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Power Electronics for Power Quality

Improvements
Hiliny Awad, Student Member, IEEE, Math H.J Bollen, Senior Member, IEE

This paper presents a review of the power quality


issues/problems and the solution of these problems by using
power electronics controllers in industrial distribution
systems. Power-quality related problems are defined in
Section 11. The focus on voltage dips as the major problem
for industrial loads is given in Section m.Power electronics
devices for power quality problems are discussed in
Section IV.The static series compensator, which is used for
voltage dips mitigation is introduced in Section V.

Abstract-Control of most of the industrial loads is mainly


based on semiconductor devices, which causes such loads to be
more sensitive against power system disturbances. Thus, the
power quality problems have gained more interest recently.
This paper presents a review of some the disturbances, on the
source side that may cause problems on the load side. Focus is
given on problems associated with voltage dips as voltage dips
have been reported to be the most severe problems to industrial
loads. Solutions towards such problems using power electronics
equipment are explored.
Irides Term-Power Quality, Static Series Compensator,
Voltage dips, Voltage Source Converter.

n.

A. Dejinition of Power Quality


The term "power quality" is still an item of controversy
between power engineers. Nevertheless it is widely used to
describe the utility-customer interactions. The definition of
power quality given in the IEEE dictionary [l] originates in
the IEEE Std 1100 is:
Power quality is the concept ofpower-ing and groiinding
sensitive equipment in a nzatter that is suitable to the
operation o f that equipment.
It is worth to mention here that the international standards
setting organization in electrical engineering (the IEC) does
not yet use the term power quality in any of its standard
documents. For the moment it uses the term
"electromagnetic compatibility *'. instead. The following
definition is given in IEC 610001-1:
Electromagnetic conipafibilig.is ubilirj. o fequipment or a
system to firnction satisfactorilj>in its electromcignetic
environiiient without introdiicing intolesable
electromngnetic distairbnnces to anyrhing in that
environntent.
From the definitions of both power quality and
electromagnetic compatibility terms, it can be stated that the
two terms are not the same but they have a strong
overlap [2].

I. INTRODUCTION
tilities aim to provide their customers with an ideal sinusoidal
voltage waveform. By definition. ideal sinusoidal voltage
waveform has the characteristics: constant magnitude at the
reqwed level, constant frequency and b a l a n 4 in case of three
phase opemtion. Naturally, this is not always possible because of
normal system variations and due to the unavoidable incidents that
temporarily can affect the operation, such as short-circuit faults. On
the other hand, utilities require that customers should draw
sinusoidal current. Fig.2.1 illustrates the relation between the
utilities and their customers in a systematic way. Customers place

demands on the voltage z&),

POWER QUALITY
ISSUES

while the utilities specfi the current

is&).
The term "power quality" has arisen trying to clarify duties
of utilities and customers versus each other. The interest in
power quality has increased recently because of some issues.
Among those are the less-tolerant behavior of the equipment
against voltage disturbances and the adverse effects of the
equipment itself on the power system.

Utility

The prospective of the customers of electric power is to have


an ideal voltage waveform. Thus, the customer interest in
power quality is mainly the voltage quality. On the other
hand, utilities concern is focused on both voltage and current
quality. This classification motivates to mention definitions
of voltage and current quality.
I ) Voltage quality
Voltage quality is the quality of the product delivered by the
utility to the customers. It is concerned with deviations of
the voltage waveform from the ideal sinusoidal waveform.

Fig 2 1 Utility-customer mterrelation

This work is supported by ABB, STEM and Elforsk in Sweden through the
Elektra project No. 3336.
H. Awad and Math Bollen are with the Dept. of Electric Power Engineering,
Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden (emails: hilmy.awad@elkraft.chaliners.se, math.bollen@ eltelmik.chalmers.se)

0-7803-7912-8/03/$17.000 2003 IEEE


1129

2) Current quality
Current quality is a complementary term to the voltage
quality. It is concerned with deviations of the current
waveform from the ideal sinusoidal waveform. In addition to
the ideal current waveform (as demanded by the utility), the
current sinusoidal wave should be in phase with supplied
voltage to minimize the transmitted apparent power and
consequently the power system ratings. Because voltage and
current are closely related, a deviation of any of them from
the ideal may (with a high probability) cause the other to
deviate from the ideal case.

Voltage swells are caused by switching off large loads,


switching on capacitor banks and by earth faults in highimpedance grounded systems. Voltage swells are
characterized by their magnitude and duration. A n example
for a voltage swell is depicted in Fig.lb. The adverse effect
of voltage swells is:
increasing the thermal stress on the load;
causing component overheating or destruction.
etripping industrial devices such as motor derives and
control relays,
4) Voltage and/or cui-rent transients
.4 transient is tharpart of the change in U variable that
appears during trriiisition$-oni oiie stead\: state opei-ating
coiidirion io mother [ 11.
Transients can be classified into two categories: impulsive
and oscillatoi-y [3]. Some equipment such as power
electronic devices is very sensitive to voltagelcurrent
transients. Such devices can be destroyed because of
transients.
a) Impulsive transient
An impirlsive transient is a iq.short durutioii (18or 111s)
voltage or crirrent increase/decrense thnt is imidirectiorinl in
polario..
Impulsive transients are characterized by their peak, rise and
decay times. Lightning, short-circuit faults and switching of
heavy loads are the main reasons for an impulsive transient.
An example of a current impulsive transient caused by a
lightning stroke is depicted in Fig. 1 c.
b) Oscillator?>transient
An oscillatoi~~
transient is a stidden, noii-yow~erfi.eqztenc~~
change in the stedj9 state conditions, which includes both
polarities (yositive and negntive).
If the system voltage or the load current has an oscillatory'
transient, this implies that its peak changes polarity very
rapidly. Oscillatory transients (as shown in Fig.1 d) are
described by their predominant frequency, duration and
magnitude.
5) Harmonic distortion
Hal-inonicdistortion is the periodic deviation of ihe
voltage/crirrentfioin the ideal siniisoidnl ivaveforin.
Harmonics are sinusoidal voltageslcurrents, which have
frequencies of multiple integer of the fundamental
frequency. Non-linear loads have the main contribution to
the harmonic distortion of the utility voltage or the load
current. A fundamental sine wave together with 20 % 5"
harmonic is shown in Fig.le. Harmonics cause excessive
heat in the system components and can cause mis-operation
of protection devices.
6) VoltageflickelVoltage fluctuations cause the lamps to flicker. Flicker is
defined in the in European standard EN 50160 [4] as:
Flicker is the impression of unsteadiness of visual sensation
included bv a light stiimlus whose luminance or spectral
dist~-ibirtionJluct~intestes
with rime.
A typical voltage fluctuation waveform is displayed in
Fig.1 h. The arc furnace is one of the most common causes
of flicker. The flicker signal is defined by its RMS
magnitude as a percent of the fundamental. The unit of
flicker measuring is as the perception of short time (PST)

B. Power qzralih.problems
Power quality problems encompass a wide range of
disturbances that can disrupt the operation of sensitive
industrial loads and cause a loss of production. Zn this
Section, the following power quality problems are defined
and briefly discussed:
short interruptions:
voltage dips:
voltage swells:
voltage and current transients;
voltage and current harmonic distortion:
voltage flicker:
voltage unbalance:
phase angle imbalance andor jump.
However, there are other power quality problems such as
overvoltage, undervoltage, noise and power fi-equency
variations that are not treated in this paper.
I ) Short interruption
A short interruption is the complete loss q f t h e si~pply
volrage with n time period of 0.5 cycle ip to 3 seconds
[IEEE- 1159- 19951.
Another definition is found in [3]:
An interription occiii's when .si'pp(~~
voltage or the load
cui*i.eiitdecreases to less than 0. I pzi for ci period rime not
tcxxzeding 1 iniiiute.
The causes of short intemptions are the same as for long
interruptions: fault clearing by the protection. incorrect
protection intervention, etc. Normally, a short interruption
occurs when the supply voltage is restored automatically
after a short-circuit faults, by reclosers.
2) Voltage dips
A roltage dip is U decrease in the RMS voltagefioin 0.1 to
0.9 pu at the L7o'i,ei.fvecliieiic!.foi.
dwntio?i.fioin 0.5 cjcles to
I miniire.
A synonym for voltage dip is voltage sag, which is widely
used in the United States. Voltage dips have the potential to
disrupt the sensitive load operation and cause a loss of
production. An example of a voltage dip is shown in Fig. la.
This phenomenon is studied in more detail later in this
paper.
3) Voltage swells
A voltage swell is an increase in the RMS voltage above I . I
pit at thepoii'er.fieqiienc?.for dtiratioii.fioni 0.5 cycle CO 1
minute.

1130

severity, which is the output of the IEC flicker meter every


10 minutes. Flicker should be mitigated because it makes the
human eye irritated.
7) Voltage unbalance
Voltage imbalance is the difference in phase (orphase-tophase) voltage magnitudes of the three-phase system.
The voltage unbalance in percent is defmed by the national
electrical manufacturing association (NEMA) in [5] as (not
generally accepted) the maximum deviation from average to
the average of the three phase-to-phase voltage. Symmetrical
components are used to characterize the voltage unbalance,
which gives an index for describing the system unbalance.
This index is called the voltage utilization factor (VUF):
%VUF=(U,/Up)x100

dips due to short-circuit faults are characterized by a dip


magnitude, a dip duration, and a phase-anglejump.

where U, is the positive sequence component and U,, is the


negative sequence component of the phase to phase to phase
voltage. An example of unbalanced voltages is given in
Fig. If. Unbalanced voltages have adverse effects on the
induction machines that are the machine efficiency is
decreased and they may lead to motor failure. Power
electronics converters suffer also from voltage unbalance.
Operation of a diode rectifier is influenced by the unbalance
in the sense that the input current harmonics are not
restricted to the characteristic harmonics of the rectifier.
Uncharacteristic triplen harmonic such as the 3'd and the 9*
can appear. The voltage unbalance may cause excessive
currents in one or two phases, which can trip the overload
protection circuits of the adjustable speed drives (ASD). The
increased current can also cause excess heating of the diodes
and decrease the lifetime of the dc link capacitor [6].
8) Phase anglejump
Phase angle jump is a change in the phase angle of the
voltage/current. Some loads such as thyristor based derives
are sensitive to phase-angle jump, where it can lead to
wrong determination of the voltage zero crossing. A phase
angle jump of 60 degrees is shown in Fig.lg.

f
I

'

III. VOLTAGE
DIPS
To many customers, especially industrial customers, voltage
dips are the most important power quality disturbances in
electrical system [2, 3, 7, 11, 12, 19, 231. The outage costs
associated with poor power quality are documented and
serve as an argument to study the possible use of power
conditioning equipment [SI. The effects of voltage dips,
swells and flicker on end-users have been formulated in the
literature such as [9][10]. Dips, depending on the severity
and duration, can cause computer resets, memory loss,
tripping of adjustable speed drives, loss of motor load, and
this in turn leads to serious disruption of the production
process.

Fig 1 Example wavefonns of power quality problems a) voltage d p , b)


voltage swell. c) iinpulsive transient, d) Oscillatory transient, e) 5" hannomc
dlstortion, f) Voltage unbalance, g) Phase angle jump, h) Voltage flicker

The voltage dip magnitude is the retained voltage after the


initiation of the dip. It can be determined by either the RMS
voltage or the peak voltage over half a cycle or one cycle of
the fundamental frequency. An example of a voltage dip due
to a short-circuit is shown in Fig.2 and an example due to
motor start is shown in Fig.3. In case of voltage dips due to
motor start, the characterization needs to be slightly
different: other terms are involved such as recovery time and
steady state drop (as illustrated Fig.3). Voltage dip duration
is the duration in which, the system voltage remains under a
threshold value, for instance 90% of the pre-dip voltage. If
the dip is due to a short-circuit fault, the dip duration is
mainly determined by the fault clearing time, which is
affected by the speed of the protection and the speed of the
circuit breakers.

A. Cazises and characterization of voltage dips


The mean causes of voltage dips are short-circuit faults in
transmission and distribution systems [2]. Large induction
motors when starting and transformers when being
energized can also cause voltage dips. In some networks,
switching large loads may result in voltage dips. Voltage

1131

inputs of a certain process for instance, relays, switches and


sensors. [14]. They are based on power electronics control
systems and have software in their computer memories. The
software calculates the status of the devices connected as
outputs for instance alarms, lights and fans. The power
supplies of the PLCs and computers may be sensitive to
voltage dips that can stop the entire process being controlled.
2) Power supply
A typical configuration of the computer supply (shown in
Fig.4) constitutes of a single-phase diode rectifier, a
smoothing dc capacitor (Cdc)and a dcldc converter. The dc
capacitor reduces the dc voltage ripple. The dcldc converter
regulates the dc output voltage. When the supply voltage ti,
drops, the dc voltage also drops. The drop of the dc voltage
depends on the capacitor size and the load power. If the dc
voltage drops too much, the regulated dc voltage will be too
IOW and errors occur in the digital electronics.
The decay of the dc voltage ti& is calculated as [2]:

Tirna (Cycles:

Fig.?. Example of voltage dip due to short-circuitfault

;........

*
.-

j ..__..I.

where U,, is the initial dc voltage directly before the voltage


dip, P is load power.
From (2.3), the dc voltage ripple is calculated (in pu with
u d c as a base voltage):
125 i
0

E = PT
,

I 2CdcUjc

T i m in Cycles

10

I3

If the minimum voltage that the power supply can work


properly is equal to Umin.then the maximum dip duration
that can be sustained is:

Fig 3 Example of voltage dlp due to motor start

The phase-angle jump is a shift in the zero crossing of the


instantaneous voltage. Because the system voltage is a
complex quantity consisting of a magnitude and phase angle,
an event like a short-circuit fault may not only affect the
voltage magnitude but also its phase angle. Normally,
voltage dips originated because of short-circuit faults are
associated with a phase-anglejump. Monitoring the dip with
the calculation of the RMS value does not indicate the
associated phase-angle jump but monitoring with calculation
of the fundamental voltage gives also the phase angle
jump P I

t,,,

= (1--

) 1 4E

(2.3)
From (2.5) it can be concluded that the lower the dc voltage
ripple, the longer the dip duration that the power supply can
survive.
3) Adjustable speed drives
a) AC nioior drives
A three-phase diode rectifier normally feeds AC motor
drives. Typical configuration of ac drives is displayed in
Fig.5. The dc inductor Ldc is used to smoothen the dc current
and the capacitor C,, minimizes the ripple of the dc voltage
Zidc. Controlling the ac motor is done by controlling the
magnitude and the frequency of the output voltage of the
voltage source converter. Voltage dips in the ac supply result
in reduction of the dc voltage iidc. Consequently, the voltage
source converter may not be able to operate and the motor
control is lost.

B. Efect of voltage dips on equipment behavior


Voltage dips may cause problems to low-power rating as
well as high-power rating equipment that is based on power
electronics devices [2, 3, 71. Low-power equipment involves
for instance programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and
computer power supplies. Examples for high-power
equipment are adjustable speed drives; both ac and dc
drives. Not only power electronic based equipment is
sensitive to voltage dips; also electromechanical relays and
motor contractors are reported to open their contacts when
the voltage drops below 0.5 to 0.7 pu [14]. A brief
discussion is given in this Section regarding the effect of
voltage dips on such sensitive equipment.
I ) Programmable logic conti-ollem
Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are used in industrial
processes to monitor the status of the devices connected as

xTo Eauiomeit

DC-DC CanveTe.
Sqe-Phase Diode Rectifier

Fig.4.Typical configurationof computer power supply.

1132

problem, which is installation of mitigation equipment


between the distribution system and the equipment.
Development of mitigation equipment has been related to
developments of power electronics controllers, which in turn
led to the appearance of custom power.

w.POWER ELECTRONICS SOLUTIONS FOR POWER QUALITY


I

Grid

Three Dhase Thynsior Restmer

IMPROVEMENTS

Sirgle %as8 Tryristor Rectifier

Fig 5 Typical configuration of dc dnves

The load connected to the ac motor may not survive the


reduction in the speed or the torque due to the voltage. The
motor energy is taken fiom the capacitor at the dip start until
the dc voltage becomes lower than the supply voltage during
the dip. To ride through deeper and longer dips, the
capacitor size must be increased. Increase of the capacitor
size implies increase of the cost and increase of the required
installation area [ 2 ] .
b) DC motor drives
DC motor drives (shown in Fig.5) are fed by a thyristor
rectifier, which is connected, to the armature windings (Ra,
La) of the motor. The field winding (Rf,
L f ) is energized by a
single-phase thyristor rectifier. Voltage dips are more severe
for dc drives compared to ac drives due to the lack of the dc
capacitor. Moreover, adding a dc capacitor will limit the
control speed of the dc drive. It is of importance to mention
here that not only the reduction of voltage magnitude causes
problems but also associated phase angle jump with voltage
dips may cause problems to the thyristor rectifier in
determining zero crossings of the ac voltage.

C. Mitigation of voltage dips


Solutions of the problems due to voltage dips can be made at
three levels. Apparently, the ideal solution is to solve these
problems at the equipment level; increasing the equipment
immunity to voltage dips. It means that the equipment
should be designed to tolerate voltage dips. But this is not
always possible and requires more debate between the
customers and the manufacturers. Other solutions are related
to the power system configuration and operation.
Improvements can be done in order to mitigate voltage dips
involve:
0
Reducing the number of voltage dips, e.g. by institution
of tree trimming policies, adding more lightning
arrestors, lowering the ground resistance at the foot of
overhead transmission and towers and replacing
overhead lines by underground cables;
Reducing the fault clearing time by using faster
protection schemes keeping them reliable;
Changing the structure of the power system.
It can be noticed that most of the power system
improvements are limited because most of the power
systems in operation now have been designed 10 or 20 years
ago and changing their structure is not an easy task. Those
improvements are more effective when considered in
designing new power systems. This fact has led to think
about a third level solution for voltage dips associated

Custom power is a strategy designed primarily to meet the


requirements of industrial and commercial customers. The
concept of custom power is the employment of power
electronic or static controllers in medium voltage
distribution systems aiming to supply a reliable and higher
quality power supplies that are needed by sensitive users.
Power electronic valves are the basis of those custom power
devices such as the state transfer switch (STS), active filters
and converter-based devices. The converter-based custom
power devices, used to mitigate voltage variations and
interruptions, can be divided into two main groups: shuntconnected and series-connected devices. Custom power
devices are described in the following Sections.
A. Static transfer switch
The static transfer switch (STS) is composed of two thyristor
blocks. Each thyristor block is composed of three thyristor
modules corresponding to the three phases of the system.
The common configuration of the STS in industrial
distribution systems is shown in Fig.6. In normal operating
conditions. the primary supply feeds the load through
switch 1. In case of a fault or a voltage dip affecting the
primary supply, the load is fed from the alternative source
switch 2. The transfer time of the STS ranges from '/4 to !h
cycle of the fundamental frequency. Thus, the duration of
the voltage dip is reduced to this transfer time, which most
of the loads can survive. The basic shortcoming of the STS
is that it continuously conducts the load current, which leads
to a considerable conducting losses, particularly in high
power applications. The conducting losses are in the range
of 1 % of the load power. Another disadvantage is that the
non-faulted feeder experiences a !4 to !h cycle voltage notch.

A hybrid static transfer switch (HSTS) has been proposed in


[15]. The idea is that a conventional mechanical circuit
breaker (MCB), connected in parallel with the thyristors,
conducts the current in normal operation conditions. The
current commutation from the primary to the alternative
supply takes less than half a cycle but the total transfer time
is also dependent on the response time of the voltage dip
detection. The voltage dip detection technique should be
very fast to ensure a fast transition of the load fiom the
primary to the alternative supply. An example of a voltage
detection algorithm is found in [15]. A block diagram of this
voltage dip detection algorithm is shown in Fig.7. The
phase-to- phase voltages uab, ubc, U,,are the inputs to the
algorithm and then transformed to the dq-synchronous
reference frame. The output of the transformation block
U(dq)

is compared with the reference voltage,


(dq)

the error signal. gemor.

1133

El,"' to obtain

B. ActiveJilters
Recently, the interest in active filters has increased due to
the proliferation of nonlinear. The traditional response to
mitigate harmonics is the use of passive filters. Passive
filters provide either a low-impedance path or a highimpedance block to harmonics.
The shortcomings of using passive filters are: slow dynamic
response; dependence on the source impedance; resonance
between the passive filter and the source impedance: not
able to adapt to changes in load conditions. Due to the
shortcomings of the passive filters, the active filters have
been proposed. Instead of providing impedance paths to
current harmonics. active filters inject the same magnitude
of the harmonic current generated by the load with an
opposite direction to cancel the harmonics at the point of
common coupling. Active filters are divided into two main
types: shunt and series active filters.

Fig.6. Static transfer switch.


Low-pass filter

Fig 7 Voltage &p detection technique for STS, proposed in [I51

The impact of voltage transients on the error signal 2:: is


attenuated by a low-pass filter. The output of the low-pass
filter is compared with the tolerance limit of the phase-tophase voltage Cl:$ to obtain the transfer signal of the STS.
The successful transfer of the sensitive load by an STS
depends on some factors such as the independence of the
alternative supply and the primary supply. the capacity of
the two feeders, supply availability. It is of curiosity to
mention here that the STS may not be able to mitigate
voltage dips originating in the transmission system since
both supplies (primary and alternative) can be influenced by
the fault. Another problem with the STS is the
synchronization of the primary supply with the alternative
supply. The phase angle difference between the two supplies
could lead to phase angle jumps at the load terminals 121.

The shunt active filter is connected in shunt with the


distribution system and acts as a non-sinusoidal current
source as shown in Fig.S(up). If the load current is ZL + I,,
where ZL is the fundamental component, 4, is the harmonic
load current, then the shunt active filters should inject a
current -& to obtain a sinusoidal current flowing in the
distribution system. The series active filter is connected in
series with the distribution system, as displayed in Fig.8
(down). It acts as a non-sinusoidal voltage source, injecting
the voltage U, with the same magnitude and opposite phase
to load voltage harmonics to block harmonic currents flow.
The core element of the active filter is a voltage-fed pulse
width modulated (PWM) inverter, using insulated-gate
bipolar transistors (IGBTs) or gate turn-off thyristors
(GTOs). A single-phase full bridge topology of a shunt
active filter is depicted in Fig.9.
The inductance LF is used to limit the injected current highfrequency harmonics. The capacitance Cdc is designed to
support a ripple-free dc voltage. The switches S , to S, are
controlled in such a way that the shunt active filter injects
the required current. The series active filter has the same
configuration; the only difference is that it is connected in
series. The control of active filters means extracting of
voltage or current harmonics from the corresponding
distorted voltage or current to be filtered. This can be done
in two main strategies: one based on Fourier analysis in the
frequency domain and the other is based on the
instantaneous reactive power theory (p-q theory) [ 171. The
p-q theory can be summarized as follows. The phase
voltages and currents are transformed to the stationary
reference frame as:

Fig.8. Active filters: up) shunt active filter, down) series active filter.

Fig.9. Full bridge topology of single-phase shunt active filter.

The instantaneous active power is defined as:


p = u , i , + u 2 i , +u,i, = u U i u + u p i p =Real(zri*)

(2.5)

1134

where

U = ua

+j u , , i = i

+ j i p, i*

is the complex

conjugate of i. The instantaneous reactive power is s:


*
= Imaginary(u i)

+.',U

q = -zi,ip

(2.6)

From (2.7) and (2.8), the current components in the


frame can be obtained as:

where

i,, iP

ap

iq, i , are the instantaneous active components of


while

components of

. ih.

are the instantaneous reactive

I,,

i, ,i,j. Using (2.9). the following equations

can be deduced:

If the average active power P and average reactive power Q


are substituted in (2.10) and (2.11), the dc current
component are obtained:
i-

= P II

/1u12, i; = -j Q 11 llul'

The difference between i; and i,,

(2.10)

V. STATIC
SERIESCOMPENSATOR

i; and i, respectively

are then ac components, which they are compensated by


shunt active filters. It is worth to mention here that shunt
active filters in a range of 50 kVA up to 60 MVA been
installed in Japan [27]. Series active filters are still under
field-testing.

C. Unintewzptible power supply


The traditional response to avoid production interruption and
outage costs has been the unintermptible power supply
(UPS). The load power is taken from the main power supply
through a two-stage operation: conversion (AC/DC) and
inversion (DCIAC). During a voltage dip or an interruption,
the energy released by the battery maintains the load voltage
constant. A single-line diagram for the UPS is shown in
Fig.10 Depending on the storage capacity of the battery, it
can supply the load for minutes or even hours.
UPS are needed where the loss of power can cause loss
greater than the UPS cost [ 181. For higher-power loads the
costs associated with losses due to the two additional
conversions and the maintenance of the batteries become too
high and this solution no longer appears to be economically
feasible [19].
A("

D. Shunt-connected voltage source converter (DSTATCOM)


Shunt-connected custom power devices such as the
Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) are
connected in shunt with the distribution system via a
coupling transformer to maintain the voltage of the
distribution feeder at the required level by supplying or
absorbing reactive power. The DSTATCOM consists of a
voltage source converter (VSC), a small dc energy storage,
and an output filter as depicted in Fig. 11. The DSTATCOM
is based on the principle that the VSC generates a
controllable AC voltage source behind the transformer
leakage reactance so that the voltage difference across the
reactance produces a reactive power flow between the
DSTATCOM and the distribution system [20]. The first
installation of the DSTATCOM used for reactive power
compensation to prevent voltage flicker was installed at a
timber mill in British Columbia, Canada [21]. A k 2MVAr
DSTATCOM has been installed for a 2.6 MVA load with a
typical power factor of approximately 0.85. By choosing
energy storage with adequate capacity, the DSTATCOM can
also exchange active power with the distribution system,
which enables the DSTATCOM to compensate also for
voltage dips [22]. However, the DSTATCOM can not be
used to compensate for deep dips because in that case it will
need to inject a very large current.

Recently, on August 26, 1996, the world's first static series


compensator (SSC), commercially known as the dynamic
voltage restorer (DVR) has been installed on the Duke
Power distribution system to protect a sensitive textile
customer from voltage dips [23]. The SSC is a seriesconnected custom power device and it is designed to inject
the missing voltage into the distribution line. Its basic idea is
to dynamically inject a voltage zic(c) as shown in Fig.12.
Fig. 12 shows a simplified single-phase equivalent circuit of
a distribution feeder with a SSC, where the supply voltage
uS(t)>the SSC-injection voltage zi,(t) and the load voltage
q ( t ) are in series. So, the SSC is considered to be an
external voltage source where the amplitude, the frequency
and the phase shift of zic(t) can be controlled. The purpose is
to maintain the amplitude of the load voltage fixed and
prevent phase jumps. From Fig. 12, the load voltage is:
(2.11)
21,
= us (0 + U, ( t )
If the supply voltage zi,(t) has dropped due to a voltage dip
or increased due to a voltage swell, the SSC compensating
voltage trc(t) should be chosen so that to the load voltage
remains the same as during no-disturbance conditions.

(0

2
ij.(?>

24

!<&: i,,R;

DC/.4C

iil iil

my\
u

Load

TRF

!&/I&
if'

EIcryy

c.. vsc

0U;rio:

FiI!ei

Fig. 10. Single-he diagram of UPS

Fig.11. Single-line diagram of DSTATCOM

1135

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Fig 12 SSC operational pnncipal up) simplified equivalent circuit


B,pass S*,Ch

Fig 13 SSC layout

Thus. the instantaneous amplitude of q ( t ) is controlled such


as to eliminate any detrimental effects of a system fault to
the load voltage as long as the disturbance does not cause
the circuit breaker to open. Fig.12, the SSC is modeled as a
controlled voltage source while it is composed of many
components in practice. The SSC components (shown
Fig.13) are the VSC, the modulation unit, the control unit,
the output filter. the injection transformer, the energy storage
and the bypass switch. Measured voltages and currents are
the inputs to the disturbance identification. which gives
signals to the control unit to function when the measured
quantities differ from settings of the control user. The
disturbance identification module triggers the start of voltage
dip compensation when the supply voltage comes out of a
pre-defined range. Then the control unit generates the
voltage references and synthesis them with supply voltage.
The voltage references are inputs to the modulation unit to
generate the modulating signals for the valves of the VSC.
The energy storage provides the required power to
compensate the identified voltage dip. Installing an output
filter reduces the dvldt effect on the windings of the
injection transfomier and it is necessary to convert the pulsemodulated voltage of the VSC into a sinusoidal voltage. The
filtered voltage is injected into the distribution system by the
series-injecting transformer.

VI. CONCLUSIONS
A literature review was carried out in order to explore some
of the power quality problems and power-electronics devices
that have been proposed and/or installed in industrial
distribution systems to mitigate such problems. The
reliability and power quality of industrial power systems can
be significantly improved by optimal use of powerelectronics controllers.

W.

REFERENCES

[13 IEEE standard dictionap of electrical and electronics ternis, 6h


emtion, IEEE Sid 100-1996, IEEE, New York, 1997

[2]

M H J Bollen, Understanding Po11er Quality Problenis Voltage Sags


andlnterruptions, New York, IEEE Press, 1999

1136