Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

ACIDIC ENVIRONMENT

1. INDICATORS WERE IDENTIFIED WITH THE OBSERVATION OTHAT THE COLOUR OF SOME FLOWERS DEPENDS ON SOIL COMPOSITION

 

1.1.

CLASSIFY COMMON SUBSTANCES AS ACIDIC, BASIC OR NEUTRAL

Acidic

Neutral

Basic

Lemon juice

Pure water

Baking soda

Vinegar

Table salt

Detergents and

Formic acid

(NaCl)

soaps

Carbonic acid

Ammonia

Hydrochloric

Toothpaste

acid

Antacids

Sulfuric acid

Sodium hydroxide

 

Calcium carbonate

 

1.2.

IDENTIFY VARIOUS INDICATORS

 

Indicator name

pH

 

Lower-range

Upper-range

Range

colour

colour

Methyl red

4.4-6.2

Red

Yellow

Methyl orange

3.1-4.4

Red

Yellow

Litmus

5.0-8.0

Red

Blue

Phenolphthalein

8.3-10.0

Colourless

Red

Bromothymol blue

6.0-7.6

Yellow

Blue

 

1.3.

IDENTIFY AND DESCRIBE APPLICATIONS OF INDICATORS

Application Description

 

pH of soil

Testing the pH of various soils to determine the suitability for certain flora. I.e. Flowers and trees.

pH of fish tanks pH of swimming pools

Various species of fish are pH sensitive and cannot reproduce in high pH levels. PH of swimming pools must be kept above 7 for safety reasons.

2. THE ATMOSPHERE CONTAINS ACIDIC OXIDES OF CARBON, SULFUR AND NITROGEN

 
 

2.1.

IDENTIFY OXIDES OF NON-METALS WHICH ACT AS ACIDS

GENERALISATION

The general rule for oxides and whether they are acidic or basic is to consider if it is a non-metal or metal oxide. I.e. Sodium oxide vs carbon dioxide. The generalisation is that metal oxides are basic, and non-metal oxides are acidic. However, there are certain metal oxides which can act as either acidic or basic oxides. I.e. Barium, zinc, aluminium, tin, lead. These types of oxides are called amphoteric oxides and can behave as either acidic or basic oxides.

BEHAVIOUR AS ACIDIC/BASIC OXIDES AND THE POSSIBLE REACTIONS

NON-METAL OXIDES

Examples of non-metal oxides: Carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide Reactions: Ionises in H 2 O to form acids. I.e. sulfuric acid, Neutralises with basic solutions to form salts and water.

METAL OXIDES
METAL OXIDES

Examples of metal oxides: Copper oxide, magnesium oxide, etc. Reactions: Ionises in H 2 O to form bases. I.e. Calcium hydroxide, Neutralises with acidic solutions to form salts and water.

AMPHOTERIC OXIDES
AMPHOTERIC OXIDES

Examples of amphoteric oxides: Zinc oxide, lead oxide, aluminium oxide (all metal oxides). Reactions: Can behave as either an acidic or basic oxide. Therefore they can ionise in water to produce an acidic or basic solution, as well as neutralise with acidic or basic solutions to produce water and a salt.

NEUTRAL OXIDES

Examples of neutral oxides: Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, dinitrogen oxide. Reactions: N/A

  • 2.2. ANALAYSE THE POSITION OF NON-METALS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE AND OUTLINE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEIR POSITION AND THEIR ACIDITY/BASICITY OF OXIDES

2.3. DEFINE LE CHATLIER’S PRINCIPLE In a closed system, the rate of reaction is equal to
  • 2.3. DEFINE LE CHATLIER’S PRINCIPLE

In a closed system, the rate of reaction is equal to the backwards reaction, meaning that a dynamic equilibrium has been reached. This occurs when the concentration of the products and reactants reaches a constant, however reactions continue to occur on a microscopic level.

Le Chatelier’s principle: A system in equilibrium when disturbed will adjust itself by moving the position of the equilibrium to oppose the disturbance in the system. However the system can only minimise the disturbance, and cannot eliminate it.

  • 2.4. IDENTIFY FACTORS WHICH CAN AFFECT THE EQUILBRIUM IN A REVERSABLE REACTION

Several factors can affect the position of the equilibrium in a reversible reaction. These disturbances can manifest as changes in concentration, pressure, volume or temperature. According to Le Chatelier’s Principle, the position of the equilibrium must move such that the reversible reaction opposes the change in the system. Note: Catalysts only speed up the reaction, and does not affect the position of the established equilibrium.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF AN EQUILBRIUM IN A REVERSIBLE REACTION

CONCENTRATION

2.3. DEFINE LE CHATLIER’S PRINCIPLE In a closed system, the rate of reaction is equal to

Consider this reaction. If you increase the concentration of the reactants (A+B), then according to Le Chatelier’s principle the equilibrium must move to decrease the concentration of the reactants. This can only occur if the equilibrium moves forward, so that A + B react to produce C + D, thereby decreasing the concentration of A + B. Hence, the equilibrium of the reversible reaction will move forward according to Le Chatelier’s principle.

PRESSURE

Consider this reaction between two gases. The forward reaction involves converting 3 moles of gas into

Consider this reaction between two gases. The forward reaction involves converting 3 moles of gas into 2 moles of gas. Hence the forward reaction will decrease the pressure in the system. The backwards reaction involves converting 2 moles of gas into 3 moles of gas. Hence, the backwards reaction will increase the pressure system. Therefore, if you increase the pressure, according to Le Chatelier’s principle the equilibrium must move to decrease the pressure. Since this only occurs in the forward reaction, the equilibrium will move forward.

Consider this reaction between two gases. The forward reaction involves converting 3 moles of gas into

Unlike the previous example, this reaction involves a product being a solid. Here the forward reaction will convert 2 moles of gas into 1 mole of gas, hence the forward reaction will decrease the pressure. The backwards reaction will convert 1 mole of gas into 2 moles of gas, hence the backwards reaction will increase pressure. Therefore Le Chatelier’s principle can still apply here.

TEMPERATURE

Consider this reaction between two gases. The forward reaction involves converting 3 moles of gas into

Consider this reaction. The forward reaction is exothermic, and the backwards reaction is endothermic. Therefore, if we for instance increased the temperature of this system, according to Le Chatelier’s principle the equilibrium must move to decrease the temperature. Hence, the equilibrium will shift backwards, as the backwards reaction is endothermic.

  • 2.5. DESCRIBE THE SOLUBILITY OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN WATER UNDER VARIOUS

CONDITIONS AS AN EQUILBRIUM PROCESS AND EXPLAIN IN TERMS OF LE CHATLIER’S PRINCIPLE

Consider this reaction between two gases. The forward reaction involves converting 3 moles of gas into

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE POSITION OF THE EQUILIBRIA

Increasing concentration of CO 2 (aq): The equilibrium of reaction 2 will shift forward to produce

more carbonic acid and decrease the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide. Increasing the pressure: The equilibrium of reaction 1 will shift backwards to dissolve the

gaseous carbon dioxide. This in turn increases the concentration of CO 2 (aq), thereby resulting in the equilibrium of reaction 2 shifting forward to produce more carbonic acid and decrease the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide. Increasing temperature: The equilibrium of reaction 2 will shift backwards, since the backwards

reaction is endothermic. This counteracts the increase in temperature, but also reacts carbonic acid to produce carbon dioxide and water. The increased concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide will cause reaction 1 to move forwards, thereby releasing carbon dioxide gas. Increasing pH: Increasing the pH of the solution involves increasing the concentration of H + ions in the system. This causes the equilibrium of reaction 3 to move backwards, resulting in the production of more carbonic acid to decrease the concentration of H + ions. This causes the concentration of carbonic acid to increase, resulting in the equilibrium of reaction 2

to move backwards, thus producing more dissolved carbon dioxide and water. This then causes the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide to increase, resulting in the equilibrium of reaction 1 to move forward, thereby expelling the dissolved carbon dioxide as carbon dioxide gas.

2.6.

IDENTIFY NATURAL AND INDUSTRIAL SOURCES OF OXIDES OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN

 

Formula

Natural sources

Industrial sources

Sulfur dioxide

SO 2

Geothermal hot-springs

Smelting of sulphide ores

 

Decay of organic matter (2H 2 S + 3O 2 2SO 2 + 2H 2 O)

Combustion of fossil fuels

Oxides of

NO, NO 2

High temperature

High temperature

nitrogen

(NO x )

environments i.e. Lightning

environments i.e. Combustion furnaces or engines

Note: NO x is the name given to a mixture of NO and NO 2 .

2.7.

DESCRIBE USING EQUATIONS, EXAMPLE OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS WHICH RELEASE SULFUR DIOXIDE AND OXIDES OF NITROGEN

Equations

Sulfur dioxide

Combustion of fossil fuels: S (s) + O 2 (g) SO 2 (g) i.e. Smelting of iron pyrite: 4FeS 2 (s) + 11O 2 (g) 2Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 8SO 2 (g)

Oxides of

nitrogen

Localised high temperatures: N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2NO (g)

Reaction of nitrogen oxide with oxygen: 2NO (g) + O 2 2NO 2 (g)

2.8.

ASSESS THE EVIDENCE WHICH INDICATES INCREASES IN ATMOSPHERIC CONCENTRATION OF OXIDES OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN

EVIDENCE INDICATING INCREASE OF ACIDIC OXIDES

Increased weathering of rocks and marble structures

Increased destruction of forestland

Increased destruction of marine ecosystems (higher pH results in the inability for fauna to

reproduce resulting in extinction) Increased erosion of steel structures

Air samples derived from icebergs dating back thousands of years has a lower concentration of acidic oxides than samples gather from today’s atmosphere

ASSESSING EVIDENCE INDICATING INCREASE OF ACIDIC OXIDES

 

For

Against

Air samples from icebergs

Actual concentration is very low, making accurate measurements

1970s

Increased damage to

difficult

forestland

Effect on steel structures might be due to other forms of pollution

Increased reports of acid

Accurate measurements have only been available since the

rain

JUDGEMENT

Although quantitative measurements are inaccurate in the long term, the overall indicators of increased acidic oxide concentration, i.e. increased damage to rainforests, provides sufficient qualitative evidence to support the increase of acidic oxides in the atmosphere.

FORMATION OF ACIDS

Acidic oxides such As SO 2 and NO 2 can react with water droplets formed from the precipitation of moisture from rain clouds. The reaction between the acidic oxide and water droplets produces acids, which when delivered in the form of rain produces acid rain. Sulphuric acid: SO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) H 2 SO 4 (aq), Weak and strong nitric acid: 2NO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) HNO 2 (aq) + HNO 3 (aq). It is known that industrialised areas have acid concentrations 100 times higher than rural areas.

As the demand for more energy increases due to natural population increase, there will be a proportional increase in the combustion of fossil fuels to produce energy, thereby releasing more of these acidic oxides into the environment.

EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Acid rain can have several impacts on the natural environment, as well as the industrial environment. Acid rain contributes to the increased weathering and erosion of rocks. Rocks such as calcium carbonate are basic, and thus when they react with the acidic rain they begin to erode away in a neutralisation reaction to produce a salt and water. This reaction contributes to the increased weathering and erosion of rocks in the environment, as well in rural areas marble buildings will also undergo increased weathering and erosion.

Acid rain is also known to attack metal and metal alloys, resulting in accelerated wear and corrosion of existing steel structures, which could lead to tremendous financial burden in various industries which rely on steel as a common construction material. I.e. Construction of newer reinforced concrete buildings which use steel rods to reinforce its structure.

Acid rain can also lead to the destruction of forest land, since the acid can attack the leaves and roots of plants, reducing their capability to use sunlight to effectively undergo photosynthesis, as well as absorb nutrients from the nearby soil. This results in the inevitable death of the plant under sustained acid rain, which contributes to the decay of forestland in industrialised nations.

The contamination of lakes and waterways through the process of acidification increases the acid concentration of the aquatic environment. This prevents fish and aquatic vertebrae from reproducing due to the high acidity environment, which over a short period of time can lead to the collapse of aquatic ecosystems and lead to complete extinction of life in that ecosystem.

2.10. CALCULATE VOLUMES OF GASES GIVEN MASSES OF SOME SUBSTANCES IN REACTIONS, AND CALCULATE MASSES OF SUBSTANCES GIVEN GASEOUS VOLUMES, IN REACTIONS INVOLVING GASES AT STP

FORMATION OF ACIDS Acidic oxides such As SO and NO can react with water droplets formed

3. ACIDS OCCUR IN MANY FOODS, DRIKS AND EVEN WITHIN OUR STOMACHS

The Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases states that an acid is a proton donor, and a base is a proton receptor. (A proton is essentially an H + ion). This theory realises the importance of water as an ionising agent, and also notes that it can behave as an acid or a base.

The Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases states that an acid is a proton donor, and

Here acetic acid ionises in water to produce a hydronium ion (H 3 O + ) and a CH 3 COO - (aq). Acetic acid donates a proton to the water molecule, where it accepts it. This means in this reaction, acetic acid behaves as an acid, and water behaves as a base. However the products of this reaction are also reacting, resulting in an equilibrium being established. The reactants themselves can therefore also be considered to be acids and bases. In the backwards reaction H 3 O + donates its proton to the CH 3 COO - ion, meaning that H 3 O + behaves as an acid and CH 3 COO - as a base. The acids and bases in the product side are referred to as the conjugate acid and conjugate base. Note: A mono-protic acid is one that only releases one proton, and similarly a di-protic acid releases two protons. I.e. HCl is a mono-protic acid and H 2 SO 4 is a di-protic acid.

3.2.

IDENTIFY VARIOUS NATURAL ACIDS

Acid

Information

Acetic acid

  • Also known as ethanoic acid

  • Occurs naturally, but is manufactured on an industrial level

  • Used for production of soft drink bottles, glue, and vinegar

  • Also used as a food additive

Formic acid

Also known as methanoic acid

Released during bee and ant stings

Citric acid

Systematic name is 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid

Used as a food additive

Can be found naturally in citrus fruits

Hydrochloric

Historically known as muriatic acid

acid

Wide scale use due to behaviour as a strong acid

Used for the production of PVC (polyvinyl-chloride)

Sulfuric acid

Known historically as oil of vitriol

Wide scale use due to behaviour as a strong acid

Used a catalyst for industrial reactions

Important parts: Acetic = ethanoic, formic = methanoic

3.3.

DESCRIBE THE USE OF THE PH SCALE IN COMPARING ACIDS AND BASES

The pH scale is used to compare the acidity and basicity of substances, making use of the logarithmic scale to account for the massive variances between different acids and bases, as well as differing concentrations of substances.

The Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases states that an acid is a proton donor, and

Note: Every increment in the pH scale is a ten-fold difference. I.e. An acid with a pH of 4 has 10 times more H + ions than an acid with a pH of 5.

DEFINITIONS

Term

Definition

Strong

A strong acid is one that can disassociate completely (100% ionisation)

Weak

A weak acid can only partially disassociate (partial ionisation), and will leave behind neutral acid molecules.

Concentra

A concentrated acid has a high number of molecules in the solution (degree of

ted

ionisation is not effected)

Dilute

A dilute acid has a low number of molecules in the solution (degree of ionisation is not effected)

DIAGRAM

DEFINITIONS Term Definition Strong A strong acid is one that can disassociate completely (100% ionisation) Weak
  • 3.5. IDENTIFY PH AS –LOG 10 [H + ] AND EXPLAIN THAT A CHANGE IN PH OF 1 MEANS A 10X CHANGE IN [H + ]

DEFINITIONS Term Definition Strong A strong acid is one that can disassociate completely (100% ionisation) Weak

Due to large variances in H + concentrations across a range of substance, a logarithmic scale of base 10 was chosen.

  • 3.6. COMPARE THE RELATIVE STRENGTHS OF EQUAL CONCENTRATIONS OF CITRIC, ACETIC

AND HYDROCHLORIC ACIDS AND EXPLAIN IN TERMS OF THE DEGREE OF IONISATION OF

THEIR MOLECULES

Strong acids are able to completely ionise in water, meaning that virtually 100% of all neutral acid molecules have ionised. In comparison, weak acids are only able to partially ionise in water, meaning that only a small percentage of neutral acid molecules have ionised. Weak acids reach a state of equilibrium, where the products react to produce the reactants. This causes neutral acid molecules to remain in the solution, thus causing partial ionisation.

DEFINITIONS Term Definition Strong A strong acid is one that can disassociate completely (100% ionisation) Weak
  • 3.7. DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A STRONG AND WEAK ACID IN TERMS OF AN EQUILBRIUM BETWEEN THE INTACT MOLECULE AND ITS IONS

4. THERE ARE VARIOUS DEFINITIONS OF ACIDS OF BASES WHICH HAVE EVOLVED OVERTIME 4.1. OUTLINE THE

4. THERE ARE VARIOUS DEFINITIONS OF ACIDS OF BASES WHICH HAVE EVOLVED OVERTIME

  • 4.1. OUTLINE THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF IDEAS ABOUT ACIDS INCLUDING THOSE

OF:

ANTOINE LAVOISIER – 1776

Lavoisier observed that the oxides of non-metals produced acidic solutions through determining that their taste was sour. He then deduced that acids were substances containing oxygen, and thus he defined acids as substances containing acids. This theory was later disproved, as many basic substances were found to contain oxygen (NaOH), and some acidic substances were found not to contain oxygen (HCl).

HUMPHRY DAVY – 1810

Davy demonstrated that hydrochloric acid (HCl) contained no oxygen in its molecule, and thus disproved Lavoisier’s theory of acids which theorised that acids were substances which contained oxygen. He instead proposed that acids contained exchangeable hydrogen atoms, since hydrogen gas was produced between the reaction acids and metals. Acid (aq) + Metal (s) Metal Oxide (s) + Hydrogen (g)

SVANTE ARRHENIUS – 1884

Arrhenius observed that acidic solutions conducted electricity, indicating the presence of disassociated ions in the solution. He proposed that acids released hydrogen ions when they dissolved in water, and that a base released hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.

Arrhenius’s theory of acids was crucial in the formation of the pH concept, which defined the strength of acids and bases in terms of hydrogen ion concentration, which was determined by how well an acid/base dissociates (ionises) in water. A strong acid/base disassociated almost completely, whereas a weak acid/base disassociated to a partial degree.

Arrhenius’s theory of acids also explained how neutralisation reactions occurred, and determined that the combination of hydrogen ions from acids and hydroxide ions from bases would produce water molecules. H + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2 O (l)

  • 4.2. OUTLINE THE BRONSTED-LOWRY THEORY OF ACIDS AND BASES

BRONSTED-LOWRY THEORY – 1923

The Arrhenius theory of acids and bases could not explain all observed phenomena, including; the importance of water as an ionising solvent, and the neutralisation reacts occurring in non-aqueous solvents. Through this Joannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry developed the next generation theory for acids and bases.

WATER AS AN IONISING AGENT

Bronsted and Lowry proposed that acids were proton (H + ) donors, and bases were proton acceptors. Through their definition, water was able to be understood in terms as an ionising agent and how in various reactions, it could act as an acid or base. When water acted as a base, it would accept a proton

from the acid and become hydronium [H 3 O + ], and when it acted as an acid, it would donate a proton to the base to become a hydroxide ion which was OH - .

Water as a base

Acid + Base Conjugate base + Conjugate acid HA + H 2 O A - + H 3 O +

Water as an acid

Base + Acid Conjugate acid + Conjugate base B + H 2 O HB + + OH -

REVERSABLE EQUILIBRIA

The new Bronsted-Lowry theory also described these acid-base reactions as reversible equilibria, meaning that the products of the reaction can themselves be considered reactants in an acid-base reaction, to produce the original reactants. The acid-base reaction occurring on the product side will involve the reaction between the conjugate acid and the conjugate base.

Acid + Base ⇄ Conjugate base + Conjugate acid HA + H 2 O ⇄ A - + H 3 O +

  • 4.3. DESCRIBE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AN ACID AND ITS CONJUGATE BASE AND A BASE AND ITS CONJUGATE ACID

When an acid donates a proton, the resulting product can in turn accept a proton to become an acid again. Therefore when an acid donates a proton, it becomes a product which can accept a proton, resulting in a conjugate base being produced. This also applies to bases, whereby after the forward reaction it produces a conjugate acid.

from the acid and become hydronium [H O ], and when it acted as an acid,

Note: The conjugate acid/base has an inverse relation with its parent base/acid regarding its strength. I.e. A strong acid will produce a weak conjugate base, vice versa.

  • 4.4. IDENTIFY A RANGE OF SALTS WHICH FORM ACIDIC, BASIC OR NEUTRAL SOLUTIONS AND EXPLAIN THEIR ACIDIC, NEUTRAL OR BASIC NATURE

CONDITIONS DETERMINING NATURE OF SALTS

EXPLANATION

The nature of the salt is determined by the strength of the acid and base being neutralised. Since salts are the product of the neutralisation of an acid and a base they are the combination of the products of that reaction, the conjugate acid and conjugate base. Acid + Base Conjugate Base + Conjugate Acid, where the conjugate base and conjugate acid forms the salt. When the salt is dissociated in water, the strength of the conjugate acid and base will determine the nature of the salt.

EXAMPLE

from the acid and become hydronium [H O ], and when it acted as an acid,

The strong HCl and weak NH 3 neutralise to produce NH 4 Cl. This salt is essentially the combination of a weak conjugate base and a strong conjugate acid. This means that when the salt dissociates in water, it

can be thought of as the conjugate acid and base ionising in water. Hence, the strength of the conjugate acid and base will determine the nature of the salt as either neutral, acidic or basic.

can be thought of as the conjugate acid and base ionising in water. Hence, the strength

Since Cl - is the weak conjugate base of the strong HCl, it will not strongly ionise in water. Hence the amount of hydroxide ions formed will be very low. Contrasting this is the strong conjugate acid NH 4 which readily ionises in water to form hydronium ions. This means the concentration of hydronium ions will be greater than the concentration of hydroxide ions, thus making the salt acidic in nature when dissociated in water.

+

,

GENERAL RULE

Acid

Base

Nature of

Strength

Strength

salt

Strong

Weak

Acidic

Weak

Strong

Basic

Strong

Strong

Neutral

Weak

Weak

Neutral

  • 4.5. IDENTIFY CONJUGATE ACID/BASE PAIRS

can be thought of as the conjugate acid and base ionising in water. Hence, the strength

The acid/base and its conjugate base/acid will share structural similarities, only differing by the number of hydrogen atoms and charge. Through this, acid/base and conjugate base/acid pairs can be identified through their structural similarities. I.e. HCl and Cl - are one pair, and H 2 O and H 3 O + are another pair.

  • 4.6. IDENTIFY AMPHIPROTIC SUBSTANCES AND CONSTRUCT EQUATIONS TO DESCRIBE

THEIR BEHAVIOUR AS AN ACIDIC OR BASIC OXIDE

DEFINITION

Term

Definition

Amphoteric

Can behave as either an acid or a base

Amphiproti

Can donate or accept protons

c

EXAMPLES OF AMPHIPROTIC SUBSTANCES

HYDROGEN CARBONATE ION [HCO 3 - ]

WATER [H 2 O]
WATER [H 2 O]
4.7. IDENTIFY NEUTRALISATION AS A PROTON TRANSFER REACTIONS WHICH IS EXOTHERMIC Through the Bronsted-Lowry definition of
  • 4.7. IDENTIFY NEUTRALISATION AS A PROTON TRANSFER REACTIONS WHICH IS EXOTHERMIC

Through the Bronsted-Lowry definition of an acid and a base, every reaction with a Bronsted- Lowry acid and base can be considered as a neutralisation reaction. This includes the reaction of water, an amphiprotic substance, with other acids and base. In any reaction involving a Bronsted-Lowry acid or base, a proton/s is always involved. This transfer of protons is an exothermic reaction, thus releasing heat.

  • 4.8. QUALITATIVELY DESCRIBE THE EFFECT OF BUFFERS WITH REFERENCE TO A SPECIFIC EXAMPLE IN A NATURAL SYSTEM

A buffer is a substance that will work to maintain the pH of a system when small amounts of acids or bases are added. Usually buffers are formed through the combination of an acid/base with its respective conjugate base/acid. This is because a conjugate and its original cannot react with each other. A weak base/acid is used since it only partially ionises, meaning that there are copious amounts of unionised acid/base molecules to react with any additional acids or bases, such that they neutralise with them.

5. ESTERFICATION IS A NATURALLY OCCURING PROCESS WHICH CAN BE REPLICATED

  • 5.1. DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE ALKANOL AND ALKANOIC ACID

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN CARBON COMPOUNDS AND RELATION TO PROPERTIES

STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES

 

Structure

Properties

Alkanols

Contain a hydrocarbon chain with a hydroxyl function group (OH).

Hydroxyl group provides hydrogen bonding which increases boiling and melting points.

Alkanoic

Instead of containing a hydroxyl

Carboxylic acid functional group provides

acids

function group (OH - ), it contains a carboxylic acid functional group (COOH).

hydrogen bonding and significant dispersion forces, which increases the boiling and melting points more than its corresponding alkanol.

DIAGRAMS

4.7. IDENTIFY NEUTRALISATION AS A PROTON TRANSFER REACTIONS WHICH IS EXOTHERMIC Through the Bronsted-Lowry definition of

5.2.

IDENTIFY THE IUPAC NOMENCLATURE FOR DESCRIBING THE ESTERS PRODUCED BY REACTIONS OF STRAIGHT-CHAINED ALKANOIC ACIDS AND STRAIGHT CHAINED PRIMARY ALKANOLS FROM C1 TO C8

IUPAC NOMENCLATURE

ALKANOL AND ALKANOIC ACIDS

Prefix (Both Alkanols and Alkanoic acids): Standard (Meth, eth, etc.) Suffix: -OH (Alkanols) and –COOH (Alkanoic acids)

#

Alkanol

Alkanoic

Carbons

acid

1

Methanol

Methanoic

 

acid

2

Ethanol

Ethanoic acid

3

Propanol

Propanoic acid

4

Butanol

Butanoic acid

5

Pentanol

Pentanoic acid

6

Hexanol

Hexanoic acid

7

Heptanol

Heptanoic

 

acid

8

Octanol

Octanoic acid

ESTERS

 

Prefix

Suffice

First word

From alcohol (meth, eth, etc.)

-yl

Second

From Alkanoic acid (meth,

-noate

word

eth, etc.)

Example: Ethanol + Methanoic acid Ethyl Methanoate

  • 5.3. IDENTIFY ESTERIFICATION AS THE REACTION BETWEEN AN ALKANOIC ACID AND AN ALKANOL AND DESCRIBE, USING EQUATIONS EXAMPLES OF ESTERFICATION

DESCRIPTION

Esterification is the reaction between an alkanol and an alkanoic acid to produce an ester and water. Hence, esterification is called a condensation reaction, as it expels a water molecule for each molecule of alkanol and alkanoic acid. Furthermore esterification is a reversible equilibria, and the reaction can be catalysed by concentrated sulfuric acid.

FORUMULAS

WORD EQUATION

5.2. IDENTIFY THE IUPAC NOMENCLATURE FOR DESCRIBING THE ESTERS PRODUCED BY REACTIONS OF STRAIGHT-CHAINED ALKANOIC ACIDS

GENERALISED CHEMICAL EQUATION

GENERALISED CHEMICAL EQUATION (WITH STRUCTURAL FORMULAS) EXAMPLE Ethanol reacts with propanoic acid to form ethyl propanoate

GENERALISED CHEMICAL EQUATION (WITH STRUCTURAL FORMULAS)

GENERALISED CHEMICAL EQUATION (WITH STRUCTURAL FORMULAS) EXAMPLE Ethanol reacts with propanoic acid to form ethyl propanoate

EXAMPLE

GENERALISED CHEMICAL EQUATION (WITH STRUCTURAL FORMULAS) EXAMPLE Ethanol reacts with propanoic acid to form ethyl propanoate

Ethanol reacts with propanoic acid to form ethyl propanoate and water

  • 5.4. DESCRIBE THE PURPOSE OF USING ACID IN ESTERFICATION FOR CATALYSTS

An acid, most commonly concentrated sulfuric acid, is used as a catalyst in esterification. This is due to the fact that concentrated sulfuric acid is a strong dehydrating agent, which absorbs the by-product of water in esterification.

According to Le Chatelier’s principle, a system will change its equilibrium point to minimise any disturbances in the system. Hence as the sulfuric acid absorbs water, the concentration of the water will decrease. In accordance with Le Chatelier’s principle, the equilibrium will shift forward to minimise the loss of water, hence increasing the yield of ester product.

Note: In esterification, the concentrated sulfuric acid catalyst not only lowers the activation energy of the reaction, by also increases the output yield of its products.

  • 5.5. EXPLAIN THE NEED FOR REFLUXING DURING ESTERFICATION

REFLUXING FOR ESTERIFICATION

DESCRIPTION OF PROCESS

Refluxing is the process of heating reactants in a flask, which then turn into vapours which rise out of the flask. As the vapours rise out of the flask, they pass through a cooling condenser, which causes the vapours to condense back into liquid form and re-enter the flask.

JUSTIFICATION

Refluxing is used since it increases the kinetic energy of the molecules, thereby increasing the rate of collisions, thus leading to a higher reaction rate. However, in esterification the reactants are highly volatile, and readily become vapours. Hence, a condenser is required to constrain the reactants to the flask where they can continue to react, therefore preventing the loss of reactants to the environment.

Refluxing also readily serves as a safety mechanism by allowing the vapours to escape, hence preventing a build-up of high pressures in the reaction vessel. Furthermore, it recondenses flammable vapours back into a more stable liquid form, thereby preventing the risk of an explosion.

DIAGRAM OF APPARATUS

Refluxing also readily serves as a safety mechanism by allowing the vapours to escape, hence preventing
  • 5.6. OUTINE SOME EXAMPLES OF THE OCCURRENCE, PRODUCTION AND USES OF ESTERS

Esters are readily used as synthetic replacements for various flavours and fragrances normally found in nature.

Ester (Formula)

Application

Justification through properties

Octyl-ethanoate (C 10 H 20 O 2 )

Used as an orange flavouring in confectionary and other foods

Main ester present in oranges, thereby it is associated with the orange flavour and smell

Ethyl-

Used as apple flavouring in

Associated with citrus fruits in terms of

pentanoate (C 7 H 14 O 2 )

foods

smell and flavouring, usually apples

Benzyl-acetate

Used in synthetic perfumes

Imparts fruit flavours. I.e. Bananas,

(C 6 H 5 CH 2 OCOCH 3 )

Used as flavouring

strawberries, pears and apples Emits a flagrance associated with jasmine

flowers

5.7.

IDENTIFY DATA, PLAN, SELECT EQUIPMENT AND PERFORM A FIRST-HAND INVESTIGATION TO PREPARE AN ESTER USING REFLUX

MATERIALS

Rubber tubing with cold water as input

Reflux condenser

Round flask

Electrical heating mantle

Retort stand

Boss head

METHOD

1)

Setup apparatus as shown below.

2)

Place 10-20mL of ethanol and an equal amount of ethanoic acid into a 50mL flask.

3)

Add 1mL of concentrated sulfuric acid into the mixture of reactants, and then add a moderate

4)

amount of boiling chips. Gently clamp the flask and refluxing apparatus onto a retort stand, dipping the flask into a water

5)

bath. Run a hose through the refluxing apparatus, ensuring water is entering through the bottom and exiting through the top. This ensures that water is always present in the cooling jacket, even if the

6)

water supply stops. Heat the water bath using either a Bunsen burner or a hot plate, and reflux the mixture until two

7)

discernible layers form. (The bottom layer is water, the top layer is the ethyl ethanoate ester) Add 50mL water into the remaining mixture, and pour into a separating funnel. Remove the lower

layer (water). The remaining mixture should be pure ester. Add sodium bicarbonate to neutralise any excess acid if necessary.

DIAGRAM

5.7. IDENTIFY DATA, PLAN, SELECT EQUIPMENT AND PERFORM A FIRST-HAND INVESTIGATION TO PREPARE AN ESTER USING