffa.
I

18

REPTILIA.
ORDER, OPHIDIA.
FAMILY, TYPHLOPID.E.
Icon. Oph., p.
Typhlops syriacus. Jan.
Mus.
H.
N.
Arch.
Lortet.
Lyon, t. iii., pi. xix.
1.

This blind burrowing Snake


Dr. Lortet mentions that
east of the Tigris

it

is

T. persicus)

is

is

Onychocephahis simoni.

1878-79,

common

distinct.

and feeds on worms and very small


2.

very

also found in

15,

livr.

all

over the country.

Mesopotamia.

It is

3.

Figured,

The

species
nocturnal or crepuscular,

insects.

Bottg.

Ber. Senck. Nat. Gesells. Frankf.,

p. 58.

This Blindworm, about six inches long, was found by Hans Simon
both at Jaffa and at Caiffa.
These are the only specimens known.

FAMILY, ELAPOMORPHID/E.
3.

Ber. Senck. Ges., 18/9-80,


Micrelaps muelleri.
Bottg.
de
Rept.
Syrie., pi. xix., fig. 2.

p.

137.

Lortet.

This graceful little Snake, about sixteen inches long, black, with
white rings from head to tail, is found in the hill country of Judea and
Galilee.

The

Lattakieh.

type

is

from Jerusalem.

Dr.

Lortet also found

it

near

REPTJLIA.

141

FAMILY, OLIGODONTID^E.
4.

Giinther.

Rhyncocalamus melanocephalus.

PLATE XVI., FIG.

P. Z. S., 1864, p. 491.

i.

The new
(P. Z. S.,

genus, Rhyncocalamus, was established by Dr. Giinther


1864, p. 491), for the reception of this species, brought by me

from the neighbourhood of Lake Huleh.


It has since been found by Dr.
It thus inLortet, both near Jericho and near the Lake of Gennesaret.

The Family

habits the whole Jordan valley.

sented by over

fifty

Only one species

is

in the

Old World

species, inhabiting South-eastern Asia and


found as far west as Persia.

is

its

repre-

islands.

FAMILY, COLUBRID^;.
5.
s.

Ablabes coronella.
Lortet.

48.)

This
found

prettily

(Schlegel.

Rept. de Syrie,

marked Snake

s.

1.

phys. de Serp., Bnd.

2,

pi. xix., fig. 3.

is

common

Lebanon, Hermon, Huleh,


under stones, and is most rapid

in

It lives

Essai.

every part of the country


Gennesaret, Tyre, and Nablus.
in

in its

movements.

It

is

widely

distributed on the eastern Mediterranean shores.


6.

Ablabes modestus.

rottiii.

P.

(Martin.

Z.

S.,

1838, p.

82)

Eirenis

Jan.

Found throughout

Galilee,

and

in

Lebanon and Hermon.

It is

of a

yellow colour, with bluish metallic sheen on the back, which


Eirenis rothii, Jan., Dr. Giinther does not condisappears after death.
brilliant

sider specifically distinct.

This species has been found

in Syria, the

Caucasus, Mesopotamia and

Persia.

7.

It

Ablabes jasciatus.

(Jan.

Arch. Zool. Genov.

ii.,

p. 260.)

This Snake, originally described from Palestine, is also found in Persia.


inhabits dry stony places on the hills, and is not common. I am not aware

of specimens having been procured in other countries, though it doubtless


will be found in the intervening regions of Syria and Mesopotamia.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

4a
8.

Dum. and

Ablabes decemlineatus.

Erp. Gen.

Bibr.

vii., p.

327.

Collected in Galilee, on the Plain of Phoenicia, under Lebanon, and at

Huleh.

This species differs constantly from Ad. modestus


and anterior chin-shields of equal length, while

terior

much longer than

the posterior.
black markings on the head and neck.

anterior are

9.

Ablabes

collaris.

This species, very closely

Moreover,

Cat. Rais.,

(Menetr.

in
in

No, 228,

allied to the last, is

having the posAd. modeshis the


never has the

it

p. 67.)

found on the coast near

Beyrout.
It

was

originally described

Mesopotamia and
10.

from the Caucasus, and inhabits also

Persia.

Coronella austriaca.

Dum.

et Bibr.

vii., p.

610.

This Snake has been found near Beyrout, and elsewhere in Palestine.
It has an extensive range through Central and Southern Europe,

Egypt and Algeria.

especially the eastern part, the Caucasus, Persia,

n. Coluber

(zscttlapii.

Sturm's Fauna,

iii.,

Heft,

ii.,

f.

a.

This European Snake has been found near Beyrout.


It is local in many parts of Central and Southern Europe, and

in

Transcaucasia.
12.

Coluber qiiadrilineatus.

This Snake occurs

in

Pall.

Zoog. Ross. -As.

Northern Palestine.

It

and Southern Russia, Greece and Turkey, and

is

iii.,

p. 40.

inhabits the Caucasus

said to be found also in

Sicily.

13.

Zamenis diadema.

parallelus.

(Schl.

Ess. Phys. Serp.

ii.,

p.

Geoffr.

Found on

the Phoenician and Philistian plains.


This species has a
wide range, from North-west India through Persia and Mesopotamia.
It has been noticed also on the eastern shores of the Caspian.
It

bite.

is

rather a

Its

handsome Snake, and very

food consists of small insects.

gentle, never attempting to

REPTJLIA.
Zamcnis

14.

Found round
in

the

Dead

Incl.

Gray.

Zool.

ii.,

pi.

Ixxx., fig.

r.

Sea.

This Snake extends from Baluchistan through Persia into Egypt, but
The
each country the varieties are more or less distinctly marked.

Palestine form

is

Zamenis

15.
p.

vcntrimac^llatus.

143

the true typical Z. ventrimaculadis,

caudalineatus.

Giinther.

Sn.

Col.

Cat.

Br.

Mus.,

104.

This Snake has a wide range through the country in stony places.
I
have taken it near Jerusalem and Nazareth, and drew a gigantic specimen
out of a chink in the masonry of Hiram's
in

Tomb, above Tyre, hybernating

December.
It

found in Transcaucasia, Persia, and in the region east of the

is

Caspian.

Zamenis

6.

viridijlavus.

Dum. and

Bibr.

vii., p.

686

Z. atrovircns.

Shaw.
abundant among brushwood throughout the
It climbs the trees,
the Jordan valley and on the hills.

This very large species


country, both in

and

is

most destructive, devouring the nestlings of the arboreal-breeding

is

birds.

common

It is

17.
P-

Zamenis

throughout Southern Europe.


viridijlavus, var. carbonarius.

Amph.

Bonap.

Europ.,

435This, which

common

very
it is

in

a black race of the preceding species, is


the warmer parts of the country.
In the Jordan valley

is

really only

the commonest, but

other

is

18.

it

also occurs

on the maritime

plains,

where the

much more abundant.


Zamenis

Rept de

dahlii.

Dum. and

Bibr.

Erp. Ge"n.

vii.,

p. 692.

Lortet.

Syrie, pi. xix., fig. 4.

This, one of the most graceful of Snakes, attains a length of over


ihree feet.
It is

not found in the

hills,

but abounds

among

grass and bushes, and

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE,

144
in moist,

rocks.

but not marshy places.

When

alarmed

it

glides

never noticed

away among the

it

grass,

among stones or
and may be traced

over its sinuous track.


by the gentle motion of the blades
This Snake has rather a wide range, from Dalmatia and Greece
the Caspian.
to Persia, and northward to the Talisch mountains near

19.

Zamenis

Cat. Rais., p. 69.)

(Mene'tr.

ravergieri.

and rank herbage round the extinct


I do not
crater which forms the little Lake Phiala, now Birket er Ram.
or a mere variety of Z. caudapresume to say whether this is a species
Both forms, however, are found.
Itneatzts.

Common among

20.

Zamenis

the

rushes

Poiss.

(Lortet.

(Jan.)

algira,

et

Rept. du lac de

Tiberiade, p. 88.)

Found by

the banks of the rivers, the Litany,

Nahr

el

Khebir, and

others.

This Snake did not occur

21.

to myself.

Tropidonotus hydrus.

I tin.

(Pall.

This water Snake swarms not only

and

i.,

p.

459, No. 18.)

in the lakes,

It is especially

ditches throughout the country.

but in

little

abundant

in

ponds

Lake

Phiala.
It is

found round the Caspian and Black Seas, as well as

in

Northern

Syria.

Bottger unites this and the following species.


22.

Tropidonotus

Laur.

tessellatus.

Schinz. Faun. Europ.

This Snake, which attains a considerable


colour, with black spots, living
in

marshy

among

Dr. Lortet found

places.

on the plain of Gennesaret, and

Mammals.
This Snake

in

it

size, is

ii.,

p. 39.

of a greyish green

the thistles and herbage, generally


near the Nahr el Khebir, as well as

gardens

at Sidon.

It feeds chiefly

on

small

Southern Europe,
Eastern limit.

inhabits

Syria appears to be

its

all

from Spain to Greece.

EH

CD

J
W
H

:'

REPT1L1A.
23.

Tropidonotus natriv.

(Linn.

Syst.

Nat.

i.,

p.

Ringed

380.)

Snake.

Our

well known common Snake, found


throughout the whole of
and
Asia Minor, did not come i'nc!er my own observation, but
Europe
is
from
Palestine by Bottger, Fr. Miiller, and
reported
Bedriaga.
This is its furthest extension southwards and eastwards.

FAMILY, PSAMMOPHID^E.
24.

Calopeltis lacertina.

Wagl.

Syst. Amphib., p. 189.

PLATE XIV.
This rock and desert Snake, a native of North
Africa, Arabia, and
is
not uncommon.
I found it near
Jerusalem, and in Galilee.
But it seems to be equally common round the Lake of
Gennesaret and
Persia,

Lake Huleh, where Dr. Lortet

collected

it.

Psammophis moniligcr. Daud. Rept. vii., p. 69.


Found among the scrub at Tiberias, where it hunts
25.

Dr. Lortet also obtained

for

its

prey.

Solomon's Pools, near Jerusalem, on an


olive tree.
It hides
among the leaves of trees and bushes, and darts
birds
or
mice
from
its retreat.
In these habits it resembles its conupon
P.
from
Persia.
leithi,
gener,
it

at

FAMILY, DIPSADID^E.
26.

Tachymcnis vivax.

(Fitz.

Neue

Classif. Rept.,
p. 57.)

This pretty species, of a


bluish-grey colour, with black spots, is
stones.
Noticed near Jerusalem, Tabor,
Tiberias, and

common under
other places.
It

on

appears to be crepuscular or nocturnal

in its habits,

feeding chiefly

lizards.

This Snake inhabits South-eastern


Europe from Illyria eastwards,
the countries
on
the Black Sea and the
bordering
Caspian, Syria and
Egypt.
19

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

46

FAMILY, ERYCID^E.
/

27.

Eryx jacuhis.

It

common,

(Linn.

i.,

pp. 390, 391.)

It
noticed by Hasselquist in the Holy Land.
but so rapid in its movements that it is not easily captured.

This Snake was


is

Syst. Nat.

first

feeds on myriopodes

and

beetles.

an inhabitant of Greece, Turkey, and the islands of

Eryx jaculns
Asia Minor and the Caspian region, Syria and Egypt.
to be its Eastern limit.
is

Persia appears

FAMILY, ELAPID^;.
28.

Naja

haje.

Syst. Nat.

(Linn.

Happily the Hooded Cobra


its

is

occurrence in the cultivated

beyond Beersheba
sandy

it

is

districts,
I

Cobra.

am

not aware of

but in the plains and downs


met with it near Gaza, on the

plain.

The Hooded Cobra

is

a native of Egypt and of the deserts of the

represented by an allied species,


Cobras are the most deadly of venomous serpents.

In India

Sahara.

The

The

p. 387.)

rare in Palestine.

known.

well

i.,

it is

Naja

tripudians.

FAMILY, VIPERID^E.
29.

Vipera euphratica.

Martin.

P. Z. S., 1838, p. 82.

This large Viper, one of the most poisonous of its family, was first
I found it in Galilee.
Dr. Lortet also
described from the Euphrates.
procured

it

near Jericho, so that

it

is

probably generally distributed

through the country.


It inhabits also Transcaucasia and Persia.
conceals itself in little tufts of

30.

Vipera ammodytes.

It

basks in the sand, and

herbage, preying on small quadrupeds.

(Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

p. 376.)

This Viper appears to inhabit the higher ground.


the lower slopes of Lebanon.

obtained

it

on

o
m
<
q

REPTILIA.

a native of Eastern and South-eastern Europe from the north


it recorded from
I do not find
Greece.
Austria, and

It is

of Italy,
Persia,

147

though

it

through
has been met with in the Transcaucasian Provinces of

Russia.

31.

Daboia xantkina.

Cat. Sn. Br. Mus., p. 24.

Gray.

XV

PLATE
I

twice obtained this poisonous Serpent, once on the Plain of Acre,


On one occasion it had swallowed a full-grown

and once near Tiberias.

On

hare whole, and was unable to move.


quail,

which dropped down dead as

the other

came up with

of injury than a slight scratch close to the tip of

very interesting to find

It is

Palestine.

genus in
Armenia.

It

The Horned

it,

wing.

this peculiarly Indian,

and not African,

has also been found near Lake

Cerastes hasselquistii.

32.

its

had just struck a


with no other mark

it

Cerastes, well

Strauch.

known

Syn

Urumiah,

in

d. Viporid.,
p. 112.

as an inhabitant of

Egypt and the

Libyan desert, is also found in the desert country of Southern Judcea. I


have known my horse rear and shake with terror on descrying this little
but deadly Serpent, coiled up in the depression of a camel's footmark, on
the path before us.

The

Persian

Cerastes

33.

is

not

species has been

known

discriminated as C. persicus.

The

further east.

Echis arenicola.

Boie.

Isis,

1827,

p.

558.

This poisonous little Serpent I have frequently found on the dry


sands both north and west of the Dead Sea, but not in the upper
country.

an African species, well known in Egypt, and


slightly from the Indian Echis carinata, which occurs as
It

is

differs

far

very
west as

Persia.

19

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

I4 S

ORDER, LACERTILIA.
FAMILY, AMPHISB^ENID^E.

Dum. and

Bibr., vol. v., p. 500.

Amphisbama cinerea. (Vaud.)


and on the
Not uncommon under stones on the Plain of Gennesaret
The same species occurs in Spain and Barbary, as well
maritime plains.
1.

as in Asia Minor, Rhodes, and Cyprus.

FAMILY, MONITORID/E.
2

Psammosaunis

scincus.

(Merrem.

his,

vi., p.

The Warran.

688.)

Arabs give
This well-known huge Lizard we found near Engedi. The
the name of Warran both to this and the following species.
and Egypt.
It is found all through North Africa, the Sahara,
Monitor

3.

The

Nilotic

niloticus.

Geoffr.

Rept. Egypte,

i.,

121,

t.

3,

f.

i.

Monitor inhabits the region to the south of the Dead Sea,

and the Southern Judaean desert.


It is an inhabitant of Africa generally.

FAMILY, LACERTID^:.
4.

Lacerta

viridis.

L.

S.

N.

Petiv.

Gaz.,

t.

95-

f-

Green

Lizard.

most abundant in every part of the country.


North Africa,
It is an inhabitant of all Central and Southern Europe,
Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, and North Persia.

The Green

5.

Lizard

Lacerta strigata.

This species
is

is

not so
It is

is

common

Eichw.

Zool. Spec,

iii.,

p. 189.

but always smaller.


very close to the Green Lizard,
as the former species.

recorded from Greece, Asia Minor, Persia, and Syria.

It

del.rt

;
'

Minterr.

MELANOCEfflALUS 2. ZOOTOCA TRISTRAM!


1RHYNCOCALAMU|
L,Ub bINAITA.
4. SEPS MONODACT X
/LUS.

'

REPTILIA.
Lacerta judaicct.

6.

Camerano.

Atti.

I49

Accad.

Sci.,

Torino, Bd.

13.

This species has been separated by its describer from Z. muralis, with
which it had previously been confounded.
appears to be generally spread over Palestine from the Lebanon to
Jerusalem, but only in the upper and hilly country.
Beyond these limits it is only known from Cyprus.
It

Ann. and Mag. N. H. i., p.


Collected near Jerusalem and in the Plains of Jericho.
It is a South
European species.
7.

Laccrt.i

l<zvis.

Gray.

8.

Lacerta

agilis.

Linn.

Found

in

Syst. Nat.

i.,

Sand

363.

p.

279.

Lizard.

every part of the hill country and maritime plains.


all the mountainous and
hilly districts of Europe and the

inhabits

It

Caucasus.
Zootoca taiirica.

9.

Found
It is

(Pall.

Zool. Ross.-Asiat.

in the Phoenician
plain

and

a native also of Greece and

all

iii;,

p. 30.)

round the base of Lebanon.

some of

its

islands, of the

Crimea,

and of the Caucasus.


10.

Zootoca muralis.

Very common

(Laur.

S. 61, 160,

t.

i.,

in the north of
Palestine, but not

f.

4.)

observed by us

in

the

south.

Found

at Beyrout, Sidon,
Tyre,

and Lake Huleh.


The same Lizard, with slight variation
(van fttsca, var. ncapolitana),
inhabits all South
Europe and South-western Asia, including Armenia
and North Persia.
11.

Zootoca tristrami.

Gtinther.

P. Z. S., 1864,
p. 491.

PLATE XVI., FIG.


This new species was collected by us
It

12.

2.

in the

Lebanon

district.

has not yet occurred elsewhere.


Zootoca deserti.

This Lizard was

We again

collected

P. Z. S., 1859,
p. 470.

discovered by me in an oasis of the African Sahara.


on the plains beneath Hermon and Lebanon.

first
it

Giinther.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

150

Suppl.

Audouin.

AcantJiodactylus scutellatus.

13.

t.

i.,

f.

Descr.

Egypte,

i.

172.

7.

This Egyptian and

North African species has been found near

Beyrout by Dr. Lortet.


14.

Suppl.

Audouin.

AcantJiodactylus savignii.
t.

i.,

f.

Descr.

Egypte,

i.

172.

8.

Collected in various localities on the coast by Bottger and Schrader.


Its range extends from Palestine along the African coast to Algeria.

Acanthodactylus boskiaitus.

15.

(Daud.

Rept.

iii.

188.)

This species has a wider range than the last, being found not only in
North Africa, but in Asia Minor.
It does not appear to reach Northern
Persia.

have not myself found

Eremias giitlulata.

6.

it,

but

it is

(Licht.

among

collections at Beyrout.

Doubl. 101.)

Found by Dr. Lortet near Beyrout.


an inhabitant of North Africa, from Algiers to Egypt.

It is

17.

Mesalina pardalis.

Doubl. 99.)
near Beersheba

(Licht.

This Lizard was taken by

me

in the

sandy

plain.

very common in Egypt and Al eria, extends through Arabia, and


was found by Mr. Blanford throughout Persia.
It is

1 8.

Ophiops (Ophisops,

This

is

a very

err.) elegans.

common

Menetr.

Cat. Rais., p. 63.

species of Lizard everywhere except in the

Jordan valley.
It extends
throughout Asia Minor, the Taurid, and the whole of Persia.
19.

Ophiops schlucterL

Bottger.

Ber. Senck.

Nat. Ges.,

1879-80,

p. 176.

This species, which differs considerably from O.


elegans, has been
described from specimens collected by Schrader near
Beyrout and in
where
it
common.
It has not yet been recorded from
Cyprus,
appears
other

localities.

REPTILIA.

15

FAMILY, ZONURIDJi.
20.
I

Pseudopus apoda.

procured

this

N. Com. Petrop.

(Pall.

Lizard on Mount Hermon.

xix. 435,

t.

9-10.)

Dr. Lortet found

it

in

other places as well.


It is not an African species, but extends from I stria through the
mountain ranges of Turkey, Greece, and Asia Minor to Transcaucasia.

FAMILY, GYMNOPHTHALMID^:.
21.

Doubl. 103.

Licht.

Ablepharus pannonicus.

Several specimens were taken near Caiffa by Bottger.


It

North

inhabits

Hungary, Rumelia, Greece, Cyprus, Asia Minor, and

Persia.

FAMILY, SCINCID^.
22.

Scincus

officinalis.

Laur.

Syn. 55.

The Egyptian Skink is given by Bottger. It inhabits North-east


Africa, i.e., Egypt, Nubia, and Abyssinia, and in Asia extends into Arabia
and Syria.
23.

Euprepes fellowsii.

Cat. Liz., p. 113.

Gray.

This species, described by Dr. Gray from Xanthus, Asia Minor, was
found by me in every part of the country, from Dan to Beersheba.
24.

in

i.

47.

This Lizard, described originally from Abyssinia, has also been found
Arabia, Persia, the Caucasus, Syria, and the Lebanon.
25.

Euprepes

savignii.

Occurs on the
is

Reuss. Mus. Senck.

Euprepes septemtaniatiis.

coast.

Audouin.
It

Rept. Egypte, 117,

t.

2,

ff.

3, 4.

has not been noticed elsewhere in Asia, and

an African species.
26.

Euprepes

viitatus.

It

has an immense

ii.

58,

t.

29,

f.

i.)

considerable numbers from Beyrout


range for a Lizard, but strictly Ethiopian,

This Skink has been obtained


by Bottger.

Voy.

(Oliv.
in

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

I5 2

being found

was

in

West

whence

Africa and the Cape, as well as in Egypt,

it

described.

first

Desc. Egypte,

Geoffr.

27. E^^,neccs pavimentatus.

p. 135.

It was
found this Skink on rough ground near the Dead Sea.
also collected on the coast by Dr. Lortet and others, and by Simon at
I

Jerusalem.
It inhabits

Asia as

the North African countries from

The

familiar Blind

to Egypt,

and

Caspian and Baluchistan.

far as the east of the

Linn.

28. Angiiis fragilis.

Morocco

Worm

Syst. Nat.

or Slow

Worm

i.,

p.

was

392.

Blind

Worm.

collected in Palestine

by

tiller.

It inhabits

The South

the whole of Europe, Transcaucasia, and North Persia.

Persian form has been separated by Dr. Anderson.

FAMILY, OPHIOMORID^:.
29.
I

Ophiomorus milians.

(Pall.

Reis.

ii.,

718.)

collected this species in various parts of the north.

Caucasus westwards into the Taurid, and

is

also found in

It

extends from the

Greece and Algeria.

FAMILY, SEPID^.
30.

Gongylus

occllatus.

This Lizard swarms


valley, in

dry places

in

among

(Forsk.

F. Arab. 13.)

every part of the country, mountain, or deep


stones.
The varieties of colour are endless

in this species.
It inhabits all
all

the islands of the Mediterranean, Canaries, and Madeiras,

North Africa from Morocco

to

Egypt and Sennaar, Arabia,

Syria,

and

Persia.

31. Seps monodactylus.

Gtinther.

PLATE XVI.,

P. Z. S., 1864, p. 491.

FIG.

4.

This new species I discovered first near Nazareth, and afterwards at


Lake Huleh, and under Hermon. Bottger has since collected it at Jaffa
and Caiffa.
It

has not been noticed out of Palestine.

REPTILIA.
32. Spheenops capistratus.

53

Syst., p. i5i.

Wagl.

Collected by Dr. Bottger at Jaffa.


It has a wide range in North Africa from
Senegal to Egypt.

FAMILY, GECKONID/E.

The Gecko.

(Schneid. Amph. ii., 13.)


every part of the country.

33. Ptyodactylus hasselquisti.

Extremely abundant
Its

only other

34.

in

known

habitat

is

Egypt.

Hemidaclylus verruculalus.

Cuv.

Found

R. A.

ii.

54.

every part of the country.


This Lizard is spread over all the countries bordering the Mediin Africa as far south as Senaar; and in Asia
terranean, north and south
in

it

inhabits Arabia Petrea, and, according to Dumeril, Persia also.

Stenodactyhis gnttatus.

35.

Found

R. A.

ii.

58.

Ghor, north of the Dead Sea.

an Egyptian and Arabian species.

It is

36.

in the

Cuv.

Platydactylus mauritanicus.

Found by Dr. Buch

in

(Linn.

Syst. Nat.

Syria and Arabia, and

is

i.,

p.

361.)

probably the species

taken by Dr. Lortet near Tiberias.


It has been noted from all the countries bordering the Mediterranean.

Gymnodactylus gecko'ides.

37.

Spix.

Braz. 17,

t.

18,

f.

i.

Found by me on Mount Carmel. It occurs in Greece and European


Turkey and in Asia Minor, but has not yet been observed in Africa.
38.

Gymnodactylus

Wien., vol.

Ixii., p.

kotschyi.

has been obtained

and also

is

Sitz.-Ber.

Akad. Wiss.

329.

Discovered by Simon
It

Steindachner.

said to be

at Caiffa,

in Persia,

and by Dr. Bottger

at

Beyrout.
and
the Cyclades,
Asia
Minor,
Cyprus,

from Egypt and Senegambia.

20

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

54

FAMILY, AGAMID^.
Trapelus sinaiticus.

39.

(Heyden.

PLATE XVI., FIG.


Extremely abundant

Dead

vol. x.,

f.

3.)

3.

the Jordan valley, and especially round the

Sea.

a native of the whole of Arabia, Egypt, and Senaar.

It is

40.

Trapelus ruderatus.

This
It

in

N. Afr.

Riipp. Zool.

species occurs in

(Oliv.

Voy. Ottom.

428,

ii.

t.

29,

f.

3.)

most parts of Palestine.

extends from Algeria eastwards to Mesopotamia.

41. Stellio cordylina.

(Laur.

Syn. 47.)

common Gecko

of every part of the country, running about


on rocks, walls, and trunks of trees throughout the summer.
.

This

is

the

This well-known species inhabits Greece and


and Armenia, Arabia and Egypt.

N.B.

am

satisfied that

of Stellio, or of genera

have observed at
to

closely allied

its islands,

least three other species

but have

it,

Asia Minor,

not preserved

specimens.
42.

Uromastix

spinipcs.

Merrem.

Tent. 56.

The Mastiguer
It is

43.
I

inhabits the Southern desert of Judsea.


a native of North Africa, the Sahara, and Egypt.

Uromastix ornatus.

met with

this

Riipp.

Zool. N. Afr.

North African species

in the

i.,

t.

i.

Southern Desert.

FAMILY, CHAMELEONID/E.
44.

Chameleo vulgaris.

The Chameleon

is

very

Daud.

Kept.

iv.

181.

common throughout every

but flourishes especially in the

part of the country,

Ghor and Gennesaret.

This well-known and interesting creature is found in Southern Spain,


through North Africa as far as the White Nile, and in Asia Minor,
Syria and Arabia.

all

PI. XVII.

I.GHROMTS ANDREA.

2.

CHROMIS

SIMONIS.

Bros,

jrop

REPTILIA.

155

ORDER, CROCODILIA.
FAMILY, CROCODILID^:.
Cuv.

Crocodilus vulgaris.

Oss. Foss.

v. 42.

The

Crocodile.

was long questioned whether it were possible that the Crocodile was
still to be found in Palestine.
That it had formerly existed there seemed
and
both
from
tradition
from the fact that a river rising in a
evident,
It

swamp

Mount Carmel, and entering the sea


Sharon, is known as the Zerka, or Crocodile

to the south of

of the Plain of

at the

north

River.

It is

mentioned by Pliny and Strabo, and Pococke, in the last century, speaks
of its capture.
I had often heard of it from the Arabs, who aver that it
frequently steals their

young kids when they go to water in the marshes


in the mud, near the head marshes not far from
;

saw footprints
Samaria, which left not the smallest doubt that a Crocodile of large size had
been there very shortly before. The promise of a reward produced its effect,
and very soon after a fine specimen was brought by my friends into

and

Nazareth, in a state of such decay that only the bones and the head could
be preserved. It measured
feet 6 inches in length, and the skull, which

is

before

me

as

write,

is

i9'5 inches long.

When

look at

my

Croco-

head, brought home by myself, and read the long disquisitions


written in various languages as to the possibility of the Crocodile inhabitdile's

an ounce of

worth a ton of theory.


Mr. McGregor believes he saw a Crocodile in the Kishon, on the
Plain of Acre.
This is not impossible, though it has never been reported
to be found to- the north of Carmel.
No doubt the Crocodiles in the
ing Palestine,

feel that

Zerka must be very few


Palestine

is

fact is

number, and on the verge of extinction.


the only country beyond the limits of Africa where the
in

Egyptian Crocodile is found, but it inhabits all the great rivers and the
coast of the whole of that Continent, from the Nile to the Cape and
;

occurs along the whole west coast as well as in the upper waters of the
feeders of the Niger.

20

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

ORDER, CHELONIA.
FAMILY, TESTUDINID/E.
Testudo ibera.

1.

Zoog. Ross.-As.

Pall.

iii.,

p.

Mauritanian

18.

Tortoise.

Tortoise of the Holy Land, and is found in every


of the nature of the soil, till we
part of the country, quite irrespective
The hill country of Judaea appears to be its southern
reach Hebron.

This

is

the

common

south of which and of the

limit,

Dead Sea

it

does not occur.

Tortoise of Barbary, of the Caucasus, Asia Minor,


Mesopotamia, Persia, and Syria. To the south of Palestine it is replaced
by the following species.

common

is

2.

Testudo kleinmaimi.

man n's
is

the

It

Poissons de Syrie,

Lortet.

Klein-

90.

p.

Tortoise.

This species, which has generally been confounded with T. marginata,


the Tortoise of the region between Hebron and Beersheba, and of the

Arabah, south of the Dead Sea.


Peninsula,

as

far

as

Egypt,

It

where

inhabits the
also

in

whole of the Sinaitic

sandy

districts

is

it

very

common.

The

Kleinmann's Tortoise has no posterior tubercles on the thigh.

carapace is extremely convex, especially at the juncture of the posterior


The marginal plates are expanded,
third with the two anterior thirds.

almost horizontal in the adults, nearly vertical in young specimens.


The
nuchal plate is small and pointed.
The sub-caudal plate is rhomboidal,

forming behind a strongly marked angle, extending distinctly beyond the


This plate is generally single, but sometimes there are
marginal plates.
T. grceca.
Marginal plates, eleven median
lateral plates, four on
plates, including the nuchal and the caudal, seven
traces of a suture, as in

each

side.

Testudo marginata has been stated to be a native of Palestine but


I
probably Kleinmann's Tortoise has been mistaken for it.
formerly
;

erroneously stated that T. greeca was found, mistaking for

it

T. ibera.

REPTILIA.
Dr. Lortet

157

satisfied that neither T. gr<zca

is

nor T. marginata have as

yet been found in Syria.

3.

vol.

Emys

p. 235.

ii.,

(Gmel.

caspica.

i.,

1041.)

p.

Dum.

et Bib.,

Terrapin.

The Terrapin swarms


the larger lakes

Syst. Nat.

in all

the streams and pools of Palestine.


In
and is a pest to the collector and

to a great size,

it

grows
sportsman, seizing and dragging under water any

wounded

killed or

bird

with extraordinary promptness.

The Terrapin

is

found

the Caucasus, as well as

4.

Emys

europcea.

all

Greece, Asia Minor, Northern Syria, and


round the Caspian.
in

(Dum.

et

Bib.,

vol.

ii.,

p.

European

220.)

Terrapin.

This large Water Tortoise inhabits the lakes of Gennesaret and


Huleh, where it attains a great size.
found throughout Southern and Eastern Europe, excepting
Spain, and also in Asia Minor, and as far as the Caspian.
It

is

FAMILY, TRIONYCHID^;.
5.

Trionyx cegyptiacus.

Geoff.

Descr. de 1'Egypte.

Egyptian Soft

Tortoise.

This Tortoise has not yet been observed in the Jordan


occurs in the Litany and the Nahr el Kelb (Bottger).
It is

valley, but

a native of the Nile.

FAMILY, CHELONIID^E.
6.

Che Ionia

caouana.

caretta.

Bonnatt.

This Turtle

is

not

(Linn.

Syst. Nat.

i.,

35

p.

i.)

Thalassochelys

Loggerhead Turtle.

uncommon on

by fishermen at Sidon.

the coast.

have seen

it

brought

in

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

S8

The Loggerhead

found

is

throughout

Mediterranean, and ranges through


well

known

in the

West

7.

Chelone viridis.

single

the

southern

warmer

side

of the

Atlantic seas.

It

is

Indies.

Schneider.

example of

Frankfurt Museum.

all

the

Allg. Naturg. d. Schildkr., p. 299.

this rare Turtle,

taken off Beyrout,

is

in

the

AMPHIBIA.
ORDER, URODELA.
FAMILY, SALAMANDRID^i.
Triton vittatus,

1.

(Gray.

P. Z. S., 1858, p. 140.)

Dr. F. Miiller found this widely distributed


It is an inhabitant of Europe and Egypt.

Newt

Banded Newt.

near Beyrout.

ORDER, ANURA.
FAMILY, BUFONID^E.
2,

Bufo

Laur.

viridis.

Syn. Rept., pp. 27 and in,

pi.

Green

i.

Toad.
This Toad swarms
variety

moist places. There is a curious


obtained on the shores of the Dead Sea, with numerous spinein

multitudes in

all

very large, and prominent tubercles. Other specimens from the same
It is most
locality are smooth, or provided with flat tubercles only.
like,

variable in coloration.

have found individuals quite unspotted

others

are marbled, or with spots, larger or smaller.

Bufo

viridis

is

cluding the Sahara

found in South-east Europe, in all North Africa, inand in Western Asia as far as Persia. East of the
;

replaced by other species.


I follow Dr. Gtinther and
Boulenger in uniting B. pantherinus and
B. variabilis (both of which are stated to be found in Palestine) as races

Himalayas

it is

or varieties of B. viridis.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

160

Mus. Senck.

Reuss.

Bufo' regularis.

3.

This African Toad

is

i.,

p. 60.

also Arabian, found in the Sinaitic Peninsula

to the Judsean wilderness south of Beersheba.


extends throughout the whole of Africa, except Barbary..

and up
It

FAMILY, BOMBINATORID^E.

Regne Anim.) Tschudi. Batr., p. 83.


It was discovered in the Lebanon
I have not seen this frog myself.
by Lataste, as stated by Bottger. Previously it has only been known
Pelobates cultripes.

4.

(Cuv.

from the south of France, Spain, and Portugal.


Probably further
search will show it to exist along the Mediterranean coasts.

re-

FAMILY, RANID^E.

Rana

5.

No

Syst. Nat.

Linn.

esculenta.

p.

i.,

357.

Edible Frog.

one who has ever spent a night under a tent within reach of

question the amazing number of these frogs, deafening the


In no other country have I
weary traveller through the long night.
seen the frog population so dense.
The present appears to be the only

water

will

One

species inhabiting Palestine.


is

specimen, collected by the

Dead

Sea,

covered with minute tubercles.

The

Edible Frog

found

is

all

over Europe, except the British

Isles,

North Asia, including Japan, as far as the Himalayas and in


through
The race inhabiting
Africa it inhabits the Barbary coast and Egypt.
has
been distinguished as a variety (var. japonica).
China and Japan
all

FAMILY, HYLID.^E.
6.

Hyla

arborca.

The Tree Frog


alike in the

and
it

is

in

equally

umbellifers.

is

common

Jordan valley,

the woods

it

Syst. Nat.

(Linn.

sits

common on

the

p.

357.)

in all parts of the

on the

on the

i.,

plains,

and

country, being found


In the Ghor

in the hills.

foliage of trees, but

leaves

Tree Frog.

on the

treeless plains

of the artichoke and

the

great

AMPHIBIA.

161

The Tree Frog inhabits all Central and Southern Europe, Barbary,
and West Asia, including Asia Minor, the Caucasus, and Mesopotamia.
It

does not appear to extend beyond Persia.


The specimens from Syria, Asia Minor,

separated off as a distinct variety (var.

appear to be

slight

and rather

variable.

and

Persia,

have been

A. savignyi), but the differences

FRESHWATER FISHES.
SUB-CLASS TELEOSTEI.

ORDER, ACANTHOPTERYGII.
FAMILY, BLENNIID^E.
1.

Blennius

Risso.

vanes.

de

Ichthy.

Nice,

131.

p.

Lortet,

pi. xviii., fig. 3.

D.

Found abundantly
the warm streams

of

30,

in the

A.

V.

21,

Lake

2,

P. 13.

mouths
Tin, Ain Tabighah, and

of Galilee, but especially at the

flowing into

it,

Ain

et

Wady Semakh.
This Blenny

is

found about the mouths of rivers

in

the Mediter-

ranean, especially in thermal waters.


2.

Blennius lupulus.

Faun.

Bonap.

PLATE XIX.
D.

in

29,

A.

Ital.

FIG.

Pesc.

and

3.

18.

Found by me in the Lake of Galilee, in the Kishon,


the Bay of Acre, and in the Nahr el Kelb.
Originally described
3.

fig.

by Bonaparte from

Blennius vulgaris.

Pollini.

fig.

Viagg.

rivulets in
al

Lag.

di

in the streamlets

South

Italy.

Garda.

viii.,

p. 20,

i.

D.

Found

3?,

A. 20, V.

Nahr

3,

P. 14.

Vert.

3536.

Bared and other streams flowing into the


Mediterranean.
It was
originally described from the Italian lakes, in all
the freshwaters of which country it seems to be found.
in

the

el

FRESHWATER

FISHES.

FAMILY, MUGILID^E.
4.

Mugil

Grey

Mullet.

D.

231
A. - V.

-,

4,

P.

6.

Nat. de Poiss.

Hist.

L.

lat.

the

Cuv. and Val.

capita.

xi.,

p.

L. transv. 14.

45.

The Grey Mullet is very plentiful in the Nahr Ibrahim (Adonis) and
Nahr el Kelb (Dog River) near Beyrout.

inhabits the coasts of Europe, the Nile, and all the Mediterranean
embouchures, and is found as far south as the Cape of Good Hope.
It

5.

Mugil curtus.
D.

4, \,

Found near
Nahr el Bared.
6.

A.

the

\,

V.

A.

4,

V.

Gtinther.

-,

|,

g,

L.

-, P. ii.
5

mouth of the Nahr

Mugil octo radiatus.


D.

Br. Fish., 3rd edition,

Yarrell.

P. 18.

L.

lat.

el

ii.,

p.

L. transv. 12.

?8.

Kadischa (Lebanon) and the

Cat. of Fishes, vol.

lat.

186.

4244.

Hi.,

p. 437.

L. transv. 14.

This species has been described by Dr. Gtinther from specimens


Its range, however, must be a wide one,
obtained on the English coast.
as Dr. Lortet has received specimens from M. Blanche taken in the Nahr
el

This Mullet

Bahsas.

7.

Mugil

auratus.

D.

The Golden
and

-,

A.

^,

Mullet

is

well

is

-,

P.

very

in the

17.

L.

common

lat.

It

is

at Tripoli.

43.

L. transv. 14.

in all the rivers of the

at certain times of the year ascends

from the

market

Ichthy., de Nice, p. 344.

Risso.

V.

known

them

Syrian coast,

to a considerable distance

sea.

common throughout

the Mediterranean, and

Canary Islands and on the English

is

found off the

coasts.

21

FAUNA AND FLOEA OF PALESTINE.

ORDER, ACANTHOPTERYGII PHARYNGOGNATHI.


FAMILY, CHROMID^E.

The Chromidae

are the most characteristic and abundant of

amazing multitude of
than

less

are

eight species

home by me
valley

fishes with

in

had been

all

which the Lake of Galilee teems.

now known from

its

the

No

waters, five brought

date no fishes from the Jordan


and to these, three new species have since

prior to which

1864,

identified

been added by the researches of Dr. Lortet.


8.

Chromis

niloticus.

(Hasselquist.

PLATE XVIII.
D.

This

^,

Reise. in Palestina, p. 392.)

FIG.

V. i P. 14.

A.

i.

L.

lat.

34.

|,

one of the most abundant species in the whole of the


Jordan basin, especially in smooth water and deep pools, though it is not
in nearly such prodigious numbers as the
It abounds
following species.
in the Lake Huleh, and in the Lake of Gennesaret, as well as in the
river
is

fish is

It is equally common in the Nile, and in all its canals, and


as Bolti in Egypt, and as Moucht by the fishermen of Tiberias.

itself.

known

can easily be recognised from the following species by its blackishgrey colour, and by its caudal fin convex and not concave, as in Ch.
tiberiadis, by the white spots on its dorsal fin, and by its forehead retiring
It

instead of convex and prominent, as in its congener.


All these Chromidee are frequently found with their eyes extracted, and
their foreheads pierced by the Grebes, which prey on them, but
seem

they

and

to thrive perfectly well in spite of this mutilation,

Such specimens may often be seen

of absolute blindness.
9.

Chromis

to flourish in a state

tiberiadis.

Lortet.

Poiss et Rept.

du

lac

in the

market.

de Tiberiade,

p. 37, pi. vi.

"

if-

This

'

4V

'3-

lat

33-34-

peculiar to the Jordan and its affluents alone, is found in the


most amazing numbers from the Lake Huleh to the head of the Dead
fish,

FRESHWATER

FISHES.

165

I
by far the most abundant of all the species in the lakes.
have seen them in shoals of over an acre in extent, so closely packed that
it seemed impossible for them to move, and with their dorsal fins above

Sea.

It is

the water, giving at a distance the appearance of a tremendous shower


They are taken
pattering on one spot of the surface of the glassy lake.

both in boats and from the shore by nets run deftly round, and enclosing
what one may call a solid mass at one swoop, and very often the net breaks.
They are also taken in large quantities by poisoned crumbs thrown from
the shore on to the surface of the water.

casting nets hundreds are

By

often taken at once.

This species especially is carried down at the mouth of the Jordan by


The fishes never get further than a few
thousands into the Dead Sea.
and soon turn over on to their backs,
yards, when they become stupefied,
while Cormorants and King-Fishers, perched on the snags or floating
without effort, and often heaps of putrifying
logs, gorge themselves
carcases washed on the shore poison the atmosphere, and afford a plenteous
feast to the ravens

The Chromis
10.

Chromis

and

vultures.

tiberiadis

|f

distinguished by the fishermen as Mouchtlebet.

Giinther.

andrece.

D.

is

A.

*-,

P. Z. S., 1864, p. 492.

l
V. - P.

15.

PLATE XVII.
described
species, first
in the Sea of Galilee in 1864,

This

L.

lat.

31.

^/

FIG.I.

by Dr. Giinther from specimens


not so

procured

common

as the species already


in
the
deep waters. It does not
described, and seems to remain generally
attain a great size, nor has it been found either by Dr. Lortet or myself
It is not
in any other part of the course of the Jordan except in this lake.
Our
distinguished by any special name among the Arab fishermen.
largest specimen
11.

was

"]\

Chromis simonis.
D.

^,

is

inches long.

Gunther.

A.

V.

P. Z. S., 1864, p. 492.

P. 12.

PLATE XVII.
This

is

L.

lat.

32.

g,

FIG.

2.

another of the species peculiar to the Jordan system, and

there so far as

we know,

restricted to the

little

Lakes of Gennesaret and

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

,66

Huleh.

It

was

first

by Dr.

described

Giinther from our specimens

collected in 1864.

made some very

Dr. Lortet has

which he found, as

Mudawarah, Ain

west side (Ain

interesting notes

also did, in the fountains


et Tin,

on

this peculiar fish,

adjoining the lake on the

and Ain

et

It is
Tabighah).
not distinguished by the fishermen with any special name, but included
under Moucht.

Dr. Lortet has


of this

fish,

which

The spawn

is

made most

on the propagation
his
kind
with
to
transcribe.
venture,
permission,
of the size of No. 4 shot, of a rich deep green.
The
interesting observations

female deposits about two hundred eggs in a little excavation which she
works out among the rushes and roots. When she has completed her labour,

she appears exhausted, and remains motionless at a

much

male, on the contrary, appears

little

The

distance.

agitated, turns himself round the

spawn, swimming constantly above them, and probably fecundates them


In a few minutes afterwards he takes the ova one after
at this moment.
another into his mouth, and keeps them in the buccal cavity against his
Some of
cheeks, which then appear swollen in an extraordinary manner.
his
The ova, though they are not
them, however, escape through
gills.
attached by any membrane, nor by any glutinous matter whatever, remain
very securely, in his mouth, and are never dropped while he is in the
water.

It

is

only

when he

is

thrown out on the sand

struggles of his death-agony, they

even then

in his

fall

out,

in

that,

the

many, however, remaining

mouth.

In this novel hatching-oven the eggs, during several days, undergo all
The little ones rapidly increase in size, and appear
their metamorphoses.
to

be much incommoded

in their

narrow prison.

numbers, pressed one against another,


granate.
his

The mouth

progeny that

animal presents

parent,

in

like the grains of a ripe

great

pome-

now becomes so distended by


his jaws cannot meet.
The cheeks are swollen, and the
the strangest appearance.
Some of the young, arrived
of the father-nurse

at their perfect state, continue to live

bronchiae.

They remain

and develope among the

folds of the

Others have their heads turned towards the mouth of the

and do not quit the sheltering cavity till they are about 4 inches
sufficiently active and nimble to escape their numerous enemies.

long, and

It is difficult to

understand

how

the male,

who

thus carries

more than two

FRESHWATER
hundred young

FISHES.

weeks, can feed himself without swallowing

for several

along with his prey a great number of his


to the lake that these fishes

fry.

It is in

the springs close

spawn.

similar observation as to the breeding habits of a fish, probably of

the genus Chromis, on the edge of the


by Dr. Livingstone in his Journal.
1

167

2.

Chromis flavii-josephi.

Lortet.

Lake Tanganyika, has been made

Poiss. et Rept.

du lac de Tiberiade,

p. 43, pi. viii., fig. 2.

D.

A.

V.

f,

-,

P. 12.

L.

lat.

26.

This species, discovered by Dr. Lortet, has not been found by him in
the Lake of Gennesaret itself, or in Lake Huleh but only in the reaches
;

of the Jordan between the two lakes, and in the basins of Ain Mudawarah
and A in et Tabighah. It is a very small species, the largest specimen
It may be recognised at once
only just exceeding 4^ inches in length.
by the regularly formed yellow spots on the anal fin, and is known to
the fishermen as Addadi.

13.

Chromis microstomus.

p. 41, pi. viii., fig.

LorteL

Poiss. et Rept.

du

lac

de Tiberiade

i.

D.
This

^|,

A.

V.

P. 14.

L.

lat.

|,

one of the species

is

-,

for the discovery of

34.

which we are indebted

to the invaluable exploration of Dr. Lortet.


It is

very abundant

Huleh, and
basin of Ain

in the

Lake of Gennesaret, much

less so in that of

rather rare in the Jordan.


It is in great numbers in the
Mudawarah and the fountains of Et Tin and Et Tabighah,

is

communicating with the lake. It is known to the fishermen as Moucht


It seldom attains the length of 8 inches.
Kart.
all

14.

Chromis magdalentz.

Lortet.

Poiss. et Rept.

du

lac

de Tiberiade,

2.
p. 48, pi. ix., fig.
l

D. i?, A. * V. - P.

13.

L.

lat.

32.

This new species of Dr. Lortet is by no means common in the Lakes


of Gennesaret and Huleh, but, unlike the other species of Chromida found

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

!68

Jordan basin, is very abundant in the marshy lakes east of Damascus,


into which the Barada (ancient Abana) and the Sabirany (ancient Pharpar)
in the

empty themselves.
It is

known whether

not

the Arabs have a distinctive

Lortet has observed that the male hatches

its

young

name

in its

for

mouth

Dr.

it.

after the

fashion as Chromis simonis, and probably all the other species of the
Its spawn is much smaller than that of Ch. simonis, but of the
genus.

same

same

colour.

15.

Poiss.

Hemichromis sacra. Giinther.


et Rept. du lac de Tiberiade, pi.
D.

A.
^,
|
y

V.

\,
't

P. Z. S., 1864, p. 493.

PLATE XVIII.
Discovered by

in 1864,

lat.

FIG.

32-34.

2.

and described from our specimens by Dr.

among the bulrushes and flags in different parts of the


of Gennesaret, especially near the outlet from the lake, and is also

Giinther.

Lake

me

L.

P. 13.

Lortet.

It lives

well-known fountains of Mudawarah, Et Tin, and


Tabighah, probably attracted by the warmth of the water, in which so
many of these fishes seem to luxuriate. It has not been found either in
to

be found

in the three

Lake Huleh or
tion, as

above.
in the

in the

stream of the Jordan

itself.

The

habits of propaga-

observed by Dr. Lortet, are similar to those ofCA. simonis, described


The eggs and young fry are to be found in the maw of the male

month of June, and when they emerge from

their shelter are about

Dr. Lortet frequently observed a large number of fry


35 inch long.
already hatched, and suspended in a large bladder, while the other half of
The spawn is larger and of a
the eggs shewed no signs of development.

darker colour than that of Chromis simonis.

The genus Hemichromis


the occurrence
basin

is

in

and
is, like Chromis, exclusively Ethiopian
such variety of these African forms in the Jordan
;

one of the most significant links which attach the Palestine Fauna

to the Ethiopian.

"
.

,f~f?*&rJS%

:-:i

'::

.-

'

-_

~:

FRESHWATER

FISHES.

169

ORDER, PHYSOSTOMI.
FAMILY, SILURID^;.
1

Clarias macracanthus.

6.

Giinther.

Cat. of Fishes,

v., p.

16.

The

Silurus.

D.

73,

A.

55, V.

P.

s>

PLATE XIX.

FIG.

|.
i.

This most extraordinary fish is


very abundant in the muddy bottoms,
and wherever there are
flags or papyrus, both in the Lakes of Gennesaret
and Lake Huleh. It is also found in the
Upper Nile, but differs from the

common
It

is

species of the

spoken of by

Lower

Nile, C. anguillaris.
Josephus as the Coracinus,

and he mentions it as
the
fountain of Capernaum, and
inhabiting
coming thither by a subterranean communication from the Nile.
As it is equally abundant in all
the three fountains on the west of the
lake, this statement of the historian
throws no light on the identification of the
disputed site of Capernaum.
Beyond these warm fountains, one of the most curious natural features of
the lake, the Silurus does not
appear to extend, probably because there
are few muddy bottoms
anywhere else in the course of the Jordan suited
to

its

habits.

I first

obtained this

and was surprised to

fish in

find that

Ain Mudawarah, in the month of


March,
some of the specimens exceeded three feet

length, a size very rarely attained by the inhabitants of the lake itself.
Ain Mudawarah is a
large circular basin of ancient masonry, thirty-six
yards in diameter, about a mile and a half from the lake, and
immediately
under an intruding
spur of the surrounding mountains.
At the further
end of the basin there boils
up a magnificent spring of clear water, which
fills the reservoir to the
depth of from three to five feet, and at once forms
a little stream, which meanders
through the dense brush down to the
The fountain itself is almost buried in the oleanders and
in

which overshadow and screen


vast a

number of

confined basin.

fish

fig trees

it

on

all

sides.

It

seems strange that so

should live and attain such a


great size in this

The mystery was

explained to

me when

little

crossing this
22

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.


four
month of April, not more than
year in the
stream was scarcely mo e than
hundred yards from the lake. The
It was about a foot deep.
I stood astride.
thread of water, across which
Arab fishermen call the
One continuous file of barbours, as the
on their way to spawn inth
was struggling up the stream, evidently
The fishes pressed on regardless
the mud holes near i,
fountain
the tad of the emigrant
the snout of each touching

streamlet last

little

SAm*

%*

of

my

presence,

one
to cover them
In places the water was not sufficient
Still in single file they pressed
at all.
two places there was no water
I
took them out rapidly-with my
well as in water.
on, over land as
;

front.

They squeaked and


to some distance.
hands, and threw them
back
cat at bay, and rapidly floundered
with a hissing sound, like a
I
or over gravel
the streamlet, working their way rapidly among grass
c
sack
three feet long, and making a
selected six specimens, each over
still
hissing and squeaking
my 'abeih, slung them on my horse, they
three h
carried them to our camp, near Semakh,
shriek

and

defiance,

and vigorous, and continued so f


cook were remitted to
survivors of the demands of the
days, when the
We all considered them excellent eating, and far superior
the water
The flesh is firm and rich, like an eel's.
to any other fish of the lake.
mentioned above, which seemed to surpns

They were

distance

The

my

still

alive

extraordinary migration,

Arab attendant

a fisherman) as
(not being

much

as myself, explains

Round Fountain. Since writing


the presence of these great fish in the
Dr. Lortet also notices the rethe above I am interested to find that
markable vocal powers of

this fish.

FAMILY, CYPRINODONTID^).
17.

Cyprinodon dispar.
D. 9, A. 10, V.

This tiny
myriads
the

in the little

Dead

Ruppell
I found

fish,

it

in

7,

P.

6.

Atl. Fische, p. 66, pi. 18.

L.

lat.

26.

L. transv.

9.

a length of two inches, swarms by


rarely reaching
shores of
thermal and saline springs which fringe the

In the overcharged waters of the sea itself they perish.


Red
discovered the species in hot salt springs near the
end
swarms in a brine spring near Jebel Usdum, at the south

Sea.

first

Riipp.

FRESHWATER

FISHES.

171

Sea, of the temperature of 91 Fahr also at Ain Feshkhah,


Terabeh, Ain 'Sghir, and on the east side in various hot and sul-

Dead

of the

Ain

phurous springs a

little

mouth of the

to the south of the

Callirrhoe,

and

In most of these springs,


Mojib (Arnon).
and the little lagoons round them, in which the fish live, the water is
almost as dense and as salt as that of the Dead Sea, which in many cases
and
during a gale overflows the lagoons. Yet the fish, which thrive

at

the

mouth of the

Wady

multiply in the one, perish as soon as they are placed in a jar of the other.
In the little marshes full of Salicorniafruticosa at the mouth of the Wady

Zuweirah, at the south-west corner of the


the fry of this fish, about an inch long.

Dead

Sea, there are myriads of

caught them by hundreds in


my handkerchief, yet, in trying to escape, none of them would ever
attempt to enter the sea, though I might be holding my improvised net
I

within a yard of it.


Those we placed in a jar of the water of the salt
spring were well and active after a night's confinement those put into a
M. Lortet has
jar of the Dead Sea water perished in a few minutes.
;

explained the cause, that though the amount of chloride of sodium


great or greater in the water of the salt spring than in that of the
Sea, the

The

amount of chloride of magnesium


larvae of the

is

much

as

is

Dead

less.

mosquitoes supply abundant food

for the fish in these

salt springs.

18.

D.

V.

A.

-,

Fische Syr.,

(Heckel.

Cyprinodon cypris.

-.

|,

L.

P. 14.

140, pi. xix.,

f.

i.)

L. transv. 8.

26.

lat.

p.

This species was first described from the Tigris.


I
found it in the
Jordan, at Ain Feshkhah, by the Dead Sea, in the Jabbok, and in the
Fountain of Nablous.
Dr. Lortet also collected it at the pilgrims' bathing
place in the Jordan, in the

Cyprinodon mento.

19.
pi. 6,

f.

Kelt,

(Heckel

and
in

in the

Damascus

Russegger Reis.

lakes.

i.,

p.

1089,

4.)

D.
This
little

Wady

fish

12,

A.

ii,

V.

6.

L.

lat.

L. transv. f.

27.

was described from Mosul, on the

stream by

Amman

(Rabbath

Ammon)

Tigris.

found

it

in the

which flows eastward and

lost in the desert.

22

is

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

72

20.
pi. 22,

f.

in

(Heckel

Cyprinodon sophia.

Russegger Reis.

ii.,

3,

L. transv.

7.

p.

267,

2.)

D.

ii

12,

A. 10

12,

V.

L.

6.

lat.

26.

type specimens of this species were from a salt spring near


I
found it, along with several other species, in the warm
Persepolis.

The

brackish spring of Ain Feshkhah, and in other similar springs


Jebel

down

to

Usdum.
FAMILY, CYPRINID^E.

21.

Discognathus lamta.

D.

11,

A.

8,

V.

Fish. Gang., pp. 343, 393.)

(Ham.

8, P.

L.

13.

PLATE XIX.
This
the

little

little

Carp

is

lat.

L. transv.

35.

FIG.

5.

5.

very abundant in the Jabbok, the Arnon, and in all


Jordan on the east side. Dr. Lortet found it

affluents of the

also in the

Lake of Gennesaret.

has a wide range, unlike all the species we have hitherto recorded,
which are African, and never extend into Asia this is a strictly Asiatic,
It

and especially Indian species,


and probably further east.

Under

this

species Dr.

Discognathus rufus.

its

range reaching from Syria to Assam,

Giinther (Cat. Fishes

Heckel

in

Russegger

PLATE XIX.
This variety
22.

D.

ii,

is

found abundantly

Capoeta damascina.
A.

8,

V.

12, P. 21.

lat.

i.,

vii.,

p.

1071,

over Syria and Asia Minor.

down

pi. 8,

f.

2.

in the streamlets of Gilead.

76.

xvi., p.

L. transv.

314,

pi.

It attains

482.)
L. vert.

ID

This Cyprinoid is abundant, not only in the Jordan and


but in every little stream flowing into the Mediterranean.
all

69) includes

p.

FIG. 4.

(Cuv. and Val.


L.

Reis.

19
all its affluents,

It

is

common

the length of 13 inches.

It is

into the Dead Sea in great numbers, and


perishes at once,
the
north
shore.
strewing
All the species of Capoela are called
Hefafi by the fishermen of

carried

Tiberias.

"

Ed

ra

&<

^M
O EH

85

co co

u in
CO

m
co

a
EH

3
o
o

FRESHWATER
23.

(Cuv. and Val.

Capoeta syriaca.

D.

A.

12,

FISHES.

7,

V.

10, P.

xvii., p.

L.

8.

173

407,

514.)

pi.

7280.

lat.

This species is very common in the Lake of Gennesaret, and is also


found in the Jordan.
The type specimen was from Abraham's River, at
It has also been found in the Euphrates at
the foot of Mount Sinai.
Birajik.

24.

Capoeta fratercula.

D.

A.

13,

8,

V.

(Heckel.

9, P.

L.

17.

Fische Syr.,
lat.

70

f.

p. 69, pi. v.,

2.)

L. trans. 13.

72.

has not been yet found in the Jordan system, but it abounds
in all the mountain-streams of Lebanon.
At the Algerian village of
near
in
Safed
Deichun,
Galilee, there is a large fountain full of this species.

This

These

fish

are looked upon by the Arabs as sacred to Mohammed, and


little to the north
they will on no account allow anyone to take them.
of Tripoli also, at the shrine of Sheikh el Bedawi, is a copious spring,
with a large basin and streams flowing from it, choked with these fishes,
fish

which seem piled

with hardly space to move.


They are an
object of veneration, and are always fed by the worshippers.
They
follow in masses any visitor as he walks by the edge, gaping for food but
in layers,

we were

not allowed to take one, though a

little

lower

down

secured a

number.
ascends the mountain-streams of Lebanon to spawn, and
It is excellent eating, and its flesh is a
leaps the cascades like a salmon.

This

fish

pale pink colour.

The Arabs
25.

Capoeta

D.

in

to

12,

Semakh

call it

socialis.

A.

nahri.

Fische Syr.,

(Heckel.

89,

V.

10, P.

6.

L.

lat.

p. 115, pi. xv.,

f.

2.)

L. transv. 14.

67.

This species, which attains the length of 1 2 inches, is very abundant


Lakes Huleh and Gennesaret, and down the whole course of the Jordan,
which it seems confined.
It is nearly allied to C. dainascina.
26.

Capoeta amir.

D.

This
ranean.

fish

12,

A.

8,

(Heckel
V.

10, P.

in

Russegger Reis.

14.

L.

lat.

72.

ii.,

3, p.

258.)

L. transv. 13.

occurs in the northern streams flowing into the Mediter-

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

1?4

3. f

P. 56, pl-

du

lac

de Tiberiade,

D.

in

Poiss. et Kept,

Lortet.

Capocta sauvagei.

27.

9,

A. 7-V.

5.

L.

P. 15-

lat.

33-

Dr. Lortet, was discovered by him


This species, recently described by
and only tab
it is evidently very rare,
the Lake of Gennesaret, where
It is most brilliantly
is 4 inches.
Its extreme

length
brilliant
a
blue, the belly golden yellow,
coloured, its back being
cheeks bright green, and the fins a silvery yellow.

at a great depth.

28.

Barbus
D.

Cuv. and Val.

cants.

13,

A.

xvi., p. 186, pl.

L.

V. 10, P. 15-

8,

PLATE XX.

lat.

33-

FIG.

468.

L. transv.

4-

i.

which swarm in
one of the most abundant of the many species
the Jordan, to which system it is peculiar,
the Lake of Gennesaret and in
the Mediterranean.
not being found in any of the rivers entering
an army
of these fishes in the Jordan, when
I have seen thousands
This

is

almost upright
been attempting to cross the river, standing
out of the water, and their mo
the stream, with their heads partially

locusts has

inconceivable rapidity.

wide open, devouring the locusts with


This Barbel attains the length of 19 inches.

29.

Gunther.

Barbus bcddomii.
D.

13,

A.

This Barbel was taken

The
It is

30.

D.

ii,

L.

8.

A.

8,

9,

P.

8.

L. transv. 5^

no.

5.

Lake of Galilee by Mr. Beddome.


Museum. No other specimens are known.

Cuv. and Val.

longiceps.

V.

28.

vii., p.

in the

British
type is in the
4 inches long.

Barbus

lat.

Cat. Fishes, vol.

L.

lat.

xvi., p. 179, pi-

5455-

PLATE XX.

FIG.

L. transv.

4 6 7-

-.

L. vert.

-.

2.

in the
one of the most abundant of the many abundant species
kinds for the table, and attains
Lake of Galilee. It is also one of the best
but is common
It is not found above the lake,
inches.
of
a

This

length

is

19

the
of the Lower Jordan, though but attaining
throughout the course

tn

ft

03

cn

co
t>
ffl

FRESHWATER
size

does

it

and

in the lake,

i?S

the last of the fish tribe to

is

Dead

the poisonous influences of the

FISHES.

Sea, to which

succumb

to

down

in

carried

it is

hundreds.

The

fishermen

Escheri.

call it

and the Jordan.

It is peculiar to the lake

Pkoxinellus libani.

p. 66, pi. xi.,

f.

Poiss. et Kept,

Lortet.

du

lac

de Tiberiade,

4.

D.

41,

A.

V.

9,

L.

P. 14

8,

lat.

48.

This curious little fish, belonging to the genus Leuciscus of Giinther,


was discovered by Dr. Lortet in the little lake of Yammuneh, a mountain
tarn above Ainata in Lebanon, well known to visitors to the Cedars from
Baalbek, and 4,800 feet above the sea. These little fishes, apparently the
only inhabitants of the lake, at the season when the little streamlets of the
tarn are fullest, crowd into them, and form an important article of commerce for the villagers.

This

fish

reaches

rarely

2\ inches

length, generally less than

in

2 inches.

32. Leuciscus zeregi.

D.

We
found

know nothing
in the

it

and that

A.

9,

of this

V.

L.

7.

little

Galilee, his

Russeg. Reis.

fish,

lat.

i.,

p.

1063,

f.

3.)

5766.
Beddome

further than that Mr.

specimen being

in the British

Museum,

has also been found in the Lake of Antioch.

Leuciscus lepidus.

D.

ii,

A.

13,

V.

(Heckel
8,

in

P. 14.

native of the Tigris, from


fish has since been found in the

Russeg. Reis.
L.

whence

Nahr

el

lat.

it

48.

was

i.,

p.

1079,

L. transv.

known by

the Arabs as

El Baraan.

f.

2.)

7.

Arab, near Lattakieh.

about 4 inches.
It is

pi. 10,

originally described, this

therefore probably occur also in the other rivers of the coast.


is

pi. 6,

2\ inches long.

It is

33.

it

10,

Lake of

in

(Heckel

It

may

Its length

, 7

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

p. 68, pi. xii.

Poiss. et Kept,

Lortet.

34. Leuciscus tricolor.

du

de Tiberiade,

lac

2.

f.

D.

A.

10,

V.

12,

P. 13.

8,

L.

lat.

60.

exceeding 3^ inches in length, is the


characteristic species of the lakes of Damascus into which the rivers from

This

little

Hermon

the north and east of

This
35.

drain and evaporate.

the ordinary sprat of the

is

Rhodeus
f.

p. 70, pi. 12,

Damascus market.
Poiss. et Kept,

Lortet.

syriacus.

du

lac

de Tiberiade,

3.

D.
This

rarely

species,

10,

A.

8,

V.

P. 14.

7,

L.

lat.

48.

very nearly allied to the Bitterling of

little fish,

Germany and
and streams

the inhabitant of the fountains

similar Chinese species, is


It is also known from the
Ba'albek.

36.
f.

Alburnus

Heckel

sellal.

Damascus

to

of

lakes.

in

Russegger Reis.

9,

P. 14.

i.,

p.

1082,

pi.

n,

4-

D.

10,

A.

15,

V.

L.

lat.

70,

This species, originally described from the Orontes, has been found

Lake of

in the

by Dr. Lortet

Galilee.

It is

a small species, averaging

6 inches in length.
37.

Alburnus

p. 72, pi.

f.

6,

vignoni.

Lortet.

Poiss. et Rept.

du

lac

de Tiberiade,

3.

D.

9,

A.

13,

V.

8,

P. 14.

L.

lat.

56.

This species, very brilliantly coloured, metallic blue above, with


tipped with purple, was
silvery sides and yellow abdomen, its fins
discovered by Dr. Lortet in the Damascus lakes, but
found in any of the waters of the Jordan system.
38.

1074,

Acanthobrama centisquama.
pi. 9,

f.

Heckel

in

it

has not yet been

Russegger Reis.

i.,

p.

i.

D.

11,

A.

22, V. 9.

L.

lat.

100.

L. transv. 20.

This species of the Barada and the Damascus Lakes also occurs in the
upper affluents of the Jordan, but has not yet been observed in the lower
waters of that system.

FRESHWATER
Nemachilus

39.
f.

tigris.

(Heckel

in

FISHES.

177

Russegger Reis.

i.,

p.

1088,

pi.

12,

4.)

D.

A.

io,

V.

7,

6,

P. 10.
in the

This species occurs in the affluents of the Kadisha, as well as


It has also been found near Aleppo.
lakes of Damascus.

Ntmackikugaliteus, (Gunther, P.
D. 12, A. 8, V.

40.

Z. S. 1864, p. 493.)
7.

It is
This species was found in the Lake of Galilee by Mr. Beddome.
scaleless, and with the caudal fin truncate. It has not been elsewhere met

The

with.
41.

type

is

Nemachilus

This diminutive

3 inches long.

(Heckel. Fische Syr.,


D. 10, A. 7, V. 7.

insignis.

fish

p. 97, pi.

PLATE XIX. FIG. 2.


was found by me in great numbers

12,

f.

in the

3.)

warm

brackish streamlets flowing into the north-west part of the Dead Sea, also
Dr. Lortet also took it
in a spring between Jacob's Well and Nablus.

Wady

in the

42.

Kelt, near Jericho.

Nemachilus

p. 73, pi.

8,

f.

leontina.

little fish,

9>

A.

7,

V.

from any other

5,

P. ii.

was discovered by Dr. Lortet in


is not common.
It is not known

three inches in length,

Lake of Galilee, where, however,

the

dulacde Tiberiade,

i.

D.
This

Lortet. Poiss. et Rept.

it

locality.

FAMILY,
43.
l,

Anguilla vulgaris.

Turton.

Brit.

Faun.,

p. 87.

The

Eel.

Arab.

Anklis.

The Eel

was distinguished by Kaup as A. microptera,


but both Dr. GUnther and Lortet agree in identifying it with our

common

of Palestine

species.

Kishon, the Wady Kurn, and the Nahr el Kelb, but


neither Dr. Lortet nor myself have met with it in
any part of the Jordan
I

found

it

in the

It is most abundant in the Lake of Antioch, where it reaches


system.
the length of four and a half feet, and to judge
by the market, appears
to form the staple food of the inhabitants.

23

TERRESTRIAL AND FLUVIATILE


MOLLUSCA.
THE

Fauna of

Palestine partakes, as might


have been expected, of the same variety which marks the other branches
There are, however, fewer exceptions to its
of its Fauna and Flora.

character of the Molluscan

the Mediterranean basin, and fewer traces


general character as a part of
of the admixture of African and Indian forms. Northern types, especially
of the genus Clausilia, are frequent in the Lebanon and on its southern
The Molluscan Fauna of the maritime plains and the
spurs in Galilee.
coast possesses no features distinct from those of Lower Egypt and Asia
Minor. The shells of the central region are scarce and not generally
interesting while on the borders of the Jordan valley and in the southern
;

we meet

with very distinct groups of Helix and of Sulimus,


chiefly of species peculiar, or common in some few cases to the Arabian

wilderness

desert.

The

Mollusca are of a type very much more tropical in its


character than that of the terrestrial shells.
There are here but few
fluviatile

species similar to those of the east of Europe.


identical with, or similar to, those of the Nile

some of the genus Melanopsis, and no

Most of

the species are

and of the Euphrates

less

than

sixteen

Unios,

and
are

It seems
peculiar to the Jordan or its feeders.
probable that the
inhabitants of the waters were better able to sustain the cold of the

epoch than the mollusks of the land


remains found by the Dead Sea we may

glacial

and from the

post-tertiary

infer that the species

now

existing have been transmitted from a period antecedent to the glacial


while the more boreal forms introduced at that epoch have maintained

their

existence

in

the

colder

districts

of

Northern Palestine to the

7ERRESTRIAL AND FLUVIATILE MOLLUSCA.

I?9

southern species, which have not succeeded in reThe beautiful group Achatina, requiring a
establishing themselves.
degree of moisture not generally found in Palestine, is only represented
by a few insignificant and almost microscopic species.
of the

exclusion

The Molluscan Fauna


other branches of

its

of this country has been less neglected than


natural history. Olivier first published a few species

in 1821.
Ehrenberg added many more, of which
were
new.
Boissier published his list in the
described
as
eighteen
Zeitschrift fiir Malakologie' in 1847.
Bourguinat published and figured

through

Ferussac

'

1853 the collection made by M. de Saulcy and Dr. Roth, in his


Species," in his 'Spicilegium Molluscorum,' 1855, and
Coquilles Terrestres et Fluviatiles,' edited by A. Mousson, 1861, has

in
'

Molluscorum

'

supplied us with a catalogue far


of his predecessors.

more complete and exhaustive than any

of these contributions to our knowledge of the Molluscan Fauna


shrink into insignificance when compared with the magnificent work of
Mr. Arnould Locard, on the Fluviatile Molluscs of the Lake of Galilee

But

all

Malacologie des Lacs de Tiberiade, d'Antioche et d'Homs,' 410., Lyon,


This work, superbly illustrated, gives, with the fullest details,
1883.

'

descriptions of

all

the

known Molluscs

of the

Lake

of Galilee, and to

it

am

indebted for the opportunity of enumerating a great part of the


Unios of that unique inland sea, which contains no less than eighteen
I

One of the most


species confined to the waters of the Jordan valley.
and
as
features
of
the
remarkable,
yet unexplained,
phenomena of this
unique depression is that many of the species are found at depths of 25,
Most
50, and even 100 fathoms; and some of them only at that depth.
of these deepwater species are small in comparison with the allied species
found in the deeper waters of other European and Asiatic rivers yet the
thickness of the shells proves that there is no want of calcareous matter
;

The

richness and brilliancy of the nacreous lining of


most of these shells surpasses the colouring of any European species.
for their formation.

i.

Limax phceniciacus.

Bourg.

Test. Nov., p.

9,

1852.

Very common

in the maritime plains from Beyrout to Jaffa, and in the


which
on them. Not observed in the interior. Easily
abut
valleys
distinguished from L. agrestis by its larger size and its crowded black

232

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

,3o

and reaches a length of upwards of

It is very slightly wrinkled,


spots.
two inches.

Limax berylensis.

2.

Test Nov.,

Bourg.

p. 10, 1852.

In the same localities as the preceding, but by no means so plentiful.


It is of much smaller dimensions, and may be at once distinguished by its
deep bbck colour, and its mantle, placed not in front, but almost on the
centre of

back.

its

Limax

3.

Verm. Terr,

Mull.

tenellus.

et Fluv. Hist,

ii.,

p.

n.

found several specimens of a slug in moist valleys south of the


Lebanon, which I can in no way distinguish from the European species.
I

4.

Limax

5.

Parmacella moquini.

Drap.

variegatus.

Tabl. Moll., p. 103.

Bourg.

Amen. Malac.

ii.,

p.

39.

Plain of Sharon.
6.

Daudebardia saulcyi. (Bourg.

Test Noviss.,p.

10.)

= D.s,yriaca.

Roth.)
four fine specimens of this interesting species in the
Kurn, near the Plain of Acre.
I

7.

dug up

Daudebardia

gaillardoti.

Rev. ct

Bourg.

Mag.

Wddy

Zool.,

1855,

p. 326.

Plain of Phoenicia.
8.

Succinea pfeifferi,

Iconogr.

i.,

p.

92,

f.

46.

reeds near Beyrout.

Among
9.

Rossm.

Succinea globosa.

Tristram.

P.Z.S., 1865, p. 531.

Long, 14, diam. 10, alt. 8} mill.


This beautiful and most peculiar species was obtained by me on
p.ipyrus-stems in the marshes of Huleh (waters of Merom), in the Upper
In the rotundity of its form and the diaphanous redness of its
Jordan.
coloration,

been.

it is

The

wi-Wy removed from any other

animal

is

very lar^e for the

shell.

of the group which

have

AND FLUV1ATILE MOLLUSCA.


Helix

10.

sjncta.

Near Jerusalem.
//.

The

ccllaria.

Test. Noviss. Or.,

Bourg.

Mousson considers

differences,

this

,81

15.

p.

only a

giant variety of

however, appear constant, both

in colour

and convexity.
11.

Helix nitdlina.

12.

Helix protcnsa.

Test. Noviss. Or.,


Bourg.
Scarce throughout the
country.
Per.

Tabl. Syst.,

p.

40,

p. 16.

No. 207.

Nablus.

Hdix ccllaria.

13.

Mull.

Verm. Terr,

et FIuv. Hist,

ii.,

p. 38.

In the north only.

Helix jcbusitica.

14.

Roth, in Malak.

Bl.,

1855, P- 24.

Near Jerusalem, Sarepta, and Nazareth.

Easily distinguishable from


sancta by its less regular and less delicate
striation, and by its much
and from the following
larger umbilicus
its rounded umbilicus
species

H.

by

and the
15.

less rapid increase of its whorls.

Helix

Only
1

6.

ccqnata.

in the north,

//,-//; i-

iS.

Jericho,

and Jerusalem.

We found a

Bourg,

close to Jerusalem

HclL* pulchclla.

16, 55.

Test. Noviss. Or.,


p. 14.

Bourg.

Helix hurosolymitana.

Not uncommon

Bell. Or.,
p.

Coq.
near the coast.

camelina.

Near Nazareth,
17-

Mouss.

Mull.

Test. Noviss. Or.,


p. 13.

not met with clsewhciv.

Verm. Terr,

ct

Fluv. Hist,

ii.,

p.

30.

single specimen of this world-wide species under a stone in

the Plain of Acre.


19.

Helix conspurcata.

On

the coast near Sklon.

20.

Helix

erdflii.

Near Jerusalem.

Drap.

Tab!. Moll.,

Roth, in Pfr. Mon.

i.,

p.

p. 93.

205.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

,8z

21.

notala.

Roth, in Schmidt.

Helix joppensis.
Mouss.

Ditto,

Helix simulata.

23.

Helix

syriaca.

p.

29; vzr.mulli-

Mouss.

van subkrynichiana,

22.

Stylomm.,

Tabl. Syst,

Fe>.

Ehrenb.

p. 45.

Symb. Phys.

Prodr., p. 289.
Pfeiff.

Mon. Hel.

i.,

p. 131.

One
24.
P-

of the most abundant shells in every part of the country.

Helix

rufilabris.

Linn.

Moll.

Syn.

Jeffreys.

Trans,

xvi.,

509.

Very common everywhere.


25.

Helix montis-carmeli.

Diam. maj.

Tristram.

P. Z. S., 1865, p. 532.

min, 7, alt. 4 mill


and
Two adult
several young specimens of this very
little
shell
were
collected by us on Mount Carmel.
pretty
bear no affinity to any other species in the country but it
8,

like

H. partita,
26.

Helix

Pfr.,

from Ceylon, which, however,

berytensis.

Generally distributed
27.

Helix

lenticula.

Fer.

is

distinct

and

It

seems to

is

somewhat

umbilicated.

Prodr., p. 260.

in small

numbers through the country.

Tabl. Syst.,

Fer.

p.

41.

Near the coast


28.

Helix nummus.

Ehrenb.

= //.

hedenborgi, Pfr. Hel. Viv.

p. 209).

Very abundant
29.

in the

Nahr

Helix genezerethana.

Perhaps a large variety of


30.

Helix pratensis.

Galilee.

Pfr.

el

Kelb, near Beyrout.

Mouss.

Coq. Voy. Roth., 1861,

H. nummus.
P. Z. S., 1845, p. 132.

p. 28.

i.,

'D

31.

Pha

FLUVIATILE MOL

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE,

lga

Roth, in Schmidt.

Helix joppensis.

21.

Stylomm.,

p.

29

var. multi-

Mouss.

no tata.

Mouss.

Ditto, var. subkrynichiana.


22.

Helix simulata.

23.

Helix

Tabl. Syst,

Per.

Ehrenb.

syriaca.

prodr ->

p. 45-

Symb. Phys.

Pfeiff.

28 9-

P-

Mon. Hcl.

i.,

p. 131.

of the most abundant shells in every part of the country.

One

Helix

24.
P.

rufilabris.

Trans,

Linn.

Moll.

Syn.

Jeffreys.

xvi.,

509-

Very common everywhere.

Diam. maj.

Two

7, alt.

mill.

and several young specimens of this very


shell were collected by us on Mount Carmel.
but

distinct

and

It

seems to

it is

somewhat

any other species in the country


H. partita, Pfr., from Ceylon, which, however, is umbilicated.

bear no
like

min,

adult

little

pretty

8,

P. Z. S., 1865, p. 532.

Tristram.

Helix montis-carmeli.

25.

26.

affinity to

Helix

berytensis.

Prodr., p. 260.

Per.

the country.
Generally distributed in small numbers through

27.

Helix

Near the
28.

lenticula.

Tabl. Syst.,

Per,

p.

41.

coast

Helix nummus.

Ehrenb.

= H.

hedenborgi, Pfr. Hel. Viv.

p. 209).

Very abundant
29.

in the

Nahr

Helix genezerethana.

el

Kelb, near Beyrout.

Mouss.

Coq. Voy. Roth., 1861,

Perhaps a large variety of H. nummus.


30.

Helix pratensis.

Galilee.

Pfr.

P. Z. S., 1845, P-

3 2-

p. 28.

i.,

TERRESTRIAL AND JFLUVIATILE MOLLUSCA.


31.

Helix obstructs.

Tabl. Syst., p. 69.

Per.

Phoenician plain.
32.

Helix

solitudinis,

Bourg.

Test. Noviss. Or., p. 15.

Bourg.

Rev.

Ccele Syria.
33.

Helix bargesiana.

Northern
34.

et

Mag.

Zool., 1854, p. 15.

plains.

Helix pisana.

Verm. Terr,

Mull.

Plentiful along the coast, to

which

it

et Fluv.

is strictly

ii.,

p. 60,

No. 255.

confined.

Specimens

from the north are very richly coloured, while from the district near Gaza
they are blanched and colourless in life.
35.

Helix caspitum.

On

the coast and the

36.

Helix

Drap.
hills

variabilis.

Hist. Moll., p. 92.

near

Drap.

it,

in the

north of Palestine.

Tabl. Moll.,

p. 73.

Very common on Mount Carmel, and with many variations of colour


and size. The eastern specimens seem generally to be smaller than those
of Europe.
Probably several of the species not recognised by us
referred to varieties of this widely spread and most variable shell.

Saulcy does not appear to have met with


under some other name.
37.

Helix

lineata.

it,

may be
M. de

but perhaps distinguished

it

Zool. Adriat., p. 77.

Oliv.

Found on the hills along the coast. From the study of a long series
of intermediate varieties, I should feel disposed to diminish very
greatly
the number of described species of this variable group.
38.

= //.
(

Helix

Coq. Fluv. et Terr, de

1'Aisn., p. 80.

?)

near Jerusalem.

Helix hierochuntina.

Takes the place of


is at

Poiret.

langloisiana, Bourg.

Common
39.

intersecta.

the

once distinguished by

Roth.

preceding

its

Malak.

Bl.,

species in

1855, p. 24.

the Jordan valley.

red peristome and flattened


spire.

It

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

lS4

.40.

Helix turbinata.

2.

Mantiss., p.

Jan.

Scarce on the coast.


41.

Helix

42.

Helix arenosa.

Hist. Moll., p. 108.

Drap.

neglecta.

(Beck. Ind. Moll.,

14-)

p.

Nablus.

Helix apidna. Lam. Anim. S. Vert, vi.,


In the north, on the dry rocks near the coast.

43.

Helix campestris. Ziegl.


Found on the high plateau of

Mus. Rossmull.

44.

45.

Helix protea.

Common
many

ii.,

Moab and

p. 93.

viii., p.

Eastern Gilead.

Rossmaster, Hist. Moll,

Ziegl.

34.

viii., p.

and variable from the coast to the southern

34.

deserts.

have

H. langloisianx of Bourguinat, which


marked desert and blanched variety of the

specimens corresponding to

appears to be only a strongly


present species.
46.

Rossm.

Helix amanda.

Icon,

vii., p.

10.

Jerusalem.
47.

Helix improbata.

Mouss.

Coq. Voy. Roth., 1861,

p.

ir.

Mouss.

Coq. Voy. Roth., 1861,

p.

12.

Jerusalem.
48.

Helix

crispulata.

Jerusalem, rare.
49.

Helix

neglecta.

Drap.

50.

Helix

syrensis.

Pfr.

vestalis.

Parr.

Hist. Moll, p. 108.

Symb. ad

Hist. Hel.

iii.,

p. 69.

Lebanon.
51.

Helix

Abundant
52.

Helix

in a

few

Pf.

Symb.

i.,

p. 40.

localities.

tuberciilosa.

Conrad,

in

Lynch.

This

is

Report,

p.

229.

H. desprcauxii from the


the most peculiar and interesting Helix in Palestine,

Erroneously identified by Bourguinat with


Canaries.

Offi.

TERRESTRIAL AND FLUVIATILE MOLLUSCA.


found only sparingly in very restricted
west and south-west of the Dead Sea.

and

is

Helix

53.

Pfr. in

ledereri.

Malak.

185

the highlands

localities in

Bl. Hi., 1856, p. 43.

In a few places on the coast, on sand-banks.

Helix

54.

Koch.

seetzeni.

Zeitschr. fur Malak., 1847, P-

numbers over the southern deserts, where

In immense

it is

4-

the food of

Sea-Gulls.

Terver.

Helix arabica.

55.

Very

scarce,

Cat., p. 14.

and only south of the Dead Sea, taking the place of the

preceding species.
,

56. Helix candidissima.

Tabl. Moll.,

Drap.

p. 75.

Very common.
Var. hierochuntina, Boiss., granulated at the apex.
Var. /3, extremely glossy, and less than one-third the size of African

specimens.

Helix desertorum.

57.

Forsk.

Ehr. Symb. Phys.

Southern desert.

58.

Helix fimbriata.

Found
59.

in a

Bourg.

few restricted

Helix prophetarum.

Test. Noviss. Or.,

p.

u.

Dead

localities

north and west of the

Bourg.

Test. Noviss. Or., p. 12.

Scattered in several localities west and south of the

Dead

Sea.

Sea, near

Sebbeh and Jebel Usdum.


60.

Helix

This
shell, its

in

as

fine

solid

different

H.

boissieri.

Charp.

Zeitschr. fur Malak., 1847, p. 133.

example of a desert species, with its thick cretaceous


contracted mouth and black interior, is widely dispersed

localities

over the Judsean desert,

but not

so generally

seetzeni.

24

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

,SG

61.

Mouss.

Helix filia.

Coq. Voy. Roth., 1861,

p. 26.

This beautiful desert species has strong affinities both with H. prois extremely scarce, and is found only in a
phetarum and H. boissieri. It
few localities near the Dead Sea.
62.

Helix

cariosa.

Oliv.

Extremely abundant

in

not observed in the east.

Voy.

ii.,

p. 221, pi. 31,

the mountain districts of

The

f.

4.

Western Palestine

three varieties, (i) amphicyrta, (2) nazar-

The third is the prevailensis, (3) crassocarina, are easily recognisable.


its depressed
spire and broad
ing type in the north, distinguished by
About Nazareth it gives way to the second variety,
keel.
keel more compressed, but still the spire depressed.
the
with
rounder,
Specimens about Jerusalem and Carmel partake of the character of the
flattened

first

variety, with elevated spire

observed for

changed
63.

while at Hebron, the southern limit

the northern

shell,

we

form crassocarina, reappears un-

in the slightest particulars.

Helix guttata.

Dead
64.

this

Oliv.

Voy.

ii.,

334.

p.

Sea.

Helix eremophila.

Boiss.

Reeve. Conch.

Ic., vii.,

No. 956.

Southern Desert.
65.

Helix

Parr.

ccesareana.

Abundant

Mouss. Coq. Or.,

p. 34, 44.

Sharon and about the Sea of Galilee. The


specimens from Gennesaret are much larger and more richly marked than
those from Judaea.
66.

in the plain of

Helix spiriplana.

= H. guttata,
(

Oliv.

Voy.

Lev.

i.,

p.

415,

pi.

17,

f.

7.

Bourg.)

Generally distributed, but not numerous, in the higher grounds of


Southern Palestine, and not found in the same localities as the preceding.
67.

Helix

tnasadcs.

Diam. maj.

Tristram.

P.

Z. S., 1865, p. 535.

30, min. 25, alt. 14 mill.

Apert. diam. maj. 13, min. ii mill.


Found on Sebbeh, the ancient Masada, and the most barren and sterile

mountains from thence to Jebel Usdum, the salt-mountain.

The deep and

TERRESTRIAL AND PLUV1ATILE MOLLUSCA.

,87

regular striation of this shell distinguishes it at once from H. spiriplana,


for a small variety of which (such as that which Conrad has described
under the name H. lithophagd) it might otherwise be mistaken.

Helit aspersa.

68.

Very common

et Fluv. Hist,

p. 59.

ii.,

gardens of Tyre, Sidon, Beyrout, Jaffa, and all


It reaches a very
did not meet with it inland.

in the

We

places on the coast.

Verm. Terr,

Milll.

quite equal to the specimens from Algeria, and far surpassing


This as well as all the following species and
those of the Greek islands.

large size

H.

and sold

ccesareana are collected

Helix cavata.

69.

Common

Mouss.

in the interior

Coq.

not plentiful near the coast.

Roth

Malak. BL, 1855,

Helix prasinata.

We

did not find this species ourselves

me

at

Jerusalem by

Helix lucomm.

yr.

for food.

Bell. Or., p. 21.

70.

given

markets

in the

in

lamented

my

Linn.

but

p. 31.

possess three specimens

friend, its discoverer, Dr.

Roth.

Syst. Nat., p. 1247.

Lebanon.
Helix, figulina.

72.

Dry
73.

Parr, in

Rossm. Icon,

ix., p. 9.

Plains.

Helix

Verm. Terr,

Mull.

ligata.

et Fluv. Hist,

p. 58.

ii.,

In the Lebanon.
74.

Helix grisca.

Linn.

Syst. Nat., p. 693.

Between Nablus and the Jordan.


75.

Helix pachya.

Near
76.

the

Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1860,

Bourg.

p.

162.

Lake of Gennesaret, and north of


Beyrout.

Helix engaddensis.

Bourg.

Test. Noviss. Or., p.

i r.

In the wilderness of Judaea.

These eight species appear


portant differences

being

in

me

be very closely allied, the most imthe aperture, which is almost circular in H.
to

to

cavata (a species closely allied to


H.figiilind), and

is

oval and elongated in

24

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

l88

H. prasinata and H.
certainly very great

The differences in size and colour are


engaddensis.
yet I am inclined to believe that they are attributable

rather to climate and locality, and that further research will embrace all
In the immense series we colof them in two or at most three species.
it is

lected,

anywhere

Helix vermiculata.

77.

difficult

dwarf form of

this

Beyrout and Tripoli.

Bulimus

78.

Common
Sidon

draw a

satisfactory line.

Verm. Terr,

Miill.

ii.,

p. 20.

widely spread and variable shell occurs between

In Northern Syria

acutus.

et Fluv. Hist,

(Mull.

it is

as large as in North Africa.

Verm. Terr,

et Fluv. Hist,

ii.,

p. 100.)

on the sandy banks near the shore between Beyrout and

scarcer to the southward.

Bulimus

79.

to

Found by us

decollatus.

Linn.

Syst. Nat.

sparingly in the plain of

p.

i.,

Sharon.

773.

This

is,

so far as

am

I
aware, the most eastern locality hitherto noticed for this shell.
cannot altogether agree with the remark of Bourguinat, that B. decollatus

and west, excepting in size, those from the east


I
possess an extensive
being considerably larger than from the west.
series collected by myself in every country bordering on the Mediterranean,
from Spain and Morocco to Asia Minor, Cyprus, and Syria.
The specimens from Algeria and Tunis are very much larger than any on the
does not vary

in the east

northern side, reaching the length of 2^ inches without the rejected


The Spanish specimens are much more obtuse, and
portion of the apex.
with fewer whorls, than those from countries further east

we proceed
shell,

till

80.

and the further

eastward, the longer and the more attenuated do we find the


Cyprus and Palestine it reaches its extreme attenuation,

in

though not approaching African specimens


to occur in

in size.

It

does not appear

Egypt.

Bulimus

fasciolatus.

Oliv.

Voy. Lev.

i.,

p.

416,

pi.

(var. eburneus).

Scarce, in the neighbourhood of the


81.

Bulimus

Maritime

candelaris.

Plains.

Pfr.

Wady

Kelt, near Jericho.

P. Z. S. 1846,

p,

40.

17,

f.

TERRESTRIAL AND FLUVIATILE MOLLUSCA.


Bulimus

82.

The

finest

Voy. Lev.

Oliv.

labrosus.

and most

characteristic

ii.

shell

222, p. 31,

189

f.

of Palestine.

10.

It

is

found

generally concealed in small fissures of the limestone rocks, sometimes


under stones, throughout the whole of Western Palestine, as far as the
It is most abundant
edge of the Ghor or Jordan valley, but not beyond.
A very small variety is
near the coast, where it attains its greatest size.

found

in the

83.

southern wilderness.

Bulimus

carneus,

This beautiful
basin of the

Dead

Phil.

Pfr.

Abbild.

ii.,

shell takes the place of the

Sea towards the south

Engedi, nor on the east

side.

It is

modern Sebbeh.

but

most

pi. 4,

f.

5.

preceding species in the


it north of

we never found

about the famed rock

plentiful

We

brought a considerable number


home alive, which are now depositing their eggs, and feeding on succulent
It is impossible, after observing a large series, to have any hesiplants.
of Masada, the

tation in separating B, carneus specifically

gated form, the mouth proportionally


species,

and

less

circular instead of being

from B. labrosus.

The

elon-

than half the size of the other

extended towards the

right, the

and the

callosity largely extended over the last


nor have I ever detected any
whorl, at once distinguish every specimen

solidity of the peristome,

intermediate forms.

The

typical B. carneus of Dr. Pfeiffer

from Lycia.

have not been


specimens with the type, though they appear to
coincide exactly with the diagnosis and the
It is possible that our
figure.
Dea Sea species may be distinct.
able to

84.

compare

Bulimus

is

my

alepi.

Per.

Prodr., p. 418.

Generally diffused, but scarce in number of individuals.


near Jerusalem and by the Dead Sea.
85.

Bulimus

Extremely abundant
86.

Bulimus

Pfr.

syriaciis.

Symb.

iii.,

p. 88.

in certain localities of the

sidoniensis.

Charp.

Collected

Lebanon.

Reeve. Conch.

No. 433.
In the plain of Phoenicia and the
neighbouring

hills.

Ic.,

v.,

pi.

Ixiii.,

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

9o

87.

Bulimus

ehrenbergi.

Pfr.

P. Z. S., 1846, p. 113.

Erroneously identified by Bourguinat with B. obesatiis, Webb and


Berthelot, from the Canaries.
Frequent throughout the wooded hills and
Palestine.
The rich olive-green epidermis
Western
in
under brushwood
of the living shell seems to have escaped the notice of
88.

Bulimus forskalii.

Southern desert.

Beck.

describers.

its

Ind., p. 68.

This species partakes much of the character of

Pup*.
89.

Bulimus

urics.

Long, tota

15, lat. 7

The Wady

of

Tristram.
;

P. Z. S., 1865, p. 537.

apert. long. 5^,

lat.

4!

mill.

Amman

(Rabbath Ammon).
This Bulimus, the Transjordanic representative of B. attenuatus, is
intermediate in character between it and B. pupa of Greece and Algeria,
From the latter it may be distinguished at once by its
colour

and by

its

suddenly expanding
From the former
appearance.

fifth
it is

whorl, which gives

olive-green
a peculiar obese

it

distinguished by the sixth and seventh

whorls increasing instead of contracting.


90.

Bulimus (Chondrus)

triticeus.

Rossm.

Ic.

iii.,

p. 89.

Near Jerusalem.
91.

Bidlmus {Chondrus)

sulcidens.

Mouss.

Pfr.

Mon.

vi., p.

71.

The Bukaa.
92.

Bulimus (Chondrus)

tricuspidatus.

Not uncommon near Beyrout, and by

Kiister, p. 62,

the

Dead

pi. 8,

f.

5, 6.

Sea.

Bulimus (Chondrus) septemdentatus. Roth. Diss.,p. 19, pi. 2, f. 2.


Common throughout the whole country, and subject to great variations
The mouth is frequently six-toothed, and sometimes only fivesize.
93.

in

toothed.

Bulimus (Chondrus) omilaris. Oliv. Voy. i., p.


Common. For the distinctions between this and the

94.

Mousson, Coq.

p. 46.

f.

12.

last species,

see

225,

pi.

17,

TERRESTRIAL AND FLUVIATILE MOLLUSCA.


Bulimus (Chondrus)

95.

bidens.

Bull.

Kryn.

Mosc.

vi., p.

9I

401.

Anti-Lebanon.

Bulimus

96.

Rossm.

lamelliferus.

97. Buliimis (Chondrus) saulcyi.

About the
rently, to the

and found

plain of Gennesaret

Icon,

and the Dead Sea.

1859,

P-

Confined, appa-

Like B. ovularis, but invariably

Jordan valley.

sinistral,

in distinct localities.

Parr.

Pfr.

Monog.

ii.,

p. 135.

found at Jaffa and near Jerusalem.

Bulimus

99.

17, 1859, p. 95.

Test. Noviss. Or., p. 18.

Bourg.

98. Buliimis (Chrondrus) nucifragus.

Scarce

iii.,

Ann. and Mag., N. H., 3rd

Benson.

benjamiticus.

Ser.,

393-

Hills of Benjamin.
100.

Pupa

delesserti.

Bourg.

Test. Noviss. Or., p. 17.

Scarce, in the Anti-Lebanon.

Test. Noviss. Or., p. 19.

101.

Pupa

Two

specimens found near Tyre,

02.

Pupa

Bourg.

saulcyi.

Roth.

rhodia.

Scarce near Jerusalem.


Gennesaret, but extremely
103.

Pupa granum.

Near Sidon,

Pupa

Jerusalem.
106.

Pupa

Long, tota

Found

2,

f.

4.

Very abundant on a rock near the Lake of


local.

Drap.

Pfr.

single dead specimen

105.

Diss., p. 19, pi.

Tabl. Moll.,

p.

50.

in the plain of Phoenicia.

104. Piipa scyphus.

in the hills.

in

chondriformis.

Zeitschr.

f.

Mai., 1848, p.

7.

Lebanon.

Mousson.

Coq. Voy. Roth. 1861,

Scarce.

Tristram.

libanotica.
1 1,

lat.

4^

mill.

at Ainat, in the

Lebanon.

P. Z. S., 1865, p. 538.

p. 49,

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

9,

107.

Pupa

Parr.

orientalis.

Pfr. in

Malak.

Bl. viii., 1861, p. 168.

Nazareth.
1

08.

Rev. et Mag. Zool.

Bourg.

Pupa raymondi.

xv., 1863, p. 259.

Anti-Lebanon.
109.

michonii.

Pupa

One dead specimen found


110.

Pupa

Long.

2f,

hebraica.

lat.

i^

Test. Noviss. Or., p. 19.

Bourg.

near Nazareth.

Tristram.

P. Z. S., 1865, p. 539.

mill.

The beautiful and regular tranverse


a tomb near Jericho.
ridges on the whorls, as seen through a magnifying-glass, at once distinguish this from every other species of Piipa.
Found

in.

in

Clausilia mossta.

Near

Jaffa,

Fe"r.

Pr. 539.

near Beyrout, and occasionally in the

hills

behind the

plain of Phoenicia.

112. Clausilia strang ulata.

F6r.

Plentiful in the ravine of the

Nahr

Pro. 516.
el

Kelb, Lebanon.

Cat. Rais. Moll. Or., p. 50.

113. Clausilia saulcyi.

Bourg.

Only found by us

Ladder of Tyre.

at the

Collected by

M. de Saulcy

near Jerusalem.
1

14.

Clausilia delesserti.

In the

Nahr

el

Kelb, in

115. Clausilia albersi.

Cat. Rais., p. 47.

Bourg.

damp caves
Charp.

scarce.

Journ. Conch., 1852,

p.

374.

In the valley of the Kadisha, Lebanon.


1 1 6.

Clausilia boissieri.

Charp.

Zeitschr.

f.

Malak., 1847,

p.

142.

Excessively abundant near the Nahr el Kelb and on the rocks near
Found abundantly on rocks, a few yards from the spray of
Beyrout.
the sea.

It

panded than

reaches a larger size here, and the peristome is


specimens from Crete and other parts of Greece.

in

more

ex-

TERRESTRIAL AND FLUVIATILE MOLLUSCA.


117.

19J

Tristr., P. Z. S., 1865, p. 539.

Clansilia genezerethana.

Long. 2o|, diam. 3 mill.


Found only on rocks near the plain of Gennesaret.

Rossm.

118. Clausilia oxystoma.

Ic. x., p.

19,

f.

625.

Eastern slopes of Lebanon.


119. Clausilia hierosolymitana.
p.

Bourg.

Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1868,

428.

Jerusalem.
120. Clatisilia corpenlenta.

Pfr. in Zeitschrift

f.

Malak., 1848,

p. 7.

Beyrout.
121. Clausilia cedretonim.
p.

Rev. et Mag. Zool.

Bourg.

xv.,

1863,

109.

Lebanon.
122.
P-

Claiisilia cylindrclliformis.

Bourg.

Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1855,

330.

Lebanon.
123.

Rossm.

Clausilia bitorquata.

in

Malak.

Bl. iv., 1857, p. 38.

Lebanon, near Tripoli.


Tristram.

124. Claiisilia medlycotti.

P. Z. S., 1865, p. 540.

Long. mill. 19, diam. 3! apert. long. 3, lat. z\ mill.


This most beautiful Clattsilia, which I have great pleasure
;

cating to

my

friend

and

was found by us only


hills
all

one

others by the boldness of

tinct,

dedi-

W. C. P. Medlycott, Bart,
but
in
considerable plenty, in the
place,

fellow-traveller, Sir
in

behind Surafend (Sarepta).

though sometimes

in

its

once be distinguished from


sculpture, and by its very deep and disIt

may

at

irregular, ridges.

125. Clausilia sidonia.

Parr.

Mai., 1848, p. 10.

Mughdooshy, near Sidon.


25

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

94

26.

Rossm.

Clausilia bicarinata.

Northern

x., p.

7,

f.

620.

hills.

127. Clausilia sancta.

Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1868,

Bourg.

p.

427.

Beyrout.
128. Clausilia vesicalis.

Rossm. Malak.

Frev.

Bl. iv.,

1857, p. 38.

Beyrout.
129. Clausilia dcxtrorsa.

Northern
130.

hills,

Glaus. Stud., 1877, p. 46.

Bottg.

Lebanon.
Malak. BL, 1855,

Clausilia ehrenbergi. Roth.

p. 44.

Beyrout, in gardens.
131. Clausilia fauciata.

Lower Lebanon,

Beyrout.

132. Clausilia
P-

in

cliffs.

Rev.

Bourg.

ph&niciaca.

Bl. iv., 1857, p. 39.

et

Mag.

Zool.,

1868,

425-

Nahr
133.

el

Kelb.

Claiisilia porrecta.

Lebanon, near the

Nahr

el

Kelb

Frev.

Rossm.

Malak.

Bl. iv., 1857, p. 39.

sea.

134. Clausilia davidiana.


valley,

Bourg.

Rev.

et

Mag.

Zool., 1868, p. 376.

Lower Lebanon.

135. Clausilia prophetanim.


P-

Rossm. Malak.

Parr.

Bourg.

Rev. et

Mag.

Zool.,

1868,

378.

Near Beyrout.
136.
p.

Clausilia raymondi.

Bourg.

Rev. et Mag. Zool.

xv.,

no.

Nahr
137.

el

Kelb.

Clausilia filunma.

Lebanon.

Pfr.

Malak.

Bl. xiii., 1866, p. 151.

1863,

TERRESTRIAL AND FLU VIATILE MOLLUSCA.


138.

The Leontes
139.

Jahrb. Mai. Ges.

Bott.

Clausilia pleuroptychia.

195

v., p.

291.

valley.

Claiisilia galeata.

Rossm.

x., p.

17,

f.

621.

Near Baalbec.
140.
P-

Clausilia

Rev.

Bourg.

dutaillyana.

et

Mag.

Zool.,

1868,

424-

Western Lebanon.
Schmidt. Clausil.,

Parr.

141. Clausilia nervosa.

p. 102.

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.


142.

Roth.

Tornatellina (Beck) hierosolymarum.

Malak.

Bl.,

1855,

P- 39-

Scarce, in

143.

tombs

Glandina

in various parts

(Ccecilianella)

of the country.

tumulorum,

var. j^tdaica

Bourg.

iv.,

625.

In tombs at Jerusalem.
144.

Glandina

(Ccecilianella) liesvillci.

Bourg.

Rev. et Mag. Zool.,

1856, p. 385145. Planorbis hebraicus.

Test. Noviss. Or.,

Bourg.

p. 23.

Ain Mellaheh, near Lake Huleh.


146. Planorbis piscinarum.

Near Zebdany,

L.

148. Planorbis alexandrinus.

149. Planorbis saulcyi.

Limnsea,

Near

Limncza

Test. Noviss. Or., p. 22.

in Ccele Syria.

147. Planorbis vortex.

150.

Bourg.

tenera.

Syst. Nat.

Roth. Moll.,

(Bourg.
Parr.

pi.

ii.,

f.

Voy. Mer Morte,

Reeve.

Conchol.

8.

p. 68).

Icon.,

vol.

pi. xiv., sp. 96.

the

Lake Huleh.
2C

xviii.,

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

I96

151.

Limnaa

Mouss.

syriaca ?

Near Baalbec.
152.

Limntea truncatula.

Verm.

(Mull.

Mist,

ii.,

p. 130.

Lake Huleh.
153-

Chemn.

Cyclostonta olivieri.

ed. nov., p. 156, pi. 21,

P-

Verm. Terr,

Mull.

Cyclostoma elcgans.

20.

plains of Phoenicia

of the
Very common in the neighbourhood
further south or east.
Acre, but not met with
154.

f.

et

Fluv.

Hist,

and

ii.,

137155. Bithinia saulcyi.

Voy. Mer Morte,

Bourg.

p. 63.

The Bukaa.
Bourg.

156. Bithinia gaillardoti.

hawadieriana.
157. Bithinia

Mer

Voy.

Bourg.

Morte,

p. 63.

Lake Huleh.
158. Bithinia moqidniana.

Bourg.

Bithinia hebraorum.

Bourg.

59.

Ain Fijeh, and other fountains


1

in the

Bukaa

Ram

(Lake

very common.

Conrad.

60. Bithinia (Paludina) phialensis.

Birket er

Phiala).

161. Bithinia rubens.

Lake Huleh.
There are several other

Menke.

Synopsis,

p.

134.

which
species of minute Paludinidce,

have

not been able to determine.


162.

Melania

Occurs living

tuberculata.

Mull.

in various streams,

Verm. Terr,
anl

et Fluv., p. 191-

semi-fossil in great

numbers on

the Lake of Galilee


the marl-deposit's by the Dead Sea. By the shores of
dead and bleached specimens are very common.

TERRESTRIAL AND FLUVIATILE MOLLUSCA.


163.

Melania rothiana.

Coq. Rec. Roth.,

Mouss.

197

p. 61.

We
I

am

obtained several dead specimens of this shell by the Sea of Galilee


more than doubtful of its specific value, believing it to be merely an
;

elongated form of M. tubcmilata; but M. Lortet, a


considers it distinct.
164.

Melania gemmulata.

pi. xiii., sp.

In the

M.

Reeve.

Conch.

much

Icon., vol.

better judge,

xii.,

Melania,

86.

Nahr

Always a deep brown-black, and differing from


the absence of the longitudinal ridges and tubercles on

el

tuberculata in

Kelb.

the spire.
165.

Melania rubro-punctata.

P. Z. S., 1865, p. 541.

Tristram.

Long. 21, diam. 5 mill. altera 17 long., 3^ tliam.


Lives buried in the sand, in fountains near the Dead Sea.
;

Had

not consulted more

experienced naturalists than myself, I


should have felt disposed to have included this as a delicate and very
The distinctive
beautiful variety of the variable M. tuberculata.
characters are the extreme smallness of the aperture and the sudden
I

termination of the longitudinal sculpture, which does not extend to the


lower whorls.
1

66.

Melania jtidaica.

167. Melanopsis biiccinoidea.

Very abundant
fossil in

in

Malak.

Roth.

almost

all

the old marl-deposits

(Oliv.,

Nahr

Voy.

ii.,

I.,

p. 53.

p. 297.)

the streams of Palestine, and found sub-

by the shores of the Dead Sea.

distinct variety peculiar to almost

Var. A, from the

Bl.

el

There

is

district.

every
Kelb, near Beyrout,

is

horn-colour, with

three dark brown bands.

Var. B, from streams near Engedi and other streams flowing into the
Dead Sea, is much larger than any other specimens I have seen, and may

once recognised by a compression on the right side of the peristome,


It is rarely black, but of a rich brown colour, and the
near the columella.

be

at

inside of the

mouth a pale

purple.

It

may be

hereafter separated as a

distinct species.

Var. C, from the waters of

Merom and

the

Lake of

Galilee,

is

very

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

93

approaching the specimens of Engedi in size, but black,


more inflated and obtuse, and with a rich deep purple colour inside the
mouth. Those from the Kishon are similar, but smaller.

large, almost

168. Mclanopsis

Long.
I was

ammo nis.

25, diam. 10

Tristram.

P. Z. S., 1865, p. 542.

apert. long. 7, larg. 5 mill.

a variety of M. prcerosa ;
but its more elegant and elongated shape, the smallness of its mouth, and
the traces of longitudinal ridges, appear to me sufficient to justify its
at first inclined to place this shell as

Found only

separation.

in

streams at Heshbon and

Ammon,

east of

Jordan, where the other species does not occur.


1

69.

In a few restricted localities

Roth.

170. Melanopsis femisaci.


f.

Voy. Mer Morte, p. 66.


chiefly at Ain Sultan, Jericho.

Bourg.

Melanopsis saulcyi.

Moll. Spec.,

1839, p. 24,

pi.

ii.,

10.

species of Asia

Minor and Northern

Syria, but also found here

and

there in Lebanon.
171.
f.

Melanopsis dorm.

Moll.

Issel.

Persiae,

1865,

p.

16,

pi.

i.,

7, 8.

Found

running water near Beyrout.

in

Originally described from

Persia.

172.
p.

Melanopsis variabilis.

175, pi.

iv.,

Also found

ff.

in

V. de

Busch.

in

Phil. Abbild.,

1847,

7, 8, 10.

streams near Beyrout.

173. Melanopsis brevis.

Mouss. Coq.

Parr, in

Bellardi, 1854, p. 51.

In the Litany River.


174.

Melanopsis

In the Kishon.

costellata.

The

Fe>.

Monog. Melanop.,

p.

28.

between this and M:


saulcyi are
This
by Bourguinat.
species is less fusiform, more
does not increase regularly, and its last whorl is three
times the
differences

clearly pointed out


inflated,

size of the others united

and a half as

large.

while that of

Msaulcyi

is

not more than once

TERRESTRIAL AND FLU VIATILE MOLLUSCA.


175. Melanopsis costata.

Oliv.,

Voy.

p.

ii.,

199

294.

Very abundant in the Huleh (waters of Merom), the Lake of Galilee,


In immense quantities in a sub-fossil state round
and the Upper Jordan.
the

Dead

Roth.

Melanopsis jordanica.

176.
f.

Sea.
Moll.

Spec.,

p.

25,

pi.

ii.,

12, 13.

Peculiar, so far as

Jordan below

we

could ascertain, to the

Lake of

Galilee and the

it.

Rossmassler, as well as Roth at an earlier period, considered this to be


a variety of the preceding species. There is, however, a striking difference,
the shape and coloration, but in the habit of the living animal.
costata is always found adhering to the stems and the under surface

not only

M.

of the

in

leaves of aquatic

plants

while

the

M.

obtuse and striped form,


we never

M. costata
jordanica, adheres only to rocks and stones.
met with south of the entrance to the Lake of Galilee in a living

M. jordanica

to the north of

6,

diam. 6^

mill.

Collected only in the

nor

it.

Tristram.

177. Melanopsis eremita.

Long.

state,

little

P. Z. S., 1865, p. 542.

apert. long. 5,

stream of the

lat. 3-^ mill.

Wady

Um

Bagkek, between

Sebbeh and Jebel Usdum, at the south-west corner of the Dead Sea,
where it was very abundant.
This beautiful and very small species of Melanopsis may be at once
It may be remarked, that in
recognised by its peculiarly brilliant gloss.
the same region which supplies the smallest of its group, the common
Melanopsis prcerosa attains its greatest magnitude.
Besides the species here enumerated, the following have been
named by Bourguinat, but no descriptions published. They are unknown
to me,

and are

78.

Melanopsis prophetantm,

Elisha's Fountain.

79.

Lake

Beyrout.

Melanopsis ovum.
of Galilee.

Lake of Antioch.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

200

Neritina syriaca.

80.

8 1. Neritina jordani.

Found

Jordan and

in the

Sowerby. Conch. 111., f. 49.


two lakes, Huleh and Galilee, but chiefly
We never discovered it
in the Huleh.

Buttler.
its

under the leaves of water-lilies


course of the Jordan.
living in the lower
182. Neritina michonii.

Test. Nov.,

Bourg.

p. 25.

Abundant in almost every stream and spring throughout the whole of


It attains its greatest size in the thermal springs
Palestine, east and west.
of the Ghor.
183. Neritina bellardi.

Mouss.

Coq. Bellardi,

p. 52, pi.

i.,

n.

f.

have not had the opportunity of examining a type specimen but,


from the diagnosis, I believe this species to be that which is found in the
Jabbok and its affluents. It is certainly different from N. miclionii, as
may be at once recognised by an examination of its operculum.
I

184.
f.

Nouv.

Moll.

Corbicula saulcyi. Bourg.

Litig.,

p.

315,

pi. xlv.,

69.
Long. 36,
This shell

35, diam. 16-5 mill.

lat.

once distinguished from the next species by the coarse


and irregular striations which furrow the whole surface of the valves.

These

is

at

in C. fluminalis are fine

Found

in the

and regular.

Dead

Jordan.

valves by the shore of the

Lake of

Galilee.

185.

Corbicula fluminalis.

This species

is

not

uncommon

very variable in size,


specimens from the lake.
is

Long. 17
1

86.

p. 29, pi. xxii.,

Long. 19

f.

22

Hist,

ii.,

p. 205.

It
Jordan and Sea of Galilee.
as may be seen from the measurements of two

in the

20

28, diam. 16

syriaca.

Bourg.

27, lat.

Corbicula

Verm. Fluv.

Mull.

21 mill.

Locard.

Malac.

Lac Tiberiade,

24.

24, lat. 17

Found sparingly in the


of Antioch and Hums.

21, diam.

Lake of

16

Galilee.

mill.

Very common

in the

Lakes

TERRESTRIAL AND PLUVIATILE MOLLUSCA.


Mouss.

crassitla.

Cyrena

187.

Reeve.

Conch.

20 1

Icon.

Cyrena,

sp. 72.

Adonis
1

Litany

river, etc.

Cyclas casertanum.

88.

Unto terminalis.

189.

Jaffa.

Poli. Test. Sicil.

i.,

65,

Kadisha, Lebanon.

Wady
This

river.

is

the

common

Mer Morte,

Voy.

Bourg.

p. 76, pi. 3,

Litany (Leontes) river.


be only a thinner and shorter variety of U. terminalis.
separate the two.

specimens that it appears to be impossible to


U. terminalis also seems to be identical with the

U. dignatns, Lea, from the Tigris, as


in

specimens

Mr. Cuming's

Unio

delesserti.

M. de Saulcy near

Unio michonii.

Voy.

Bourg.

Jaffa, in

find

on comparison of type

collection.

In the Zerka or Crocodile

191.

have obtained

intermediate

many

190.

4.

Lake of Galilee, and I found it also


The Unio jordanmts, Bourg., seems to

Unio of the

in the

so

f.

river,

the

same

Bourg.

Mer

Morte, Moll.,

p. 77.

Found by

the Plain of Sharon.

in

plain.

Voy.

Mer

Morte,

p.

74.

Figured by Bourguinat from the


Appears to be but a variety of the

In the Zerka or Crocodile river.

neighbouring streams of Jaffa.


U. marginalis, Lamarck, a variable species found

in

Mauritius,

India,

and China.
192.
f.

Unio

saulcyi.

Bourg.

Voy.

Mer

Morle,

p.

pi.

iii.,

1-3-

From

the Kishon.

Found by M. de Saulcy

in the

streams near

This species is very like U. mosalensis, Lea, from the Tigris,


be not the same species.
193.

its

74,

Unio

siinonis.

Tristram.

if

Jaffa.

indeed

it

P. Z. S., 1865, p. 544.

Long. 66, lat. 44, diam. 32 mill.


This shell is found in the Jordan, the Sea of Galilee (where it reaches
Its
greatest dimensions), the Orontes, and the Leontes (Litany).

rotundity, thickness, solidity,

and the

brilliant rosy tint

of

its

nacreous

26

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

202

interior distinguish
solidity of the

it

young

brilliant in all the

once from every other species.

at

shells

Unto episcopate.

194.

Long. 98,
the

This,

lat.

is

specimens

The

very remarkable.
I

rosy

The massive
tint is

equally

have seen.

Tristram.

P. Z. S., 1865, p. 544.

56, diam. 35 mill.

prince of Oriental

Unionida,

is

not

uncommon

the

in

I found a dead valve by the Leontes, but did not meet with it
Lake of Galilee. From its brilliant purple hue, which is preserved
in the most worn valves, from its size, its jet-black epidermis, and the
I can find
peculiar compression, it is a remarkable and isolated species.

Orontes.

in the

no Unio

Unio

195.
f.

pi.

10

of Mr.

in the collection

Cuming which
Voy.

Bourg.

tripolitanus.

at all

Mer

resembles

Morte,

p.

it.

iv.,

75, pi.

12.

Near

Tripoli.

196.

Unio

197.

Unio rhomboideus.

198.

Unio

Mich.

reqiiieni.

rothi.

Suppl.,

Schroter.

pi. xvi.

Fluss. Conch., p. 186.

Moll.

Bourguinat.

Nouv.

Litig.,

1865, p.

133,

xx.
57, lat. 30
39, diam. 21
23 mill.
In the Lake of Galilee and in the Jordan.

Long. 46

Unio

199.

luynesi.

53, lat. 28,

Long.

Locard. Malac. Lac Tiberiade,

Bourg.

diam. 23

p.

n.

mill.

In the Jordan.

Unio

200.
f.

10

galilcei.

Locard.

Malac. Lac Tiberiade,

p.

12,

pi.

xx.,

p.

13,

12.

35, lat. 28, diam. 23 mill.


In the Lake of Galilee, but rare.

Long.

Unio timius.

201.
pi. xx.,

f.

Long.

Bourg.

Locard. Malac.

13, 14.
1

8, lat.

In the Jordan.

14,

diam. 8 mill

Rare.

Lac Tiberiade,

TERRESTRIAL AND FLUVIATILE MOLLUSCA.


Unio raymondi.

202.

Long. 65

The most
Galilee,

35, diam. 21

32

it is

Locard. Malac. Lac Tiberiade,

Bourg.

p. 14.

mill.

24

and translucid of

delicate, light,

where alone

all

Lake of

the Unios of the

found.

Unio tristrami.

203.
f.

lat.

69,

203

Malac. Lac Tiberiade,

Locard.

p. 15, pi. xx.,

15, 16.

Long. 59, lat. 31, diam. 24 mill.


This peculiar form, in some respects like U. euphraticus, Bourg., has
been found only in the Lake of Galilee, where Dr. Lortet discovered it.
204.
f.

Unio

pietri.

Locard.

Malac.

Lac Tiberiade,

16,

p.

pi.

xx.,

1719Long. 50 57, lat. 28 31, diam. 20 22 mill.


Discovered by Dr. Lortet in the Lake of Galilee,

viously taken by

me

in

some

had been pre-

ft

quantity, but not discriminated from former

species.

Unio

205.
p. 17,

pi. xxi.,

f.

lat.

32, diam. 23 mill.

55,

In the

Lake of

Galilee.

Unio jordanicus.

Amcen. Malacol.

Bourg.

I.,

p.

167, pi. xvi.,

1-4.
Long. 55

60,

Very common

lat.

30

32, diam. 23

in the Jordan.

Unio genezerethanus.
6.
Tiberiade, p, 19, pi. xxi., f. 4
Long.

56,

Lake of
208.

lat.

26

mill.

Less abundant

207.

f.

Lac Tiberiade,

Malac.

13.

Long.

206.

Locard.

Bourg.

ellipsoideus.
f.

in the

Letourneux.

Lake of

Locard.

Galilee.

Malac.

Lac.

34, diam. 23 mill.

Galilee.

Unio

grelloisianus.

Bourg.

Amcen. Malac.

I.,

p.

165,

pi. xvii.,

1-4.
Long. 30, lat. 1 8, diam. 15 mill.
This small Unio was discovered by

De

Saulcy

in the Jordan.

26

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

204

Unio

209.
f.

Malac. Lac Tiberiade,

Locard.

lortcti.

21,

p.

pi.

xxi.,

12.

Long. 58 60, lat. 30 32,


This rather variable shell
larger form of

it

Unio

210.

f.

Long.

pi. xxi.,

13

mill.

common

in the Lake of
Lake of Antioch.

Letourneux.

Galilee,

and a

Locard. Malac. Lac Tiberiade,

15.

Lake of

In the

Unio prosacrus.
f.

24

57, lat. 30, diam. 23 mill.

Rare.
211.

is

also exists in the

tiberiadensis.

p. 22, pi. xxi.,

diatn. 23

6,

Galilee.

Locard. Malac. Lac Tiberiade,

Bourg.

p. 25,

17.

Long. 4755, lat. 25 30, diam. 1823 mil1


This is the most cuneiform of all the Unios of the Lake of Galilee,
where alone it is found, and is there rather common.
-

212.
f.

Unio hmulifer.

Amcen. Malacol.

Bourg.

I.,

p.

166,

pi.

xvii.,

5-8Long.

49,

lat.

31, diam. 22 mill.

Collected in the
213.

Jordan by

Unio zabnlonicus.

p. 26, pi. xxii.,

f.

lat.

ii

50,

In the

Lake of

Saulcy.

Bourg.

13.

31, diam. 22

Long.

De

Galilee.

mill.

Locard.

Malac.

Lac

Tiberiade,

FLORA OF PALESTINE.
THE

catalogue of the Flora has been compiled both from

my own

Herba-

rium, comprising 1,400 species, formed by Mr. B. T. Lowne, who accompanied me as botanist in my expedition of 1863 4, and from the various

made by me

additions

the late

two subsequent journeys. The Herbariums of


Amherst Hayne, Esq., and of Rev. H. E. Fox and Rev. W.

W.

in

The M.S. catalogue of the


Linton, have contributed several additions.
Flora of Palestine, compiled by Mr. Hanbury and Sir Jos. Hooker, now
in the

Herbarium

at

Kew, has been most kindly placed

Professor Oliver, F.R.S., to

whom

am

service

by

under the greatest obligation

for

at

my

generous assistance while revising my list by the aid of the Kew


Herbarium. Very many species have been added on the authority of

his

these catalogues, though unfortunately


omitted to mark the precise locality.

many

of the older collectors have

the most important


materials for the compilation of this catalogue are to be found in the
unrivalled work of M. Edmond Boissier, Flora Orientals' of which I

But by

far

'

have not hesitated unsparingly to avail myself. For carefulness of detail


in description, and for accuracy of statement as to geographical area, no
has ever surpassed M. Boissier.
In his later work,
has
his
own species described in his
M. Boissier
suppressed many of
'
and
other
earlier
works, including them as local or climatic
Diagnosis

botanical writer

'

have generally followed his later decision


but in some
distinctive
characters are easily recognisable, and the
instances, where the
as
treated
distinct
have
been
by several subsequent writers, I have
species
varieties.

for

convenience of reference retained the earlier synonymy.


It is a question what should be the geographical limits of the Palestine

have given a liberal interpretation, and have looked on


"
Land of Promise rather than 'the Land of Possession as our area
Flora.

'

the

'

i.e..

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

2o6

el Arish and Petra up


have comprised the whole country from the Wady
If a plant occurs
as within our limits.
to the Orontes valley at Hamath
that it will
certain
be pretty
north of Petra, or by the El Arish, we may
and no botanist has yet
be found in the southern wilderness and plateau
With the exception of the district
exhaustively worked Southern Judzea.
and the following pages will show
close to Gaza, it has only been skimmed
Flora rest their claims to
how
belonging to the Arabian
;

many

insertion

species

on Gaza alone, as

known
number

their only

wards the Bukaa supplies a great


certain will be found, when looked

for,

Palestine habitat.

So

north-

of species, which we may be


To the eastward,
further south.

a great volcanic region, which has not been even skimmed


besides the whole of Gilead, possessing by far
by the botanical collector,
worked
the richest Flora of the whole region, and which has never been
It is to the east of Jordan that
traveller.
except by a hurried and passing
we must look for our principal future additions to the Flora of Palestine

again,

we have

and there

lies

a rich field for any enterprising

young

botanist

who

is

not

afraid of Bedouin.
I

to give the geographical area of each species as


letter P.' after the locality given implies that the

have endeavoured

briefly as possible.

species

is,

locality is

The

'

Where a Palestine
peculiar to Palestine.
inhabits
other parts of the
'P.' follows, the plant

so far as known,

given and no

Oriental region.

The

Oriental region

is

taken to comprise

all

the countries bordering

on the Mediterranean from Greece and Egypt eastwards to the frontiers


of India i.e., Greece, Southern Turkey, Lower Egypt, Arabia Petrsea,
Asia Minor,
Mesopotamia, Armenia, Persia, and Afghanistan.
Syria,

a species extends beyond these limits,


given after the word Area.'

Whenever

its

further extension

'

is

Thus:
RJms
'

coriaria.

L.

Sp. 379.
'

Area, Mediterranean region


in Palestine, in the Oriental region given
implies that it is found generally
of
above, and also in the countries bordering on the Mediterranean west
'

Generally distributed.

Greece and Egypt.

PLANTS VASCULARES.
CLASS, DICOTYLEDONE&.

SUB-CLASS, THALAMIFLORJi.

RANUNCULACE^:.

ORDER,
1.

Clematis cirrhosa.

On

the coast and

Barbary, South

L.

L.

the coast and

Sp. 765.

Area, South Siberia, North-west India.


L.

Clematis flammula.

On

Area, Spain,

Italy.

In the north.
3.

and west of Jordan.

east

hills

Clematis orientalis.

2.

Sp. 766.

Sp. 766.

Area, Central and Southern Europe, North

hills.

Africa.

4.

L.

Clematis vitalba.

Sp.

766.

Traveller's

Arab. J^i,

Joy.

Scheradj.

On

the coast and

hills.

Area, Central and Southern Europe, North

Africa.

5.

Clematis recta.

Gilead.
6.

L.

Area, Southern Europe.

Tlialtctrum orientale.

Lebanon.

Sp. 767.

Boiss.

Ann.

Sc.

Nat, 1841,

p.

349.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

ro3

Anemone

7.

L.

coronaria.

Sp. 760.

In every part of the country in profusion, almost invariably the red


variety,

yellow,

blue,

and

purple

very

occurring

gorgeously painted, the most conspicuous

early.

in spring, the

The most

most universally
any one plant can

spread of all the floral treasures of the Holy Land if


claim pre-eminence among the wondrous richness of bloom which clothes
;

it is the anemone, and therefore it is on


most
we fix, as the
probable lily of the field of our Lord's discourse.
Area, the Mediterranean region.

the

Land of

Israel in spring,

8.

Anemone

Schott.

blanda.

this

'

'

and

GEst.

Ky.

Bot.

Woch.,

1854,

p. 129.

Lebanon and Hermon.


9.

Area, Eastern Mediterranean.

Adonis palcestina.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

A donis autumnalis.

Under Lebanon.

L.

12.

Adonis

i.

P.

Sp. 771.

Area, Central and Southern Europe.

De

n. Adonis microcarpa.
Gilead.

viii., p.

most abundant.

In every part of the country


10.

i.,

Area, Spain,

Italy,

L.

astivalis.

Cand.

North

Syst.

i.,

p. 223.

Africa.

Pheasant's Eye.

Sp. 771.

Abundant on the plains. Moab.


Area, Central and Southern
North
Western
Africa,
Europe,
Himalayas.
13.

Adonis dentata.

On

the sandy plains.

14.

Adonis flammea.

In Lebanon.
15.

Del.

i.

Area, North Africa.


Jacq.

-\ustr., tab.

335.

Area, Central Europe.

Myosurus minimus.

Anti-Lebanon,
America.

Fl. Eg., tab. v., p.

Moab.

L.

Sp. 407.

Area,

Mousetail.

Europe,

North

Africa,

North

THALAMIFLOR&.
1

6.

Ranunctilus aquatilis.

L.

io 9

781, ex parte.

Sp.

Water Ranun-

culus.

In pools near the coast in various forms and varieties.

Area, the

temperate Northern Hemisphere.


Var. heterophyllus.
Near Acre.
17.

Ranunculus

In the valley of the


1 8.

Ranwmilus

Ranunculus

in Vill.

Delph.

p.

i.,

335.

Area, Europe, North America.

Upper Jordan.

(Fzcaria.)

calthcefolius,

General, coast and

19.

Chaix

tricJiophyllus.

(Jordan Obs.

vi., p. 2.)

Area, South Europe, North Africa.

hills.

Bory

ficario'ides.

et

Chaub.

Flor.

Pelop.,

55,

p.

pi. xvi., p. 2.

Lebanon.
20.

Ranunculus crymopkilus.

Boiss. et

Hohm.

Diagn, Ser.

i.

viii.,

p. 6.

Snow-line of Lebanon.

(W. A. Hayne.)

21.

Ranunculus

On

the snow-line of

22.

Ranunculus orientalls.

On

the hills in the north.

23.

Ranunculus damascenes.

Boiss.

myosuro'ides,

and Ky.

PL Syr. Exs., 1855.

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, 6,500


L.

P.

feet.

Sp. 781.

Area, North Africa.


Boiss. et Gaill.

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

vi., p.

5.

In fields in the north.

24.

Ranuncidus

imiricalus.

Area, Mediterranean region, North-west India.

South Judaea.
25.

Ranunculus philonolis.

Under Lebanon.
26.

Ranunculus

L. Sp. 780.

Retz Obs.

vi., p. 3.

=R.

hii'sutus.

Area, Europe, North Africa.

iuberculatiis.

Kit.

27

Ait.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

2IO

Ranunculus cuneatus.

27.

Lebanon.

i.,

viii., p.

2.

P.

Ranunculus

28.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

L.

asiaticus.

Sp. 777.

All over the country east and west.


Boiss.

Ditto, var. Tenuilobus.

Ranunculus

29.

De

chccrophyllus.

Ranunculus spruneriamts.

30.

The

Ranunculus myriophyllus.

Schrad.

32.

Ranunculus hierosolymitanus.

Through

35.

On

all

the

Ranunculus

Marshes

By

i.,

i.,

p. 64.

Anti- Lebanon.

the northern plains,

34.

Fl. Fr. iv., p. 900.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

On

33.

Cand.

Area, South Europe, North Africa.

Northern Palestine.

31.

Gilead.

hill

Ranunculus
the

Boiss.

Koch.

eriophyllus.

Flor. Or.

p.

i.,

36.

Linn, xix.,

p.

De

Cand.

Syst.

i.,

p.

Area, coast of Spain, South

demissiis.

46.

De

Cand.

summits of Lebanon

and

Syst.

i.,

252.
Italy, Sicily.

p. 275.

Hermon,

8,000

9,000

Area, Sierra Nevada, Spain.


36.

Ranunculus comatocarpns.

37.

Rammculus

cassius.

Boiss.

F.

and M.

Ann. Sc. Nat., 1841,

p.

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.


38.

Ranunculus constantinopoltianus.

Ditto, var. Pahcslinus.

Area, Mediterranean region.

lateriflorus.

pools in Gilead.

1799^.424.

Differs slightly from the last species.

country.

in Ccele-Syria.

Rammculus

Journ.,

and Moab.

Boiss.

Urv. Enum.,

p. 64.

In Northern Palestine.

354.

feet.

THALAMIFLOR&.
39. Ranunciilus sceleratns.

L.

*T

Sp. 776.

In wet places in Northern Palestine.


Africa, India,

Ranunculus brachycarpus.

41.

Ranunculus

C. A.

Marshes of the Kishon.


Ranunculus

Lebanon.

De

all

L.

arvensis.

The

pi.

49.

Syst.

p. 254.

i.,

Syst.

i.,

p.

299.

and M.

Ind.

iii.,

Petrop.,

p.

46.

Cand.

Syst.

i.,

p.

300

and

Ditto,

Sp. 780.

Corn Crowfoot.

Area, Europe, North Africa, Himalayas.

The Anti-Lebanon.

49.

732,

Fields in the north.

Boiss.

Ranunculus

F.

De

Ranunculus cornntus.

Boiss.

Europe,

L.

North

ii.,

v., p.

10.

and Aroer.

50. Hclleborus oricntqlis.

Sp. 780.

and

West

Africa,

Canaries, North

Pers. Syn. 341.

Ceratocephalus falcatiis.
hilly districts

Diagn. Ser.

P.

Ranunculus parvifloms.

Area, South
America.

p.

the hill-country.

47. Ranunciilus pinardi.

48.

Cand.

Cand.

Ranunculus trachycarpus.

Universal.

Area, Sicily, Dalmatia.

var. Rhyncocarpiis.

46.

iv

Area, Mediterranean region.

De

chins.

Hermon, Moab, and


45.

Del ph.

Area, Mediterranean region.

northern plains.

44.

Europe, North

all

Mey.

Vill.

opliioglossifoliiis.

42. Ranunciilus glaberifolius.

43.

Area,

North America.

40.

The

Lam.

Area, South Europe.


Encycl.

iii.,

p. 92.

In the north

27

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

212

L.

Hellebonts foctidns.

51.

Area, Europe.

Doubtfully indigenous.

Lam.

Garidella ungnicularis.

52.

Throughout

L.

2.

f.

Var. Divaricata.

Sp. 753.

and

Central

Area,

distributed.

Generally

379,

111., pi.

Palestine.

53- Nigella arvensis.

North

Sp. 784.

Southern

Europe,

Africa.

Nigella

54.

deserti.

Ann.

Boiss.

Sci. Nat., 1841, p. 359.

Near Gaza, Gilead.


Nigella saliva.

55.

L.

Sp.

753.

Hebr.,

A.V.,

CIV)?.

'Filches'

(Is. xxviii., 25, 27).

Area, South Europe.

Cultivated.

L.

Nigella orientalis.

56.

Sp. 753.

Mount Tabor, Moab.


L.

57. Nigella damascena.

In

Sp. 753.

Area, Mediterranean region.

fields.

58.

Nigella arislala.

Sibth.

Fl. Gr., pi. 510.

59.

Nigella

stellaris.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p. 8.

In the north.
60. Nigella ciliaris.

Through
61.

Cand.

Syst.

i.,

p.

327.

the coast and central districts.

Delphinium axilliftorum.

Cultivated generally.
62.

De

The Eastern

desert.

Cand.

Prodr.

i.,

p.

341.

Larkspur.

Wild about Hermon.

Delphinium oliganthum.

1841, p. 365-

De

Auch.

in

Boiss., PI. Or.

An.

Sci. Nat.,

THALAMIFLOR&.
Dec.

Labill. Syr.

Delphinium pusillnm.

63.

2i 3

iv., pi.

2,

2.

f.

About Hermon.

DC

Delphinium rigidum.

64.

The

coast and hilly country.

Delphinium

65.

Near Gaza,
66.

deserti.

Syst.

i.,

p.

244.

P.

Boiss.

Fl. Or.

Linn.

Mant.

i.,

p. 83.

in the desert.

acontii.

Delphinium

Delphinium haltcratum.
Area, South Italy.

Sibth.

67.

68.

Cand.

Delphinium

L.

ajacis.

Sp. 748.

77.

Fl.

Grax.

D.

vi., pi.

107.

pubescens.

Gris.

Area, South Europe.

Delphinium anthoroidcum.

69.

Boiss.

Ann.

Sc. Nat., 1841, p. 369.

Lebanon and Hermon.


70.

Delphinium peregrimim.

The
71.
P-

35 6

Area,

hill-country.

Delphinium

L.

Italy,

Sp. 749.

Dalmatia, and Spain.

Decaisne.

bovei.

Ann.

Sc.

Nat.

Sec.

Ser.

Desert near Gaza.


72.

Delphinium virgatum.

The
73.

ii.,

p.

458.

northern plains.

Delphinium

Mount Tabor.
74.

Poir. Sup.

P&onia

Rare

in

ithabiirense.

Boiss.

Diag. Ser.

i.,

viii.,

p. 9.

P.

corallina.

Retz. Obs.

North Lebanon.

iii.

p. 32.

Area, Central and Southern Europe.

iv.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

2,4

ORDER
1.

BERBERIDE/E.

II.,

Bongardia chrysogoimm.

Sp. 447.)

(L.

Distinguished as two species, B. rauivolfii and B. olivieri, by C. A.

Mey. Verz., p.
Through the
2.

L.

Berberis vtilgaris.

Italy.

Sp. 471.

Arab. ^U, Tarah.

Barberry.

Area, Europe.

4.

Berberis cratcsgina,

5.

Berberis crelica.

De
L.

Hermon and Lebanon,

1.

Nymphaa

In

still

2.

Nuphar

alba.

5,000

Lake Huleh.

III.,

L.

water, especially
luteiim.

Cand.

Syst.

ii.,

p. 9.

Sp. 472.

ORDER

7,000

feet.

NYMPH^ACE^E.
White Water

Sp. 729.

Lake Huleh.

(L.

Sp. 729.)

Lily.

Area, Europe and Siberia.

Yellow Water

Lily.

Area, Europe and Siberia.

ORDER
Papaver libanoticum.

Lebanon and Hermon.


2.

Papaver dubium.

3.

Papaver umbonatum.

Rocky

Sp. 448.

Area, South

hills.

Lebanon.

1.

L.

Leontice leontopetahim.

Coast and
3.

174.
hilly districts.

L.

plains of Southern

IV.,

PAPAVERACEyE.

Boiss.

Ann.

Sc.

Nat, 1841,

p. 373.

P.

Sp. 726.
Boiss.

In

fields.

Diagn. Ser.

Lebanon.

P,

Area, Europe.
i.,

viii., p.

u.

THALAMIFL OR&.
4.

Papaver

On
5.

Papaver

Area, Europe, North Africa.

shore.

Boiss.

syriactim.

Field Poppy.

Sp. 727.

Dead Sea

the coast, and

Plain of Tyre.
6.

L.

rhccas.

Diag. Ser.

vi., p. 8.

ii.,

P.

and Ky.

Boiss.

Papaver polytrichum.

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

v., p.

14.

Northern Plains.
7.

L.

Papaver somnifcrum.

Opium Poppy.

Sp. 726.

Cultivated.
8.

L.

Papaver hybridum.

General

in

fields.

Rough Poppy.

Sp. 725.

Area,

and Southern Europe, North

Central

Africa.

9.

Papaver argemone.

In

fields.

10.

In
11.

Sp. 725.

Area, Central and Southern Europe, North Africa.

Roemeria hybrida.

(L.

Rcemeria

orientalis.

Dead

Sci. Nat.,

1841^.374.

Sea.

Area,

hills.

Ann.

Boiss.

Glaucium corniculatum.

Coast and

Sp. 724.)

Area, Mediterranean region.

fields.

Zara, east side of


12.

L.

(L.

Horned Poppy.

Sp. 724.)

Central

and

Southern

Europe,

North

Africa.

13.

Glaucium arabicum,

Fres.

Mus. Senck.,

p.

174, pi. 10.

Southern desert.
14.

Glaucium luteum.

On

the coast.

15.

Glaucium fulvitm.

Scop. Carn.

i.,

p.

369.

Area, Canaries, Central and Southern Europe.

Smith.

Perhaps a variety of G. luteum.

Exot. Bot,

p.

1 1.

^FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

a,6

6.

Glancium leiocarpum.

Fl. Or.

Boiss.

122.

p.

i.,

Lebanon and Hermon.


17.

Glaucium

Mount Hermon, 4,000


1

8.

imberbe.

Gaza, and other sandy


21.

Coryadis rutafolia.

Corydalis sohda.

Northern

Fl. Gr., pi. 156.

L.

Sp. 181.

Area, Central and Southern Europe.

Lebanon and Hermon.


2.

Catal. Pyr., p. 91.

districts.

ORDER
1.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Benth.

Sibth.

Hypecoum pendulum.

The Bukad.

4.

Area, Spain, and Southern France.

hilly districts.

Hypecoum

f.

Sp. 181.

in Gilead.

Wddys

Aufz., p. 12,

feet.

L.

Hypecoum grandiflorum.

Coast and
20.

5,000

Hypecoum procumbens.

Jordan valley.
19.

Boiss. et Buhse.

vitellinum.

(Sibth.

Fl. Gr., pi. 867.)

Snow-line, 8,000

(Smith.

mountain

FUMARIAC/E.

V.,

Engl. Bot.,

feet.

pi.

1471.)

Area, mountains of

region.

Central

and

Southern Europe, and Siberia.


3.

Corydalis libanotica.

Hochst. in Lorent. Wand.,

Neighbourhood of the Cedars of Lebanon.


Europe and Siberia.
Var. C. modestum, var. C. pulchellum, var.
and Ky. As. Min. Bot. i., p. 359.
4.

Ceratocapnos palcsstina.

Walls and rocks.

Boiss.

Coast and

C.

Diagn. Ser.

hill districts.

P.

p.

350.

Area, mountains

in

purpumscens, Schott.

i.,

viii., p.

12.

THALAMIFL OR&.
5.

Fnmaria

In the north
6.

L.

officinalis.

general.

Fumaria parviflora.

General.

Area,

Fumitory.
Sp. 984.
Area, Europe, North Africa, North Asia.

Laur.

Enc.,

Southern

and

Central

p. 567.

North-west

Africa,

Himalayas.
7.

Fumaria

asepala.

Fl. Or.

Boiss.

i.,

135.

p.

Lebanon.
8.

Fumaria micrantka.

Common

on

Lag.

cultivated

land,

Hort. Matrit., 1816,

el

and

Moab.

p. 21.

Central

Area,

and

Southern Europe, India.


9.

Fnmaria

Boiss.

anatolica.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

14.

viii., p.

Hill region.
10.

Fumaria

Coast region.
11.

L.

capreolata.

Fumaria

Sp. 985.

Area, Western and Southern Europe.


thureti.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

ii.,

i.,

p.

15.

Lebanon.
12.

Fumaria macrocarpa.

Parlat.

PI.

Nov.,

1842,

p.

5.

Oxyloba.
Hill region.
13.

Fumaria

oxyloba.

Boiss.

Mounts Carmel and Gerizim.


14.

Fumaria judaua.

Coast and

15.

hill

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p,

14.

P.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

iii.,

p.

15.

region.

Fumaria gaillardoti.

Fields on the coast.

Boiss.

Fl. Or.

i.,

p. 139.

P.

28

Var.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

2l8

ORDER
1.

Chorispora syriaca.

CRUCIFER^:.

VI.

Boiss.

Ann.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

Sc. Nat., 1842, p. 384.

Universal.
2.

Morettia

canesceiis.

i.,

viii., p.

7.

Desert east of Gilead.


3.

Matthiola

Ann.

Boiss.

albicaulis.

Sc. Nat., 1842, p. 46.

Moab.
4.

Matthiola sinuata.

Rocks near the


5.

Matthiola

6.

coast.

hills,

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

vi., p.

north and east.

Matthiola arabica.

viii., p.

Matthiola tricuspidata.

On
9.

Sc.

Nat, 1842,

p. 49.

Matthiola aspera.

10.

the

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

west of the Dead Sea.

De

Cand.

Sea, in the

Ghor.

Matthiola oxyceras.

Round
11.

hills

Sp. 926.)

Area, Mediterranean region.

the coast.

Barren

(L.

Dead

Matthiola hinata.

Boiss.

viii., p.

i.,

16.

P.

Syst.

Fl. Or.

i.,

ii.,

p. 173.

156.

p.

Ghor, north end of Dead Sea, and Callirrhoe.


12.

Matthiola

Barren plains

livida.

in

Moab,

(Delil.

Wady

16.

P.

Ann.

Boiss.

i.,

In the eastern desert.


8.

10.

P.

Matthiola damascena.

Bare chalky
7.

Area, Mediterranean region.

coast.

crassifolia.

Rocks on the

Sea Stock.

Sp. 926.)

(L.

111.

./Eg.,

Zerka,

No. 591.)

Wady

Mojib.

P.

THALAMIFL OR&.
13.

Ercmobiitm

(Del. in Lab., p. 85,

lineare.

Sandy desert south of Beersheba.


14.

Farsetia ovalis.

Diss., p.

Dead

Boiss.

f.

3.)

Area, the Sahara.

Turra.

Farsetia agyptiaca.

South, east and west of the


15.

i.

i, pi.

Area, the Sahara.

Sea.

Diagn. Ser.

viii.,

i.,

p. 32.

South end of Dead Sea.


1

6.

Farsetia incana.

Sp. 978.)

(L.

Eastern desert.
17.

Cardamine

Lebanon.
1

8.

19.

20.

Lam.

Diet,

i.,

p. 219.

Area, Southern Europe.

Gilead.

Arabis verna.

Mountain

Bitter Cress.

Sp. 915.

Area, Europe.

Arabis auriculata.

Mount

L.

hirsuta.

Sp. 928.)

(L.

Area, Mediterranean region.

districts.

Arabis montbretiana.

Ann.

Boiss.

Sc. Nat., 1842, p. 53.

Northern mountain region.


21.

Arabis hirsuta.

Northern
22.

23.

Lebanon.
24.

(Bechst.

Arabis

p. 30.

albida.

Amcen,

It.,

p. 185.)

Area, Europe, Siberia.

region.

Arabis

ii.,

Area, Europe.

hills.

Arabis sagittata.

Mountain

Carn.

Scop.

Stev.

Cat. Hort. Gor., p. 51.

Area, Sicily.
brevifolia.

De

Cand.

Syst.

p. 218.

ii.,

Mountain regions under Lebanon and Hermon.


25.

Arabis

billardieri.

Hermon, 6,000

De

Cand.

Syst.

ii.,

p.

218.

feet.

282

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

220

26.

Nasturtium

H. Kew.

R. Brown.

officinale.

Water-

p. 109.

iv.,

cress.

Area, the temperate Northern Hemisphere.

General.
27.

Nasturtium coronopifolium.

De

Cand.

Syst.

ii.,

p. 224.

South end of Dead Sea.


28.

Nasturtium

Mountain

districts,

4,000

Creeping Watercress.
Area, Northern and Central Europe
Sp. 916.)

(L.

sylvestre.

feet.

and Asia.
29.

Nasturtium macrocarpum.

Under Hermon.
30.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

C. Koch.

feet.

Del. Pras. 17, Guss. Syn.

Presl.

31. Barbarea, smila.

p. 180.

ii.,

Italy.

32.

Cheiranthus cheiri.

On

maritime

33.

Erysimum repandum.

cliffs,

L.

Sp. 924.

Area, Central and Southern Europe.

Lebanon.
L.

Sp.

ii.,

p. 923.

Northern and eastern mountain districts,


Europe, North Africa, North-west India.
Boiss.

Erysimum smyrnceiim.
Under Hermon.

34.

Erysimum verrucosum.

Slopes of Hermon.
36.

Boiss.

Gilead.

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

Diagn. Ser.

Area,

v., p.

ii.,

23.

vi., p.

12.

P.

Erysimum scabnim.

De

Cand.

Syst.

ii.,

p. 505.

Lebanon.

Erysimum goniocaitlon. Boiss.


Lebanon and Hermon district.

37.

18.

L. xix., p. 55.

Lebanon and Hermon snowline, 8,000

35.

viii., p.

P.

Barbarea minor.

Area, South

ii.,

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

viii., p.

25.

East

THALAMIFLOR&.
Erysimum

38.

A.

C.

crassipes.

22

Hohm. Enum.

Mey.

Talysch.,

p. 141.

Round Hermon, Lebanon, and

Auch.

Erysimum purpureum.

39.

Gilead.

in

Ann.

Boiss.,

Sc.

Nat.,

1842,

p. 42.

Round Hermon and Lebanon.

Erysimum

40.

(Sib.

rupestre.

Flor. Gr.,

pi.

633.)

Lebanon.
Conringia orientalis.

41.

Northern Palestine.

Area, Europe.
Boiss.

Conringia clavata.

42.

Sp. 931.)

(L.

Ann.

Sc. Nat., 1842, p. 84.

Northern mountain region.


Steph. in Willd.

Sisymbrium piimilum.

43.

In desert

districts.

Sisymbrium schimperi.
Eastern mountains of Moab.
Sisymbrium

47.

Ann.

Sc. Nat., 1842, p. 76.

Flixweed.

Sp. 92?.

Area, Europe.

Sisymbrium columnce.

Plains in the north.

Boiss.

L.

sophia.

Ravine of the Arnon.


46.

p. 507.

Area, Southern and Eastern Russia.

44.

45.

iii.,

L.

Sp. 655.

Area, Southern Europe.

Sisymbrium pannonicum.

Jacq.

Coll.

i.,

70.

Plains of the highlands.

48.

1862,

Sisymbrium nudum.

p. 54.

(Belay.

Voy.

Ic.

Ann.

Boiss.

Sc. Nat.,

Sub Arabide.)

49. Sisymbriiim

pannonicum,

Southern highlands.

var. rigidulum.

Jacq.

Area, Germany, Russia,

Coll.

West

i.,

70.

Thibet.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

222

50.

Sisymbr'nim

General

L.

irio,

Sp. 921.

North

Area, Europe,

especially Jordan valley.

Africa,

North-west India.
51. Sisymbriiim

damascetmm.

Northern Palestine.
52.

Sisymbrium

vi., p.

n.

P.

officinale.

Hedge Mustard.

Sp. 922.)

(L.

Sisymbrium runcinatum.

Lag.

Northern Palestine, Moab.


54.

ii.,

Area, Europe, North Africa.

General.
53.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Malcolmia pulchella.

in

De

Cand.

Syst.

ii,,

p.

478.

Area, North Africa, Spain.

(De Cand.

Syst.

p. 455.)

ii.,

Universal in the plains, maritime and sandy.


55.

Malcolmia pygmcea.

111.

(Del.

./Eg., p. 19.)

Coast at Askalon.
56.

Malcolmia africana.

Sp. 928.)

(L.

Area, Mediterranean region, and North-

Eastern Desert of Moab.


west India.
57.

Malcolmia maritima.

On

the coast.

58.

Malcolmia

Amcen.

(L.

iv., p.

180.)

Area, Mediterranean region.


littorea.

Willd.

Sp. PI.

iii.,

p. 521.

Area, Southern France, Spain.


59.

Malcolmia tomlosa.

(Desf.

Att.

ii.,

p. 84, pi.

In the bare and desert regions north and south.


Area, North Africa.
tuplicata and V. leiocarpa.
60.

Malcolmia

Coast and
61.

chia.

(Lam.

Diet,

iii.,

159.)

Also var. B. contor-

p. 324.)

hills.

Malcolmia crenulata.

Hill country

(De Cand.

and bare plains inland.

Syst.

ii.,

Plains of

p. 456.)

Moab.

THALAMIFLOR&.
62.

Malcohnia conringiodes.

Lower

Lebanon and Hermon.

slopes of

Fenzl.

63. Hesperis kotschyana.

Lebanon, higher

De

rocks.

p. 230.

P.

Pugill, p.

3.

Cand.

Syst.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

p. 457.

ii.,

Upper Jordan.

65. Hesperis secundiflora.

On

i.,

parts.

64. Hesperis pendula.

Plains of the

Fl. Or.

Boiss.

Gilead and Moab.


Boiss.

66. Nasturtiopsis arabica.

i.,

p. 70.

i.,

Area, Dalmatia.
Fl. Or.

p. 237.

i.,

Southern Desert of Judaea.


67.

Anchonium

De Cand.

billardieri.

Lebanon and Anti- Lebanon, 6,000


68.

Sterigma sulphureum.

Northern barren

70.

8,000

Cand.

ii.,

p.

578.

feet.

Syst.

ii.,

p. 212.

plains.

69. Aubrietia deltoidea.


Galilee,

De

Syst.

(L.

Sp. 908.)

Anti-Lebanon.

Aubrietia canescens.

Boiss.

Flor. Or.

i.,

p. 252.

Lebanon.
71.

Aubrielia libanotica.

Lebanon, 8,000

De

In the Jordan basin.

P.

73. Fibigia clypeata.

(L.

i.,

viii.,

p. 32.

Cand.

Syst.

ii.,

284.

Sp. 909.)

parts.

74. Fibigia hmario'ides.


75.

Diagn. Ser.

P.

feet.

72. Ricotia lunaria.

Northern

Boiss.

Fibigia macroptera.

Northern mountains.

(Reich.

(Ky.

PI.

Bot. Mag.,

Exs., 1859.)

pi.

3087.)

FAUNA AND FLORA Of PALESTINE.

224

rostrata.
76. Fibigia

Hill country, north

PI.

(Schenk.

Spec.,

p. 42.)

and south, and Gilead and Moab.

(De Cand.

77. Fibigia eriocarpa.

Syst.

p. 288.)

ii.,

Anti-Lebanon.

Alyssum alpestre. L. Mant. 92.


Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, 6,000 9,000
Southern Russia, Siberia, Corsica on hill tops.
78.

79.

santhum.

Fl. Or.

Boiss.

Below Lebanon.
80.

Wittm.

Alyssum argenteum.

Alyssum

Northern

Italy,

Boiss.

Alyssum montanum.
Lebanon and Hermon.

L.

and South-eastern Europe.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii.,

p. 34.

Alyssum

Ann.

Boiss.

Alyssum xanthocarpum.

Hermon, 7,000

Sp. 907.

Boiss. in Bourg.

Afyssum siiffrutescens.
Summit of Hermon.

tetrastemon.

Boiss.

Ann.

Alyssum szowitsianmn. F. and M.


Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.
Alyssum campestre.
in

Exs., Ann., 1860.

Sc. Nat., 1842, p. 154.

Sc.

Nat, 1842,

p. 153.

and Lebanon.

85.

Everywhere

PI.

feet.

Hill country of Galilee,

86.

Var. Chry-

430.

Area, Central and Southern Europe.

82.

84.

p.

hills.

8 1.

83.

iv.,

Alps,

271.

i.,

Area,

cassium.

Summ.

Area,

feet.

L.

Ind.

iv.,

Hort. Petrop.

Sp. 909.

cultivated ground.

Area, Central and Southern

Europe.
87.

Alyssum damascenum.

Boiss.

Cultivated ground in the north.

Diagn. Spec. Ser.


P.

ii.,

vi., p.

18.

THALAM1FLOR&.
C. A. Mey.

88.

Alyssummicranthuin.
Northern plains and hills.
89.

L.

Alyssum calydnum.

Jebel

Khaisun,

Ind.

i.,

Hort. Petrop.,

p. 22.

Sp. 908.

Damascus.

near

225

Central

Area,

and

Southern

Europe.
90.

floras

Atysswn anrcum.

No.

Pug.,

(Fcnzl.

44.)

= Meniocus

grandi~

Jaub.

Hill country, Jerusalem, etc.

91.

Alyssum

Boiss.

meniocoides.

Ann.

Sc.

Nat, 1842,

p. 158.

The Hauran.
92.

Koniga maritima.

(L.

Coast, near Askalon.


93.

Koniga

lybica.

Mant., 42.)

Area, Mediterranean region.


(Viv. PI. Lib., p. 34,

pi.

16,

f.

i.)

Desert of Moab.
94.

Koniga

arabica.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

26.

viii., p.

Desert south of Beersheba.


95.

Draba

oxycarpa.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

Snow-line of Lebanon and Hermon.


96.

Draba

Highest
.97.

velutina.

parts of

Draba

Boiss.

Draba

Lebanon.
99.

viii., p.

28.

P.

Diagn. Ser.

it'.,

vi., p.

14.

Lebanon and Hermon.

vcsicarh.

Desv.

Journ. Bot.

Lebanon and Hermon, near the


98.

i.,

aizoides.

iii.,

p.

snow-line, 7,000

186.

9,000

feet.

Mant. 91.

L.

Area, Europe.

Erophila minima.

C. A.

Lebanon and Antibanon,

M.

Incl.

Cauc., p. 184.

Gilead.

29

P.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

2i5

100. Erophila pracox.

Hauran.

Sp. 896.

269.)

De

Cand.

Syst.

ii.,

p.

35^-

Draba

verna.

Whitloe Grass.

Common.

Area, Europe.

102. Erophila setulosa.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

reticulatus.
103. Coluteocarpus

Lebanon and Hermon, 7,000

(Lam.

v., p.

31.

Lebanon and Hermon, 3,000

De

f.

2.)

Syst.

ii.,

p. 329.

feet.

Sp. 910.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Moab, Gilead.

Clypeola echinata.

Cand.

6,000

L.

105. Clypeola jonthlaspi.

559,

111., pi.

feet.

9,000

De

104. Peltaria augustifolia.

Hill -districts,

ii.,

P.

Fields near Sidon.

106.

iv., p.

Area, Central Europe.

101. Erophila vnlgaris.

L.

Mem. Mosq.

(Stev.

Cand.

Syst.

p. 328.

ii.,

Hill-country west and east of Jordan.


107. Clypeola lappacea.

Mountain region
1

08.

Camelina

General.
109.

Boiss.

Sc. Nat., 1842, p. 174.

in the north.

sylvestris.

Wallr. Sched. 347.

Area, Central and Southern Europe.

Notoceras canariense.

Jericho.

Ann.

R. Br.

Kew.

iv., p.

117.

Area, Mediterranean, Canaries, and North-west India.

no. Anastatica hierochuntina.


Only on the shores of the

L.

Dead

Sp. 895.

Sea.

Rose of

Jericho.

Area, Deserts of North

Africa.

in. Heldreichia

kotschyi.

Lebanon, higher zone.

Boiss.

Ann.

Sc. Nat., 1842, p. 186.

THALAM1FLOR.E.
Ten. Nap.

112. Biscutella columnee.


Hill-districts

iv., pi.

and Moab highlands.

Lam.

113. Biscutella apula.

Diet.

Hi., p.

De

618.

Area, Mediterranean.

Area, South Europe.

Desf.

115. Biscutella leiocarpa.

162.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Hill-districts of the south, Jerusalem, etc.

114. Biscutella ciliata.

227

Cand.

Syst.

ii.

Jordan basin, by Dead Sea.


6.

1 1

Griseb.

Thlaspi bellidifolium.

Spic. Add., p. 505.

Lebanon.
117.

Lower
1 1

8.

Boiss.

Thlaspi brevicaule.
slopes of

Diagn. Ser.

Lebanon and Hermon.


L.

Thlaspi amense.

Sp. 901.

ii.,

v., p.

40.

P.

Penny-cress.

Area, Northern Hemisphere.


119.

Lebanon.
1

20.

122.

of

Moab and

hill,

and central

In the plains.

125.

viii.,

p. 38.

Sp. 902.

Area, South Europe.

Boiss.

Ann.

Sc. Nat., 1842, p. 180.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p.

38.

hills.

123. Iberis odorata.

24

i.,

districts.

Carpoceras oxyceras.

Galilean

L.

Gilead.

Thlaspi nalolicum.

Coast,

Diagn. Ser.

P.

Thlaspi perfolialum.

Wadys
121.

Boiss.

Thlaspi microstylum.

L.

Sp. 906.

Area, North Africa.

Iberis alepf>ica.

Scop, (doubtful).

Crenularia glaucescens.

(Boiss. in Tchih. As. Min.

iii.,

p. 325.)

Lebanon.
29

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

22 3

126. Hutchins'ui petrcca.

Moab.

Bare

hills,

127.

Capsclla procumbens.

of

L.

Area, Temperate Northern Hemisphere.

Lebanon

only.

Dec.

Labill.

131.

JEtMonenta stylosum.

Top

of Lebanon.

De

Cand.

14, pi. 9,

2.

f.

De

Syst.

ii.,

p.

561.

feet.

Cand.

Syst.

ii.,

p.

562.

P.

132. sEthionema, cordatum.

(Desf. Cor.,

Lebanon and Hermon, 6,000

feet.

De

^Ethionema cristahim.

down

to

Cand.

pi. 52.)

Syst.

p. 560.

ii.,

Jerusalem and Hebron.

134. sEtliionema heterocarpum.

Petrop.

v., p.

P.

Bare slopes of Lebanon, 6,0008,000

Hill-country

Shepherd's Purse.

Sp. 903.

130. sEthionemci coridi/olium.

133.

Elsewhere introduced.

Area, Mediterranean.

129. sEthionenia oppositifolium.

Top

Africa.

Sp. 898.)

(L.

Capsella bur'sap.tstoris.

General.

West

Area, Europe,

Philistian coast.

128.

Sp. 899.)

(L.

J.

Gay

in

F.

and M.

Ind.'

Sem.

iv.

Below Hermon.
135. j&tkiettema bnxbaumii.

On
136.

the

hills

and

plains.

Lepidium draba.

Plain of Esdraelon,
137.

138.

L.

Sp., p. 645.

Moab.

Lepidium sativum.

Cultivated.

(Fisch. in Horn. Hafn. Suppl., 71.)

Area, South Europe.


L.

Sp. 899.

Cress.

Spontaneous on Mount Gilead.

Lepidium

spinescens.

De

Cand.

Syst.

Area, South Russia.


ii.,

p.

534.

THALAMfFLORAS.
139.

Lepidium

Mant. 253.

L.

spinosuiu.

"9

Marshes near Banias.


Sibth.

Lepidiuin cornutiim.

140.

No. 1491.

Prodr.,

Coast and north.

Lepidium

141.

In

fields

Amoen.

L.

chalepense.

iv., p.

321.

and lower ground.

Lepidium latifolium. L. Sp. 899.


In plains and near marshes, and under Hermon.
142.

North

Area,

Europe,

Africa, Siberia, Thibet.

Northern

Among

(L.

Sp. 904.)

stony rubbish everywhere, Gilead,

Cakile maritima.

145.

Sp. 897.

Area, Spain, Danube, .Southern Russia.

plains.

144. Senebiera coronopus.

On

L.

Lepidium pcrfoliatum.

143.

the coast.

Area,

146. Eritcaria aleppica.

Scop.
all

etc.

Carm., No. 844.

Europe and North

Gcert.

Area, Europe.

Carp,

p.

ii.,

Sea Rocket.

Africa.

298,

pi.

143,

f.

9,

and

var. puberula.

On

barren

hills,

and Judaean wilderness, Mount Nebo.

Area, South

Spain.
147. Eritcaria microcarpa.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p.

47.

Wilderness of Judsea, Moab.


148.

Erucaria

crassifolia.

(Forsk.

^g.,

p.

118.)

South end of Dead Sea.


149.

Erucaria

lineariloba.

Boiss.

Ann.

Sc. Nat., 1842, p. 390.

Eastern highlands.
150.

Hussonia uncata.

Boiss.

Desert south of Beersheba.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p.

Area, African deserts.

47.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE,

230

Enc lidium

Fields and scrub.

West

(L.

syriacum.

Sp. 895.)

Danube

Area,

valley,

South Russia, North and

India.

152.

Ochthodium agyptiacum.

Sp.

(L.

iii.,

p. 231.)

Generally distributed.
L.

153. Neslia paniculata.

Common
154.

155.

Area, Europe, Northern Asia.

in fields.

(De Cand.

Texiera glastifolia.

The Hauran,
fsatis

Sp. 894.

Syst.

ii.,

p. 337.)

near Damascus.

Mem.

Stev.

latisiliqua.

Mosq., 1812,

iii.,

267.

p.

Lebanon and Hermon.


156.

Isatis

L.

tinctoria.

Woad.

Sp. 936.

Plain of Gennesaret.

Area, Central and Southern Europe,

157. Isatis microcarpa.

Boiss.

Ann.

Sc. Nat., 1842, p. 201.

Desert east of Moab.


158. Isatis aleppica.

Hill
159.

Del. Insubr.

Scop.

ii,,

p. 31, pi.

10.

and mountain regions east and west of Jordan.

Schimpera arabica.

Arab. Exs. 244.)

PI.

(Schimp.

Desert south of Gaza.


1

60.

Moricandia arvensis.

Mant.

(L.

95.)

(W. A. Hayne.)

Area,

South Europe, North Africa.


161.

Moricandia dumosa.

Boiss.

Diagn. Sen

i.,

viii., p.

25.

Southern desert.
162.

Moricandia

Wadys

sinaica.

south and south-west of

163. Diplotaxis viminea.

Among

(Boiss.

stone-heaps

Europe, Northern Africa.

(L.

Ann.

Dead

Sc.

Nat, 1842,

p. 85.)

Sea.

Sp. 919.)

everywhere.

Area,

Central

and

Southern

THALAMIFLORM,
164. Diplotaxis harra.

Fl. /Eg.,

(Forsk.

231

18.)

Jucbean wilderness, and near Dead Sea.


165. Diplotaxis erucoides.

Amoen.

(L.

iv., p.

322.)

Plains and Jordan valley, Eastern Ghor.

Area,

Mediterranean

region.
66. Diplotaxis acr is.

(Forsk.

Fl.

/Eg. Arab.,

p. 118.)

Southern desert.

Moench. Meth. 261.

167. Hirsckfeldia adpressa.

Fields and

stony

east

places

and west.

Area,

Mediterranean

region.
1

68. Brassica rapa.

Cultivated.

L.

Rape-seed.

Sp. 931.

Area, Europe and Siberia.


F. and

169. Brassica bracteolata.

M.

Linn,

xii., Litt., p.

153.

Moab.
L.

170. Brassica napus.

Cultivated.

Sp. 931.

Turnip.

Area, Europe.

171. Brassica deflexa.

Boiss.

Ann. Sc. Nat., 1842,

p. 87.

In fields in the north.

Gon.

172. Brassica tournefortii.

In sand on the coast.


173. Sinapis jimcea.

111.,

p. 44, pi. 20.

Area, Southern Spain and Southern Italy.


L.

Sp. 934.

L.

Sp. 933.

Jericho.
174. Sinapis nigra.

175. Sinapis ar vensis.

Generally distributed.
176. Sinapis orie ntalis.

Plains and

hills.

L.

Sp. 933.

Charlock.

Area, Europe.
L.

Amcen.

iv., p.

280.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

232

L.

177. Sinapis alba.

Area, Central and Southern Europe.

General.

178.

Eruca

Lam.

sativa.

Fl. Fr.

De

179. Savignya cegyptiaca.

80.

p.

ii.,

496.

Area, South Europe.

Generally distributed.

The

Mustard.

Sp. 834.

Cand.

Syst.

p.

ii.,

283.

southern desert.

Carrhichtera

De Cand.

vellce.

The Lower Jordan

Syst.

p.

641.

of Moab.

Plains

valley.

ii.,

Southern

Area,

Africa.
Spain, Sicily, North
181.

Enarthrocarpus arcuatus.

Labill.

Dec.

v., p. 4, pi. 2.

Northern Palestine.
182.

Boiss.

Enarthrocarpus strangulatus.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p.

44.

South end of Dead Sea.


183.

Raphanus

L.

sativus.

Sp. 935.

Radish.

Area, Temperate Northern Hemisphere, Old

Grown everywhere.
World.

Raphanus piigioniformis. Boiss. Diagn.


P.
Plains of Galilee, from Tabor to Hermon.
184.

185.

In
1

Raphanus raphanistrum.

fields.

86.

L.

Raphanus auc heri.

Rapistrum rugosum.

Sea coast and Lebanon.


1

88.

Didesmus

Central

i.,

viii., p.

46.

Wild Radish.

Area, Europe.
Boiss.

Everywhere, coast, plains, by the


187.

Sp. 935.

Ser,

restrains.

hill district.

P.

(L.

Diagn. Ser.

Dead

i.,

viii., p.

45.

Sea, base of Hermon.

Sp. 893.)

Area, Central and Southern Europe.


Boiss.

Fl. Or.

i.,

p. 405.

TIIALAMIFLOR.E.
189.

Didesmus

eegyptins.

(L.

233

Sp. 895.)

Plain of Gennesaret.
190.

Crambe maritime.

On

the

coast.

L.

Area,

Sp. 937.

Sea-kale.

shores

Europe,

of

Mediterranean

and

Atlantic.

191.

Crambe

Northern
192.

L.

orientalis.

Sp. 937.

plains.

Crambe filifonnis.

Jacq.

Plain of Gennesaret.
193.

Crambe

L.

hispanica.

Zerka Main.

Sp. 937.

Area, Mediterranean region.

194. Zilla myagro'ides.

Forsk.

Fl.

/Eg. 121, Icon. tab. 17

a.

South-western end of the Dead Sea.


195.

Calcpina corvini.

Common

(All. Fed.,

in all the central districts.

ORDER
1.

Cleome pentaphylla.

Plain of Sharon.
2.

No. 937.)

Cleome arabica.

CAPPARIDE^:.

VII.,

L.

Area, Central and South Europe.

Sp. 938.

Area, subtropical and tropical Old World.


L.

Sp. 939.

Desert of Ain Beida, lower end of Dead Sea.


Arabian deserts.
3.

Cleome trinervia.

Round
4.

the

Fresn.

Dead Sea on

Cleome droscrifolia.

Mus. Senck.,

gravel,

Del.

p.

Area, Algerian and

177,

pi.

n.

and south of Gaza.


Fl. /Eg., p. 317, pi. 36,

Engedi, and elsewhere round the

Dead Sea

f.

2.

shore.

30

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

234

On
6.

.-A^l,

R. Br. in Oudn. and Clappert,

Capparis sodada.

5.

sand

L.

Sp. 720.

The

17.

end of the Dead Sea.

in the plains of Shittim, north-east

Capparis spinosa.

p.

Caper.

Hebr.

11TK,

Arab.

Azuf.

Grows on

and on the perpendicular faces of rocks

walls,

Very common

and elsewhere, probably introduced.

in

Jerusalem

in parts of the

Jordan

valley.

Van

SEgyptia,

of Scripture, as

is

common by the Dead Sea. The caper is the hyssop


shown by the identity of the Hebrew and Arabic names.

Area, Mediterranean regions.


7.

Mus. Senck.

Fresn.

Capparis galeata.

Beitr. Abyss., p.

With hesitation I assign to this species a caper found on the


the Akabah, south of the Dead Sea.
8.

Cratava gynandra.

Hot sulphurous

springs by the east side of the

ORDER
1.

Ochrademit baecatus.

Round
2.

the

Reseda

alba.

General.
3.

Dead

Sp. 645

f.

i.

R.

suffr^lt^c^llosa.

L.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Reseda propinqua.

R. Br.

Southern desert.
Ditto,

Fl. Eg., p. 15,


pi. 31,

Area, Deserts of North-west India.

Sea.
L.

Sea.

RESEDACE^:.

VIII.,
Del.

Dead

Obs. Oudn.,

p. 22.

Area, North-east Africa.

van Eremophila,

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p.

88.

Southern deserts.
4.

Reseda arabica.

Boiss.

Southern desert.
5.

Reseda alopecurus.

Cultivated.

Diagn. Ser.,

i.,

p. 6.

Area, North Africa.


Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

Maritime and other

plains.

P.

i.,

viii., p.

55.

in.
cliffs

of

THALAUIFLORjE.
Reseda

6.

Sandy

orientalis.

fields

on the

Boiss.

coast.

Reseda phytcuma.

7.

Plentiful in the

Not

Sea.

p.

427.

Sp. 449.

L.

Sp. 646.

Mignonette.

Zuweirah, at the south-west end of the

Wady

Dead

hitherto found wild in Palestine.

Reseda

9.

i.,

Area, Mediterranean region.

Reseda odorata.

8.

Or.

P.

L.

Central districts.

Fl.

23S

hitea.

L.

Sp. 645.

In fields and barren

plains,

and Gilead.

Presl.

Dot. Bemerk., p. 8.

Area, Europe, North

Africa.
10.

Reseda muricata.

By

the

11.

Dead

Sea.

Reseda pruinosa.

Del.

Fl. Eg., p. 15.

South-west end of Dead Sea,


12.

Reseda

luteola.

Hills south-west of

13.

L.

Sea.

Zuweirah,

etc.

Weld.

Sp. 643.

Dead

Oligomeris subulata.

Wady

Area, Europe, North Africa.


Fl. Eg., p. 15.)

(Delil.

Area, Canaries, across North Africa to North

Southern Desert.
India.

ORDER
t.

Cistus viilosus.

L.

IX.,

CISTINE/E.

Sp. 736.

The hill districts east and west of Jordan, especially plentiful on


Carmel.
From the Cistus is collected the Ladamim, Heb. ^, Arab. ^U,
ladan, a balsam once
Italy,

2.

North

much esteemed

in

pharmacy.

Area, Corsica,

Africa.

Cutus incanus.

L.

Sp. 757.

Classed by Boissier as a variety of the

last species.

302

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

236

L.

Cistus creticus.

3.

Sp., p. 738.

The commoner form on


Cistus salviafolius

4.

On
5.

the

hills

the southern

L.

Sp. 73$.

Area, Mediterranean region.

everywhere.

Helianthemum syriacum.

Sub-alpine
France.

parts

hills.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

of Lebanon.

Area, Spain,

i.,

viii., p.

Portugal,

49.

South of

6.

Helianthemuni umbellatum.

Sub-alpine Lebanon

7.

Helianthemum guttatum.

Coast, and North, and

Sp. 739

(L.

Area, Spain and France.

district.

Sp. 741.)

(L.

Moab.

Area, Central Europe, Mediterranean

region.

8.

Helianthemuni niloticum. (L.

Hill districts.

9.

hills,

east and west.

Helianthemum csgyptiacum.

On

the

east and west.

u. Helianthemum

Helianthemum

Sandy
13.

districts

(L.

Delil.

Sp. 742.)

Fl. Eg., p. 93, pi. 31,

Area, North African desert.

(L.

lippii.

on the

coast.

Mant. 245.)
Area, North Africa, Sicily.

Helianthemum larandulo'folium.

Central Hill

Sp. 742.)

Area, Mediterranean region.

kahiricuin.

Southern desert.
12.

(L.

Area, Mediterranean region.

10.

hills

p. 246.)

Area, Mediterranean region.

Helianthemuni salicifolium,

Barren

Mant.,

district.

(Lam.

Diet,

Area, Mediterranean region.

ii.,

p. 25.)

f.

2.

THALAMIFLOR&.
14-

Helianthcmum vesicanum.

On

all

the southern

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Plentiful

hills.

237

on Olivet.

viii., p.

i.,

30.

Area, North-east

Africa.

15.

Helianthcmnm

Anti-Lebanon
1

6.

arabica.

Fl. Atl.

i.,

p.

418,

pi.

107.

Mant. 246.)

(L.

Area, Mediterranean region.

De

Fumana procumbens.

Cand.

Prodrom.

i.,

p.

275.

Area, Central and Southern Europe.

Near Beyrout.

ORDER
1.

p. 53.

Area, Atlas range.

Generally distributed.
19.

i.,

Sp. 745.)

(L.

Fumana glniinosa.

8.

Desf.

elliplicum.

Mount Carmel.
1

ii.,

Area, Atlas range.

Plain of Acre.

Fumana

Diagn. Scr.

in the plain.

Helianthemum

17.

Boiss.

kotschyarium.

X.,

VIOLARIE^:.

Willd. in Rsem. and Schutt.

Viola spathulata.

iii.,

p.

353.

Lebanon.
2.

Viola libanotica.

Boiss.

Lebanon, 7,0009,500
3.

Viola sylvatiat.

Lebanon.
4.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p.

52.

feet.

Fries.

Mant.

iv., p.

121.

Area, Europe, North Asia.


Tineo.

Viola parvula.

And- Lebanon.

Area,

Pug. Var.,

p. 5.

mountains of South Spain,

Corsica,

and

Sicily.

5.

Viola biflora.

Lebanon.
Siberia,

L.

Area,

Sp. 1326.

mountains of Northern

and North America.

and

Central

Europe,

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.


6.

Fcazl.

Viola ebractcolata.

Lebanon, 5,000

Wooded

hills

L.

Sp. 1524.

of Central and

North Africa, Canaries,

Northern wooded

3.

L.

4.

Taur.,

p. 48.

Sp. 987.

Area, Mediterranean region.


Schreb.

Polygala supina.

Dec., p. 19,

pi.

10.

hills.

Boiss.

Polygala anatolica.

On

Europe

POLYGALEyE.

XI.,

Polygala monspeliaca.

Galilean

Area,

hills.

Generally distributed.
2.

PI.

111.

ORDER
1.

Eastern Palestine.

Siberia.

Fenz.

Viola modesta.

8.

Taur., p. 49.

feet.

Viola odorata.

7.

111.

the scrub-covered

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

i.,

p. 57.

hills.

Polygala vulgaris.

L.

Sp. 986.

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, 6,000

feet.

Area, Central and South

Europe.

ORDER
1.

Vclezia rigida.

L.

Plain of Gennesaret.
2.

Velezia fasciculata.

XII.,

Sp. 474.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

i.,

viii., p.

92.

Lebanon.
3.

Dianthus armeria.

4.

Dianthus multipunctatus.

L.

Area, Europe.

Sp. 586.
Ser. in

Central and Northern Pale. tine.

De

Cand. Prodr.

i.,

p.

362.

THALAMIFLOJR&.
Var. Subenervis.

5.

Fl. Or.

Boiss.

i.,

239

483.

p.

'Bsherreh, Lebanon.

Var. Gracilior

6.

D.

Fenz.

striatellus.

Lebanon.

Dianthus polyc ladus,

7.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

p. 65.

i.,

Anti-Lebanon, low grounds.

Dianthus pallens.

8.

Diantlms superbus.

L.

Northern mountains.
10.

iv., p.

87,

pi.

399.

Deserts below Hermon.

Ditto, var. Oxylepis.


9.

Fl. Gr.

Sibth.

Sp. 589.

Area, Central and Northern Europe, Siberia.

Dianthus caryophylhis.

L.

Area, Central and South

Sp. 210.

Europe.
11.

p. 161.
12.

Dianthus nazarceus.

M.

Dianthus polymorphiis.
hills.

ex Spreng. Nen. Entd.

Dianthus

B. Taur. Cauc.

i.,

p. 324.

Area, Hungary, South Russia.

Dianthus judaicus.

Hills surrounding
14.

It., iii.,

(?)

Northern
13.

Clarke.

Dead

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Sea.

viii., p.

66.

P.

Labill.

libanotis.

i.,

Dec.

i.,

p.

14, pi. 4.

Higher parts of Lebanon.


15.

Dianthus fimbriatiis.

Ditto, var. Brevifolius

N. B. Taur. Cauc.

D. pogonopetalus.

i.,

p.

382.

Boiss.

Lebanon, near the Cedars.


1

6.

On
1

7.

Dianthus penctuhis.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

the face of precipices, Lebanon.

Dianthus zonatus.

Mount Nebo.

Fenz.

Pug., No. 35.

ii.,

vi., p.

28.

iii.,

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

34 o

Tunica syriaca.

18.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

i.,

viii., p.

63.

Ind.

S.

Northern Lebanon.
Tunica pachygona.

19.

Fisch.

et

Mcy.

Petrop.

iv.,

No. 2255.
Eastern plains of Moab.

Tunica saxifraga.

20.

Sp. 584.)

(L.

Area, Central and South

Plains and dry valleys under Lebanon.

Europe.
21.

Tunica arabica.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

i.,

62.

viii., p.

Southern Desert.
22.

Tunica prolifera.

24.

Saponaria oxyodonta.
in cornfields

(Boiss.

465.

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

i.,

p. 68.)

everywhere.

Saponaria mesogiiana.

Northern
27.

Enum.

Willd.

hillsides.

Common
26.

Sp. 585.

Area, Central and Southern Europe, Siberia.

Saponaria prostrata.

Bare
25.

L.

Saponaria vaccaria.

Galilee, Gilead.

Area, Northern and Central Europe

Plains of Esdraelon.
23.

Sp. 382

(L.

Boiss. Diagn. Ser.

i.,

i.,

p.

16.

hills.

Saponaria pulvinaris.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p.

74.

Higher parts of Lebanon and Hermon.


28.

Saponaria syriaca.

Central
29.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii

p. 73.

districts.

Saponaria

orientalis.

L.

Sp. 585.

Plains and wilderness of Judaea.


30.

Ankyropetalum ccelesyriacum.

Plain of the Bukaa.

P.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

viii.,

59.

THALAMIFLOR&.
31.

Del.

Gypsophila rokejeka.

Fl. Eg.,

2 4i

p. 282, pi. 29,

Wilderness of Judaea towards Dead Sea, ruins


32.

i.

Moab.

in

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Gypsophila libanotica.

f.

i.,

12.

p.

i.,

Cedars of Lebanon, Hermon.


33-

Gypsophila damascena.

Barren
34.

hills,

Anti- Lebanon,

Gypsophila viscosa.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

i.,

viii., p.

57.

etc.

Comm.

Murr.

Gcett.,

783, p. 9,

pi. 3.

Fields in the northern plains.


35.

Boiss.

Gypsophila frankenioides.

Diagn.

Sen

i.,

i.,

p. 10.

Var.

libanotica.

Rocky
36.

places on the eastern slopes of Lebanon.

Gypsophila hirsuta.

Fissures of limestone rocks.


37. Var.

Lebanon, 5,000

Fissures of rocks,

38. Var. Barradensis.

Barren

39. Var. Filicaulis,

40. Silene coniflora.

41.

Otth. in

hills

De

Souk

L.

42. Silene rcuteriana.

Cand.

Sp. 598.

Boiss.

Lebanon.

43.

Silene armeria.

On

the coast.

Prodr.

Wady

Barada.

i.,

p.

371.

Var. Obcordata.

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

R.

Sp. 60 1.

L.

Area, South Europe.

44. Silene muscipula.

Coast.

feet.

about Damascus.

Stony fields, north and east of Jordan, Moab,


South France, North-west India.

districts,

6,000

General.

Silene conoidea.

Sandy

Var. moliis.

iv., p. 9.)

Highest parts of Lebanon.

Alpina.

Cultivated land.

Dec. Syr.

(Labill.

L.

Sp. 60 r.

Area, South Europe, North Africa.

etc.

v., p. 54.

Area, Spain,

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

242

L.

45. Silene be/ten.

Sp. 599.

Area, South

Coast, plains.

Area, South Spain,

Plains.

Italy,

Dalmatia.

Pug., No. 23.

Fenz.

47. Silene crassipes.

On

Sp. 60 1.

L.

46. Silene cretica.

Italy, Sardinia.

the coast.

Mountain and

hill

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

48. Silene gonocalyx.

38,

General.

regions.

De

Otth. in

49. Silene racemosa.

viii., p.

i.,

Cand. Prodr.

i.,

p.

384.

Var. Stb-

thorpiana.

Central

50.

districts.

Ehr.

Silene dichotoma.

Beitr.

144.

7, p.

Area, Danube, South Russia.

Galilee, Gilead.

Desf.

51. Silene hi<pida.

Coast, plains, and

i.,

=S.

248.

vesp.rtina.

Retz.

East plains of Moab.

Beds of watercourses.
52. Silene gallica.

Atl.

L.

Sp. 595.

Area, Central and Southern Europe, North

hills.

Africa.

53.

Silene villosa.

Forsk.

Near the Dead Sea.


54. Silene setacea.

Ghor, and
55.

salt plain

Viv.

Fl. Lib., p. 23, pi.

south of

Silene siderophila.

Silene damascena.

Mountain and

iii.,

p. 88.

Area, North African deserts.

Subalpine Lebanon.
56.

Desc. Cent,

Dead

Sea.

12,

f.

2.

Area, North-east Africa.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

vi., p.

34.

P.

hill districts.

General.

P.

ii.,

vi., p.

34.

THALAMIFLOR^E.
Boiss.

Silene palcestina.

57.

Desert near Gaza.

Diagn. Ser.

i.

viii.,

p. 80.

P.

L.

Silene nocturna.

58.

243

Coast and plains.

Sp. 595.

Area, Mediterranean region.


Desf.

59. Silene bipartita.

Atl.

i.,

p.

352,

100.

pi.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Sea

coast.

60.

Ditto, var. Eriocaulon.

Phoenician plain.

Boiss.

P.

Otth. in

61. Silene oliveriana.

De

Cand. Prodr.

p.

373.

Wilderness of Judaea towards Dead Sea, and sandy plains by coast.


62.

L.

Silene rubella.

North

Area, Mediterranean region.

plains.

63. Silene scdoides.

Link, in Brot. Fl. Lus.

64. Silene fuscata.

Fields on the coast.

65.

i.

f.

ii.,

p.

187.

Area, Portugal, South Spain, South

Italy,

Africa.

Silene atocion.

Coast and
66.

Coll. Suppl., pi. 14,

Jacq.

Area, South France, South Italy.

Coast.

North

Sp. 600.

hills,

Murr.

Syst., p. 421.

near Gilead.

Area, interior of Algeria.

Boiss.

Silene kotschyi.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

i.,

p. 40.

Under Lebanon and Hermon.


67. Silene cassia.

Wooded

hills,

Silene juncea.

On

the coast.

Modesta.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p.

78.

Galilee.

68.

69. Silene

Boiss.

Sibth.

chatodonta.

Fl.

Boiss.

Gr.

v., p.

Diagn.

15, pi. 421.

Ser.

i.,

i.,

p.

39.

Boiss.

Phoenician plain.

312

Van

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

244

70.

Silene stenobotrys.

Boiss.

Fl.

Or.

i.,

611.

p.

In rocks at Rascheya.
71. Silene spergulifolia.

Cor. Tourn.,

(Desf.

p. 73.)

Subalpine regions.
72.

Silene pruinosa.

Boiss.

Anti-Lebanon, 7,000

Diagn. Ser.

85.

viii., p.

i.,

feet.

73. Silene subulata,

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

i.,

viii., p.

33.

High summits of Lebanon.

Rocks
75.

in

Lebanon, 4,000

Sm.

Silene inflata.

Pug., No. 28.

Fenz.

74. Silene odontopetala.

9,000

feet,

and on top of Hermon.

467.

Brit., p.

Coast and central regions, Jordan valley.

Area, Europe, North

Africa, Liberia.
76.

Silene physalodes.

North, near Banias.


77. Silene italica.

Mountains and
78.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

i.,

83.

viii., p.

P.

Sp. 593.)

(L.

Area, Mediterranean region.

hills.

Silene longipetala.

Venten.

Hort. Cals.,

p.

83,

pi.

Purpurascens.
Coast, Judaean wilderness, Jordan valley, Gilead.
79. Silene

makmeliana.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.

P.

80. Silene libanotica.

Diagn. Ser.

Rocky

places,

Boiss.

Lebanon up

8 1. Silene gigantea.

L.

to 7,000 feet,

i.,

i.,

viii., p.

viii., p.

Hebron,

89.

89.

etc.

P.

Sp. 598.

Lebanon.
82. Silene brevipes.

Mount Nebo.

P.

Paine.

Pal. Expl. Soc.,

No.

3, p.

98.

83.

Var.

THALAMIFL ORs.
.Sz'/tfWtf

83.

Diagn. Sen

Boiss.

^rz'.ft'tf.

2 45

i.,

viii., p.

Limestone rocks below the Cedars, Lebanon.


Forsk.

s^lccutenta.

84.

,Sy/<<?#*

On

the coast.

85.

Melandrium pratense.

Lebanon up

Descr.,

P.

89.

p.

Deutsch. Fl.

Roehl.

88.

i.,

p. 254.

Area, Northern and Central Europe,

to 5,000 feet.

Siberia.
86.

Melandrium

Lebanon

to the

4.

XIII.,

ALSINE^.

in

Gay

Gre. and God. Fl. Fr.

(Vahl.

Symb.

(Labill.

Alsine juniperina.

Hills
6.

Dec.

and mountain

Fenzl.

districts

Alsine libanolica.

Alsine meyeri.

Lebanon, 4,000
8.

iv., p. 8, pi. 4,

up to 8,000

Boiss.

6,000

Gilead.

f.

i.)

P.

feet.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Alsine billardierL

Mount

p. 248.

50, pi. 33.)

Alsin., p. 18.

Bare alpine heights of Lebanon.


7.

i.,

Area, Mediterranean region.

desert south of Gaza.

Alsine rupestris.

i.,

Highest parts of Lebanon and Hermon.


5.

p. 78.

Area, Central and Southern Europe.

Alsine procumbens.

Sandy

i.,

Area, Europe, the Canaries.

Buffonia macrosperma.

Anti-Lebanon.
3.

ii.,

Mant. 559.

L.

Sagina apetala.

Coast of Palestine.
2.

Diagn. Ser.

summit.

ORDER
1.

Boiss.

eriocalycinum.

i.,

viii., p.

98.

P.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p.

96.

feet.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p.

95.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALKSTINE.

246

9.

Fenz.

Alsine smithii.

Alsin., p. 57.

Lebanon.
10.

Pug., No. 35.

Fenz.

Alsine decipiens.

Carmel and Central Palestine, Gilead.


11.

Alsine tenuifolia.

Area, Europe, Siberia, North Africa.

Lebanon.
12.

Ditto., var.

Sandy
13.

Boiss.

Ditto, var. Lydia.

on the

hills,

Alsine thymifolia.

Alsine picta.

Sandy
1

6.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

i.,

p.

45.

soils,

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

i.,

p. 86.

coast.

(Sibth.

On

Ditto, var. Syriaca.


15.

Boiss.

Macropetala.

plains, Phoenicia.

Galilean
14.

Sp. 607.)

(L.

(Sibth.

Fl.

Gr.

i.,

p.

305,

441.)

pi.

the coast, near Beyrout.


Prodr. Fl. Gr., p. 304.)

general.

Ditto, var. Sinaica.

Desert south of the Dead Sea, ravine of the Arnon.


17.

Queria hispanica.

Below Hermon.
18.

Lcefl.

It.

Hisp., p. 48.

Area, Spain, Portugal.

Arenaria graveolens.

Schreb.

Nov. Act. Cur.

iii.,

p.

Northern mountain region.


19.

Arenaria

Northern
20.

Arenaria

serpyllifolia.

in

sandy places.

Arenaria tremula.

Northern

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p.

101.

L.

Sp. 606.

Area, Europe, North Africa, Siberia.

Ditto, var. Leptoclados.

General
22.

Boiss.

hills.

Lebanon.
21.

cassia.

hills.

P.

Rchb.

Cent, xv.,

pi.

32.

Area, Europe, North Africa.


Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p.

101.

478.

THALAMIFL OR^E.
23.

Stellaria media.

Sp. 389.)

(L.

Area, almost world-wide.

General.
24.

Holosteiim umbellatum.

General

247.

in plains

and

L.

Sp. 130.

Area, Central and South Europe,

hills alike.

North Africa.
25.

Holosteum liniflorum. Stev.

In sandy
26.

Ex. F. and M. Ind. Petrop.

iv.,

p. 10.

fields.

W. K.

Cerastium anomahim.

PL Rar.

22.
p. 21, pi.

i.,

The Bukaa.
27.

Cerastium kotschyi.

Anti-Lebanon, 5,000
28.

Boiss.

Or.

Fl.

i.,

p. 715.

P.

feet.

Arduin.

Cerastium illyricum.

Sp.

ii.,

p. 26.

Higher parts of Lebanon.


29.

Cerastium dichotomum.

Northern
30.

hills to

L.

Sp. 628

Lebanon and Hermon.

Cerastium inflalum.

Desf.

Area, Spain, North Africa.

Cat. Hort. Par., p. 462.

Moab.
4*

31.

Cerastium viscosum.

L.

Sp. 627.

Cultivated and moist ground, general.


32.

Cerastium fragillimum.

Boiss.

Area, almost world-wide.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

i.,

p. 54.

Higher parts of Lebanon and Anti- Lebanon.


33.

Malachium ayuaticum.

Central Palestine,

(L.

Nablus.

Sp. 29.)

Area, Europe,

West

west India.
34.

Spergtila arvensis.

Fields.

Sp. 630.

Area, Europe, Siberia, India, Abyssinia.

35. Spergula pentandra.

Gaza.

L.

L.

Sp. 630.

Area, Europe, North Africa, Canaries.

Siberia,

North,

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

24 8

Spergularia

36.

rubra.

The Bukaa and Hasbany


Africa, India,

Ups. 151.)

(Wahl.

Area, Europe, Siberia, North

valley.

North America.

Fl. Goth.,
(Wahl.
Spergularia media.
Area, as above.
Coast near Gaza.
37.

(De Cand.

38. Spergularia marginata.

Salt plain south of

Dead

ORDER
1.

2.

Area, as above.

XIV.,

PARONYCHIE^:.
Dec.,

(Forsk.

p.

Arab.,

207.)

Robbyr.

Sp. 89.)

(L.

Polycarpon tetraphyllum.

^,

Area, Oases of the

Judsa and Southern Desert.

Africa.
Area, Central and South Europe,

Ghor, by Jericho.
3.

Fl. Fr. iv., p. 793.)

Sea.

Robbairea prostrata.

Hill-country of
Sahara.

p. 45.)

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Polycarpon arabicum.

i.,

x., p. 13.

Southern Desert.
4.

Del.

Polycarpcaa fragilis.

Herniaria

cinerea.

Very common.
6.

7.

the coast and

8.

De

Cand.

L.

241,

pi.

24,

f.

i.

Fl. Fr. v., p. 375.

Sp. 317.

Area, Central and South Europe.

hills.

Herniaria incana.

Galilee.

p.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Herniaria hirsuta.

On

Eg.,

Area, deserts of Algeria.

Desert beyond Gaza.


5.

Fl.

Lam.

Diet,

iii.,

p.

124.

Area, South Europe.

Herniaria hemistemon.

}.

Gay.

Duch. Rev.

Bot., 1846, p. 371

Shores of the Dead Sea.


9.

Paronychia

vescens.

sinaica.

Fres.

Mus. Senck.

Boiss.

Southern Desert, near Beersheba.

i.,

p.

180.

Van, Fla-

THALAMIFLOR/E.

249

Lam. Fl. Fr. iii., p. 230.


Paronychia argentea.
Beersheba and south-west and east of Dead Sea.
Area, Mediterranean region.
TO.

n. Paronychia arabica. (L. Mant. 51.)


Much more desert habitat than the
Gaza.
1

Southern Judaea.

Area, interior

Scleranthus annuus.

13.

L.

Ench.

Pers.

Gymnocarpum fruticosum.

2.

last.

i.,

p.

636.

North Africa.

Sp. 580.

Area, Europe, North Africa, Abyssinia, Western

Jordan valley.
Siberia.

Habrosia

14.

(Sen

spimiliflora.

De

in

Cand. Prodr.

i.,

p.

406.)

The Hauran.
15.

Pleranthus cchinatus.

Desf.

Area, North

Wilderness of Judaea.

ORDER

XV.,

L.
Telephium imperati.
Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.

Glinus

3.

On
4.

MOLLUGINE^:.

Boiss.

L.

i.,

iv., p.

12,

Area, Mediterranean region.

Glinus dictamnoides.

ORDER
Portulaca oleracea.

In the plains.

Diagn. Ser.

Sp. 663.

L.

Mant.

Near Rascheya, under Hermon.

i.

144.

Africa, Malta.

Desert.

loto'ides.

the coast.

p.

Area, Central and South Europe.

Telephium sphcerospermum.

The Southern

i.,

Sp. 388.

1.

2.

Fl. Atl.

XVI.,
L.

ii.,

p.

243.

Area, India.

PORTULACE^E.

Sp. 638.

Area, Temperate and Tropical North Zones.


32

FA UNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

250

ORDER

Rcaumuria palastina.

I.

Barren marl

Tamarix

2.

hills

TAMARISCINE/E.

XVII.,

Diagn. Sen

Boiss.

round the Dead Sea.


Boiss.

syriaca.

Or.

Fl.

i.,

p. 10.

P.

767.

p.

i.,

Heb. 7$$, Arab.

Ghataf.

<_$lks>,

Side of streams near Sidon.

Tamarix tetragyna.

3.

Coast near

On

Linn,

Boiss.

Fl.

ii.,

p. 257.

Or.

i.,

771.

p.

P.

the banks of the Jordan.

Tamarix

5.

Ehr.

Mount Carmel.

Tamarix jordanis.

4.

P.

Ehr. Sched. Herb. Berol.

nilotica.

Southern desert.

On

Ann. Sc. Nat.

Desv.

Tamarix pallasii.

6.

iv., p.

349.

Area, Moldavia, South Russia,

the coast of the Phoenician plain.

Turkestan.

ORDER

XVIII.,

FRANKENIACE^E.

L.
Frankenia pulveinlenta.
Sp. 474.
On the coast. Area, Mediterranean region, Senegal, Cape of Good
1.

Hope.
2.

Frankenia himita.

On
Africa,

the coast.

Western

L,

Siberia.

ORDER
i.

On
Africa.

Elatine campylosperma.
the

Sp. 474.

Area, Central and Southern Europe, North and South

Philistian

plain.

XIX.,

ELATINE/E.

Seub.

Area,

Mon.

Elat., p. 17.

South

France,

Sardinia,

North

T8ALAMIfLOR<.

ORDER
Among
2.

HYPERICINE^:.

XX.,

Triadenia russeggeri.

1.

25

Pug., No. 18.

Fenz.

ruins.

L.

Hypericum hircinum.

Common

the

in

north

Sp. 1103.

and on the

Area, south coasts of

coast.

Europe.
3.

Hypericiim nanum.

Suppl. Diet,

Poir.

699.

in., p.

Clinging to rocks in the hills and mountains.


Ain Fijeh, Anti-Lebanon.
Ditto var. Proslratum.
4.

Hyperic um

Galilaean hills
5.

Lam.

serpyllifoliuin.

Lebanon, 4,000

Poir.

Suppl. Diet,

Hypericum scabrum. L. Amcen.


Galilee, Lebanon, and Anti- Lebanon.
Hypericum

Chois.

confertum.

Hypericum hyssopifoliiwt.
Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.
Hypericum

Lower
10.

heliantliemoides.

Northern Palestine.

Hypericum crispum.

Generally distributed.
12.

In

287.

iv., p.

Monog.

Hyper,

55,

p.

Vill.

Dauph.

iii.,

505,

p.

pi.

pi.

8.

44.

Area, South Europe, Western Siberia.


(Spach.

Suit. Buff,

v., p.

379.)

Fries.

Nov.

p.

236.

Area, Europe, North Africa.


L.

Mant.,

p.

106.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Hypericum lanuginosum.
all

699.

Galilee and Anti- Lebanon.

Hypericum tetrapterum.

Hills,
11.

hills,

p.

Boiss.

8.

9.

iii.,

feet.

6.

7.

176.

iv., p.

among brushwood.

Hypericzim cuneatum.

Var. Stenobotrys.

Diet,

Lam.

Diet,

iv., p.

171.

parts of the country, except the Jordan valley.

322

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

as j

L.

Hypericum perforatum.

13.

Area, Europe, North Africa, Siberia.

Coasts and mountain region.

Hypericum cassiwn.

14.

Malva

Plain of Sharon,

Malva

2.

Malva

4.

Fed.

L.

rotimdifolia.

p. 40.

Area, South Europe.

Sp. 969.

Area, Central Europe.

L.

on

ii.,

districts.

Moab.

Among brushwood

in.

Area, Europe, North Africa, Siberia.

All.

Malva parviflora.

viii., p.

Sp. 969.

Coast and central

Fields in the north,

i.,

XXL, MALVACEAE.

Moab.

nicaensis.

Common.
3.

L.

sylvestris.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

ORDER
1.

Sp. 1105.

Sp. 960.
central

hills,

Area,

district.

Southern

Europe.

Malva

5.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

oxyloba.

Plain of Esdraelon, and elsewhere.

Lavatera

6.

cretica.

Plains, coast

and

L.

viii., p.

109.

P.

Sp. 973.

Area, Mediterranean region, Canaries.

inland.

Lavatera punctata.

7.

i.,

Auct., p. 26.

All.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Northern Palestine, Lebanon.


8.

Lavatera unguiculata.

Desf.

9.

Lavatera thuringiaca,

L.

Arb.

i.,

p.

471.

Sp. 972.

Area, Central Europe.


10.

Lavatera trimestris.

Coast, and Jordan valley.


11.

Althaa

hirsuta.

L.

Carmel, Galilee, Nebo.

L.

Sp. 974.

Area, Southern Europe.


Sp. 966.

Area, Central and Southern Europe.

THALAM1FLOR&.
Althaa

12.

Northern

L.

Sp. 966.

Area,

Central

officinalis.

plains.

253

and

Europe, West

Southern

Siberia.

13.

Alcea

Coast,
14.

hill

acaulis.

f.

pi. 27,

ii.,

3.)

and mountain regions, east and west.

Alcea rufescens.

Banias, under
15.

Diss.

(Cav.

Diagn. Ser.

(Boiss.

p. 102.)

i.,

ii.,

Hermon.

Alcea lavateraflora.

(De Cand.

Prodr.

i.,

p.

437.)

Hill country, north to south.


16.

Alcea

Hills
17.

L.

rosea.

Sp. 966.

above Lake Huleh.

Alcea ficifolia.

Van

Sibthorpii.

Area, South
Hort.

L.

Cliff.,

Italy,

Dalmatia.

348.

Area, South Russia, Dalmatia.


1

8.

Alcea

setosa.

i.,

vii.,

p. 107.)

P.

Hills, Central Palestine.


19.

Diagn. Ser.

(Boiss.

Alcea apterocarpa.

(Fenz.

Cat. Hort. Vindob., 1858.)

Lebanon, Mount Nebo.


20.

Alcea kurdica.

(Schlecht.

Linn,

xvii., p.

127.)

Rocks, Anti-Lebanon.
21.

Malvella sherardiana.

Generally distributed.
22.

By
23.

Dead

Sea.

24.

Safieh

Hibiscus syriacus.

Doubtful

if

now

Guill. et Perr.

Fl.

Seneg.

i.,

p.

70.

Area, Senegal, Nubia Abyssinia, Arabia Deserta.

Abutilon muticum.

Engedi, Ghor,
Arabia Deserta.

Sp. 1675.)

Area, Spain.

AbiUilon fruticosum.
the

(L.

(Dell.

(by

L.

Eg., No. 633.)

111.

Dead

Sea).

Area,

Sp. 978.

found, except in Northern Syria.

Senegal, Nubia,

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

?54

25.

L.

Hibiscus trionum.

Sp. 981.

Area, Central Europe.

General.

L.

26. H^b^sc^ts cannabinus.

Sp. 979.

Hemp.

Cultivated.

Hibiscus esculentus.

27.

L.

Sp. 980.

Cultivated.
28.

Gossypium herbaceum.

L.

Sp. 975.

Cotton.

Cultivated.

ORDER

STERCULIACE/E.

XXII.,

None.

ORDER
1

Corchorus

Maritime
2.

L.

olitorius.

Corchorus trilocularis.

The Ghor,

Sp. 746.
all

Area,

plains.

ORDER
1.

Linum gallicum.

Maritime
2.

De

Cand.

i.,

Linum

Linum

5.

Linum

Hermon

L.

strictum.

Area, tropical Africa and Asia.

Sea.

XXIV., LINE^E.

Rchb.

Fl. Excurs., p. 834.

Italy,

Dalmatia, Abyssinia.

Sp. 400.

Area, Mediterranean region, Abyssinia.

nodiflorum.

Hill country.

Jew's Mallow.

Sp. 401.

Area,

Mount Carmel.
4.

77.

423.

Mount Carmel.
3.

L.

corymbulosum.

Prodr.

Mant.

Area, Mediterranean region, Abyssinia.

plains.

Linum

tropical countries.

L.

Dead

north end of

TILIACE^i.

XXIII.,

L.

Sp. 401.

Area, Mediterranean region.

toxicum.

top, 9,500

Fl. Or.

Boiss.
feet.

P.

i.,

p.

854.

L.

aiircu;:i.

THALAMIFLORsE.
6.

7.

Liuumflavum.

Linum

L.

orientate.

855

Sp. 399.
Fl.

Boiss.

Or.

855.

p.

i.,

Universally abundant.
,<

Linum

8.

Galilee,

9.

syriacum.

Or.

i.,

p.

L.

usitatissimum.

Near Damascus.

Common

Sp. 397.

Limim pubesccns.

Limim

Flax.

Cultivated everywhere.

Russ.

Alep.

ii.,

p.

Generally distributed east and west, except


11.

856.

on limestone rocks.

Linum

10.

Fl.

Boiss.

Jiumile.

Mill.

No.

Diet.,

268.
in

Jordan valley.

2.

Under Hermon.
12.

Linum

Linum

carnosulum.

Lebanon, 8,000
14.

Linum

Fl. Angl., 134.

Area, Central and South Europe, Canaries.

General.
13.

Huds.

angiistifolium.

feet.

i.,

viii., p.

104.

P.

hirsutum.

Gennesaret.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

L.

Sp. 398.

Area, East Germany, Hungary, South Russia.

ORDER
Oxalis corniculata.

L.

In cultivated plains in

ORDER

XXV., OXALIDE/E.
Sp. 623.

the

south.

XXVI.,

Not

Area, world-wide.

BALSAMINE^.

observed.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

2J6

ORDER
1.

Geranium

De

subcaulescens.
feet.

Geranium tuberosum.

L.

Geranium

Prodr.

Fl. Or.

Boiss.

libanoticum.

Sp.

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, lower

parts.

5.

6.

asphodeloides.

L.

Geranium pusilhim.

The Hauran,

7.

Geranium

L.

Area, South

Italy.

Sp. 956.

Cav.

ibericum,

Diss.

districts.

Geranium rotundifolium.

General,

704.

Hi., p.

Area, Europe, North Africa, Siberia.

Northern mountainous
8.

877.

p.

Area, Europe. North Africa.

Jordan valley.

districts.

i.,

Sp. 957.

Geranium columbimim.

Wooded

640.

feet.

Willd.

Geranium

p.

953.

Sp.

Higher parts of Lebanon, from 4,000


4.

i.,

Area, Mediterranean region.

Universally distributed.
3.

Cand.

Area, Dalmatia.

Lebanon, 6,0008,000
2.

GERANIACE^:.

XXVII.,

except Jordan

iv., p.

209.

L.

Sp. 957.

Area,

valley.

Europe,

North Africa,

Siberia.
9.

Geranium

Plains

and

L.

dissectum.

hills.

Sp. 956.

Area, Europe, North Africa, Canaries, Siberia,

North America.
10.

Geranium

Hills, plains,
11.

12.

L.

Sp. 955.

and Lebanon.

Geranium

Lebanon.

molle.

sylvaticum,

Area, Europe, North Africa, Canaries.


L.

Sp. 933.

Area, Europe, Siberia.

Geranium pnrpureum.

North and Lebanon.

Vill.

Dauph.

iii.,

p.

174, pi. 40.

Area, Mediterranean region.

THALAMII'LOR^E.

Geranium lucidum.

13.

General,

except

Europe, North

L.

Jordan

Africa,

West

Sp. 955.

Central and

Area,

valley.

Southern

Siberia.

Geranium robertianum.

14.

25 7

L.

Sp. 956.

Herb

Robert.

Area,

Central and Southern Europe, Siberia.


15.

Erodium trichomanefolium.

Var. Albiflorum.

in

De

Cand. Prodr.

i.,

p.

645.

Area, Southern Spain.

Higher parts of Lebanon.


1 6.

L'Her.

Boiss.

Hermon.
17.

Erodiiim romanum,

Lower

parts of

Sp. 951.)

(L.

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.

Area, Mediterranean,

Europe.
1 8.

Erodium moschatum.

General.
19.

Erodium

Sp. 951.)

(L.

Area, Europe, Abyssinia, Canaries.


ciconium.

Sp. 952.)

(L.

Central and Southern Palestine.


20.

Erodium gruinum.

Area, South Europe.

Sp. 952.)

(L.

Plain of Esdraelon, Galilee, Gilead, and Jordan valley.


21.

Erodium

botrys.

(Cavan.

Plains of Jordan valley.

Diss.

iv., pi.

90,

f.

Area,

Sicily,

2.)

South Europe, North Africa, Madeira,

Canaries.
22.

Erodium

laciniatum.

Plain of Phoenicia.
23.

Erodium

Hills

24.

Cavan.

iv., p.

228,

pi.

113,

f.

3.

Area, Mediterranean region.

cicutarium.

(L.

and plains of Moab.

Erodium

Diss.

malacoides.

Sp. 95.)

Area, Europe, North Africa, Siberia.


(L.

Sp. 952.)

General, especially Jordan valley.

Area, Mediterranean region.

33

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

258

25.

Erodium hirtum.

Area, Desert of Algeria and Tunis.

Southern deserts.
26.

Erodium

Northern
27.

28.

Boiss.

gaillardoti.

Mount

Monsonia

Ait.

nivea.

ORDER

De

2.

L.

Tribulus alatus.

Eg.

Fagonia kahirina.

Rocky
6.

hills

Del.

Eg.,

Dead

Boiss.

sinaica.

Boiss

south-east of

Fagonia myriacantha.

Fagonia

Northern

olivieri.

plains,

708.

No. 438.

p. 86, pi. 26,

f.

De

Bukai.

3.

Sea.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii.,

p. 122.

Area, Algerian deserts.

Diagn. Ser.

Dead

i.,

i.,

p. 61.

Sea.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

Desert south of Beersheba.


7.

p.

Area, Arabia and Scinde.

Fagonia ghdinosa.

Fagonia

i.,

ZYGOPHYLLE^E.

Illustr.,

South-west end of Dead Sea.


5.

Prodr.

Cand.

Sp. 554.

Del.

Desert south and west of


4.

p. 416.

ii.,

Area, Mediterranean region.

Sea.

Southern Desert.
3.

Kew.

feet.

XXVIII.,

Tribulus terrestris.

Dead

ii.,

Area, oases of Sahara.

Lebanon and Hermon, 8,000

the

61.

Fl. Sin., p. 61.)

(Decaisn.

29. Bierbersteinia multifida.

Round

vi., p.

ii.,

Gilead.

Desert south of Gaza.

1.

Diagn. Ser.

P.

parts.

Erodium glaucophyllum.

Slopes of

Desc., p.

(Forsk.

Cand.

Prodr.

i.,

p.

704.

viii., p.

123.

THALAMIFLOR&.
8.

Wady
9.

Del.

mollis.

Fagonia

Western slopes of

L.

Wady

F.

Dead

Zuweirah, south-west end of

viii., p.

i.,

Sea.

Dead

Boiss.

L.

Zygophyllum fabago.
plains in the north.

Dry

P.

Sea.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p.

Zygophyllum

125.

P.

Sp. 551.

Dec.

L.

pi. 8.

i.,

Southern Desert, Ain Gades, Callirrhoe, Moab.


14.

121.

Area, Spain, Sardinia, North Africa.

Zygophyllum album.

13.

Del.

North-west of Moab.

South end of Dead Sea, desert south of Beersheba.


12.

cistoides.

Sp. 553.

Zygophyllum dumosum.

it.

2.

f.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Judaea, towards

Fagonia arabica.

10.

pi. 28,

Eg., p. 86,

Akabah, south of Dead Sea.

Fagonia grandiflora.

2 S9

coccineiim.

L.

Area, Spain.

Sp. 551.

Barren plains north and south of Dead Sea.

Area, tropical Arabia,

Scinde.
15.

Nitraria tridentata.

Wadys

south

and

Desf.

south-east

Atl.

p. 372.

i.,

Dead

of

Sea.

Area,

Sahara,

Senegal.

Pegamim harmala.
By shores of the Dead
16.

L.

Sp. 638.

Area, Mediterranean region and

Sea.

sub-tropical Arabia.

ORDER

XXIX., RUTACE^E.
>

1,

Dictamnus froxinella.

Northern woods.
2.

Ruta

chalepensis.

Pers.

Syn.

i.,

p.

464.

Area, Europe, Siberia, North-west Himalayas.


L,

Mant.

i.,

p.

69.

Ditto, var. Bracteosa,

Generally

distributed.

De

Cand.
Area,

the

Mediterranean

region,

tropical Arabia.

332

and

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

,Co

3.

Bare
4.

hills in

in

Encycl.

(Poir.

13, pi. 4.)

p.

vi., p.

356.)

Area, Tunis.

barren places.

Lebanon

Boiss.

5.

Var. Stenophyllwn.

6.

Haplophyllum corymbiilosum.

arid

Anti-Lebanon.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

i.,

ii.,

116.

p.

P.

Jericho.
7.

i.,

the north.

Haplophyllum buxbaumii.

General

Dec.

(Labill.

Haplophyllum fruticnlosiim.

Haplophyllum tuberculatum.

Southern desert

Ghor of

(Forsk.

Descr., p. 86.)

the Seisaban.

Area, Sahara, Nubia,

tropical Arabia.
8.

Haplophyllum sylvaticum.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii.,

p. 126.

Hills in the northern parts.


9.

Haplophyllum long ifolium.

Ravines of Dead Sea.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

viii., p.

127.

P.

ORDER
i.

Boiss.

Coriaria myrtifolia,

XXX., CORIARIE^:.
L.

Sp.

1467.

Area, Southern Europe,

Northern Africa.

ORDER
i.

Balanites agyptiaca.

Ghor.

Round Dead

Acer pseiidoplatanus.

Mountains of Gilead.
2.

Acer hyrcanum.

Var. Reygassii.

On

Lebanon.

P.

Del.

Sea.

ORDER
1.

XXXI., SIMARUBE^:.
111.

Eg., p. 263,

pi.

28,

f.

i.

Area, Nubia, Abyssinia, Arabia.

XXXII.,
L.

SAPINDACE^:.
Sycamore or Maple.

Sp. 1495.

Area, Central and Southern Europe.


F. and

Mey.

Ind.

iv.,

Hort. Petrop., No.

9.

THALAM1FLOR&.
3.

Acer

L.

creticum.

a6i

Sp. 1497.

Mountains of Bashan and Gilead.

Acer monsfcssulanum. L.
Lebanon about 4,000 feet.

Sp. 1497.

4.

Area, Mediterranean region.

5.

Var. Microphyllum.

Boiss.

Fl. Or.

i.,

p.

Northern and western slopes of Hermon.


Lebanon.
6.

Acer syriacum.

Many
7.

Diagn. Sen

Boiss.

Lebanon

of the upper

L.

Staphyltea pinnata.

ii.,

951.

Eastern lower slopes of

v., p.

72.

P.

valleys.

Sp. 386.

Northern and sub-alpine woods.

Area,

South and

South-east

Europe.

ORDER
i.

Melia azcdarach,

XXXIII.,

L.

MELIACE^:.

Sp. 550.

Cultivated.

ORDER
1.

Vitis vinifera.

XXXIV.,

AMPELIDE,.

Sp. 293. Heb.

L.

f&3,

Arab.

pjS,

Karm.

Cultivated everywhere.
2.

Vitis orientalis.

Among

ruins in the

(Lam.

Hauran.

111.,

p.

332,

pi.

84,

f.

2.)

The

Vine.

PLANTS VASCULARES.
CLASS, DICOTYLEDONEsE.

SUB-CLASS, CALYCIFLORJE, POLYPETALsE.

ORDER
i.

XXXV., BURSERACE^:.

Balsamodendron opobalsamum. (Forsk.


Heb. nx. Arab. ^U.jjl, Abusham.

Descr., p. 79.)

Balm of

Gilead.

In ancient times, and probably down to the date of the Crusades, the
Balm of Gilead was cultivated about Jericho. But it is now lost, and was
introduced from Arabia or Nubia, in both of which countries

it

is

still

found indigenous.

ORDER XXXVI, TEREBINTHACE^:.


1.

Rims

L.

cotinus.

Area, Central and Southern Europe.

Anti-Lebanon.
2.

Rhus

Sp. 383.

coriaria.

L.

Generally distributed.
3.

Rhus

oxyacanthoides,

Sp. 379.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Dum.

Cour. Bot. ed.

3,

iii.,

p. 568.

R.

syriaca, Boiss.

The Southern

desert,

and the

base of

Area, North Africa, Sicily, the Nubian coast.

Lebanon, behind Sidon.

CALYCIFLORsE, POLVPRTALM.
4.

fki,

Pistachio, vera.

L.

Sp. 1454.

263

Heb. D'}&?, Gen.

xliii.,

n.

Arab.,

Bufm.
Cultivated everywhere.
5.

A. V.,

On

'

Teil

'

tree,'

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Pistachio, palcestina.

i.,

i.

ix., p.

Hcb. M7X,

Oak.'

the lower slopes of the hills throughout the country.

This tree has generally been identified with P. terebinthus, L. Sp.


1455, but separated by Boissier, who does not acknowledge the occurrence
of a second species in the country.
6.

Pistachio,

Fisch.

mutica.

and Mey.

Hoh. Talysch.

Enum.,

p. 102.

Frequent.
7.

Probably introduced.
L.

Pistachia lentiscus.

Most abundant on the

Sp. 1455.

plains

and lower slopes of the

hills.

Area,

Mediterranean region.
8.

Pistachia terebinthus.

L.

Sp. 1455.

continually spoken of by travellers as the Terebinth, has


But, as stated above,
always been referred to this Mediterranean species.
if distinct from P. palcestina, it probably does not occur.

This

tree,

ORDER

XXXVII., CELASTRINE^S.

Evonymus europceus. L. Sp. 286, var. a. Spindle-tree.


Northern Lebanon (doubtful).
Area, Europe, Western Siberia.
i.

ORDER
1.
'

XXXVIII.,
Lam.

Paliurus aculcatus.

Briers.'

tab. 210.

Christ's Thorn, A. V.,

Arab, jyuo, Samur.

Hebr. YtJ>.

Covers the rocky

111.,

hills

over the whole country.

Area, Southern

Europe.
2.

Zizyphus vulgaris.

Not uncommon

in the

Lam.

Diet,

warmer

parts.

iii.,

p. 316.

Area, Southern Europe.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

264

Zizyphus spina-christi.

3.

(L.

Heb.

Sp. 282.)

pW.

Arab.

Nubk.
Extremely abundant

in the

parts of the maritime plains.


Arabia, North-west India.

Zizyphus

4.

By

lotus.

whole Jordan valley, and in the warmer


Area, Sahara, Nubia, Abyssinia, tropical

Sp. 281.)

(L.

the coast and in the Jordan valley.

Area, Spain,

North

Sicily,

Africa, Arabia.

Rhamnus

5.

Area, Mediterranean region.

General.

Rhamnus punctata.

6.

Northern
7.

bp. 281.

L.

alaternus.

districts,

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ii.,

p. 4.

maritime and mountain.

Rhamnus grandifolm.

F. and

M.

Hoh. Talysch. Enum.,

p. 99.

Near the sources of the Jordan.


8.

Rhamnus

Sibth.

prunifolia.

and Sm.

Prodr.

i.,

p. 157.

Northern mountains.
9.

Rhamnus

Boiss.

cornifolia.

Diagn. Ser.

i., ii.,

p. 3.

Northern mountains.
10.

Rhamnus

Heb. IbN, Judg.

palcestina.
ix.

14, 15.

On

the rocks in

11.

Rhamnus petiolar is.

In the northern
12.

Rhamnus

all

Boiss. Diagn. Ser.


A.V. 'Bramble.'

parts of the country, east

ii., i.,

p. 119.

and west.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

xi., v., p.

Probably

P.
75.

districts.

libanotica.

i.,

ii.,

p.

ny.

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.


13.

Rhamnus

oleoides.

L.

Hills round Gennesaret.


dinia.

Sp. 279.

Area, Spain, South France,

Sicily,

Sar-

CALVCIFLOR^E, POLYPETAL&.
14.

RJtamnus

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

ktirdica.

265

i. ( ii.,

p. 3.

Under Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.


15.

Rhammis

dahurica.

Lake Huleh.
16.

Pall.

Area, Caspian region, Persia.

Rhamnus

ORDER
i.

Moringa

De

sibthorpiana.

Prodr.

ORDER
Ravines near the

XL.,

L.

Anagyris fcetida.

Dead

Area, Nubia

Sea.

LEGUMINOSjE.

Sp. 534.

Moab, Juda^an

coast,

p. 25.

Fr., p. 315.

In the lower Jordan valley, and round the


and Arabia.

1.

ii.,

XXXIX., MORINGE.E.

Gsertn.

aptera.

Cand.

Area, Mediterranean

hills.

region and Arabia.


2.

Crotolaria csgyptiaca.

Hort. Lond. Journ.

Benth.

ii.,

p. 473.

Southern desert.
3.

L.

Liipinus pilosus.

Sp. 1015.

In the north and Jordan valley alike.


4.

L^lpinus digitatus.

Forsk.

JEg. Arab.,

p. 131.

Cultivated.

5.

Boiss.

Lupimis palcestinus.

Southern plains near Gaza,


6.

Lupinus

Near the
7.

coast.

Lupimis

General.

hirsutus.

L.

etc.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ix., p. 9.

P.

Sp. 1015.

Area, Mediterranean region.

augustifolius.

L.

Sp. 1015.

Area, Mediterranean region.

34

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

z66

Lr.pinus reticulate.

8.

p.

iii.,

Area, South France, Spain,

Plain of Philistia.

Lvpinus

Forsk.

tennis.

and var.

100,

/Eg. Arab.,

Sicily.

p. 131.

Cultivated in Italy.

In the plains.
10.

Bot.

Boks.

rhilisteus.

9.

Ann.

Desv.

Lotononis dichotoma.

Fl.

(Del.

Mg.

111.,

No.

717.)

Southern desert, shores of Dead Sea.


11.
pl.

Argyrolobiwn

crotalarioides.

Jaub.

et

Sp.

111.

Or.

i.,

p.

114,

59-

Northern
12.

hills

and Coele Syria.


Fl. Sin., p. 41.)

(Decaisn.

Argyrolobium uniflorum.

north to south.
In deserts and barren grounds from

Area, Nortl

Sahara.
13.

Adenocarpus divaricates.

A. commiitatns.

(L'Her.

Stirp., 184.)

Var.

Gr*c*s=

Guss.

Area, Spain, South

Southern Lebanon, Galilee.

France, South

Italy, Sicily.

14

Calycotome

villosa.

(Vahl.

Symb.

ii.,

p. 80.)

Gilead.
Coast, southern wilderness, Jordan valley,

Area, Mediter-

ranean region.
15.

Spartium junceum.

Central

districts,

L.

Sp. 995.

and sub-alpine region,


upland plains,

terranean region and Canaries.


16.

JRetana rvtant.

'

Juniper,'

Kings

(Forsk.

xix. 4, 5, etc.,

^g.
Arab.

Arab., p. 214.)

Heb.

DI)n,

A. V.

^, Ratem.

about the
rocky parts, especially
Area, North-east Africa.
Most plentiful in Gilead and Moab.
T
of the country
This is one of the exquisitely beautiful plants
with shrub
of a whole hill-side covered
delicate pink-and-white hues

On

all

the

hills

in desert

CALYCfFLOX/E, POLYPETAL&.

267
/

blossom, as I have seen it in Gileacl,


blossom of an English orchard.

in

17.

Northern
18.

De

Genista acanthoclada.

20.

Cand.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Genista anatolica.

Willd.

M.

Genista patula.
hills

Sp.

iii.,

Boiss.

23. Gonocytisus pterocladiis.

Dry sunny

25.

26.

hills,

Area, South Russia.

feet.

p.

148.

i.,

ix., p.

3.

P.

Diagn. Ser.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

Diagn. Ser.

(Boiss.

i.,

ii.,

p.

10.)

ix., p. 5.

ii.,

ii.)

P.
Loisel.

Duharn. Arb.,

p. 136.

hills.

27. Cytisus drepanolobus.

28.

ii.,

Diagn. Ser.

(Boiss.

Boiss.

Cytisus orientalis.

Northern

942.

Carmel.

Cytisus syriacus.

Northern

p. 8.

ii.,

i.,

spots on the coast and on Lebanon.

Cytisus cassius.

Lebanon.

p.

B. Taur. Cauc.

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, 7,000

Northern

Nat., 1835, p. 360.

of Ccele Syria.

22. Genista libanotica.

24.

146.

hills.

Genista albida.

Northern

ii.,

P.

Mountains of Gilead and Hauran.


21.

Prodr.

Ann. Sc.

Decaisn.

Genista sphacelata.

Northern

unsurpassed even by the apple

hills.

Central parts, Carmel, Gilead.


19.

is

hill

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ix., p. 6.

region.

Ononis antiquonim.

Ghor, east side of Jordan.

L.

Sp. 1006.

Area, Mediterranean region.

342

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

268

By

i.,

pi. 20,

318,

p.

f.

3.

Area, Central and Southern Europe, North Africa.

Lebanon.
31.

Fed.

All.

Ononis cohtmnce.

p. 57.

ii.,

Common.

the roadside in chalky ground.

30.

Or.

Fl.

Boiss.

Ononis leiospcrma.

29.

Ononis adenotricha.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

i.

ii.,

p.

14.

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.


32.

Ononis nalrix.

Galilee,

L.

Sp. 1008.

Lebanon, Anti-Lebanon, Gilead, Moab.

Area, Southern

Europe.
33.

About Jerusalem and Central

Ditto, var. Tomentosa.

Palestine,

Eastern Gilead.

On

34. Ditto, var. Stenophylla.

the maritime plains.

Arab,

bj,^

Wezba.
35. Ononis vaginalis.

Vahl.

Symb.

p. 53.

i.,

Barren and sandy plains under Anti-Lebanon.

Area, Canaries,

Cyrenaica.
36.

Ononis

Crest of
37.

Desf.

biflora.

Mount

Ononis ornithopodio'ides.

Ononis

sicula.

39.

Ononis breviflora.

Ononis reclinata.

Coast and

plains,

Canaries, Abyssinia.

p. 143.

Sp. 1009.

Area, Mediterranean region.


Prodr. Sic.

Area, Spain,

De

All the central region.


40.

L.

etc.

Guss.

Southern desert.

ii.,

Area, Spain, Sardinia, Sicily, North Africa.

Gilead.

Mount Carmel, Moab,


38.

All.

ii.,

Sicily,

Cand.

p. 387.

North Africa.

Prodr.

ii.,

p.

160.

Area, Mediterranean region.


L.

Sp.

Dead Sea

ion.

slopes.

Area, Mediterranean region,

CALYCIFLOR&, POLYPETAL^E.
41. Ononis pubescens.

42. Ononis varicgata.

L.

Sp. 1008.

Area, Mediterranean region.

plains.

43. Ononis hirta.

Desf.

Maritime and central


44.

Mant. 267.

L.

Area, Mediterranean region.

General.

Maritime

269

Hort. Par. ex Poir. Suppl.

Forsk.

Coast near Gaza.

p.

741.

Area, South Spain.

plains.

Ononis serrata.

i.,

./Eg. Arab., p. 130.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Coast near Beyrout.

45.

Ditto, var.

46.

Ononis phyllocephala.

Major.

Fl. Or.

Boiss.

ii.,

p. 63.

P.

Boissier very clearly points out the differences between this

and the

preceding species.
47. Ononis mitissima.

Ononis

Sp. 1007.

Area, Mediterranean region, Madeiras, Canaries.

General.

48.

L.

alopeciiroidcs.

L.

Sp. 1008.

Esdraelon, Galilee, Lebanon.


49.

Area, Mediterranean region.


L.

Trigonella fcenum-grcecum.

Callirrhoe,

Moab.

Sp. 1095.

Area, Mediterranean region, chiefly cultivated

Abyssinia.
50.

Trigonella berythcea.

Plain of Phoenicia.

51.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

ii.,

p. 10.

P.

Trigonella cassia.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ix., p.

13.

Lower Lebanon.
52.

sinuata.

Trigonella astroites.
Boiss.

Anti-Lebanon, Rasheya.

Fisch. et

Mey.

Ind.

i.,

Petrop., 1835.

T.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

27o

53.

L.

Trigonella spinosa.

Sp. 1094.

General.
54.

Northern
55.

L.

Trigonella monspeliaca.

p. 23.

ii.,

Spec. 1095.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Trigonella minima.

Paine.

Heights of Mount Gilead.


57.

i.,

district.

General.

56.

Diagn. Scr.

Boiss.

Trigonella crassipes.

Pal. Expl. Soc., pt.

101.

P.

C. A.

Trigonella monantha,

3, p.

Mey.

Ind. Cauc., p. 137.

In the north.

Anti-Lebanon.

Ditto, var. Brachycarpa.


58.

Trigonella strangulata.

Anti-Lebanon.
59.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

northern

62.

63.

64.

Boiss.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ix., p.

Desv.

Journ., 1814,

i.,

14.

p. 77.

plains.

Boiss.

Trigonella filipes.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ix., p.

16.

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.


65.

Trigonella lilacina.

Carmel and

19.

ix., p.

district.

Trigonella cylindracea.

Maritime

ix., p.

and west.

Trigonella sibthorpii.

Northern

i.,

Plain of Phoenicia.

Trigonella hierosolymitana,

General, east

17.

district.

60. Ditto, var. Gaillardoti.


61.

ix., p.

i.,

P.

Trigonella cozle-syriaca.

The Bukda and

Boiss.

Galilee.

P.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ii.,

p.

17.

15.

CALYClFLORsE, POLYPETAL.E.
66.

Trlgonella velutina.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

i.,

271

ii.,

p. 18.

Anti-Lebanon.
67.

L.

Trigonella laciniata.

Sp. 1095.

Marshes of Sharon.
68.

Trigonella hamosa.

L.

Sp. 1094.

East side of Dead Sea.


69.

Trigonella maritima.

Maritime
70.

Del.

in.

Area, Sardinia, Sicily, Tunis.

plains.

Forsk.

Trigonella stellata.

/Eg. Arab.,

Southern Desert, near Dead Sea.


71.

Trigonella spicata.

Galilee, Phoenicia,
72.

73-

pccten.

Sm.

p. 140.

Area, the Sahara.

Prodr. Fl. Gr.

p.

ii.,

108.

and Lebanon.
Ledeb.

Trigonella glomerata.

Northern

Poir. Encyl. v., 361.

Fl. Ross,

i.,

p.

521.

hills.

Del. in Laborde, Ar. Petr., p. 86,

Trigonella arabica.

Schenk.

Deserts near Gaza.


74.

Trigonella radiata,

Northern
75.

(L.

.Sp. 1096.)

districts, Gilcad.

L.

Trigonella corniculata.

Sp. 1094.

Area, South Europe.


76.

Medicago marina.

Maritime
77.

plains.

Medicago

L,

Area, Mediterranean region.

scutellata.

General, in the north.


78.

Medicago blancheana,

In the plains.

Sp. 1097.

All.

Fed., No. 1155.

Area, Mediterranean region.


Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

v., p. 75.

f.

T.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

272

79.

Boiss.

rotata.

Medicago

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

i.,

p. 24.

Universally distributed.
80.

Medicago

elegans,

Coast and central


81.

iii.,

p. 408.

Area, Corsica, Sardinia, South

districts.

Rohde.

littoralis.

Medicago

Maritime

Jacq. in Willd. Sp.

Italy.

in Lois. Not., p. 118.

Area, Mediterranean region and Canaries.


Phoenician plain.
Area, as above.

plains.

Ditto, var. Siibinermis.


82.

Lam. Enc.

iii.,

p.

635.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Southern desert.
83.

Desr. in

tribuloides.

Medicago

Willd.

Medicago turbinata.

Sp.

iii.,

Area, Mediter-

1409.

p.

ranean region.
84.

Moab, Southern
85.

Willd.

and

Sp.

iii.,

1410.

Area, Mediterranean region.

desert.

Sp.

p.

iii.,

p. 1415.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Lam.

Diet,

iii.,

p.

634.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Medicago galilcea.

Hills
88.

and the

Medicago coronata.

General.
87.

Judaea,

Medicago gerardi.

General.
86.

Willd.

Medicago tuberculata.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ix

p.

10.

central plains.

Medicago

denticulata.

Willd.

Sp.

iii.,

p.

1414.

Moab, Dead Sea.

Area, Mediterranean region,


Canaries, Abyssinia, North-west India, China, Japan.

Southern

plains,

89. Ditto, var.

Lappacea,

Maritime

plains.

Area, Southern

Europe.

Moab.

90. Ditto, var. Pentacycla.

Judaea,

91. Ditto, var. Apiculata.

Littoral district.

Southern Europe.

Area, Central and

CALYCIFLORsE, POLYPETALsE.
92.

The Ghor,
93.

Willd.

Medicago maculata.
north of

Dead

General

in

iii.,

p.

1412.

Area, Europe, North Africa.

Sea.

Lam.

Medicago minima.

Sp.

273

Diet,

p.

iii.,

636.

sandy and sunny places east of Dead Sea.

Area, Europe,

North Africa, Abyssinia, Canaries.


94.

p.

i.,

316.

Area, North Africa, Canaries.

Near Gaza.
95.

Fed.

All.

laciniata.

Medicago

Willd.

ciliaris.

Medicago

Maritime and central

Sp.

iii.,

p.

1411.

Area, Mediterranean region, Madeiras,

plains.

Canaries.
96.

L.

Medicago lupulina.

Black Medick.

Sp. 1097.

Area, Europe,
Highest parts of Lebanon, mountains of Moab.
Siberia, North China, Azores, Canaries, North Africa, Abyssinia.
L.

saliva.

Medicago

97.

Sp. 1096.

Lucerne, or Purple Medick.

Area, Central and Southern Europe, North

Generally cultivated.
Africa.
98.

All.

Medicago orbicularis.

Moab

Area,

plains.

Fed.,

No. 1150.

Mediterranean region, Canaries,

Madeira,

Abyssinia.
Desf.

99. Melilotus sulcata.

Hill

Guss.

101. Mclilolus messancnsis.

Moist places.

Carniel.

p. 193.

(L.

ii.,

p.

486.

Italy, Sicily.

Mant. 275.)

Area, Mediterranean region.

General.

102. Melilotus elcgans.

Mount

Prodr.

Area, Corsica, South

General.

ii.,

Area, Mediterranean region, Canaries.

and coast regions.

100. Melilotus infesta.

Atl.

Salz.

Area,

De

Cand.

Mediterranean

Prodr.
region,

ii.,

p. 188.

Madeira,

sinia.

35

Abys-

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE,

74

103.

104. Mclilotus italica.

Lam.

Melilot.

63.

i.,

ix., p.

23.

in the north.

107. Trifolium hirtum.

Lebanon

Sp. 1081.

L.

Area, Mediterranean region, Canaries.


L.

Trifolium arvense.

Sp. 1083.

Hare's-foot, Trefoil.

Area, Europe, North Africa, Siberia.

Lebanon.

Lebanon.

Ditto, var. Longisetum.

L.

Trifolium stellatum.

Sp. 1083.

Area, Mediterranean region, Madeira, Canaries.

General.

in. Trifolium lappaceum.


General

20.

Area, Mediterranean region.

valleys.

Near Beyrout.

Auch.

All.

Trifoliiim cherleri.

110.

iv., p.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Trifolium cassium.

109.

Diet,

Area, Europe, Siberia.

In the north.

08.

North Africa.

Italy,

105. Melilotus offuinalis.

p. 192.

Sp. 1088.)

(L.

Area, South France and

Woods

ii.,

Area, Mediterranean region.

General.

106.

All.

Desf.

Mdilotus parviflora.

in

meadows.

L.

Sp. 1082.

Area, Mediterranean region, Canaries, Azores,

Madeira.

Trifolium incarnatwn.

112.

Probably introduced.

On

the

coast.

Area,

Crimson Clover.

Sp. 1083.

Area, Central and Southern Europe.

Trifolium augustifolium.

113.

L.

L.

Sp. 1083.

Mediterranean

region,

Azores,

Canaries,

Madeira.
114.

Trifolium purpureum.

General

Tuscany.

in

Lois.

Gall,

ii.,

Central and Eastern Palestine.

p. 125, pi. 14.

Area, South France,

CALYCIFLOR^E, rOLYPETAL.-E.

On

the coast.

Ditto, var.

On

Laxinscuhim.

hills

and

Trifolium dichroathum.

Hills

and plains near the

119.

Trifolium formosum,

20.

districts.

Urv.
Savi.

Trifolium carmeli.

20.

Italy,

General.
2.

f.

Dalmatia, the Danube.

Phoenician plain.

Diagn. Ser.

p. 16.

ii.,

ii.,

P.

etc.

L.

Trifolium panormitanum.
L.

Syn.,

Moist places on the

ii.,

Sp. 1085.

Arab, ^y^, Bersyn.

Presl.

Fl.

Sic.

i.,

p.

20.

Huds.

coast, in moist places.

Trifolium plebicum,

Anti-Lebanon.
127.

Angl., p. 284.

Area, Mediterranean region,

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ix., p.

23.

P.

Trifolium sciitatum.

Northern and central

T.

Area, Mediterranean region, Canaries.

coast.

France, Dalmatia, Canaries.


126.

=:

293.

Trifolium maritimum.

Northern

21.

Area, Thrace.

General.

125.

13.

ix., p.

i.,

p. 94.

Trif., p. 46,

Boiss.

Trifolium alexandrimim.

squarrosum.

ix., p.

i.,

Ser.,

Diagn.

Enum.,

Area, Portugal,

122.

124.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Ditto, var. Tubercidatiim.

123.

ii.,

P.

T2i.

Mount Carmel,

ii.,

coast.

Trifolium supinum.

Central

Diagn. Ser.

P.

coast.

118.

Boiss.

Boiss.

Trifolium palestinum.

In the south,

12.

p.

ii.,

Beyrout.

the waysides, on the coast.

117.

ii.,

P.

Trifolium blancheanum,

116.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Trifoliitm desvauxii,

115.

275

i.,

ii.,

p. 27.

districts.

352

West

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

2? 6

128.

Trifolium clypcalum.

129.

Trifolium scabrum.

Moab,

L.
L.

Universal.

Sp. 1084.

Sp. 1084.

Area, Central and Southern Europe, North Africa,

Judaea.

Canaries, Azores.
130.

Trifo Hum globosum.

Northern
131.

districts.

hills,

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Trifolium eriosphcerum.

Central
132.

Sp. 1081.

L.

i.,

ix., p.

25.

Jerusalem, Hebron, Gilead.

Amcen.

L.

Trifolium nniflonnn.

285.

iv., p.

Locality not given.


133.

Trifolium meduceum.

Boiss.

Trifolium pilulare.

Or.

p. 134.

ii.,

Lebanon and Anti- Lebanon.

Barren rocky and sandy spots.


134.

Fl.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

Stev.

M.

i.,

ii.,

P.

p. 29.

General.
135.

Trifoh'um physodes.

Lebanon.
136.

137.

slopes of

(=T.

Trifolium modestum.

Boiss.

L.

Trifolium resupinatitm.

In cultivated and grassy places.


region, Azores, Canaries.
139.

Trifolium tomentosum.

General
140.

in

p. 217.

grassy places.

Trifolium spitmosum.

In the plains.

sclerorhizum, Boiss.)

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, 8,500


138.

ii.,

Area, Sicily.

Ditto, var. Psilocalyx.

Lower

B. Taur. Cauc.

L.

Diagn. Ser.
feet.

i.,

ix., p.

27.

P.

Sp. 1086, and vars.

General.

Area, Mediterranean

Sp. 1086.

Area, Mediterranean region, Canaries.


L.

Sp. 1085.

Area, Mediterranean region.

CALYCIFLORsE, POLYPETALsE.
141.

Northern

Pug., No. 10.

Fenz.

Trifolium xcrocephahun.

a 77

district.

142. Ditto, var.

Minus

(T. moriferum, Boiss.)

Higher parts of Lebanon.


143.

Trifolium nervulosum.

Maritime
144.

plains.

Diagn. Sen

Boiss.

Ditto var. Galliceum.

Eastern Gilead.

Clem.

Trifolium petrisavii.

ix., p.

i.,

Sert. Or., p. 32, pi.

25.

Galilee.

vii.,

f.

2.

Near Bey rout.


Viv.

Trifolium nigrescens.
Area, Southern Europe.
145.

146.

147.

149.

L.

L.

Area, Europe, North


Trifolium comosum.

151.

deserts, Gaza.

in

hills.

Succ., ed.

ii.,

p.

258.

Dec.

v., p.

vii.,

f.

i.

boissieri.

Alsike

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

Near Beyrout.

15.

i.,

ix., p.

Willd.

Fenz.

Sp.

Area,

v., p.

1382.

Sicily.

Pug., No.

n.

rocky places.

Trifolium

Central

Fl.

districts.

Trifolium erubescens.

Universal
153.

13.

pi.

Dutch Clover.

P.

Trifoliiim speciosum.

Northern and central


152.

12,

Africa.

Labill.

150. Trifolium stenophylhim.

Sandy

p.

Sert. Or., p. 31, pi.

Sp. 1080.

Trifolium hybridwn.

Clover.

i.,

Area, Europe, Siberia, North America.

General.

148.

Fasc.

Area, South Russia.

plains.

Trifolium repens.

Ital.

Clem.

Trifolitim mcneghinianum.

Maritime and central

Fl.

Gress.

Syn.

ii.,

Add.,

p.

858.

30.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

278

154.

Trifolium agrarium.

L.

= 71

1087.

Sp.

De

procumbent,

Cand, nee L.
Area, Europe, North Africa, Abyssinia.

General.
155.

Trifolium velivohim.

Hills of Gilead.

Paine.

3, p.

103.

P.

156. Physauthyllis tetraphylla.

General

No.

Pal. Expl. Soc.,

(L.

and Gilead.

in the north,

Sp. ion.)

Area, Southern Europe.

Hymenocarpus circinnatus. (L. Sp. 1096.)


General from Carmel to Moab, and by Dead Sea.
157.

Area, Mediter-

ranean region.
Jaub. ed. Sp.

158. Cytisopsis dorycniifolia.

Mount Carmel.

Middle region of Lebanon.


159.

111.

Dorycnium hirsutum.

Or., p. 154,

84.

Tabor.

Sp. 1091.)

(L.

pi.

And

var.

Syriaca.

Boiss.

Lebanon and Anti- Lebanon.


1

60.

Dorycnium rectum.

Northern
161.

Dorycnium

libanoticum.

Dry

districts to

(L.

Sp. 1092.)

Area, Mediterranean region.

feet.

4,000

haussknechtii.

Fl. Or.

Boiss.

ii.,

p.

163.

Boiss.

districts

of sub-alpine Lebanon.

162. Lotus creticus.

Sandy

Area, Southern Europe.

coasts.

L.

Sp. 1091.

Moab.

Area, Mediterranean region.

163. Ditto, var. Cytisoides.

Northern

coasts, Sidon.

164. Ditto, var. Collinus.

Lebanon and Hermon up


165.

Lotus temdfolius.

Lebanon, and

coast.

= L. judaicus.

to 6,000 feet,

Rchb.

Fl.

Boiss.)

and southern

hills.

Exc. 506.

Area, Europe, North Africa, Songraria.

Var.

CALYCIFLOR&, POLYPETAL^E.
1

66.

Lotus lampi-ocarpns.

General.
167.

Abounds

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

in the

i.,

ix., p.

33.

Jordan valley.

Lotus corniculatus.

L.

Var. Alpimts.

Sp. 1092.

Bird's-foot

Trefoil.

Lebanon and Anti- Lebanon.

Area,

Asia,

Europe,

Abyssinia,

Australia.
*

168. Lotus gebelia.

Hort. Cels.,

Vent.

169.

Ditto, var.

170.

Ditto, var. Libanoticus.

Ccele Syria.

57.

pi.

Villosus.

Diagn. Scr.

Boiss.

i.,

ix., p.

32.

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.


171. Lotus lanuginosus.

The

southern desert.

172.

Lotus arabicus.

Venten.

L.

Malm.,

Mant,

South end of the Dead Sea.

p. 92.

104.

Area, Senegambia, Nubia, Abyssinia,

Canaries.
173.

Lotus angustissimus.

Northern

coast.

L.

Sp. 1090.

Central

Area,

and

Southern Europe,

North

Africa, Siberia, Azores, Madeira, Canaries.


174.

On
175.

Lotus peregrinus.

L.

Sp. 1090.

the coast in sandy places.

Lotus carmeli.

Mount Carmel.

desert.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ix., p.

34.

P.

176. Lotiis pusillus.

South

Boiss.

Area, Dalmatia.

Viv.

Fl. Lib., p. 47.

Maritime plains

in

sand.

And

varieties.

Pine-woods at Beyrout.

Area, Sicily.
177. Lotiis ornithopodio'ides.

Coast and central

districts.

L.

Moab.

Sp. 1091.

Area, Mediterranean region.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

2go

Lotus

178.

Maritime

edulis.

L.

Sp. 1090.

Area, Mediterranean region.

districts, general.

Highlands of Moab, Jordan


1

80.

Meth. 164.

Mcench.

Tetragonolobus piirpureus.

179.

Area, Mediterranean region.

valley.

Boiss.

Tetragonolobus palcestinus.

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

ii.,

p. 20.

Universally distributed.
1

De

8 1. Securigera coronilla.

On

Cand.

Area, Mediterranean region.

the coast and inland plains.


L.

182. Ornithopus compressus.

Coast and

Fl. Fr. iv., p. 609.

Sp.

1049.

Area, Mediterranean region,

hill-districts.

West France,

Canaries.
183.

L.

Scorpiums muricata.

Var. Lcsvigata.

Sp. 1050.

Ruins

Sibth.

in

Moab.

Area,

Mediterranean

region.

Scorpiums sulcata. L.
Central and maritime plains.
184.

Sp. 1050.

Area, Canaries, Spain, North Africa,

Abyssinia.
185. Scorpiiirus subvillosus.

Plains of
1

86.

Moab.

L.

Sp. 1050.

Area, Mediterranean region, Madeira, Canaries.

Coronilla cmeroides.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ii.,

Galilee and Lebanon.


187.

L.

Coronilla varia.

Ditto, var. Panciflora.

Lebanon.
188.

C. libanotica.

Boiss.)

Area, Central and Southern Europe.

Coronilla cretica,

Coast and north.


189.

Sp. 1048.

L.

Area,

Coronilla parviflora.

Coast and central

district.

Sp. 1048.
Italy, Istria,

Willd.

Sp.

Dalmatia.
iii.,

p.

1155.

p. 100.

CALYCIFLOR/E, POLYPETALJ1.
Coronilla scorpioides.

190.

Mountains,

central,

Sp. 1049.)

(L.

east

281

Moab.

regions,

Mediterranean

Area,

region.

L.

191. Hippocrepis unisiliquosa.

Lebanon

region,

Moab,

Area, Mediterranean region.

Pug.

Spreng.

192. Hippocrepis biflora.

Central and southern

Sp. 1050.

and Gilead.

ii.,

p. 73.

district.

193. Hippocrepis mzdtisiliquosa.

L.

Moab, Mount Carmel, Tabor.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Willd.

194. Hippocrepis ciliata.

East side of Dead Sea.

Boiss.

Desert south of Dead Sea.


196. Psoralea bituminosa,

By

Dead

Mag. N. Ges.

Berol., 1806, p. 173.

Area, Mediterranean region.

195. Hippocrepis cornigera.

the

Sp. 1050.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ii.,

p. 102.

Area, North-east Africa.


L.

Sp. 1075

(= P.

paleestina.

Jacq.).

Area, Mediterranean region,

Sea, Galilee, Esdraelon.

Canaries.
197. Indigo/era
Fl.

Eg. Arab.,

argentea.

p. 138.

Mant. 27

/.

Forsk.

tinctoria.

Arab., dLi, Neyleh.

Cultivated on east side of


198. Galega officinalis.

The

Bukaa.

199.

Colutca arborescens.

In the north.

L.

Dead

L,

Sea, in

Ghor

Safieh,

and other

places.

Sp. 1063.

Area, Southern Europe.


L.

Sp. 1045.

Area, Central and Southern Europe, North Africa.

200. Glycyrrhiza glandulifera.

Reg. et Herd. PL Sem.

p. 37.

rivers, not Jordan valley.


Area, Mediterranean and
Danubian region, Central and Southern Russia.

General by the

20 1. Glycyrrhiza echinata.

Maritime

plains,

L.

Area, East

202. Glycyrrhizopsis flavescens.

Sp. 1046.
Italy,

Boiss.

Danubian

region.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

vi., p.

Northern mountains.

36

33.

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

s,

L.
Sp. 1073.
203. Biscrruhi pelccinus.
districts.
Area, Mediterranean region,
Const, central, and eastern

Canaries, Madeira.

Area, Mediterranean region.

Coast region.

Del.

tribuloides.
205. Astragalus

The Southern

Mant. 274.

L.

204. Astragalus epiglottis.

Eg., p. 22.

111.

Area, North-west India.

Desert.

In barren places, East and

Enum.

Link.

206. Astragalus cruciatus.

West

radiatus.
207. Astragalus

ii.,

p. 256.

Palestine.
Astr., p. 8.

Bge.

Southern Desert.
208. Astragalus eremophilus.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

i.,

ii.,

p. 54.

Area, Arabia.

South of Dead Sea.

Boiss.

209. Astragalus tenuirugis.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ix., p.

61.

vi., p.

56.

Area, Sahara.

Southern Desert.

210. Astragalus damascenus.

Boiss.

Diag. Ser.

ii.,

Near Damascus.
211. Astragalus conduplicatus. Bertol.

Nov. Comm. Bonon.

vi., p.

231.

Near Damascus.
212. Astragalus gyzensis.

Del.

Fl.

p. 64.

Eg. Suppl.,

South of Dead Sea.

De

213. Astragalus kispidulus.

Cand.

Astr., p. 105,

pi.

13.

Southern desert.
214. Astragalus callichrous.

Wilderness of Judaea.

Gaza.

Canaries.

plains.

i.,

ix., p.

62.

Eg, Arab. 139.

Philistine plain.

216. Astragalus bocticus.

Maritime

Diagn. Ser.

P.

Forsk.

215. Astragalus annularis.

Southern desert.

Boiss.

L.

Sp. 1068.

Jordan valley.

Area,

Mediterranean region,

CALYCIFLORsE, POLYPETAL/E.
217. Astragalus aulacolobus.

Boiss.

28j

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ix., p.

64.

Fields and plains.


218. Astragalus hamosus.

Coast

L.

Moab.

Plains of

district.

Arab.

Sp. 1067.

^^

el

Jl,

Keren.

Area, Mediter-

Jordan valley.

ranean region, Canaries.


Boiss.

219. Astragalus oxytropifolius.

Mount

Diagn. Ser.

ix., p.

i.,

37.

Mount Nebo.

Gilead.

De

220. Astragahis htbercttlosus.

Cand.

Astr., p. 33, p]. 22.

Generally distributed.
221. Astragalus bombycinus.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ii.,

p. 50.

Near Gaza.
222. Astragalus berytheiis.

Northern maritime

Boiss.

plains.

Vahl.

Lebanon, 8,000

Symb.

p. 57.

i.,

De

Cand.

Astr. 119, pi. 19.

feet.

225. Astragalus lanatus.

Top

p. 33.

Area, North Africa.

224. Astragalus hirsutissimus.

of

ii.,

P.

223. Astragalus peregrimis.

Near Gaza.

Diagn. Ser.

Hermon.

Labill.

Higher

Dec. Syr.

i.,

p. 21, pi.

10.

parts of Lebanon.

226. Astragalus chrysophyllus.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

ix., p.

ii.,

38.

In the north.
227. Astragalus cedreti.

Cedars of Lebanon.

Boiss.

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.


229. Astragalus cretaceus.

places,

ix.,

p. 39.

Labill.

Dec. Syr.

i.,

p. 19, pi. 9.

P.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

v., p.

84.

Bethlehem.

230. Astragalus nanus.

Rocky

i.,

P.

228. Astragalus emarginatus.

Near Hebron.

Diagn. Ser.

De

Cand.

Astr., p. 114, pi. 17.

North Lebanon.

362

FAUNA AND FLORA OF PALESTINE.

2S4

231. Astragalus antilibani.

Astr. p. 90.

Bge.

Anti-Lebanon, near Bludan, 6,000


232. Astragalus stramineus.

Anti-Lebanon.

P.

feet.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

ii.,

v., p.

85.

P.

Diagn. Ser.

Boiss.

233. Astragalus neurocarpus.

i.,

p. 59.

ii.,

Fields and plains.

De

234. Astragalus macrocarpus.

Cand.

Astr., p. 143, pi. 28.

Generally distributed.
L.

235. Astragalus christiamis.

Sp. 1064.

Plain of Gennesaret.
236. Astragalus gratcus.

Gadara.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ii.,

p. 57.

Bashan.
Boiss.

237. Astragalus aleppicus.

The Bukaa.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

p. 58.

ii.,

Gilead.

238. Astragahis alexandrinus.

Boiss.

Diagn. Ser.

i.,

ix., p.

74.

Jordan valley.
Boiss.

239. Astragalus trichopterus.

Alpine region of Lebanon.

Fl. Or.

p. 292.

ii.,

P.
Boiss.

240. Astragalus pinetorum.

Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, 6,000

Diagn. Ser.
9,000

Decaisn.

241. Astragalus sparsus.

i.,

ii.,

p. 77.

feet.

Fl. Sin., p. 43.

Southern desert.

De