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Aug 20, 2016

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Kinematics

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Kinematics

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Kinematics

Outline

! The Big Idea

! Scalars and Vectors

! Distance versus displacement

! Speed and Velocity

! Acceleration

! Describing motion with diagrams

! Describing motion with graphs

! Free Fall and the acceleration of gravity

! Describing motion with equations

Kinematics is a branch of mechanics.

of our study of physics, we will encounter a variety of concepts

which have a mathematical basis associated with them. While our

emphasis will often be upon the conceptual nature of physics, we

will give considerable and persistent attention to its

mathematical aspect.

! Vectors are quantities which are fully described by both a magnitude and a direction.

! Check Your Understanding: To test your understanding of this distinction, consider the

following quantities listed below. Categorize each quantity as being either a vector or a

scalar.

QUANTITY

CATEGORY

a. 5 m

b. 30 m/sec, East

c. 5 mi., North

d. 20 degrees Celsius

e. 256 bytes

f. 4000 Calories

! Displacement is a vector quantity which refers to

"how far out of place an object is"; it is the object's

overall change in position.

covers distance. A fast-moving object has a high speed and covers a

relatively large distance in a short amount of time. A slow-moving

object has a low speed and covers a relatively small amount of

distance in a short amount of time. An object with no movement at

all has a zero speed.

! Velocity is a vector quantity which refers to "the rate at which an

object changes its position."

Speed

! Instantaneous Speed - speed at any given instant in time.

! Average Speed - average of all instantaneous speeds; found

Acceleration

! Acceleration is a vector quantity which is defined as the rate at which an object changes

!

"

"

"

"

While on vacation, Lisa Carr traveled a total distance of 440 miles. Her trip took 8

hours. What was her average speed? ________ miles/hr

Now let's consider the motion of that physics teacher again. The physics teacher

walks 4 meters East, 2 meters South, 4 meters West, and finally 2 meters North. The

entire motion lasted for 24 seconds. Determine the average speed and the average

velocity.

Average speed = _______ m/s

Average velocity = _________ m/s in the __________ direction

! Since acceleration is a vector quantity, it has a direction associated with it. The direction of

" whether the object is speeding up or slowing down

" whether the object is moving in the + or - direction

" If an object is slowing down, then its acceleration is in the opposite direction of its motion.

Constant Velocity

Positive Velocity

be represented. Such means include the use of words, the use

of diagrams, the use of numbers, the use of equations, and

the use of graphs.

! The Importance of Slope

! The shapes of the position versus time graphs for these two

basic types of motion - constant velocity motion and

accelerated motion (i.e., changing velocity) - reveal an

important principle. The principle is that the slope of the line

on a position-time graph reveals useful information about the

velocity of the object. It is often said, "As the slope goes, so

goes the velocity."

Changing Velocity

Positive Velocity

Constant Velocity

Slow, Rightward (+)

Constant Velocity

Fast, Rightward (+)

Constant Velocity

Fast, Leftward (+)

Constant Velocity

Slow, Leftward (+)

Fast to Slow

Slow to Fast

! The slope of the line on a position versus time graph is equal to

! The velocity vs. time graphs for the two types of motion

- can be summarized as follows.

Positive Velocity

Positive Velocity

Zero Acceleration

Positive Acceleration

" Pick two points on the line and determine their coordinates.

" Determine the difference in y-coordinates of these two points

(rise).

(run).

" Divide the difference in y-coordinates by the difference in xcoordinates (rise/run or slope).

! Check Your Understanding: Determine the velocity (i.e., slope) of

the object as portrayed by the graph below.

! The shapes of the velocity vs. time graphs for these two basic types of motion - constant

velocity motion and accelerated motion (i.e., changing velocity) - reveal an important

principle. The principle is that the slope of the line on a velocity-time graph

reveals useful information about the acceleration of the object. If the

acceleration is zero, then the slope is zero (i.e., a horizontal line). If the acceleration is

positive, then the slope is positive (i.e., an upward sloping line). If the acceleration is

negative, then the slope is negative (i.e., a downward sloping line). This very principle can

be extended to any conceivable motion.

! The velocity-time graph for a two-stage rocket is shown below. Use the graph and your

understanding of slope calculations to determine the acceleration of the rocket during the

listed time intervals.

! a. t = 0 - 1 second

! b. t = 1 - 4 second

! c. t = 4 - 12 second

Gravity

! A free-falling object is an object which is falling under the sole

influence of gravity. Thus, any object which is moving and being acted

upon only by the force of gravity is said to be "in a state of free fall."

This definition of free fall leads to two important characteristics about

a free-falling object:

" Free-falling objects do not encounter air resistance.

" All free-falling objects (on Earth) accelerate downwards at a rate of approximately

10 m/s2 (to be exact, 9.8 m/s2). (acceleration on Earth of 9.8 m/s2, downward)

dropper is illuminated with a strobe light and the strobe light is

adjusted such that the stream of water is illuminated at a regular rate

say every 0.2 seconds; instead of seeing a stream of water free-falling

from the medicine dropper, you will see several consecutive drops.

These drops will not be equally spaced apart; instead the spacing

increases with the time of fall (as shown in the diagram above), a fact

which serves to illustrate the nature of free-fall acceleration.

The position vs. time graph for a free-falling object is shown below.

! g = 9.8 m/s2, downward ( ~ 10 m/s2, downward)

! If the velocity and time for a free-falling object being dropped from a

position of rest were tabulated, then one would note the following

pattern.

Time (s)

Velocity (m/s)

0

0

1

- 9.8

2

- 19.6

3

- 29.4

4

- 39.2

5

- 49.0

t

v = gt

A velocity versus time graph for a free-falling object is shown below.

! Observe that the line on the graph is a straight, diagonal line. As learned earlier, a diagonal

A curved line on a position vs. time graph signifies an accelerated motion. Since

a free-falling object is undergoing an acceleration of g = 10 m/s2(approximate

value), you would expect that its position-time graph would be curved. A closer

look at the position-time graph reveals that the object starts with a small velocity

(slow) and finishes with a large velocity (fast).

line on a velocity versus time graph signifies an accelerated motion. Since a free-falling

object is undergoing an acceleration (g = 9,8 m/s2, downward), it would be expected that

its velocity-time graph would be diagonal. A further look at the velocity-time graph reveals

that the object starts with a zero velocity (as read from the graph) and finishes with a large,

negative velocity; that is, the object is moving in the negative direction and speeding up. An

object which is moving in the negative direction and speeding up is said to have a negative

acceleration (if necessary, review the vector nature of acceleration). Since the slope of any

velocity versus time graph is the acceleration of the object, the constant, negative slope

indicates a constant, negative acceleration. This analysis of the slope on the graph is

consistent with the motion of a free-falling object - an object moving with a constant

acceleration of 9.8 m/s2in the downward direction.

! Free-falling objects are in a state of

accelerating at a rate of 10 m/s2. This is to

say that the velocity of a free-falling object

is changing by 10 m/s every second. If

dropped from a position of rest, the object

will be traveling 10 m/s at the end of the

first second, 20 m/s at the end of the

second second, 30 m/s at the end of the

third second, etc.

How Far?

! The distance which a free-falling object has fallen

from a position of rest is also dependent upon the

time of fall. The distance fallen after a time of t

seconds is given by the formula below:

How Fast?

! The velocity of a free-falling object which

has been dropped from a position of rest is

dependent upon the length of time for

which it has fallen. The formula for

determining the velocity of a falling object

after a time of t seconds is:

vf = g * t

where g is the acceleration of gravity

(approximately 10 m/s2 on Earth; its exact

value is 9.8 m/s2). The equation above can

be used to calculate the velocity of the

object after a given amount of time.

! The acceleration of gravity, g, is the same for all free-falling objects

regardless of how long they have been falling, or whether they were initially

dropped from rest or thrown up into the air.

! BUT "Wouldn't an elephant free-fall faster than a mouse?"

# NO!!

! WHY?

d = 0.5 * g * t2

where g is the acceleration of gravity (approximately

10 m/s2on Earth; its exact value is 9.8 m/s2). The

equation above can be used to calculate the

distance traveled by the object after a given

amount of time.

! All objects free fall at the same rate of acceleration, regardless of their mass.

Free-Fall Problems

1.49 m/s

after 6.0 seconds?

2. If a friend claims that in a standing jump he can remain off

the ground for 1.0 second then how high can he jump? For

2.0 seconds? Are either of these claims likely to be true?

2.1.2 m

57.8 m/s

4.9 m

! There are a variety of symbols used in the above equations and each symbol has a specific

meaning.

" d the displacement of the object.

" t the time for which the object moved.

" a the acceleration of the object.

Projectile: a body in free fall that is subject only to the forces

of gravity and air resistance

Bodies projected into the air are projectiles.

Examples of moving body as projectile:

! Shot putt

! High jumper

! Long jumper

! Soccer ball

! Baseball

! Ski jumper

" vf the final velocity of the object.

! Each of the four equations appropriately describes the mathematical relationship between

! Objectives when launching projectiles

!Influence time of flight

!Maximum

!Mininum

!Maximize horizontal displacement

!Maximize vertical displacement

Factors Influencing

Projectile Trajectory

Angle of Projection

! General shapes

!Perfectly vertical

!Parabolic

!Perfectly horizontal

! Implications in sports

! Air resistance may

cause irregularities

Factors Influencing

Projectile Trajectory

Trajectory: the flight

path of a projectile

!Angle of projection

!Projection speed

!Relative height of

projection

Factors Influencing

Projectile Trajectory

Projection speed:

! Range:

! horizontal displacement.

! For oblique projection

angles, speed determines

height and range

! For vertical projection

angle, speed determines

height.

Factors Influencing

Projectile Trajectory

Relative Projection Height:

!Difference between

projection and landing

height

!Greater the relative

projection height,

longer the flight time,

greater the

displacement.

Initial velocity:

! Horizontal component is constant

! Horizontal acceleration = 0

! Vertical component is constantly changing

! Vertical acceleration = -9.81 m/s2

Influence of Gravity

Major influence of vertical

component

Not the horizontal component

Force of Gravity:

Constant, unchanging

A body projected straight

Negative acceleration

upward will have the same

(-9.81 m/s2)

speed at the end of its

flight

Apex:

as it did when it was

Highest Point

launched

Vertical velocity = 0 m/s

! Maximize the speed of projection

! Maximize release height

! Optimum angle of projection

! Release height = 0, then angle = 450

! Release height, then angle

! Release height, then angle

! Complimentary angles (A + B = 90) have the same

range

! Large angle higher and slower time: tennis lob, punt

! Small angle lower and faster time: baseball throw

A projectile launched with velocity will have both vertical &

horizontal components of that velocity.

Horizontal & Vertical Components

! Vertical is influenced by gravity

! No force (neglecting air resistance) affects the horizontal

! Horizontal relates to distance

! Vertical relates to maximum height achieved

! Horizontal and vertical components are independent

Influence of Air Resistance

In a vacuum, horizontal speed of a projectile

remains constant

Air resistance affects the horizontal speed of

a projectile

This class, horizontal velocity will be regarded

as constant

Equations of

Constant Acceleration

Equations of

Constant Acceleration

Horizontal component : a = 0

v2 = v1 + at

D = v1t + at2

V22 = v21 + 2 ad

v2 = v1

D = v1t

V22 = v21

d = displacement; v = velocity;

a = acceleration; t = time

Subscript 1 & 2 represent first or initial and second or final

point in time

Equations of

Constant Acceleration

Vertical component: a = -9.81 m/s2 , initial velocity of zero (a

dropped object)

v2 = at

D = at2

V22 = 2ad

v2

0 = v1 + at (total flight time multiply

by 2)

John kicks the ball and ball does

projectile motion with an angle of

53 to horizontal. Its initial velocity is

10 m/s, find the maximum height it

can reach, horizontal displacement

and total time required for this

motion.

2. In the given picture you see the motion

path of cannonball. Find the maximum

height it can reach, horizontal distance

it covers and total time from the given

information. (The angle between

cannonball and horizontal is 53 and

sin53=0.8 andcos53=0. 6)

1.

Summary

! A projectile is a body in free fall that is affect only by gravity

vertical components.

projection height

! The equation constant acceleration can be used to

quantitatively analyze projectile motion.

1.

2.

Try these!

angle of 45 to the horizontal. Its initial

velocity is 25 m/s, find the maximum

height it can reach, horizontal

displacement and total time required

for this motion.

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