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RAV4 EV

Electric Vehicle

ELECTRIC VEHICLE
DISMANTLING
MANUAL

QEA38 Series

Foreword
This guide was developed to educate and assist dismantlers in the safe handling of Toyota RAV4 EV
electric vehicles. RAV4 EV dismantling procedures are similar to other non-electric Toyota vehicles
with the exception of the high voltage electrical system.

It is important to recognize and understand the

high voltage electrical system features and specifications of the Toyota RAV4 EV electric vehicle, as
they may not be familiar to dismantlers.
High voltage electricity powers the electric motor, DC/DC converter, battery coolant heater, air
conditioning (A/C) compressor, cabin coolant heater and inverter. All other automotive electrical
devices such as the head lights, radio, and gauges are powered from a separate 12 Volt auxiliary battery.
Numerous safeguards have been designed into the RAV4 EV to help ensure the high voltage,
approximately 386 Volt, Lithium-ion (Li-ion) Electric Vehicle (EV) battery assembly is kept safe and
secure in an accident.
The Li-ion EV battery assembly contains sealed batteries that are similar to rechargeable batteries used
in some battery operated power tools and other consumer products. The electrolyte is absorbed in the
cell plates and will not normally leak out even if the battery is cracked.
High voltage cables, identifiable by orange insulation and connectors, are isolated from the metal chassis
of the vehicle.

Additional topics contained in the guide include:

Toyota RAV4 EV identification.

Major electric vehicle component locations and descriptions.

By following the information in this guide, dismantlers will be able to handle RAV4 EV electric vehicles
as safely as the dismantling of a conventional non-electric automobile.

2012 Toyota Motor Corporation


All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced or
copied, in whole or in part, without the written permission
of Toyota Motor Corporation.

ii

Table of Contents
About the RAV4 EV .....................................................................................................................................1
RAV4 EV Identification ...............................................................................................................................2
Exterior .........................................................................................................................................................3
Interior...........................................................................................................................................................4
Motor Compartment ......................................................................................................................................5

Electric Vehicle Component Locations & Descriptions.............................................................................6


Specifications ................................................................................................................................................7

Electric Vehicle Operation ...........................................................................................................................8


Vehicle Operation..........................................................................................................................................8

Electric Vehicle (EV) Battery Assembly and Auxiliary Battery ...............................................................9


EV Battery Assembly ....................................................................................................................................9
Components Powered by the EV Battery Assembly .....................................................................................9
EV Battery Assembly Recovery ..................................................................................................................10
Auxiliary Battery ..........................................................................................................................................10

High Voltage Safety .................................................................................................................................... 11


High Voltage Safety System........................................................................................................................ 11
Service Plug Grip ........................................................................................................................................12

Precaution to be observed when dismantling the vehicle........................................................................13


Necessary Items .........................................................................................................................................13

Spills.............................................................................................................................................................14
Dismantling the vehicle ..............................................................................................................................15
Removal of EV Battery Assembly .............................................................................................................20
HV Battery Caution Label.........................................................................................................................28

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About the RAV4 EV


The RAV4 EV continues into its 2nd generation as an electric vehicle. Electric Vehicle means
that the vehicle contains only an electric motor and does not have a gasoline engine for power.
Electricity stored in a high voltage Electric Vehicle (EV) battery assembly for the electric
motor.
The following illustration demonstrates how the RAV4 EV operates in various driving modes.
Utilizing the charge cable assembly connected to a 120/240 Volt outlet, the vehicles EV
battery assembly can be fully charged within 40 hours (when charging on 120 Volt / 15
Amp) or 6 hours (when charging on 240 Volt / 40 Amp) from a fully discharged state.
A fully charged RAV4 EV will travel approximately 152 miles (245 km).
During deceleration, such as when braking, the vehicle regenerates kinetic energy from the
front wheels to produce electricity that recharges the EV battery assembly.
While the vehicle is stopped, the electric motor is off, however the vehicle remains on and
operational.

Plug-in Charging

Plug-in Charging

Driving

Deceleration

Electricity

Charging batteries

Stopped

RAV4 EV Identification
In appearance, the 2012 model year RAV4 EV is nearly identical to the conventional, non-electric
Toyota RAV4. The RAV4 EV is a 5-door SUV. Exterior, interior, and motor compartment
illustrations are provided to assist in identification.
The alphanumeric 17 character Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) is provided in the front windshield
cowl and on the left side B pillar.
Example VIN: 2T3YL4DV0C2020211
A RAV4 EV is identified by the first 8 alphanumeric characters 2T3YL4DV.

Left Side Windshield Cowl and Left Side Door Pillar

RAV4 EV Identification (Continued)


Exterior
and

logos on the back door.


logo on the driver and front passenger door.

logo on the front upper grille.


Charge inlet door located on the left side rear quarter panel.

Exterior Left Side View

Exterior Front View and Rear View

Exterior Rear and Left Side View

RAV4 EV Identification (Continued)


Interior
The instrument cluster (power meter, driving range & battery gauge, READY indicator, plug-in
indicator and warning lights) located in the dash behind the steering wheel, is different than the one
on the conventional, non-electric RAV4.
Hint:
If the vehicle is shut off, the instrument cluster gauges will be blacked out, not illuminated

Interior View
READY Indicator

Plug-in Indicator

Power Meter, Driving Range & Battery Gauge


Instrument Cluster View

RAV4 EV Identification (Continued)


Motor Compartment
Logo on the plastic cover.
Orange colored high voltage power cables.

Motor Compartment View

Power Cables

Electric Vehicle Component Locations & Descriptions


Component

Location

Description

12 Volt Auxiliary
Motor
Battery
Compartment
Electric Vehicle (EV) Undercarriage
Battery Assembly

A lead-acid battery that supplies power to the low voltage


devices.
386 Volt Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery assembly consisting
of 3.6 Volt cells connected in a series-parallel circuit.

Power Cables

Orange colored power cables carry high voltage Alternating


Current (AC) between the charge port and on-board charger,
and high voltage Direct Current (DC) between the EV
battery assembly, DC/DC converter, inverter, A/C
compressor, battery coolant heater and cabin coolant heater.

Inverter

Undercarriage,
Motor
Compartment and
Left Side behind
Rear Quarter
Panel
Motor
Compartment
Drive Unit

Electric Motor

Drive Unit

Drive Unit

On-Board Charger

Motor
Compartment

A/C Compressor
(with Inverter)
DC/DC
Converter for 12 Volt
Auxiliary Battery
Cabin Coolant
Heater

Motor
Compartment
Motor
Compartment
Motor
Compartment

The drive unit integrates the inverter, electric motor,


differential and p-lock actuator.
Inverts the high voltage electricity from the EV battery to
3-phase AC electricity that drive the electric motor. Also
converts the high voltage AC power generated by the
electric motor during regeneration to high voltage DC
power to charge the EV battery assembly.
3-phase high voltage AC inductive electric motor contained
in the drive unit. It is used to power the front wheels.
Boosts the AC power supplied from an external power
source and converts it to DC to charge the EV battery
assembly.
3-phase high voltage AC electrically driven motor
compressor.
Converts 386 Volts from the EV battery assembly to 12
Volts for low voltage vehicle power.
Heats the coolant used for the cabin heater.

*Numbers in the component column apply to the illustrations on the following page.

Electric Vehicle Component Locations & Descriptions (Continued)


Specifications
Electric Motor: 154 hp (115 kW), AC Inductive Motor
Transaxle: Automatic Only
EV Battery Assembly: 386 Volt Sealed Li-ion Battery
Curb Weight: 4,032 lbs/1,829 kg
Frame Material: Steel Unibody
Body Material: Steel Panels
Seating Capacity: 5 passengers

Electric Vehicle Operation


Once the READY indicator is illuminated in the instrument cluster, the vehicle may be driven.
However, as there is no gasoline engine, no sound will be produced from the vehicle. It is
important to recognize and understand the READY indicator provided in the instrument cluster.
When lit, it informs the driver that the vehicle is on and operational even though the motor
compartment is silent.

Vehicle Operation

With the RAV4 EV, the system is operational while the READY indicator is on.

Never assume that the vehicle is shut off just because the motor compartment is silent. Always
look for the READY indicator status. The vehicle is shut off when the READY indicator is off.

Instrument Cluster READY Indicator

Electric Vehicle (EV) Battery Assembly and Auxiliary Battery


The RAV4 EV features a high voltage Electric Vehicle (EV) battery assembly that contains sealed
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cells.

EV Battery Assembly

The EV battery assembly is enclosed in a metal case and is rigidly mounted to the undercarriage.
The metal case is isolated from high voltage.

The EV battery assembly consists of low voltage (3.6 Volt) Li-ion battery cells connected in a
series-parallel circuit to produce approximately 386 Volts. Each cell is non-spillable and
contained in a sealed metal case.

The electrolyte used in the Li-ion battery cells is a flammable organic electrolyte. The electrolyte
is absorbed into the battery cell separator and will not normally leak, even in a collision.

EV Battery Assembly
Battery assembly voltage
Li-ion battery cell voltage
Li-ion battery cell dimensions

386 V
3.6 V
0.71 x 2.56 in.
(18 x 65 mm)
Approximately 0.1 lbs (46.5 g)
74 x 57 x 11 in.
(1876 x 1454 x 270 mm)
845 lbs (383.5 kg)

Diameter x Height
Li-ion cell weight
Li-ion battery assembly dimensions
Length x Width x Height
Li-ion battery assembly weight

Components Powered by the EV Battery Assembly

Inverter
Power Cables
DC/DC Converter for 12 V Auxiliary Battery

A/C Compressor
Cabin Coolant Heater
Battery Coolant Heater

Electric Vehicle (EV) Battery Assembly and Auxiliary Battery (Continued)


EV Battery Assembly Recovery

Contact either your Toyota Distributor or the nearest Toyota dealer.

Auxiliary Battery

The RAV4 EV contains a sealed lead-acid 12 Volt battery. This 12 Volt auxiliary battery powers
the vehicle electrical system similar to a conventional vehicle. As with other conventional vehicles,
the negative terminal of the auxiliary battery is grounded to the metal chassis of the vehicle.

The auxiliary battery is located in the motor compartment.

386 Volt EV Battery Assembly

12 Volt Auxiliary Battery Mounted in Motor Compartment

EV Battery Assembly

EV Battery Assembly Mounted in Under the Floor

10

High Voltage Safety


The EV battery assembly powers the high voltage electrical system with DC electricity. Positive and
negative orange colored high voltage power cables are routed from the EV battery assembly, under the
vehicle floor pan, to the drive unit (inverter and motor) and DC/DC converter. The inverter contains a
circuit that boosts and inverts the 386 Volts DC from the EV battery assembly to 450 Volts AC to
power the motor. Power cables are routed from the DC/DC converter (HV junction block) to each
high voltage component (A/C compressor, battery coolant heater and cabin coolant heater). The
following systems are intended to help keep occupants in the vehicle and emergency responders safe
from high voltage electricity:

High Voltage Safety System

High voltage fuses

Positive and negative high voltage power cables connected to the EV battery assembly are
controlled by a 12 Volt contactor (relay) . When the vehicle is shut off and not charging, the
contactor (relay) stops electricity flow from the EV battery assembly.

provide short circuit protection in the EV battery assembly.

WARNING:
The high voltage system may remain powered for up to 10 minutes after
the vehicle is shut off or disabled. To prevent serious injury or death
from severe burns or electric shock, avoid touching, cutting, or opening
any orange high voltage power cable or high voltage component.

Both positive and negative power cables are insulated from the metal body. High voltage
electricity flows through these cables and not through the metal vehicle body. The metal vehicle
body is safe to touch because it is insulated from the high voltage components.

The battery control computer continuously monitors for high voltage leakage to the metal chassis
while the vehicle is running. If a malfunction is detected, the battery control computer will
illuminate the master warning light
in the instrument cluster and indicate Check EV System
on the multi-information display.

The EV battery assembly contactors will automatically open to stop electricity flow in a collision
sufficient to activate the SRS.

*Numbers apply to the illustration on the following page.

11

High Voltage Safety (Continued)


Service Plug Grip

The high-voltage circuit is cut by removing the service plug grip (see page 15).

Volt DC

Volt DC

Main Battery
Drive Unit
Inverter
Volt DC

AC 3-Phase

Contactor
(Relay)

Motor
Volt DC

A/C
Compressor

Cabin
Coolant
Heater

Contactor
(Relay)

Volt DC

Battery
Coolant
Heater

Battery Control
Computer

HV Junction Block
DC/DC Converter

On-board
Charger
Charge Point

High Voltage Safety System Vehicle Shut Off (READY-OFF)


Volt DC
Volt DC

Main Battery
Drive Unit
Inverter
Volt DC

Contactor
(Relay)

AC 3-Phase

Contactor
(Relay)

Motor

Volt DC

Volt DC
A/C
Compressor

Cabin
Coolant
Heater

Battery
Coolant
Heater

HV Junction Block
DC/DC Converter

On-board
Charger
Charge Point

High Voltage Safety System Vehicle On and Operational (READY-ON)

12

Precaution to be observed when dismantling the vehicle

WARNING:

The high voltage system may remain powered for up to 10 minutes after
the vehicle is shut off or disabled. To prevent serious injury or death
from severe burns or electric shock, avoid touching, cutting, or opening
any orange high voltage power cable or high voltage component.

Necessary Items

Protective clothing such as insulated gloves (electrically insulated), rubber gloves, safety goggles,
and safety shoes.

Insulating tape such as electrical tape that has a suitable electrical insulation rating.

Before wearing insulated gloves, make sure that they are not cracked, ruptured, torn, or damaged in
any way.

Do not wear wet insulated gloves.

An electrical tester that is capable of measuring DC 750 Volts or more.

13

Spills
The RAV4 EV contains some of the same common automotive fluids used in other non-electric Toyota
vehicles, with the exception of the Li-ion electrolyte used in the EV battery assembly.
used in the Li-ion battery cells is a flammable organic electrolyte.

The electrolyte

The electrolyte is absorbed into the

battery cell separators, even if the battery cells are crushed or cracked, it is unlikely that liquid
electrolyte will leak.

Any liquid electrolyte that leaks from a Li-ion battery cell quickly evaporates.

WARNING:

The Li-ion battery contains organic electrolyte. Only a small amount may leak
from the batteries which may irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and skin.

Contact with the vapor produced by the electrolyte may irritate the nose and
throat.

To avoid injury by coming in contact with the electrolyte or vapor, wear


personal protective equipment for organic electrolyte including SCBA or full
face respirator suitable for organic solvents.

Handle Li-ion electrolyte spills using the following Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):
Splash shield or safety goggles.

Fold down helmet shields are not acceptable for electrolyte

spills.
Butyl rubber or suitable organic solvent gloves.
Apron or protective clothing suitable for organic solvents.
Rubber overboots or boots suitable for organic solvents.
Full face respirator suitable for organic solvents or SCBA.

14

Dismantling the vehicle


The following 5 pages contain general instructions for use when working on a RAV4 EV.

Read these

instructions before proceeding to the EV battery removal instructions on page 20.

WARNING:

The high voltage system may remain powered for up to 10 minutes after
the vehicle is shut off or disabled. To prevent serious injury or death
from severe burns or electric shock, avoid touching, cutting, or opening
any orange high voltage power cable or any high voltage component.

1. Shut off the ignition (READY indicator is off).


Then disconnect the cable from the auxiliary
battery negative (-) terminal.
(1) Open the hood.
(2) Disconnect the auxiliary battery negative (-)
terminal.

2. Remove the front upper floor cover.


(1) Slide the passenger seat forward and tilt the
seatback forward.
(2) Remove the carpeting underneath the seat.
(3) Remove the 4 nuts and front upper floor cover.

3. Remove the service plug grip.


Caution:

Wear insulating gloves and protective goggles.

Remove the service plug grip to interrupt the high voltage circuit at the time of
inspection or repair.

After removing the service plug grip, attach a note to it to prevent other
technicians from mistakenly reconnecting it while you are servicing the vehicle.

All the high voltage wiring connectors are orange.

Notice:
To prevent the electric vehicle battery assembly from being damaged by falling
objects, temporarily install the front upper floor cover after removing the service plug
grip.
15

(1) Using insulating gloves, press the part with the


black claw and pull the handle up slightly to
release the lock.

Press

Pull

(2) Press the black-colored tab and lift the handle


Upright

upright, then remove the service plug grip by


taking the handle and pulling it directly
upward.

Pull

Press

4. Carry the removed service plug grip in your pocket to prevent other staff from accidentally
reinstalling it while you are dismantling the vehicle.
5. Make other staff aware that a high-voltage system is being dismantled by using the
following sign: CAUTION: HIGH-VOLTAGE. DO NOT TOUCH (see page 19).

16

6. If the service plug grip cannot be removed due to damage to the vehicle, remove the IG2
fuse (15 A blue colored).
Caution:
This operation shuts off the EV system.

Be sure to wear insulated gloves because

high voltage is not shut off inside the EV battery.

When it is possible to remove the

service plug grip, remove it and continue the procedure.

IG2 fuse (15 A blue)

7. After disconnecting or exposing a high-voltage


connector or terminal, insulate it immediately
using insulating tape. Before disconnecting or
touching a bare high-voltage terminal, wear
insulated gloves.
8. Check the EV battery assembly and nearby area
for leakage. If you find any liquid, it may be
Li-ion electrolyte. Handle Li-ion electrolyte
spills using the following Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):

Splash shield or safety goggles.

Fold down helmet shields are not acceptable for electrolyte

spills.

Butyl rubber or suitable organic solvent gloves.

Apron or protective clothing suitable for organic solvents.


Rubber overboots or boots suitable for organic solvents.
Full face respirator suitable for organic solvents or SCBA.

Caution:

The Li-ion battery contains organic electrolyte. Only a small amount may leak
from the batteries which may irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and skin.

Contact with the vapor produced by the electrolyte may irritate the nose and
throat.

To avoid injury by coming in contact with the electrolyte or vapor, wear personal
protective equipment for organic electrolyte including SCBA or full face respirator
suitable for organic solvents.
17

9. If the electrolyte comes into contact with your eye(s), call out loudly for help. Do not rub
your eye(s). Instead, wash the eye(s) with a dilute boric acid solution or a large amount
of water and seek medical care.
10. With the exception of the EV battery assembly, remove parts by following procedures
which are similar to conventional Toyota vehicles. For the removal of the EV battery
assembly, refer to the following pages.

18

19

Removal of EV Battery Assembly

WARNING:

Be sure to wear insulated gloves when handling high-voltage parts.


Even if the vehicle is shut off and the relays are off, be sure to remove
the service plug grip before performing any further work.

Power remains in the high voltage electrical system for 10 minutes even
after the EV battery pack is shut off because the circuit has a condenser
that stores power.

Make sure that the tester reading is 0 V before touching any


high-voltage terminals which are not insulated.

The SRS may remain powered for up to 90 seconds after the vehicle is
shut off or disabled. To prevent serious injury or death from
unintentional SRS deployment, avoid cutting the SRS components.

1. SHUT OFF IGINITION (READY indicator is off)


2. REMOVE 12 V AUXILIARY BATTERY
(1) Open the hood.
(2) Disconnect the cable from the auxiliary battery
negative (-) terminal.
(3) Disconnect the cable from the auxiliary battery
positive (+) terminal.
(4) Remove the 12 Volt auxiliary battery.

3. REMOVE FRONT UPPER FLOOR COVER


(1) Slide the passenger seat forward and tilt the
seatback forward.
(2) Remove the carpeting underneath the seat.
(3) Remove the 4 nuts and front upper floor cover.

20

4. REMOVE SERVICE PLUG GRIP


Caution:

Wear insulating gloves and protective goggles.

Remove the service plug grip to interrupt the high voltage circuit at the time of
inspection or repair.

After removing the service plug grip, attach a note to it to prevent other
technicians from mistakenly reconnecting it while you are servicing the vehicle.

All the high voltage wiring connectors are orange.

Notice:
To prevent the electric vehicle battery assembly from being damaged by falling
objects, temporarily install the front upper floor cover after removing the service plug
grip.
(1) Using insulating gloves, press the part with the
black claw and pull the handle up slightly to
release the lock.

Press

Pull

(2) Press the black-colored tab and lift the handle

Upright

upright, then remove the service plug grip by


taking the handle and pulling it directly
upward.

Pull

Press

21

5. REMOVE NO.1 MOTOR UNDER COVER


ASSEMBLY
(1) Remove the 8 screws, 11 clips and No.1 motor
under cover assembly.

6. REMOVE UPPER NO. 1 FLOOR BOARD


(1) Remove the 4 screws, 11 clips and upper No. 1
floor board.

7. DISCONNECT COOLING HOSE


(1) Disconnect the No. 7 EV battery hose and
detach the clamp.

(2) Disconnect the No. 8 EV battery hose and


detach the clamp.

22

8. DRAIN COOLANT (for EV Battery)


(1) Remove the battery reservoir tank cap (for EV
battery).
Caution:
To avoid the danger of being burned, do not
remove the battery reservoir tank cap while
the coolant for the radiator is still hot.
(2) Connect an air blow gun with a SST (air
regulator) to either disconnected EV battery

Air Blow Gun

hose, apply air pressure of 172 kPa (1.75


kgf/cm2, 25 psi) or less to the EV battery and
SST (Air Regulator)

drain coolant from the other side.


Caution:

Do not exceed 172 kPa (1.75 kgf/cm2, 25 psi) because the seals inside the EV battery
may be blown.

9. REMOVE ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY


ACCESS COVER
Caution:
Wear insulated gloves and protective
goggles.
(1) Using an insulated tool, remove the 4 bolts and
electric vehicle battery access cover.
Hint:
Make sure to pull the electric vehicle battery access cover straight down, as a connector is
connected to the bottom of the cover.

(2) Remove the gasket.

23

10. CHECK TERMINAL VOLTAGE


Caution:
Wear insulated gloves and protective
goggles.
(1) for Motor cable side:
Using a voltmeter, measure the voltage between
the terminals of the 2 phase connectors shown in
the illustration.
Standard voltage: 0 V
Hint:
Use a measuring range of DC 750 V or more on the voltmeter.

(2) for Charge cable side:


Using a voltmeter, measure the voltage between
the terminals of the 2 phase connectors shown in
the illustration.
Standard voltage: 0 V
Hint:
Use a measuring range of DC 750 V or more on
the voltmeter.

(3) for Motor cable side:


Using a voltmeter, measure the voltage between
each terminal and body ground as shown in the
illustration.
Standard voltage: 0 V
Hint:
Use a measuring range of DC 750 V or more on
the voltmeter.

(4) for Charge cable side:


Using a voltmeter, measure the voltage between
each terminal and body ground as shown in the
illustration.
Standard voltage: 0 V
Hint:
Use a measuring range of DC 750 V or more on
the voltmeter.

24

(5) for Fuse side:


Using a voltmeter, measure the voltage between
each terminal and body ground as shown in the
illustration..
Standard voltage: 0 V
Hint:
Use a measuring range of DC 750 V or more on
the voltmeter.

11. DISCONNECT MOTOR CABLE


Caution:
Wear insulated gloves and protective
goggles.
(1) Remove the 2 nuts.

(2) Using an insulated tool, remove the 2 bolts and


pull out the motor cable.

12. DISCONNECT CHARGE CABLE


Caution:
Wear insulated gloves and protective
goggles.
(1) Using an insulated tool, remove the 2 bolts and
pull out the charge cable.

25

13. REMOVE HIGH VOLTAGE FUSE


Caution:
Wear insulated gloves and protective goggles.
Hint:
Perform this procedure only when replacement of the high voltage fuse is necessary.

(1) Remove the 2 bolts and high voltage fuse.

14. REMOVE ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY


ASSEMBLY
Caution:
Wear insulated gloves and protective goggles.
(1) Disconnect the connector.
HINT:
Lift up the claw of the connector to release
the lock.

(2) Remove the nut and disconnect the ground cable.

26

(3) Set an engine lifter. Check that the lifter is set


securely.
Notice:
Align the center of the battery shown in
the illustration with the center of the
engine lifter.
Install a palette on the lifter cradle to
make sure not to apply too much force
to the underside of the battery.
(4) Remove the 18 bolts.
(5) w/Washer:
Remove the 2 washers.
(6) Raise the vehicle and remove the electric vehicle battery.

Washer

Washer

Caution:
After removing the HV battery, do not reinstall the service plug grip to the HV battery.

27

HV Battery Caution Label

28