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General Rules for MLA Format 7th Edition

How is MLA 7 different than MLA 6?

You are no longer required to have URL's in citations. If your instructor wants to
include URLs, put them in angle brackets after the entry and end with a period.

Use italics instead of underlining for titles of larger works including books or
magazines, and "quotation marks" for titles of shorter works such as poems or
articles.

Author Rules:
List entries alphabetically by last name.
Works with no authors
If there is no author given, alphabetize the works by the title. Use a shortened version of the
title.
Example:

Studyguide[...]

Citing one author


To cite an author, use the last name followed by the first name and if given, the middle
name of initial.
Example:
Last name, First name. Title. City: Publisher, Year.
Citing two authors
To cite two authors, use the last name followed by the first name and then inverse to first
name and last name.
Example:
Last name, First name and First name Last name. Title. City: Publisher, Year.
Citing more than one author
If you are citing more than one author, separate the authors by commas alphabetically. The
first author should have their last name, first name and the additional authors should be
cited simply with their first and last name.
Example:
Last name, First name, First name Last name, and First name Last name. Title.City: Publisher,
Year.
Contributor information:
Contributor information (editor, compilers, and translators) are typically cited after the name
of the source. Use "Ed.", "Comp", or "Trans." to indicate what type of contributor you are
citing.
Example:
Last name, First name. Source Title. Comp. First name Last name. City: Publisher, Year.
Publication information:
In MLA7, you must list the publication medium (print or web) after the publication
information. MLA7 abbreviates all months except for May, June and July.
Book:
Last, First M. Title City: Publisher, Year Published. Medium
Journal:
Last, First M. "Article." Title Series Volume.Issue (Year Published): Page(s). Medium

Magazine:
Last, First M. "Article" Title Date Month Year Published: Page(s). Medium
Newspaper:
Last, First M. "Article" Title [City] Date Month Year Published, Edition, Section: Page(s).
Medium.
Missing Information?
If you cannot find a place, publisher or date - use place holders "N.p., n.p., n.d." which
represents no place, no publisher, and no date.
No page number - If there are no page numbers use "N. pag." Capitalize the abbreviations
appropriately based on where they are placed.
No place:
Last, First M. Source Title N.p.: Publisher, Year. Medium
No publisher:
Last, First M. Source Title City: n.p., Year. Print
No date:
Last, First M. Source Title City: Publisher, n.d. Print.
Audio/Visual Rules
Film/Online Video:
Structure:
Title. Dir. First M. Last. By First M. Last. Perf. First M. Last, First M. Last, and First M. Last.
Distributor, Year Published. Media Type.
Example:
Of Mice and Men Dir. Gary Sinise. By John Steinbeck. Perf. John Malkovich, Gary Sinise and Ray
Walston. Released by Contemporary Films/McGraw-Hill, 1992. Videocassette.
Structure:
Artist Last, First M. "Track Name." Recorded Month Date, Year. In Album NameBy Writer First M.
Last. Cond. Conductor First M. Last. Orch. First M. Last. Perf. First M. Last. Band/Group Name.
Rec. Date Month Year. Producer First M. Last, Year. CD/MP3, MIDI, Cassette/Vinyl.
Example:
Lady Gaga Born This Way Rec. 2011. Vincent Herbert, 2011. CD.
Web Rules
Structure:
Contributors. "Title." Website. Edition. Website Publisher, Date. Web. Date Accessed.
Sources Published Directly Online
Citing an Article from an Online Only Resource
Example:

Friedland, Lois. "Top 10 Natural and Wildlife Adventure Travel Tips." About.comNew York Times
Company, 22 Sept. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.
Citing an Entire Website with No Identifiable Electronic Publication Date
Example:
EasyBib.com ImagineEasy Solutions, n.d. Web. 8 May 2009.
Note:
Newspaper and magazine websites are considered non-periodical, directly published online
sources even if they have in-print copies. Follow the published directly online format.
Citing an Article from an Online Only News Source
Example:
Chen, Stephanie. "Growing up is Hard with Mom in Prison." CNN.com Cable News Network, 7
May 2009. Web. 8 May 2009.
Citing an Article from an Online Newspaper
Example:
Shorto, Russell. "Going Dutch." New York Times New York Times, 3 May 2009. Web. 8 May
2009.
Citing an Online Only Journal
Example:
Glotzer, Richard and Anne Federlein. "Miles that Blind: Commuter Marriage and Family
Strength." Michigan Family Review 12 (2007): 7-31. Web. 8 Apr. 2009.
Personal Website
Structure:
Last name, First name. Page Cited. Web. Date Accessed.
Example:
Smith, Steve. Home Page. Web. 3 January 2013.
Publication information:
Sources Published Indirectly Online
Sources may be originally in print, or in another medium, and found online. Cite these
sources as you would in their original form, and then add as much relevant web information
as possible (website title, publisher / sponsor, date of electronic publication, medium, and
date accessed).
Citing a Book Originally in Print Found Online
Example:
Catton, Bruce. The Civil War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2005. Google Book Search. Web. 15
May 2008.
Citing a Newsletter Found Online With No Page Information
Example:
Puzzanchera, Charles. "Juvenile Arrests 2007." Juvenile Justice Bulletin.(Apr.2009):
n.pag. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Web. 8 May 2009.
Citing a Video Found Online

Example:
West, Kanye. Amazing. Prod. Hype Williams. Roc-A-Fella Records, 2009. YoutubeWeb. 8 Feb.
2009.
Example:
Picasso, Pablo. Three Musicians. 1921. ArtQuotes.net Web. 5 Apr. 2006.
Citing a Musical Recording Listened to Online, With No Discernible Manufacturer or Date
Example:
Park, Obadiah. "Hey Ya." N.d. TheSixtyOne.com Web. 10 Feb. 2007.
Citing a Digital Image Found on Google Images
Example:
Bruce Springsteen. Digital Image. Google Images. LIFE. Web. 9 Oct. 2009.
<http://images.google.com>.
Note: In the above example the title is not in quotes because it is a description of the digital
image. The URL was truncated to the search URL because it was too long and complicated.
Citing an Originally in Print Journal Article Found in a Database
Example:
Ahn, Hyunchul, and Kyoung-jae Kim. "Using Genetic Algorithms to Optimize Nearest Neighbors
for Data Mining." Annals of Operations Research 263.1 (2008): 5-18. Academic Search
Premier. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.

How to Cite a Book in Print in MLA


The basic information of a book includes author(s), the title of the book, and the publication
information.
Structure:
Last, First M. Book. City: Publisher, Year Published. Print.
Examples:
James, Henry. The Ambassadors. Rockville: Serenity, 2009. Print.
Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1942. Print.
How to Cite a Book Online in MLA
Include the same information as a regular book. Add as much as the original publication
information as possible. After citing the original publication information, add the electronic
publication information. This includes the title of the internet site, the editor of the site (if
given), the date of electronic publication (if given), and the sponsoring institution or
organization. Also, be sure to include the date accessed and the URL.
Format:
Last, First M. Book. City: Publisher, Year Published. Website Title. Web. Day Month Year
Accessed.
Examples:

James, Henry. The Ambassadors. Rockville: Serenity, 2009. Google books. Web. 16 Mar. 2010.
http://books.google.com
Bodnar, Kipp, and Jeffrey L. Cohen. The B2B Social Media Book. Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web.
20 Dec. 2012.
How to Cite a Book from a Database in MLA
Make sure to:

Provide advanced information for the book if it is available.

Leave out the URL unless the source cannot be located without it.

Type in the date the book was electronically published if it is available.

Format:
Last, First M. Book. City: Publisher, Year Published. Database Name. Web. Date Month Year
Accessed.
Examples:
Morem, Susan. 101 Tips for Graduates. New York: Ferguson, 2005. Infobase Publishing eBooks.
Web. 16 Mar. 2010. http://www.infobasepublishing.com
Bloom, Harold, ed. Twentieth-Century British Poets. New York: Bloom's Literary Criticism, 2011.
Infobase Publishing eBooks. Web. 21 Dec. 2012.

How to Cite a Chapter from a Book in Print


The basic information you want to include is the name of the book, the editor, compiler, and
or translator of the book, and the publication information. Also, be sure to cite the name of
the section you are citing, its author or contributors, and the page numbers of the section.
Structure:
Last, First M. "Section Title." Book/Anthology. Ed. First M. Last. City: Publisher, Year Published.
Page(s). Print.
Examples:
Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers." The Best American Short Stories of the Century.Ed. John
Updike, Ed.Katrina Kenison. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999. 78-80. Print.
Serviss, Garrett P. "A Trip of Terror." A Columbus of Space. New York: Appleton, 1911. 17-32.
Print.
How to Cite a Chapter from a Book Online in MLA
Include the same information as a regular book. Add as much as the original publication
information as possible. After citing the original publication information, add the electronic
publication information. This includes the title of the internet site, the editor of the site (if
given), the date of electronic publication (if given), and the sponsoring institution or

organization. Also, be sure to include the date accessed. MLA 7th Edition does not require a
URL at the end.
Format:
Last, First M. "Section Title." Book/Anthology. City: Publisher, Year Published.Website
Title. Web. Day Month Year Accessed.
Examples:
Serviss, Garrett P. "A Trip of Terror." A Columbus of Space. New York: Appleton, 1911. 1732. Google Books Web. 16 Mar. 2010.
Evans, Dave."Chapter 4: Web 2.0, The Social Web." Social Media Marketing: An Hour a
Day. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley, 2008. N. pag. Google Books. 21 Dec. 2012.
How to Cite a Chapter from an Anthology in MLA
Format:
Last, First M. "Section Title." Book/Anthology. Ed. First M. Last. City: Publisher, Year Published.
Website Title. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.
Examples:
Sanders, Scott R. Introduction. Touchstone Anthology of Contemporary Creative Nonfiction:
Work from 1970 to Present. Ed. Lex Williford and Michael Martone. New York: Simon
&Schuster, 2007. X-Xii. Print.
Bellow, Saul. "A Silver Dish." The Best American Short Stories of the Century. By John Updike.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1999. 539-64. Print.
Make sure to:

Choose if the source was published directly online or originally in print.

Select the chapter type under Chapter/section title.

Provide advanced information for the book if it is available.

Only include the URL if the source cannot be found easily.

How to Cite a Database Online in MLA


Structure:
Last, First M. "Article Title." Database Name. Database Publisher, Date Month Year Published.
Web. Date Month Year Accessed.
Examples:
Roberts, David. "The Total Work of Art in European Modernism." Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2011.
JSTOR. Web. 21 Dec. 2012.

Make sure to:

Only include the URL if the source cannot be found easily.

How to Cite a Dictionary Online in MLA


Include the definition, the name of the dictionary, the edition, and the year published.
Structure:
Author Last, First M. "Entry Name." Def. Number. Website Title. Ed. First M. Last. Comp. First M.
Last. Trans. First M. Last. Publisher/Sponsor, Date Mon. Year Published. Web. Date Mon. Year
Accessed.
Examples:
"Citation" Def. 2. Merriam Webster Online, Merriam Webster, n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2011.
"Bibliography."" Def. 2. Merriam-Webster Online. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2012.
Make sure to:

Add a definition number (ex 5b).

Check the box if the source is well-known.

Provide the advanced information for the dictionary if it is available.

How to Cite an Encyclopedia in Print in MLA


Be sure to include the name of author (if given), the name of the article, the name of the
reference book, the edition, and the year of publication. If the reference book is well known,
do not include the publication information.
Structure:
Last, First M., and First M. Last. "Article Title." Encyclopedia Name. City: Publisher, Year
Published. Page(s). Print.
Examples:
McGhee, Karen, and George McKay. "Insects." Encyclopedia of Animals.Washington: National
Geographic Society, 2007. 170-71. Print
Posner, Rebecca. "Romance Languages." The Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropedia. 15th ed.
1987. Print.
How to Cite an Encyclopedia Online in MLA
Format:
Last, First M., and First M. Last. "Article Title." Encyclopedia Name. City: Publisher, Year
Published. Website Title. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.
Examples:
McGhee, Karen, and George McKay. "Insects." Encyclopedia of Animals.Washington: National
Geographic Society, 2007. Google Books. Web. 2 Jan. 2010.

Hassler, Warren W. "American Civil War." Encyclopedia Britannica Online.Encyclopedia


Britannica Inc., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2013.
How to Cite an Encyclopedia on a Database in MLA
Format:
Last, First M. "Article Title" Encyclopedia Name. Ed. First M. Last. Vol. Volume. City: Publisher,
Year Published. Database Name. Web Date Month Year.
Examples:
Holmes, Heather. "Advertising of Food" Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. Ed. Solomon H. Katz.
Vol. 1. New York: Scribner's, 2003. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 July 2010.
Bunson, Margaret R. "Historical Overview." Encyclopedia on Ancient Egypt. 3rd ed. New York:
Infobase, 2012. Xii-Xv. Gale Cengage Catalog. Web. 4 Jan. 2013.
Make sure to:

Choose if the source was published directly online or originally in print.

Find the date that the article was electronically published.

For well-known reference works, it is not necessary to include full publication


information.

How to Cite an Essay Online in MLA


This is similar to a chapter in a book or anthology. Cite the author of the essay, the name of
the essay, the name of the collection, the editor of the collection, the publication
information, and the page number(s) of the essay.
Structure:

Last, First M. "Essay Title." Book/Anthology, Ed. First M. Last. City: Publisher, Year Published.
Website Title. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.
Examples:

Gupta, Sanjay. "Balancing and Checking." Essays on Modern Democracy. Ed. Bob Towsky.
Hinsdale: Brook Stone Publishers, 1996.

Frisch, Michael H. "The Memory of History." Presenting the Past Essays on History and the
Public. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986. 5. Print
How to Cite a Journal in Print in MLA
Include the author's name, the title of the article, the name of the journal, the series
number/type of the journal (if given), the volume number (if given), the issue number (if
given), the year of publication, the page numbers of the article, format

Structure:
Last, First M., and First M. Last. "Article Title." Journal Title Series Volume. Issue (Year
Published): Page(s). Print.
Examples:
Jacoby, William G. "Public Attitudes Toward Government Spending." American Journal of
Political Science 38.2 (1994): 336-61. Print.
Fearon, James D., and David D. Laitin. "Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War."American Political
Science Review 97.01 (2003): 75. Print.
How to Cite a Journal Online in MLA
Format:
Last, First M. "Article Title." Journal Title Series Volume. Issue (Year Published): Page(s).
Website Title. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.
Examples:
Poiger, Uta G. "Rock 'n' Roll, Female Sexuality, and the Cold War Battle over German
Identities." The Journal of Modern History 68.3 (1996): 577. JSTOR. Web. 2 Jan. 2013.
How to Cite a Journal on a Database in MLA
Format:
Last, First M. "Article Title." Journal Title Series Volume. Issue (Year Published):
Page(s). Database Name. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.
Examples:
Jacoby, William G. "Public Attitudes Toward Government Spending." American Journal of
Political Science 38.2 (1994): 336-61. JSTOR. Web. 23 Apr. 2010.
Poiger, Uta G. "Rock 'n' Roll, Female Sexuality, and the Cold War Battle over German
Identities." The Journal of Modern History 3rd ser. 68 (1996): 577-616. JSTOR. Web. 4 Jan.
2013.
Make sure to:

Provide advanced information for the book if it is available.

Only include the URL if the source cannot be found easily.

How to Cite a Magazine in Print in MLA


The magazine is very similar to the newspaper. Cite the author of the article, the name of
the article, name of the magazine, the date published, and the pages referred to.
Structure:
Last, First M. "Article Title." Magazine Title. Date Month Year Published: Page(s). Print.

Examples:
Rothbart, Davy. "How I Caught up with Dad." Men's Health Oct. 2008: 108-13. Print.
Jaeger, Jaclyn. "Social Media Use in the Financial Industry." Compliance Week 1 Aug. 2010: n.
pag. Print.
How to Cite a Magazine Online in MLA
Format:
Last, First M. "Article Title." Magazine Title. Date Month Year Published. Website Title Web.
Date Month Year Accessed.
Examples:
Rothbart, Davy. "How I Caught up with Dad." Men's Health Oct. 2008. Google Books Web. 16
Mar. 2010.
Folger, Tim. "Higgs: What Causes the Weight of the World." Discover Magazinen.d.: n. pag.
Web. 2 Jan. 2013.
How to Cite a Magazine on a Database in MLA
Format:
Last, First M. "Article Title." Magazine Title. Date Month Year Published.Database Name Web.
Date Month Year Accessed.
Example:
"China's Export Prospects: Fear of the Dragon." The Economist 9 Jan. 2010.LexisNexis
Academic. Web. 20 Mar. 2010.
How to Cite a Magazine Published Directly Online in MLA
Format:
Last, First M., and First M. Last. "Article Title." Magazine Title. Publisher, Date Month Year
Published. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.
Example:
Nasar, Sylvia, and David Gruber. "Manifold Destiny." The New Yorker Conde Nast Digital, 28
Aug. 2006. Web. 30 Mar. 2010.
Make sure to:

Choose if the source was published directly online or originally in print.

Only include the URL if the source cannot be found easily.

How to Cite a Newspaper in Print in MLA


Structure:

Last, First M. "Article Title." Newspaper Title [City] Date Month Year Published: Page(s). Print.

Examples:

Bowman, Lee. "Bills Target Lake Erie Mussels." The Pittsburgh Press 7 Mar. 1990: A4. Print.

Meier, Barry. "Energy Drinks Promise Edge, but Experts Say Proof Is Scant." New York Times 1
Jan. 2013: 1. Print.
How to Cite a Newspaper Online in MLA
Format:

Last, First M. "Article Title." Newspaper Title Date Month Year Published: Page(s). Website
Title. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.
Examples:

Bowman, Lee. "Bills Target Lake Erie Mussels." The Pittsburgh Press 7 Mar. 1990: A4. Google
News Web. 16 Mar. 2010.

Mushnick, Phil. "Sterling Continues to Call it Wrong." New York Post N.p., 23 Apr. 2012. Web. 2
Jan. 2013.
How to Cite a Preface in Print in MLA
Include the author of the note, the name of note, the type of note, the name of the original
source, the author of the original source, the contributors of the original source (if given),
the publication information, the page number(s), and the format.
Structure:
Last Name, First Name. "Introduction Title." Preface/Foreward Type. Source Title.City: Publisher,
Year. Start page - End page. Print
Example:
Masur, Louis P. "Preface." Preface. The Civil War a Concise History. New York: Oxford UP, 2011.
Ix-xii. Print.
How to Cite a Preface Online in MLA
Format:
Last Name, First Name. "Introduction Title." Preface/Foreward Type. Source Title.City: Publisher,
Year. Start page - End page. Print. Website Title Publisher of Website. Web.
Example:
Masur, Louis P. "Preface." Preface. The Civil War a Concise History. New York: Oxford UP, 2011.
Ix-xii. Google Books Web. 2 Jan. 2013. Print.

Make sure to:

Choose with type you are citing (introduction, foreward, preface, afterword)

Only include the URL if the source cannot be found easily.

How to Cite a Website in MLA


Structure:
Last name, First name. "Article Title." Website Title. Publisher of Website, Day Month Year
article was published. Web. Day Month Year article was accessed. <URL>.
Example:
Cain, Kevin. "The Negative Effects of Facebook on Communication." Social Media Today
RSS N.p., 29 June 2012. Web. 02 Jan. 2013.
Make sure to:

Only include the URL if the source cannot be found easily.