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# Linear Motion or 1D

Kinematics

Outline
! The Big Idea
! Scalars and Vectors
! Distance versus displacement
! Speed and Velocity
! Acceleration
! Describing motion with diagrams
! Describing motion with graphs
! Free Fall and the acceleration of gravity
! Describing motion with equations

## using words, diagrams, numbers, graphs, and equations.

Kinematics is a branch of mechanics.

## and principles have a mathematical basis. Throughout the course

of our study of physics, we will encounter a variety of concepts
which have a mathematical basis associated with them. While our
emphasis will often be upon the conceptual nature of physics, we
will give considerable and persistent attention to its
mathematical aspect.

## ! Scalars are quantities which are fully described by a magnitude alone.

! Vectors are quantities which are fully described by both a magnitude and a direction.
! Check Your Understanding: To test your understanding of this distinction, consider the

following quantities listed below. Categorize each quantity as being either a vector or a
scalar.

QUANTITY

CATEGORY

a. 5 m
b. 30 m/sec, East
c. 5 mi., North
d. 20 degrees Celsius
e. 256 bytes
f. 4000 Calories

## ground an object has covered" during its motion.

! Displacement is a vector quantity which refers to
"how far out of place an object is"; it is the object's
overall change in position.

## moving." Speed can be thought of as the rate at which an object

covers distance. A fast-moving object has a high speed and covers a
relatively large distance in a short amount of time. A slow-moving
object has a low speed and covers a relatively small amount of
distance in a short amount of time. An object with no movement at
all has a zero speed.
! Velocity is a vector quantity which refers to "the rate at which an
object changes its position."

## Average Speed versus Instantaneous

Speed
! Instantaneous Speed - speed at any given instant in time.
! Average Speed - average of all instantaneous speeds; found

## simply by a distance/time ratio.

Acceleration

! Acceleration is a vector quantity which is defined as the rate at which an object changes

## proportional to the square of the time of travel.

!

"

"

"
"

While on vacation, Lisa Carr traveled a total distance of 440 miles. Her trip took 8
hours. What was her average speed? ________ miles/hr
Now let's consider the motion of that physics teacher again. The physics teacher
walks 4 meters East, 2 meters South, 4 meters West, and finally 2 meters North. The
entire motion lasted for 24 seconds. Determine the average speed and the average
velocity.
Average speed = _______ m/s
Average velocity = _________ m/s in the __________ direction

## ! The Direction of the Acceleration Vector

! Since acceleration is a vector quantity, it has a direction associated with it. The direction of

## the acceleration vector depends on two things:

" whether the object is speeding up or slowing down
" whether the object is moving in the + or - direction

## ! The general RULE OF THUMB is:

" If an object is slowing down, then its acceleration is in the opposite direction of its motion.

## Position vs. Time Graphs The meaning of Shape

Constant Velocity
Positive Velocity

## with the multiple means by which the motion of objects can

be represented. Such means include the use of words, the use
of diagrams, the use of numbers, the use of equations, and
the use of graphs.
! The Importance of Slope
! The shapes of the position versus time graphs for these two
basic types of motion - constant velocity motion and
accelerated motion (i.e., changing velocity) - reveal an
important principle. The principle is that the slope of the line
on a position-time graph reveals useful information about the
velocity of the object. It is often said, "As the slope goes, so
goes the velocity."

Changing Velocity
Positive Velocity

Constant Velocity
Slow, Rightward (+)

Constant Velocity
Fast, Rightward (+)

Constant Velocity
Fast, Leftward (+)

Constant Velocity
Slow, Leftward (+)

Fast to Slow

Slow to Fast

## Position vs. Time Graphs The meaning of Slope

! The slope of the line on a position versus time graph is equal to

## Describing Motion with Velocity vs. Time Graphs - Shape

! The velocity vs. time graphs for the two types of motion

## - constant velocity and changing velocity (acceleration)

- can be summarized as follows.
Positive Velocity
Positive Velocity
Zero Acceleration

Positive Acceleration

## ! To determine the slope:

" Pick two points on the line and determine their coordinates.
" Determine the difference in y-coordinates of these two points

(rise).

## " Determine the difference in x-coordinates for these two points

(run).
" Divide the difference in y-coordinates by the difference in xcoordinates (rise/run or slope).
! Check Your Understanding: Determine the velocity (i.e., slope) of
the object as portrayed by the graph below.

## ! The Importance of Slope

! The shapes of the velocity vs. time graphs for these two basic types of motion - constant

velocity motion and accelerated motion (i.e., changing velocity) - reveal an important
principle. The principle is that the slope of the line on a velocity-time graph
reveals useful information about the acceleration of the object. If the
acceleration is zero, then the slope is zero (i.e., a horizontal line). If the acceleration is
positive, then the slope is positive (i.e., an upward sloping line). If the acceleration is
negative, then the slope is negative (i.e., a downward sloping line). This very principle can
be extended to any conceivable motion.

## Describing Motion with Velocity vs. Time Graphs - Slope

! The velocity-time graph for a two-stage rocket is shown below. Use the graph and your

understanding of slope calculations to determine the acceleration of the rocket during the
listed time intervals.
! a. t = 0 - 1 second
! b. t = 1 - 4 second
! c. t = 4 - 12 second

## Free Fall and the Acceleration of

Gravity
! A free-falling object is an object which is falling under the sole

influence of gravity. Thus, any object which is moving and being acted
upon only by the force of gravity is said to be "in a state of free fall."
a free-falling object:
" Free-falling objects do not encounter air resistance.

" All free-falling objects (on Earth) accelerate downwards at a rate of approximately

10 m/s2 (to be exact, 9.8 m/s2). (acceleration on Earth of 9.8 m/s2, downward)

## and a stream of dripping water. If water dripping from a medicine

dropper is illuminated with a strobe light and the strobe light is
adjusted such that the stream of water is illuminated at a regular rate
say every 0.2 seconds; instead of seeing a stream of water free-falling
from the medicine dropper, you will see several consecutive drops.
These drops will not be equally spaced apart; instead the spacing
increases with the time of fall (as shown in the diagram above), a fact
which serves to illustrate the nature of free-fall acceleration.

## Representing Free Fall by Graphs

The position vs. time graph for a free-falling object is shown below.

## The Acceleration of Gravity

! g = 9.8 m/s2, downward ( ~ 10 m/s2, downward)

## ! Thus, velocity changes by 10 m/s every second

! If the velocity and time for a free-falling object being dropped from a

position of rest were tabulated, then one would note the following
pattern.
Time (s)
Velocity (m/s)
0
0
1
- 9.8
2
- 19.6
3
- 29.4
4
- 39.2
5
- 49.0
t
v = gt

## Representing Free Fall by Graphs

A velocity versus time graph for a free-falling object is shown below.

! Observe that the line on the graph is a straight, diagonal line. As learned earlier, a diagonal

## ! Observe that the line on the graph is curved.

A curved line on a position vs. time graph signifies an accelerated motion. Since
a free-falling object is undergoing an acceleration of g = 10 m/s2(approximate
value), you would expect that its position-time graph would be curved. A closer
look at the position-time graph reveals that the object starts with a small velocity
(slow) and finishes with a large velocity (fast).

line on a velocity versus time graph signifies an accelerated motion. Since a free-falling
object is undergoing an acceleration (g = 9,8 m/s2, downward), it would be expected that
its velocity-time graph would be diagonal. A further look at the velocity-time graph reveals
that the object starts with a zero velocity (as read from the graph) and finishes with a large,
negative velocity; that is, the object is moving in the negative direction and speeding up. An
object which is moving in the negative direction and speeding up is said to have a negative
acceleration (if necessary, review the vector nature of acceleration). Since the slope of any
velocity versus time graph is the acceleration of the object, the constant, negative slope
indicates a constant, negative acceleration. This analysis of the slope on the graph is
consistent with the motion of a free-falling object - an object moving with a constant
acceleration of 9.8 m/s2in the downward direction.

## How Fast? and How Far?

! Free-falling objects are in a state of

## acceleration. Specifically, they are

accelerating at a rate of 10 m/s2. This is to
say that the velocity of a free-falling object
is changing by 10 m/s every second. If
dropped from a position of rest, the object
will be traveling 10 m/s at the end of the
first second, 20 m/s at the end of the
second second, 30 m/s at the end of the
third second, etc.

## How Fast? and How Far?

How Far?
! The distance which a free-falling object has fallen
from a position of rest is also dependent upon the
time of fall. The distance fallen after a time of t
seconds is given by the formula below:

## How Fast? and How Far?

How Fast?
! The velocity of a free-falling object which
has been dropped from a position of rest is
dependent upon the length of time for
which it has fallen. The formula for
determining the velocity of a falling object
after a time of t seconds is:
vf = g * t
where g is the acceleration of gravity
(approximately 10 m/s2 on Earth; its exact
value is 9.8 m/s2). The equation above can
be used to calculate the velocity of the
object after a given amount of time.

## The Big Misconception

! The acceleration of gravity, g, is the same for all free-falling objects

regardless of how long they have been falling, or whether they were initially
dropped from rest or thrown up into the air.
! BUT "Wouldn't an elephant free-fall faster than a mouse?"
# NO!!
! WHY?

d = 0.5 * g * t2
where g is the acceleration of gravity (approximately
10 m/s2on Earth; its exact value is 9.8 m/s2). The
equation above can be used to calculate the
distance traveled by the object after a given
amount of time.
! All objects free fall at the same rate of acceleration, regardless of their mass.

Free-Fall Problems

1.49 m/s

## seconds after being dropped from a rest position? What is it

after 6.0 seconds?
2. If a friend claims that in a standing jump he can remain off
the ground for 1.0 second then how high can he jump? For
2.0 seconds? Are either of these claims likely to be true?

2.1.2 m

57.8 m/s
4.9 m

## Describing Motion with Equations

! There are a variety of symbols used in the above equations and each symbol has a specific

meaning.
" d the displacement of the object.
" t the time for which the object moved.
" a the acceleration of the object.

## Kinematics of Projectile Motion

Projectile: a body in free fall that is subject only to the forces
of gravity and air resistance
Bodies projected into the air are projectiles.
Examples of moving body as projectile:
! Shot putt
! High jumper
! Long jumper
! Soccer ball
! Baseball
! Ski jumper

## " vi the initial velocity of the object.

" vf the final velocity of the object.

! Each of the four equations appropriately describes the mathematical relationship between

## Kinematics of Projectile Motion

! Objectives when launching projectiles
!Influence time of flight
!Maximum
!Mininum
!Maximize horizontal displacement
!Maximize vertical displacement

Factors Influencing
Projectile Trajectory
Angle of Projection
! General shapes
!Perfectly vertical
!Parabolic
!Perfectly horizontal
! Implications in sports
! Air resistance may
cause irregularities

Factors Influencing
Projectile Trajectory
Trajectory: the flight
path of a projectile
!Angle of projection
!Projection speed
!Relative height of
projection

Factors Influencing
Projectile Trajectory
Projection speed:
! Range:
! horizontal displacement.
! For oblique projection
angles, speed determines
height and range
! For vertical projection
angle, speed determines
height.

Factors Influencing
Projectile Trajectory
Relative Projection Height:
!Difference between
projection and landing
height
!Greater the relative
projection height,
longer the flight time,
greater the
displacement.

## Analyzing Projectile Motion

Initial velocity:
! Horizontal component is constant
! Horizontal acceleration = 0
! Vertical component is constantly changing
! Vertical acceleration = -9.81 m/s2

## Kinematic of Projectile Motion

Influence of Gravity
Major influence of vertical
component
Not the horizontal component
Force of Gravity:
Constant, unchanging
A body projected straight
Negative acceleration
upward will have the same
(-9.81 m/s2)
speed at the end of its
flight
Apex:
as it did when it was
Highest Point
launched
Vertical velocity = 0 m/s

## Optimum Projection Conditions

! Maximize the speed of projection
! Maximize release height
! Optimum angle of projection
! Release height = 0, then angle = 450
! Release height, then angle
! Release height, then angle
! Complimentary angles (A + B = 90) have the same

range
! Large angle higher and slower time: tennis lob, punt
! Small angle lower and faster time: baseball throw

## Kinematics of Projectile Motion

A projectile launched with velocity will have both vertical &
horizontal components of that velocity.
Horizontal & Vertical Components
! Vertical is influenced by gravity
! No force (neglecting air resistance) affects the horizontal
! Horizontal relates to distance
! Vertical relates to maximum height achieved
! Horizontal and vertical components are independent

## Kinematic of Projectile Motion

Influence of Air Resistance
In a vacuum, horizontal speed of a projectile
remains constant
Air resistance affects the horizontal speed of
a projectile
This class, horizontal velocity will be regarded
as constant

Equations of
Constant Acceleration

Equations of
Constant Acceleration

## Galileos Laws of constant acceleration

Horizontal component : a = 0

v2 = v1 + at
D = v1t + at2
V22 = v21 + 2 ad

v2 = v1
D = v1t
V22 = v21

d = displacement; v = velocity;
a = acceleration; t = time
Subscript 1 & 2 represent first or initial and second or final
point in time

Equations of
Constant Acceleration
Vertical component: a = -9.81 m/s2 , initial velocity of zero (a
dropped object)

v2 = at
D = at2

v2

## 0 = 1 + 2ad (det. max height)

0 = v1 + at (total flight time multiply
by 2)

## Projectile Motion Problems

John kicks the ball and ball does
projectile motion with an angle of
53 to horizontal. Its initial velocity is
10 m/s, find the maximum height it
can reach, horizontal displacement
and total time required for this
motion.
2. In the given picture you see the motion
path of cannonball. Find the maximum
height it can reach, horizontal distance
it covers and total time from the given
information. (The angle between
cannonball and horizontal is 53 and
sin53=0.8 andcos53=0. 6)
1.

Summary
! A projectile is a body in free fall that is affect only by gravity

## ! Projectile motion is analyzed in terms of its horizontal and

vertical components.

## are; projection angle, projection speed, and relative

projection height
! The equation constant acceleration can be used to
quantitatively analyze projectile motion.

1.

2.

Try these!

## A ball does projectile motion with an

angle of 45 to the horizontal. Its initial
velocity is 25 m/s, find the maximum
height it can reach, horizontal
displacement and total time required
for this motion.