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G-

- i)

CLT f Q~\

THE KITAB AL-LUMA


FI L-TASAWWUF
OF

ABU NASR ABDALLAH

B.

ALI AL-

SARRAJ AL-TUSI
EDITED FOR THE FIRST TIME, WITH CRITICAL NOTES,
INDICES
ABSTRACT OF CONTENTS, GLOSSARY, AND
BY

REYNOLD ALLEYNE NICHOLSON


M.A..

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TABLE OF CONTENTS.
ENGLISH PORTION.
i

Introduction

Addenda

XLV

et Corrigenda.

Abstract of Contents of the Kitab al-Luma

Index of subjects and technical terms

c
.

....

XLIV
L

1121
122130
131-154

Glossary

ARABIC PORTION.
Text of the Kitab al-Luma
Index

fH

c
.

of Persons

Index of Places, Tribes, Books,

etc.

.....

fTt

fl*V

fvV

flv

INTRODUCTION.
This volume marks a further step in the tedious but in

providing materials for


cially for the study of
with

beginning

have long been engaged, of


a history of Sufism, and more espe

on which

dispensable task,

development in the oldest period,


the second and ending with the fourth
its

century of Islam (approximately 700


of the

titles

known

to us of mystical

1000 A.

D.).

list

books written during

these three hundred years would occupy several pages, but

books

themselves have mostly perished, although- the


surviving remnant includes some important works on various
branches of Sufistic theory and practice by leaders of the
the

movement,
al-Hallaj,

for

example, Harith al-Muhasibi, Husayn

Muhammad

b.

b.

Mansur

Ali al-Tirmidhi, and others

whom

need not mention now. M. Louis Massignon, by his recent


edition of the Kitdb al-Tawdsin of Hallaj,, has shown what
I

valuable results might be expected from a critical examina


tion

of the

early

literature.

such monographs would


for a general survey,

to rely
ises

on more or

ancient Sufis.
to publish a

am

is

certain

that a series of

form the best possible foundation


we have mainly

but in the meanwhile

less

dealing with the

It

systematic and comprehensive treat


lives,

legends,

and doctrines of the

preparing and hope, as soon as

work on

may

be,

this subject derived, to a large extent,

from the following sources:


1.
The Kitdb al-Luma c by Abu Nasr al-Sarraj (f 378 A. H.).
2.
The Kitdb al-Tcfarruf li-madhhab ahl al-Tasaw^v^tf by

Abu Bakr

al-Kalabadhi

(f

380 or 390 A.

H.).

INTRODUCTION.

II

The Q&t al-Qulib by Abu Talib al-Makki (f 386 A. H.).


The Tabaqdt al-Sufiyya by Abu c Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami

3.

4.

412 A.

(t

H.).

The Hilyat

5.

430 A.

The

6.

(f

H.).

by Abu 1-Qasim al-Qushayri

Risdlat al-Qushayriyya

465 A.

(t

c
by Abu Nu aym al-Isbahani

al-Aivliyd

H.).
c

7.

The Kashf al-Mahjub by

8.

470 A. H.).
The Tadhkirat al-Awliyd by Fariduddin
620 A. H.).

Ali

Uthman

b.

al-Hujwirf

(f

circa

NOS.

i,

6,

3,

European or Oriental
NOS.

translation.

above

8 of the

7,

editions,

4 and

2,

and

are

are

list

N.

still

Attar

now

accessible in

an English

7 also in

unedited and therefore

comparatively useless for purposes of reference.

May I

that

some of our younger scholars should turn

tion

to

the

(f circa

manuscript copies of these texts

suggest

their atten
in

London,

Leyden, Vienna, Constantinople and elsewhere?


Little

material

authors

The
in

first

the

for

separate notice of

Supplement

from which the


is

exists

the

biography of Sarraj. The

of the oldest Sufi Lives


pass

compiled.

chiefly

to

the

article in

him that

him over
is

known

in silence.

to

me

occurs

Tadhkirat al-Awliyd (II, 182),


Jami s Nafahdt al-Uns (N. 353)

Shorter notices are given


by

Abu

1-

Mahasin (Nujum, ed. by Popper, II,


part 2, N. I, p. 42),
Dhahabi, Ta rikh al-Isldm (British Museum, Or. 48,
1560),
Abu 1-Falah cAbd al-Hayy al- cAkari (Shadhardt
al-Dhahab,

MS.

my

in

possession,

I,

iS$a),

and Dara Shikuh,

Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami, who does not notice


Sarraj in his Tabaqdt
al-Sufiyya (British Museum, Add. 18520), appears to have
supplied the omission
in his Ta rikh
al-Sufiyya See the extract from Dhahabi cited below.
i) Abii

2) See

JKAS

Sarraj

copies

for 1899, p.
911, and for 1906, p. 797. The article on
Dhahabi and concludes with a short
quotation from Sakhawi
:

LIFE OF SARRAJ.

Ill

of Persian manuscripts
Safinat al-Awliyd (Ethe, Catalogue
in the Library of the India office, col. 301, N. 271). Since
the passage in the Tarikh al- Islam has not been published
before, I will transcribe

it.

The few

facts

<

contained in this notice

may

be summarised

as follows.

Abu Nasr Abdallah

b.

Ali b.

b.

Yahya

al-

al-Lumcf was a native of Tus.

Sarraj, the author of the Kitdb

His teachers were Ja

Muhammad

far al-Khuldi,

Abu Bakr Muhammad

b.

Dawud al-Duqqi, and Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Sa ih. ) The


family to which he belonged was noted for asceticism. Abu
!

Nasr was a zealous Sunni, but although he based himself


2
he was learned in mys
on knowledge of the religious law,
)

tical

theology and was regarded by the Sufis as an author

itative

1)

No

exponent of

certain that

Abu

of

person

^VJ\

1-Hasan

is

their doctrines.

this

name

is

a mistake for

Ahmad

b.

Amongst

mentioned
i

O\,

Muhammad

b.

in

in the

his

Luma

c
.

countrymen

It

seems to

which case the reference

Salim.

me

will be to

See under Ibn Salim in the

List of Authorities.
2)

ii

jj\

Lc

,Uaw.V\

law as a support or

is

guard."

literally

"to

use

the

knowledge of the

religious

INTRODUCTION.

IV

was celebrated

he

month

the

of Rajab,

of soul.

nobility

A. H.

378

Persian

Peacock of the

"the

we

biographies

Abdallah al-Tustari

the Kitdb al-Lumc

may be

It

Poor"

first

283)

is

November,

learn

that Sarraj was

(to* us

al-fuqara}.

the

assertion

The

253) and Sahl

(ob.

manifestly

bear out the

as

that,

works on Sufism

false,

nor does

that he was a

al-Murta ish of Naysabur

Nafahdt

says, he

in addition to the

(ob.

328).

composed many

Lumtf, but

if so,

every

them has vanished. The following anecdote, which

of

trace

(ob.

Abu Muhammad

pupil of

died in

the

surnamed
c

He

October

statement that he had seen Sari al-Saqati


b.

988 A. D.

From

his

for

occurs in the

Kashf al-Mahjub

of Hujwiri,

3
)

is

related

by both the Persian biographers. "Abu Nasr al-Sarraj came


Baghdad in the month of Ramadan and was given a

to

private
to

chamber

Shuniziyya mosque and was appointed

over the dervishes until

preside

nightly prayers

Koran

in the

five

Ramadan

of,

the Feast. During the

(tardwih) he recited the whole

Every night a servant brought a

times.

bread to his room.

On

the day of the Feast,

departed, the servant found

all

the thirty loaves

when

loaf of

Sarraj

untouched."

Another story describes how, in the course of a theosophical


discussion, he was seized with ecstasy, and threw himself in

1) Futuwwat (altruism), the quality which was displayed by Iblis when he


chose to incur damnation rather than deny the Unity of God by worshipping
Adam. Cf. Massignon, al-Hallaj^ in Reviie de Fhistoire des religions* 1911. The

meaning of the word


des

islamischen

is

discussed by Thorning in his Beitrdge zur Kenntniss


Tiirkische Bibliothek, vol. 16, pp. 184
221

Vereinsiuesens

and by R. Hartmann, Das Suflttim nach al-Kuschairi^ p. 44 foil.


2) According to the Nujiim, his death took place at Naysabur while he
was engaged in prayer (cf. the final words of Dhahabi s
notice); but the Nafahdt
states that he was buried at Tus. Before his death he
said, "Every one whose
bier

is

carried

Tus used

to

past

bring

my tomb
their

dead

then move on.


3) P. 323 of

my

translation.

will

be

forgiven."

to

his

tomb and

Consequently the people of


it for a time and

halt beside

LIFE OF SARRAJ.
the attitude of prayer

upon

to burn his face.

power

He must have
records

his

blazing

which had no

fire,

The Kitdb al-Lumc

travelled extensively.

meetings and conversations with

of the

Muhammadan

Sufis in

many

Basra,

Baghdad,
Rahbat
Malik b.
Damascus, Ramla, Antioch, Tyre, Atrabulus,
Tawq, Cairo, Dimyat, Bistam, Tustar, and Tabriz. Probably
parts

empire,

e.g.,

the duties of a spiritual director were not congenial to him.


It

is

however, to observe that the only one of

interesting,

his pupils

who

of Sarakhs,

Persian mystic,
Sarraj

attained to eminence,

afterwards became the

Abu Sa

explains

(p.

f,

id b.
1.

Abu

1-Fadl b. al-Hasan

Sheykh of the famous

Abi 1-Khayr.
foil.)

that he wrote the Kitdb

al-Lumcf at the request of a friend, whose name he does


not mention. His purpose in writing it was to set forth the
true principles of Sufism and to show by argument that they
agree with, and are confirmed by, the doctrines of the Koran

and the Apostolic Traditions; that they involve imitation


of the Prophet and his Companions as well as conformity
with

the

therefore,
Its

religious
is

practice

of

pious

Moslems. The work,

avowedly apologetic and controversial

in character.

contents are fully detailed in the Abstract, but a brief

analysis will not be out of place here.

1)

Tadh. al-Awliyd,

2)

Nafahat^ 320,

II,

18.

183, 3; Nafahdt^ 320, 2.

INTRODUCTION.

VI

Pages

persons by whom the Kitdb altransmitted to the anonymous editor.

Names of
Lumcf was

the

Doxology. The author


r.

CHAPTERS

The

IX.

preface.

relation of Sufism to Islam.

and

Traditionists, jurists,

Peculiar charac

Sufis.

the Sufis. Their doctrine derived from

teristics of

the Koran and the Traditions of the Prophet.

rr-r.
TA r^

X XL

CHAPTERS

CHAPTERS XII

Origin of the

XIV. Sufism

name

Sufi

the esoteric science

of Islam. Its nature, meaning, and derivation.

U-TA

XV

CHAPTERS

XVIII. Unification (taw/nd)a.n&

Gnosis (mcfrifat).

Vr-i

CHAPTERS XIX

XXXVII. The

mystical stations

(maqdmdt) and states (ahwdl).

tr-Yr

CHAPTERS XXXVIII
by the

\-i

1^

XLVI. The hidden mean

Koran and how they

ings of the

are interpreted

Sufis.

XL VII

CHAPTERS

L. Imitation of the Prophet.

His character and virtues.

Mt-\.o

CHAPTERS LI
terpretation

LV. The

of the

Sufistic

method of

in

Koran and the Traditions,

with examples.

\i\-\U

CHAPTERS LVI

LXII. The Companions of the

Prophet regarded as patterns of the mystic


c

Abu

Bakr, Umar, Uthman,


and the other Companions.
r

\\-\i\

CHAPTERS

Ali, the

LXXXVIII.

LXIII

(dddb) of the Sufis

Ahl

The

life.

al-Suffat

manners

in their ablutions, in prayer,

almsgiving, fasting, pilgrimage, social intercourse,

mystical

discussions,

meals and entertainments,

CONTENTS OF THE KITAB AL-LUMA

VII

ecstasy, dress, travelling, begging, earning a live


lihood,

marriage,

sitting

hunger, and sickness;


disciples, and hermits
ship and
\

in the

Sufis

on

many

CHAPTER XC.
by
fit

Sufis to

or in

company,

their

manners

in friend

hour of death.

CHAPTER LXXXIX. The


by

alone

the manners of Sheykhs,

different

answers given

points of mystical doctrine.

Letters, or parts of letters, written

one another.

CHAPTER XCI. Specimens

of the introductions

(sudur) of Sufistic epistles.

Toy fil

CHAPTER XCII. Specimens

CHAPTER XCIII.

Prayers and invocations to God.

CHAPTER XCIV. The


by
..

r"\Y

Sufis to

CHAPTERS

of Sufistic poetry.

precepts (wasdyd) given

one another.

XCV

CHAPTERS CVII

CVI. Audition (samd ).


CXII. Ecstasy (wajd).

CHAPTERS CXIII

CXVIII. Miracles (kardmdt).

CHAPTERS CXIX

CXX.

Explanation of

Sufistic

technical terms.

CHAPTERS CXXI

CXXXII. Explanation

ecstatic expressions (shathiyydt) used by

CHAPTERS

CXXXIII

CLII.

Account

erroneous doctrines held by certain

Sufis.

of the
Sufis.

of

the

INTRODUCTION.

VIII

The Kitdb al-Lumc can hardly be


in

that

sense

the

with the author

deals

it

called an original
s

work

theories

and

on the subject of Sufism. In the main he con


fines himself to recording and interpreting the spoken or
written words of his predecessors, and he rebukes contem

speculations

discussions in which they


porary writers for the ostentatious

From

indulged.

welcome.

the

throws into sharp

It

point of view, his reserve

historical

is

relief the invaluable collection

of documents which he has brought together and arranged,

documents that are


found,

illustrating

many

in

the

early

instances nowhere else to be

development of Islamic mys


study its language, ideas, and

and enabling us to
methods during the critical time of adolescence. Considering
the variety of topics which the author has managed to in

ticism

clude in a comparatively short treatise,

him

for

we can

having often suppressed the isndds

the text of traditions and anecdotes; but

if

easily forgive

and abbreviated
he had allowed

himself a freer hand in exposition, his book would be even

more

instructive than

it

is.

There are many passages which

only a Sufi could explain adequately.


Its

wide range of its subject-matter,


close adherence to his authorities do not
style, the

compendious

and the writer

permit such a systematic and exhaustive analysis of mystical


doctrines as

we

Talib al-Makki.

find, for

example,

in the

The nineteen chapters on

Qut al-qulub of Abu


states (ahwdl)

and

(maqdmdt) occupy a little over thirty pages in the pre


sent edition
about half the space which Abu Talib devotes to
stations

the single
as

in

of

trust in

other sections of his

scheme of
this

maqdm

classification

by

kind of Sufi literature.

be claimed

for

him

God

work
triads,

On

(tawakkul}.

Here

as well

Sarraj adopts an artificial

which

is

characteristic of

the whole, however,

it

may

that his readers will obtain a clear notion,

uncomplicated by elaborate details, of what is most import


ant for them to understand. Without attempting a complete

DESCRIPTION OF THE KITAB AL-LUMA

IX

would mention as especially novel or noteworthy


the chapters on Sufistic interpretation (istinbdt) of the Koran
I

review,

and the Hadith; those on audition and ecstasy, which em


c
body excerpts from the lost Kitdb al-wajd of Abu Sa id b.
c

al-A rabi and have


the

been

manners

seventy pages on

social

by Ghazzali

in

the Ihyd\

treating of the ritual

of Sufism; the interesting selection of

aspects

and

utilised

and

poems

of technical terms; the

the

large vocabulary
epistles;
specimens of shathiyydt with explanations partly derived
from Junayd s commentary on the ecstatic sayings that were

attributed

to

Abu Yazid

al-Bistami; and the final chapters

on errors of mystical doctrine.

have already published the

text and translation of certain passages relating to the con

ception

of

fand

in

an

entitled

article

hammadan Mysticism" (J.R.A.S.


As regards the word Sufi it
,

for
is

Goal of Mu-

"The

1913, p. 55

now accepted

favours (not on linguistic grounds, however) the


derivation

He

from suf.

tells

us

foil.)

remarkable that Sarraj

according to some,

that,

was a modern designation invented by the people of

Sufi

Baghdad. This statement, though he naturally rejects it, does


account of the origin of the name.

in all probability give a true

Notwithstanding that Sarraj takes


of the

for

experiences and

granted the reality

eager to justify
the apparent blasphemies uttered by many Sufis at such
moments, he constantly appeals to the Koran and the Apo
stolic

higher mystical

is

Traditions as the supreme arbiters which every Sufi

must recognise.

If

we admit

his principles of interpretation,

we cannot deny his orthodoxy. Fand itself,


him, means nothing more than realisation
Unity (taw kid) and

is

in logical

as defined

by

of the Divine

harmony with

Islamic

mo

notheism. Whether this view indicates that the fand theory,


as Professor Margoliouth has contended,

t)

The Early Development of Mohammedanism^

*)

p.

was simply evolved

199.

INTRODUCTION.

from tawhidj or whether

monotheistic idea by foreign influences,

of the

nation

difficult question.

We

the evidence, so

far

latter

and

represents the result of impreg

it

is

cannot yet decide with certainty, but


as it goes, seems to me to render the

hypothesis more probable. ) Sarraj denounces hulul


other heretical forms of the fand doctrine. While dis
1

approving of excessive asceticism, he enjoins the strictest


obedience to the sacred law. The Sufi (he says) differs from

Moslem only

the ordinary

inward

religious

in laying greater stress

of which

life

the

upon the

formal acts of worship

are an outward expression.

was closely associated with Ibn Salim (Abu 1-Hasan

Sarraj

Ahmad

Muhammad)

b.

orthodox
mental

articles

b.

known

theologians

respects,

Abu Abdallah

of

of Basra, who,

"though extremely
was opposed to certain funda
of the Sunna". 3 This Ibn Salim was the son

some

in

Salim
as

position on the left

and

their followers, a

group of
Salimfs, occupied an advanced

the

wing of the mystical movement,

as ap

pears from the fact that they sympathised with Hallaj and

defended

his

orthodoxy.

From

the account of their tenets

given

by Abd-al-Qadir

al-Jilani

in his

assert with confidence that Sarraj

ber of the school.


occurs

in

Sarraj

declares

1) Cf.

my

the

None

5
)

we might

cannot have been a

mem

of the heresies there enumerated

Lumcf, and on the


that

Ghunya

page of

last

his

book

the spirit dies like the body, a state-

Mystics of Islam ^

p.

foil.

2) See under Ibn Salim in the List of Authorities.


3)
ibly

Shadharat al-Dhahab, I, 1720 (citation from the c lbar of


Dhahabi). Poss
words refer to Ibn Salim the Elder. Muhammadan writers fre

these

quently

fail

to distinguish

4) Concerning
sche Partei der
for

1912, p. 573

the

between the father and the son.


and their doctrines see Goldziher, Die dogma ti-

Salimis

Salimijja,
foil.;

ZDMG.

miyah.
5) Goldziher,

loc.

cit.

vol.

61,

p.

73

foil.;

Amedroz

in

JRAS.

and Massignon, Kit&b


al-Tawdsin^ Index under
p.

77.

Sali-

SARRAJ AND IBN SALIM.

ment which
l

mortality.

in

Abd

at variance with the Salimi belief in its

is

On

the other hand,

al-Qadir

im

would be absurd to sup

it

each individual Salimi embraced

that

pose
G

XI

all

the heresies

That Ibn Salim himself did so

list.

is

view of the respect shown to him by


unlikely
Sarraj and the friendly intercourse that was maintained be
tween them. Moreover, Sarraj on several occasions quotes

most

in

sayings and

verses

by

whom

Hallaj,

garded as a profound Unitarian


he agreed with the Salimis on
the

Luma

Salim would scarcely have


c
excusing in Sahl b. Abdallah (the

Sheykh of Abu Abdallah

Abu Yazid al-Bistami,


as
Imam of Ibn
his

in

b.

Salim) what he

nor would

"the

mankind

But though
doubt whether

foil.).

this point, I

of Ibn

follower

leader with

twitted his

303, 20

(cf.

their peculiar doctrines can be discovered in

any trace of
c

he seems to have re

opinion"

Salim

and

(394, 12

condemned

in

he have described Sahl

most excellent of

the

foil.).

It

is

a striking cir

cumstance that two of the three oldest surviving Arabic


treatises on Sufism were directly influenced by Ibn Salim.
In the

Luma^

the author

his personality stands out

conspicuously amongst
is the work

contemporaries, and the Qut al-qulub

of his pupil,

Abu

Talib al-Makki,

whom

the Salimis justly

claim as one of themselves.


Sarraj obtained his materials partly from

books and partly

from oral tradition, but the information which he gives us


concerning his sources is by no means complete.

The
1.

2.

following books are cited

History

of

Mecca

(4Xj\j>-\),

Azraqi (22, 12).


The Kitdb al-nmshdhadat by
(69, 12 and 117, 8).

i) Cf.

Massignon, Kitdb al-Tawdsin^

p.

possibly the

Amr

b.

136, n. 2.

work of

Uthman al-Makkf

INTRODUCTION.

XII

3.

The Kitdb al-Sunan by Abu Dawud

4.

work on the

Sa
5.

rules of prayer

al-Kharraz (153,7).
book of which the title

al-Sijistani (139, 13).

(adab al-saldt)

by Abu

id

Turab al-Nakhshabi

is

not mentioned, by

Abu

(205, 19).

7.

The Kitdb al-mundjdt by Junayd (259, 2).


The Kitdb al-wajd by Abu Sa id b. al-A

8.

The Kitdb mcfrifat al-mcrifat by Ibrahim al-Khawwas

9.

6.

310,

rabi

(308,

314, 17).

(362, 14).

commentary by Junayd on the

(shathiyydt]

382,5,

all

expressions

al-Bistami (381,2;

hand are forty

being Sufis with a single exception

known, but the

list

Khalawayh. Most of

includes several

mystics

in

the cel

them are un
of eminence,

1-Hasan al-Husri, Ja far al-Khuldi Abu


Abu
Abdallah al-Rudhabari, Abu 1-Hasan
Nujayd,
Salim, and Abu 1-Husayn al-Sirawani. The names of the

e. g.

Duqqi,

Amr

b.

ecstatic

Abu Yazid

cited as authorities at first

ebrated philologist Ibn

to

etc.).

The persons
number,

attributed

b.

Abu

forty in alphabetical order, together with

some biographical

and references, are printed below, and those most


frequently cited are marked with an asterisk.
details

LIST OF AUTHORITIES.
Abbreviations:

A = Ansdb of Sam ani (Gibb Memorial Series, vol. XX).


H = Hilyat al-Awliyd of Abu NiTaym al-Isbahani, Leyden
c

MS. 311^ and 311^ Warn.

K = Kashf

al-Mahjub of Hujwiri,
Memorial Series, vol. XVII).

= Nafahdt al-Uns
1859).

The

my

translation

(Gibb

by Nassau Lees (Calcutta,


refer to the numbered bio

of Jami, ed.

figures

cited

graphies, not to the pages.

Q=

Qushayri

Risdla (Cairo, 1318 A. H.).

Sh = Sha rani
Tabaqdt al-Kiibrd (Cairo,
TA = Tadhkirat al-Awliyd of Fariduddin
c

in

TS

Persian Historical Texts, vols.

H.).

Attar, ed.

Ill

and

by me
(1905

1907).

Tabaqdt al-Sufiyya of
British

1299 A.
c

= Yaqut,

Abu Abd al-Rahman

al-Sulami,

Museum, Add. 18520.

Mtfjam

al-Bulddn, ed.

by Wiistenfeld (1866

1873)c

Akki, Abu 1-Tayyib Ahmad

b.

Muqatil al-Baghdadi.

397^ penult.

This quotation does not occur in the Lumrf but


may have found it in another work by Sarraj.
y

i)

In

referring to

the

two

pages

fore

the

figures

MSS.

which

have used the


each other

italicised letters a

when

MS.

and

Sam

ani

b to denote

open before the


reader, a being on his right hand and b on his left. According to the method
commonly adopted a and b denote the front and back of the same leaf. There
the ordinary

face

the

lies

of the references given below are always one page ahead of


199^ and 2Qol>2OOa.
reckoning. For example, 200^

XIV

INTRODUCTION.
c

Akki

reports a description of Shibli

behaviour on his

deathbed, derived from his famulus, Bundar al-Dinawari,


G

whom
c

Ja far
c

Ja

far

Akki met on the same day

al-Khuldi
al-Khuldi

(104,

part

6);

of a

by Abu

house of

the

in

written to

letter

al-Tinati

1-Khayr
(236, 13);
c
an account derived from Ja far al-Khuldi of the way in
which Abu 1-Husayn b. Ziri, a pupil of Junayd, expressed

approval or disapproval of samtf (272,


of Shibli which he witnessed (282, 17).
his

The author

relates

that

an ecstasy

13);

Akkf showed him a

list

that

he had compiled of persons who recovered their lost


c
property by means of a prayer which Ja far al-Khuldi
c

used for that purpose (317, 6).


c
Alawi, Hamza b. Abdallah. N. 64.

Abu

349 A. H.).
Speaking from personal experience, he vouches for his
master s telepathic powers (317, 8).

of

pupil

Alawi, Yahya

b.

1-Khayr

(ob.

al-Rida.

He

related at Baghdad,

his

own hand, an anecdote

Asd

al-Tinati

and copied
of the Sufi

author with

for the

Abu Hulman (289, 7).

idi, Talhat al-Basri.

He

related

al-Tustari

Basra an anecdote of Sahl

b.

Abdallah

which he derived from one of Sahl

s disciples

at

(330, 8). The name of the disciple is defectively


in the MSS. and cannot be ascertained.

Bdniydsi, Muhammad

He

b.

Ma

bad.

relates a story of al-Kurdi al-Sufi


(203,

Basri, Ahmad
Possibly

mad

b.

Muhammad.
identical with Abu

i)

The author

5).

b.

1-Hasan

Ahmad

b.

Muham

Salim of Basra (see under Ibn Salim}.

reports a saying of al-Jalajili al-Basri (143,

a mistake for

written

uses the

Ahmad

b.

name Abu 1-Hasan Muhammad

Muhammad)

in reference to

He

14).

b. Ahmad (which
Ibn Salim (292, n).

is

XV

LIST OF AUTHORITIES.

Basri, Abu 1-Husayn.


perhaps, be

He may,

Abu

1-Hasan al-Husri of Basra (see

under Husri). He reports, as eye-witness, a miracle that


c
was granted to a negro faqir, at Abbadan (316,8).
c
Basri, Talhat al- Asa idi. See ^Asa idi.

al-Mu addib.
Bayruti, Abu Bakr, Ahmad b. Ibrahim
verses by Ibrahim
some
He recited to the author at Cairo

al-Khawwas

Bistdmi,

(250,

Tayfiir b.

i).
c

lsa.

two sayings of the celebrated Abu Yazid


c
al-Bistami on the authority of Musa b. lsa al-Bistami
c
from his father.
(known as Umayy), who heard them

He

reports

He

describes

the poverty in

which

Abu Yazid

died

(188, 12).

Ibn Dillawayh,

Ahmad.
c

He reports a saying of Abu lmran al-Tabaristani


Dinawari, Abu Abdallah al-Khayyat.

(171,13).

His wasiyyat to the author (265, n).

D^na^var^,

tsa al-Qassar.

He

reports a

He was

the

saying of

Ruwaym (189, 8). A saying by him on hunger


He witnessed the removal of Hallaj from prison

(202, 14).

to

the

A. H.)

famulus of Shibli (148,

place

and

of execution

the

reports

before his death (303,

Dinawari, Muhammad
Dinaivari, Abu Sa id.

(24^ of

last

7).

Dhu

l-Qa da, 309

words which he uttered

20).

b.

Dawud. See Duqqi.

The author was

present in his majlis at Atrabulus and

prayer which he heard him pro


nounce on that occasion (260, 4).

gives

the

text

of a

For the name Dillawayh (Dilluya) or Dallawayh see Noldeke, Persische


b. Dillawayh
Studien^ S. B. W. A. 1888, vol. 116, part I, p. 403. Zakariyya
i)

of Naysabiir (pb.

294 A. H.)

is

noticed in

N. 77, where the text has

</^:>.

INTRODUCTION.

XVI

*Duqqi, Abu Bakr Muhammad


103^. Q. 33. N. 229. Sh.

Baghdad and

A. 228^, 24.

158.

I,

he

of Dinawar,

Originally

Dawiid al-Dinawari. TS.

b.

resided

for

some time

at

Damascus, where he died

finally settled at

359 or 360 A. H. He was a pupil of Abu Bakr alZaqqaq the Elder (see the List of Sufis given below)
c
and Abu Abdallah b. al-Jalla (Q. 24. Sh. I, 116. N.
in

That Duqqi,

112).

ces

whom

to

there are eighteen referen

Lumcf, was a trustworthy reporter may be

the

in

judged from the fact that he made a special journey


from Syria to the Hijaz in order to hear from the lips
of Abu Bakr al-Kattani the true version of an anecdote
18). He relates sayings and
Abu
Bakr
Abu Bakr
Jariri,
al-Farghani,
al-Kattani, Ibn al-Jalla, Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq, Abu 1Husayn al-Darraj, and verses of Abu Ali al-Rudhabari.
He also describes the hunger which he endured at Mecca

concerning the latter (178,

anecdotes of

(170,

and

6)

voice

tells

story of the slave whose sweet

the

was the death of

camels (270, 3). 2 )


mentions, several times, that he received

The author

his

master

information from Duqqi at Damascus.

Farrd, Muhammad
231. Sh.

I,

His kunya
b.

Ahmad

b.

166 (where

Abu

is

Hamdun. TS.

b.
is

\jb\

a mistake for

Bakr. N. gives his

Hamdun, which

is

name

117^. N.
-\yJV).

as

Ahmad

He was an eminent
He reports a

incorrect.

of Naysabur and died in 370 A. H.


c
saying of Abd al-Rahman al-Farisi (40, 5).
Sufi

Him si,
He

Qays

b.

1)

2)

Generally

I.

Umar.

an anecdote of

relates

Nahawandi

Sh.

(288,

known

as

Abu

1-Qasim

b.

Marwan

al-

16).

AbU Bakr

al-Wasiti (Q. 29. K.

154.

TA.

II,

265.

132. N. 212).

See K.

al-Khawwds.

399,

where the same story

is

told

on the authority of Ibrahim

LIST OF AUTHORITIES.

Husri, Abu

TS.

1-Hasan.

288. N. 290. Sh.

I,

XVII

Q. 35.

114^.

TA.

K. 160.

II,

164.

Died 371 A. H. A native of Basra but resided at Bagh


dad. He was a pupil of Shibli, two of whose sayings he
reports

(396,

398,

6).

Sarraj quotes six sayings

Husri, including a definition of

Sufi"

(28, 2)

of the principles of Sufism (218,

mary

by

and a sum

i).

Ibn Jab an, Abu Abdallah Ahmad.

He

an anecdote of Shibli, whose house he visited

relates
1

(395,

8).

Ibn Khdlawayk, Abu c Abdallah al-Husayn.


The well-known grammarian (Brockelmann,
died in 370 A. H.

I,

125).

He

He

reports from Ibn al-Anbari (Brock


c
elmann, I, 119) fourteen verses of Ka b b. Zuhayr s
c
ode beginning with the words Bdnat Su dd (275, 8). )
c

Khayydt, Abu Hafs Umar.


He reports Abu Bakr b. al-Mu

allim,

at

Antioch how,

after sixty years,

to

pronounce the

Moslem

*Khuldi
TA.

283. N. 278. Sh.

II,

related to

him

he was called upon

profession of faith (207,21).

Muhammad

Ja far b.

who

I,

Nusayr. Q. 33. K. 156.


156. A. 205^, 13.
b.

Junayd and Ibrahim alKhawwas. He died in 348 A. H.


He reports Junayd and through him Sari al-Saqati (seven
native of Baghdad, pupil of

references).
(168, 13).

of his

story

own

pilgrimage to

manuscript in his handwriting

as the authority for an anecdote of


for

an extract from a

(237,

14).

(251, 2;

letter written

The author
306, 5;

434, 10)

is

Junayd

by a

Mecca

mentioned
(204, 5)

certain

and

Sheykh
*

of the words 4ic


Cj\^5 \^
shows that in these cases he

use

obtained from Ja far al-Khuldi a personal assurance that


the tradition was accurate.

l)

The word

^VijVi ( 2

7$->

9)

is

an obvious misprint for

INTRODUCTION.

XVIII
c

Malati, Umar.

He

reports

the author at Antioch the reply which

to

whom

he received from a certain Sheykh


to pray for

him

he had asked

(261, 17).

Muhallab, Abu Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Marzuq al-Misri.


He associated with Abu Bakr b. Tahir al-Abhari, who
died circa 330 A. H. (N. p. 207,
4 foil.). He relates
of
al-Murta
ish
Muhammad
that Abu
Naysabur on his
1.

328 A. H.) enjoined him to pay the debts


c
wich he (Murta ish) had contracted (266, 2).

deathbed

(ob.

tbn Nujayd, Abu


262. N. 281. Sh.

Died

Amr

TS. 105*. Q.

il.

34-

TA.

II,

159.

I,

He was

366 A. H.

in

Isma

maternal grandfather

the

Abu Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami and the pupil of


Abu Uthman al-Hiri of Naysabur. He reports three
sayings of Abu Uthman al-Hiri.
Rdzi, Abu Abdallah Husayn b. Ahmad.
He reports (316, 12) a story told by Abu Sulayman alof

Khawwas, a Maghribi, who died


contemporary with

Abu

See N. 286, where the same story


c
Rdzi, Husayn b. Abdallah.

He

(215,20)

reports

Tahir al-Abhari

b.

a saying

who

He

lived at Sur

nephew

(son

322 A. H.).

14)

and

l) In

the

recites

Lnmc?

a native of Rayy.

all

He

b.

Ata. TS. 115$. Q.

164.

369 A. H. He was a
c
of Abu Ali al-Rudhabari

and died there

of the

(ob.

but according to

I,

349 A.H.).

died circa 330 A. H.

N. 328. Sh.

(ob.

related.

is

Abu Bakr Abdallah

of

Rudhabdri, Abu Abdallah Ahmad


35.

Damascus and was

at

1-Khayr al-Tmati

sister)
tells

in

an anecdote of his uncle (185,

some verses by him

(249, 10).

He

relates

name is given as Sa id b. Uthman al-Hirf (al-Razi),


c
c
other authorities it is Sa id b. Isma il. He was originally

his

XIX

LIST OF AUTHORITIES.

that one night his prayer for forgiveness was answered

by a heavenly voice
c

Abu

The author

(316, 17).

Abdallah al-Rudhabari

wrote

states that

an

impromptu

Ramla, begging the owner of


a slave-girl, who was famed for her singing, to permit
the author and his companions to hear. her performance
in his

letter

(234,

presence at

6).

*Ibn Salim,

Abu

1-Hasan

Ta rikh al-Isldm

Ahmad

(British

Muhammad. Dhahabi,

b.

Museum, Or.

48, 710) cited in

Notes on some Sufi Lives by H. F. Amedroz in JRAS


for 1912, p. 573, note 2. Shadhardt al-DJialiab, I, 172^.

He

is

Abdallah

the son of Abii

of Basra (TS. 95^. H.

was a pupil of Sahl

321^. N. 124. Sh.

II,

b.

Muhammad

A. H.

He

often

is

154),

2
)

who

him

as

Ibn Salim Senior died

in

known

of a school of mystical theologians

297

I,

Salim

Abdallah al-Tustari and founder

the Salimis (al-Sdlimiyya).


4

b.

3
)

with

confused

subject of the present notice,

who

after

his

son,

the

died circa 360 A. H.

Thus the author of the Luma* records

(177, 21) a state-

ment by Ibn Salim Junior that he associated with Sahl


b.

Abdallah

refers

to

corrected

Evidently this
happens, the mistake is

for a period of sixty years.

and, as

his

father

in

a later

it

n). Again, it must


had the conversation

passage (292,

have been Ibn Salim Senior who


with Sahl which

is

reported by Ibn Salim Junior as a

personal experience (293,

1)

The

text has Abii

2).

B is correct.
Abu Abd al-Rahman

Ali al-Rudhabari, but the reading of

Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Salim, according


c
ani.
Sulami, Abii Nu aym al-Isbaham and Sam
2)

to

al-

3) See p.

above.
c

of Abu Nu aym
by Dhahabi from the Hilyat al-Awliyd
that he was born before the death of
(ob. 430 A. H.) makes the latter say
Ibn Salim the Elder, which is absurd. The correct reading of the text after
4)

the

The passage

words

cited

V$T ^W_,

(JR AS,

1912,

p.

574,

1.

o f the Arabic text)

in

is:

XX

INTRODUCTION.

Abu

1-Hasan

and

anecdotes

Salim

b.

cited as authority for several

is

of Sahl

sayings

his

he and

Abdallah, and

in

expressly mentioned
information was .obtained from his father. If

about half of these instances


that

b.

Ahmad

b.

it

Muhammad

same person, he

also

Basra, concerning

whom

is

al-Basri (143, 14) are the

saying of

reports

known.

is

nothing

of

al-Jalajili

Sarraj was intimately acquainted with Ibn Salim. He


was present in his majlis at Basra (195,18; 390,12;
394, 8); he reports conversations with
390, 12)

him

(319, 2

326, 17,

and a considerable number of his sayings

152,13; 202,9; 219,2; 223,3; 3


c

Sayrafi, Abu 1-Hasan

I2

3 l6 2
>

$>

Muhammad.
identical
with
Abu
1-Hasan
Apparently
b. al-Husayn al-Sayrafi of Naysabur, who

9;

(i 16,

1
7>

7)-

Ali b,

Ali b. Bundar

associated with

Ruwaym and died in 359 A.H. (Q 34, N. 118, Sh.


He reports a saying of Ruwaym (288, 13).
Shimshdti, Abu Hafs Umar.
He recited some verses by Ibrahim al-Khawwas

I,

165).

author at Ramla (250,

8).

Shirdzi, Abu 1-Tayyib.


He reports a saying of one
Sirawdni, Abu 1-Husayn. N.
There are two
b.

Muhammad

Maghrib, who

Abu

who

Ali

Jami

says,

native of Sirawan in the


(N. 283),

Ja far

Ibrahim

settled

and

Dawud

b.

with

associated

Egypt and afterwards

died.

name: Abu 1-Husayn c Ali

Dimyat

b.

17).

336.

al-Sirawani,

resided at

1-Husayn

al-Saghir,
in

of his Sheykhs (342,

Sufis of this

to the

at

his pupil

al-Sirawani

al-Khawwas

Mecca, where he

on the authority of the Ta rikh

al-

Sufiyya of al-Sulami, that al-Sirawani al-Saghir lived


to the age of a hundred and
twenty-four. He is the

person cited

in

the

sahib of al-Khawwas.

Lumcf,

for

he

is

described as the

XXI

LIST OF AUTHORITIES.

He met

Dimyat and

Sarraj at

of Junayd (285,

Qadi of Dinawar.

Muhammad.
reports an anecdote of

to

him
)

He

Abu

some

Ali al-Rudhabari and

verses written

by the

by

latter in reply

(234, 14).

Ahmad

Talli,

Ruwaym

Abi Khalid.

b.

recited to the author at Sur

him
to

b.

He

12).

c
Suri, Abu Ali

He

him a saying

18).

Ibn Sun ay d, Ahmad


(I6 3

related to

b.

Muhammad.

reported to the author at Antioch from his father,


c
lsa), a saying of Ishaq b. Ibrahim al(or

from Bishr

Mawsili concerning the expert singer (271,

3).

Tarasusi, Ahmad.
He is probably Abu Bakr Ali b. Ahmad al-Tarasusi
al-Harami, who associated with Ibrahim b. Shayban alc

Qarmisini

(pb*

He

(N. 233).

337 A. H.) and died in 364 A. H. at Mecca


reports

from Ibrahim

told by Ibrahim al-Khawwas (170,


Tusi, Abu Bakr Ahmad b. Ja far.

b.

Shayban

a story

14).

He

reports

and

relates

a
to

saying of Nasr b. al-Hammami (48, 15)


the author at Damascus an anecdote of

Abu Ya qub al-Nahrajuri, who died in 330 A. H. (203, 13).


*Ibn Ulwdn, Abu Amr Abd al- Wahid.
Fourteen references. He reports sayings and anecdotes
of Junayd, whom he had met (116, 20), and a story of
Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri (193, 20). The author mentions
c

twice

him

at

that

Ibn

Ulwan communicated information

Rahbat Malik

b.

*Wajihi, Abu Bakr Ahmad


Twenty-four references.
b.

AH

Tawq.
c

b.

He

Ali.

is

called

(293, 17)

al-Karaji (or al-Karkhi), generally

i) Variant Talhi.

to

known

Ahmad
as Wa-

INTRODUCTION.

XXII
jihi.

He

reports

Abu

Ali al-Rudhabari (eleven referen

Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq, Ibn


al-Dinawari, Abu Ja far al-Saydalani,
ces), Jariri,

Muhammad

and

al-Razi,

b.

Mamliila

al-

Attar

Ja far

al-Tayalisi

Yusuf al-Banna. He

relates

Bunan al-Hammal, Hasan al-Qazzaz, and

anecdotes

of

Mimshadh

al-Dinawari, and recites verses

Zanjdni, Abu Amr.


He recited to the

by

author at Tabriz some

Nuri.

verses

by

Shibli (251,12).

About two hundred names


Kitdb al-Luma
found

in

Many

of Sufis are mentioned in the

of these

are

familiar

and

will

be

almost any Arabic or Persian Lives of the Saints


a great proportion of them either do

On

the

not

occur in

other hand,

the published works of reference,

or

are

re

one or two of such works, or are not mentioned,


knowledge, except in the Lmncf. In the hope that

corded only
to

my

in

further information

of those

more or

notes

which

them.

Names

may be

forthcoming,

append the names

obscure mystics, accompanied by a few


have made while endeavouring to identify
less

included in the List of Authorities are omitted

from the following

list,

which

is

also arranged alphabetically.

OF

LIST
c

1.

Abdallah

2.

Abd al-Rahman

b.

SUFIS.

al-Husayn (248,

Ahmad

b.

4th century.

15).

(325,

3).

sahib of Sahl b.

Abdallah of Tustar.
c

3.

Abhari,

Abu Bakr Abdallah

TS. 90^. Q.

H.

32.

II,

Tahir. Died 330 A. H.

b.

315*, N. 223, Sh.

I,

149.

4.

Anmati,
c

5.

Attar al-Dinawari

6.

Abu Umar

Attar,

(329, 20).

= Ibn

Abu Hatim

(ob.

Kharraz and Junayd were his pupils. N. 35.


c
Atufi, Abu 1-Hasan (205, 11). Contemporary with
C

8.

AH

Awlasi,

322 A. H.).
1-Harith. His name is Fayd

al-Rudhabari

Abu

He was

10.

pupil

of Ibrahim

Muhammad

Yusuf

b.

(325, 19).

Turab al-Nakhshabi

Sheykh of
N. 103. H.

(ob.

al-

Alawi

(ob.

245

Abu Bakr

al-

Author of many

travelled with

Abu

and was

A. H.)

Ali b. Sahl al-Isbahani

(ob.

307 A.

the
H.).

328^.

II,
c

Barathi,

He

works on Sufism.
c

16.

1-Azhar (325, 7). Contemporary with


Kattani (ob. 322 A. H.).

excellent

11.

Sa d

b.

al-Khadir.

b.

Abu

Banna,

Abu

(ob.

circa 260 A. H.). N.


9.

Contemporary with Abu


c
245 A. H.). Abu Sa id al-

(180, 17).

Turab al-Nakhshabi

7.

Mamlula.

Abu Shu ayb

(200,3).

He

is

described as one

of the ancient Sheykhs of Baghdad. Junayd said that


c

Abu Shu ayb was


quarter

of

the

Baghdad)

first

in

who dwelt
knkh,

or

at

Baratha

hut

made

(a

of

INTRODUCTION.

XXIV
rushes,

to asceticism. His wife,

and devoted himself

Jawhara, died in 170 A. H. (Nujum, ed. by Juynboll,


I, 460). H. II, 304^, gives the same anecdote which
related here.

is

Abu Bakr

(207,6; 264,4).

12.

Barizi,

13.

Basri,

14.

Bunan al-Hammal

Ahmad

b.

al-Husayn (248,

15).

Contemporary with

Junayd.

184. Sh.
15.

I,

Ibn Bunan

Sa

id

6.

28.

N.

130.

al-Misri

(193,18;

al-Kharraz

209,20).

pupil of

Abu

277 or 286 A. H.). Notices of

(ob.

name

Abu

1-Husayn b. Bunan
occur in TS. 90*2, H. II, 317^, Q. 32, and N. 271.
Bundar b. al-Husayn. A pupil of Shibli. He was a native
2
where he died
of Shiraz but resided at Arrajan,

him under the

Died 316 A. H. Q.

al-Misri.

of

353 A. H. H.

in
17.

Busri,

shabi

Ubayd.

(ob.

8.

621,

Abu

Sh.

I,

19.

Darraj,

20.

Darraj,

5.

N. 114. Y.I,

3
)

b.

Ja far (194,

Ali b.

Hayawayh.

4
)

19).

1-Husayn, of Baghdad. N. 207. Famulus of


Ibrahim al-Khawwas. He had a brother, Bukayr al-

who was

Darraj,

(jUJ in N.
j\c>

is

a mistake for

the reading of

\\,

also

sayn al-Darraj died

2)

161. N. 280.

I,

Abu Turab al-Nakh-

118.

Damaghani, al-Hasan

1)

pupil

of

245 A. H.) Q. 26. A. 8i,

18.

Abu
Abu

323^. Q. 34. Sh.

II,

in

Sufi (N. 208).

Abu

1-Hu

320 A. H.

(jVu.

at 278, 7, is a

3) Qushayri has al-Husayn. See 41,

9,

mistake for

^WjV\.

note 8.

4) Examples of the name Hayawayh, which appears to be the correct reading


here, are found in my MS. of the Shadhardt al-Dhahab (see JRAS. for 1899,
c
p. 911, and for 1906, p. 797)1, 1770, 24, Abu 1-Hasan Muhammad b. Abdallah b. Zakariyya b.
I,

183^, 17,

Hayawayh al-Naysaburi al-Misri al-Qadi (pb. 367 A.H.);


Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Hayawayh al-Karkhi, the grammarian
c
H); and 1, l88d!, 10, Abu Amr b. Hayawayh al-Khazzaz of

(ob. 373 A.
Baghdad, the

traditionist (ob.

382 A. H.).

XXV

LIST OF SUFIS.

Abu Bakr

al-Kisa

21.

Dinawari,

22.

Dinawari, Bakran (210,

23.

Dinawari, Bundar (104,7).

24.

Dinawari, Hasan al-Qazzaz


al-Faraji = Abu

Ibn

25.

Faraji.

14).

Kisa

i.

Contemporary with
Famulus of Shibli.

Shibli.

= Qazzaz.
c

Muhammad

Ja far

Ya qub

b.

sahib of Harith al-Muhasibi

(ob.

243 A.H.).

Author of the Kitdb al-waraf, the Kitdb sifat


muridin and other works on Sufism. H. II, 293^.
Musa (228, 10)
Farghani, Abu Bakr Muhammad b.

26.

Abu Bakr

al-Wasiti

TA

K. 154.

circa

(ob.

320 A.

265. N. 212. Sh.

II,

I,

al-

H.).

Q.

al-

=
29.

132.

Abd al-Rahman (40, 6). Contemporary with Mu


hammad b. Ahmad b. Hamdun al-Farra (ob. 370 A.H.).
Farisi, Abu
1-Husayn Ali b. Hind al-Qurashi (230, 2).
He associated with Junayd and Amr b. Uthman
c

Farisi,

27.

28.

al-Makki,
ration.

but himself belonged to a younger gene

TS

92^. N. 272. Sh.

29.

Path al-Mawsili. Died

30.

Fath

in

Shakhraf al-Marwazi

b.

I,

150.

220 A. H. N.
(228,

6).

25. Sh.

Died

in

I,

105.

273 A.H.

N. 26.
Ibn al-Fuwati (286,

31.

sayn al-Darraj

Haddad, Abu

33.

name:

this

Ja

Contemporary with Abu 1-Hu320 A. H.).

).

(ob.

Kulthum

32. Ghassani,

i)

(142, 13).
far

(i)

(332,

Abu

There are two

5).
c

Ja far

Sufis

of

al-Haddad al-Kabir

of

Baghdad, who was contemporary with Junayd (ob.


and (2)
298 A. H.) and Ruwaym (ob. 303 A. H.)
;

Abu Ja far b. Bukayr al-Haddad al-Saghir al-Misri,


c
a pupil of Abu Ja far al-Haddad the elder. At first
is referred to
sight it would seem that the former
here, since he is described as having had a conver
sation

i)

Cf.

Fuwati (not

N.

p.

216,

1.

with
Qiiti

2 and

Abu

Turab,

whom we

should naturally

or Ghuti) seems to be the correct form of the nisba.

JRAS.

for

1901, p. 708.

INTRODUCTION.

XXVI

Abu Turab

identify with

but in N.

(ob.

245 A.H.),

same story is told


190,
al-Haddad the younger, and it is ex

p.

Ja far

the

foil,

1.

Abu

of

al-Nakhshabi

stated on the authority of Abdallah Ansarf

pressly

Abu Turab

the

that

al-Nakhshabi

Abu

34.

not

in question is

Abu Turab

N. 201.

).

1-Hadfd (256,

Contemporary with Abu Abd-

13).

allah al-Qurashi.

Abu Bakr Ahmad

35.

Ibn Hamawayh,

36.

Ibn al-Hammami, Nasr

Subayhf
Bakr

(197, 12).

sahib of

(q. v.)

Ahmad

b.

Ja

(48, 17).

Contemporary with Abu


See List of Authorities

far al-Tusi.

under Tusi.

Abu Muhammad

Harawi,

37.

Contemporary with

(209, 12).

Shibli.
38.

39.

Hasan, Sheykh (178, 4). He consorted for seventy years


G
with Abu Abdallah al-Maghribi (ob. 299 A. H.).
G
c
Haykali, Abu Abdallah. Contemporary with Abu Abdallah al-Qurashi.

40.

Abu Hulman

al-Sufi (289,

Damascus and gave

8).

his

Persian,

name

Hulmanis, who are reckoned


al-Farq bayna
41.

Husri,

Mawsili
42.

l-firaq, p.

Abu

Abdallah,

220 A.

(ob.

Isbahani, Sahl
c

son of Ali

b.

Istakhri,

1.

245,

b.

Salil.

the Hululis. Cf.

foil.,

and K. 260.

pupil of Path

(48, 7).

Sahl al-Isbahani

b.

Abu lmran

resided at
sect of the

al-

N. 116.

H.).

Ali

43.

among

of Basra.

who
the

to

(ob.

Apparently the
307 A. H.).

Contemporary with Abu


245 A. H.).

(211,6).

Turab al-Nakhshabi

(ob.

44.

Istakhri,

of

i)

On

the

Yahya

Baghdad
other hand

Contemporary with Ibn Ata


309 A. H.).

(211,8).
(ob.

it

is

said in

H.

II,

310*$ that Abii Ja far

al-Haddad

LIST OF SUFIS.
45.

Sheykh

Jabala,

(287,

5).

Maghribi, contemporary with

Abu Abdallah Ahmad


c

XXVII

b.

Yahya

306 AH.).

al-Jalla (ob.

Probably identical
al-Mubarqa (N. 117), who was con
c
temporary with Abu Abdallah al-Husri (q. v).
47. Jalajili, al-Basrf (143, 15) *). Contemporary with Ahmad b.
Ibn Salim (see List of Au
Muhammad al-Basri
46.

Ja far al-Mubarqa

(287, ii;

332, n).
c

with Ja far ibn

thorities).

48.

Abu

Ibn al-Karanbi,

Ja

Abu

Junayd and pupil of


al-Barathi (H.
49.
50.

II,

of

far,

Baghdad

304^). H.

Teacher of

).

Abdallah

Abi Ja

b.

far

275^. N. 72.

II,

Abu Ali (206,7). QKhawwas, Abu Sulayman. N. 286.


Abdallah Husayn b. Ahmad
Ibn al-Katib,

32

Sh

4&- N. 249.

Abu
of Au

See under Razi,

in

the

List

thorities.

Abu Bakr

51.

Kisa

52.

he predeceased. N. 135.
Ibn al-Kurrini. See Ibn al-Karanbi.

53.

Maghazili,

Abu

54.

Maghazili,

Ishaq (195,

i,

al-Dinawari.

Ali (281,

al-Harith al-Hafi
55.

(ob.

Ja far al-Khuldi

56.

Makki,
thor

1)

2)

(ob.

Contemporary with

Shibli.

Contemporary with Bishr


227 A. H.).

14).

Abu Muhammad

Maghazili,

and

19).

whom

sahib of Junayd,

(209,9).

b.

Contemporary with

348 A. H.). Cited

TA

in

II

46,20

84, 6.

Abu

1-Hasan of Basra (165, 22). One of the au


contemporaries. Ibn Salim refused to salute

This passage is cited by Qushayri, 152, 11 foil.


Karanbi (cabbage-seller) is probably the correct form of the nisba^ which

appears in the

MSS.

of

^^

.A/p! The reading

the

Lumcf

as

an(i

(Ihya, Bulaq, 1289 A.

II.

in

the present edition as

IV, 345,26)

is

certainly

According to H. and N. the name of this Sufi is Abu Ja far al-Karanbi


but he is called Ibn al-Karanbi (N. p. 93, 1. 2) in a story of him which
false.

also occurs

in the

fara id al-quh ib^

Lumcf^ 337, 16 foil. Cf. the Introduction


by Dr. A. S. Yahuda, p. 108.

ed.

to

al-Hidaya

Ha

INTRODUCTION.

XXVIII

on the ground that he had made himself

him,

57.

ebrated by his fasting.


c
al- Attar al-Dinawari (201,

Ibn Mamlula
to

H.

3270,

II,

known

erally

Yahya

58.
59.

Sa

b.

mosque. He

id

Harun

(ob.

b.

Ma

is

ruf

al-Qattan

206 A.

named

the

al-

Attar, gen

Imam

of the

198 A. H.) and Yazid

(ob.

The Mosque

H.).

Traditions from

heard

b.

Mammula, was

as

congregational

Ma ruf

b.

According

14).

Muhammad

cel

of

Mammula

after him.

b. Jibril (238,

Marandi, Husayn
Marastani, Ibrahim. His

i).

name

full

is

Abu

Ishaq Ibra

him b. Ahmad al-Marastani. He was a friend of Junayd. H. II, 308^, where the text is given of a letter
him by Junayd.

written to
60.

Marwazi,
c

61.

Abdallah

Ali al-Ribati

Died

Tusi.

(q. v.).
c

Abu

Ibn Masruq,

l-

at

TA

I,

b.

Muhammad

al-

298 or 299 A. H. Q. 27.

in

115.

Ibn Masruq, Muhammad al-Baghdadi (297, 5). Contem


porary with Junayd (K. 415). Probably the same as

N.
63.

Abbas Ahmad

Baghdad

K. 146. N. 83.
62.

Contemporary with Abu

(178, 20).

61.

Mimshadh
II,

al-Dinawari.

157. Sh.

Died

in

299 A. H. N. 88.

TA

135.

I,

64.

Ibn al-Misri, Husayn (198,

65.

nayd.
c
Ibn al-Mu allim,

Contemporary with Ju

16).

Abu Bakr

(208,

i).

See the List

of

Authorities under Khayyat.

66.

Muhammad b. Ahmad, Abu 1-Hasan (292, n) = Ahmad


1-Hasan = Ibn Salim. See the
b. Muhammad Abu
List of Authorities.

67.

Muhammad

b.

Isma

Bakr al-Kattani
68.

Muhammad

il

(ob.

Ya qub

(189,9).

322 A. H.).

b.

Contemporary with Abu

(287,

n)

= Ibn

al-Faraji.

XXIX

LIST OF SUFIS.
69.

Munadi,

Abu

70.

al-Muqri (191,

allah

b.

He died in 366 A.
Abu 1-Musayyib (207,

Abu

Mushtuli,

Hasan
of

Abu

He
73.

Ibn

b.
c

full

Abu AbdMuhammad al-Muqri.


name

is

Ahmad b.
H. TS uSa.

Muhammad

His

22).

N. 332. Sh. i, 166.


Contemporary with Abu

n).

320 A. H.).
Ali (158,21). His full name

1-Husayn al-Darraj
72.

Contemporary with

1-Qasim, of Naysabur.

-Hasan al-Bushanji of Naysabur (ob. 347 or


348 A. H.). Q. 125,4 from foot and 126,3.
c
Abu cAbdallah
Muqri, Abu Abdallah al-Razi (149, 1 6)
b.

71.

Abu

Musa

Ali b.

Ali

(ob.

He was
and Abu Ya qu b

Ali

a pupil

al-Mushtuli.

al-Katib

b.

Abu

is

al-Susi.

died in 340 A. H. N. 250.


c

Ali,

al-Muwaffaq,

Dhu 1-Nun

al-Mfsri

more than

of

Baghdad

(ob.

245

A.

pilgrimages to

fifty

(290,

He met

18).

H.). He performed
Mecca. H. II, 301^.

N. 108.

74.

Ibn al-Muwallad

75.

Muzayyin, Abu

76.

Muzayyin al-Kabir
528^,

Raqqi.

1-Hasan. Died in 328 A. H. Q. 32. N. 188.

Abu

from foot and

Ansari (N.

p.

180,

1.

Hasan al-Muzayyin. See

foil.

18

to

According
were two
foil.) there

named Abu 1-Hasan al-Muzayyin. The

Abdallah

elder,

Sufis

known

Muzayyin al-Kabir, was a native of Baghdad and


was buried there. The younger, known as Muzayyin
al-Saghir, was also a native of Baghdad, but was
as

that
at

Sam

on the other hand, says


1-Hasan al-Muzayyin al-Kabir was buried

Mecca.

buried at

Abu

ani,

Mecca.
c

77.

78.

Abu Uthman (307, 20).


Nahawandi, Abu 1-Qasim b. Marwan (288, 16).
of Abu Sa id al-Kharraz (ob. 277 or 286 A.
Nasibi, Abu Abdallah (190, i).
th
century.
Nassaj, Abu Muhammad (399, i). 4
Muzayyin,

sahib

79.
80.

H.).

XXX
81.

INTRODUCTION.

82.

Ali al-Ribati

Abu

Nibaji,
c

Abu

Nawribati,

(q. v.).

Abdallah

Abdallah Sa

id b.

(ob.

83.

Abu

Qalanisf,

full

name

Abu

is

1-Nun

Ahmad

b.

Abi

230 or 246 A. H.),

who

of

dotes of him. H.
c

His

(222, 12).

Yazid al-Nibaji. He was contem


one
(ob. 245 A. H.) and was

porary with Dhu


of the teachers

Damascus

Abu

Ali (183,7). Perhaps the same as

II,

A. 553^,

8 1.

Abdallah Ahmad.

He

1-Hawari

N. 86.

6.
is

of

related anec

have

to

said

been the teacher of Junayd (175, 20), but this state


ment, which has been added by a corrector, is prob
ably untrue. The answer given by him (176, 3) is
ascribed in H. and in the Kitdb al-Lumc
1

to

6)

Abu Ahmad

H.

al-Qalanisi.

II,

itself (217,

2560 and N.

how he saved his life by keeping


in, merely
a vow which he had made that he would never eat
relate

elephant
84.

Abu Ahmad Mus

Qalanisf,
to

flesh.

Merv but

A rabi
c

II,

A. 462^,

Abu

Husayn

AH

He

b.

Abd

Mansur

b.

87.

Qarmisim, al-Muzaffar (191,

died in 290 A. H. at

al-Rahim.

Qassab,

Abu

Ja far (216,

5).

Muhammad

One
8).

of the

He was

al-Kharraz,

Ja far (205,

15).

He

Qassab,

related

MSS. has Farwi.


a sahib of

who

resided at

was contemporary with Abu Sa


277 or 286 A. H.).
89.

He

al-Hallaj (ob. 309 A.H.).

died

320 A. H. Al-Muzaffar died at Ramla (N.


1
8). TS. 910. Q. 32. N. 270. Sh. I, 150.
88.

b. al-

13.

Qarawi,

b.

Abu Sa id

Baghdad.

299^. N. 109.

86.

allah

originally belonged
c

resided in

Qannad, Abu 1-Hasan


sayings of

He

ab.

associated with him.

Mecca. H.
85.

Muhammad

b.

id

p.

Abd-

before
113,

1.

Ramla and

al-Kharraz

(ob.

Ali (24, 20). Teacher of Junayd.

XXXI

LIST OF SUFIS.
90.

Muhammad

Qassar,

names
91

10).

Probably these two

same person.

299 A. H.).
Abdallah. His full name
(ob.

Abu

Qurashf,

is

al-Qurashi. H.

id

Abu Abdallah
310^, where

II,

quoted from a book by him entitled


TS. and N.

al-Muwallad.

b.

I,

153.

Abu

Ibn Raz an(?),

1-Hasan (297,

13).

Abu

95.

96.

Ribati, Abdallah (328, 16). Contemporary with


al-Haddad of Naysabur (ob. 271 A. H.).
Ribati,

him

call

Ishaq Ibrahim b. Ahmad b. al-Muwallad. He


in 342 A. H. TS. 94^. H. II, 317^. N. 265.

Abu
died
Sh.

al- taw kid.

Ibrahim

Raqqi,

Sa

b.
is

passage

Shark

94.

Ali (199,

Qazzaz, Hasan al-.Dina wari. Contemporary with Mimshadh

Muhammad

93.

refer to the

al-Dinawari
92.

b.

Abu

Ali

(178, 20).

sahib

Hafs

of Abdallah

al-

Marwazi. Perhaps identical with Ibrahim al-Ribati of


Herat (N. 18), who was a pupil of Ibrahim Sitanbah

97.

Abu Yazid

the contemporary of

(N.

17),

(ob.

261 A. H.).

al-Bistami

al-Dimashqi (197, 20). Contemporary with


Abu Ali al-Rudhabari (ob. 322 A. H.).
Sa igh, Ibrahim (205, 2). He associated with Abu Ahmad

Ibn

Rufay
c

98.

al-Qalanisi
99.

Sa

igh,

him
100.

101.

Yusuf
in

(ob.

290 A.

(197, 16).

H.).

Abu Bakr

(q.v.)

met

Egypt.

Samarqandi,

Muhammad

b.

al-Fadl

al-Balkhi

87. N. 119. Sh.

II,

Abu

(ob.

Ja

far,

al-Fadl ==

319 A.

TA.

Saydalani,

al-Zaqqaq

I,

H.).

Muhammad

Q.

24.

b.

K. 140.

117.

of Baghdad.

He was contem

porary with Junayd and was one of the teachers


c
c
of Abu Sa id b. al-A rabi. He died in Egypt. N. 197.
102.

Sijzi,

Abu Abdallah

Hafs al-Haddad

(191, 22).
(ob.

271

He
A.

associated with

H.).

TS.

tfb.

H.

Abu
II,

INTRODUCTION.

XXXII

N. 115. Sh.
for

103.

Sindi,

I,

132 (where

is

<5\

a mistake

l5jf J\).
c

Abu

Abu Yazid

Ali.

al-Bistami

(ob.

261 A. H.)

learned from him the theory of fand. N. 43.


104.

Abu

Subayhi,

and

ascetic

Abdallah, of Basra.
said

is

to

He was

have lived

great

for thirty years


G

H. gives his name as Abu Abdallah


c
c
b.
Abdallah b. Bakr. Abu Nu aym alal-Husayn
Isbahani (ob. 430 A. H.). says that his father was
in

a cellar.

a sahib of Subayhi, before the latter


settled

Basra and

3150. N.

II.

190. Sh.

j& ^\ is a mistake for ^^\).


Sulami, Ahmad b. Muhammad (185,23). Contemporary
with Abu Abdallah al-Husri (q. v.).
Sulami, Isma
(332, 13). Contemporary with Abu Bakr
I,

105.

TS. ?$&. H.

Sus.

at

left

136 (where

06.

il

al-Zaqqaq

(q. v.).
c

107.

Abu Ya qub. He resided chiefly at Basra and


Ubulla. He was the teacher of Abu Ya qub al-Nahr-

Susi,

ajuri (ob.
1

08.

330 A.

Tabaristani,
c

109.

Ja

Tayalisi,

10.

Tusi,

Tusi,

far

al-Razi.

(171, 15;

The

nisba

Abu VAbbas Ahmad

Masruq

in.

N. 139.
1

6).

Tayalisi

is

conjec

b.

b.

Mansur of Baghdad

of Ibn

Masruq

al-Kharraz, and Junayd. N.


c

Abu

Ukbari,

Muhammad

Ibn

al-Tusi.

Muhammad

was the teacher

112.

190,

See notes at 288, 10; 336, 13; and 359,6.

tural.
1

H.).

Abu lmran

1-Faraj

(252,

(183,4).

al-Tusi,

He

Abu Sa

id

53.

10).

Contemporary with

Shibli.
c

113.
1

14.

Umar

b.

Bahr (260,9). Contemporary with

Shibli.

Urmawi, al-Kurdi al-Sufi. Perhaps identical with Abu


1-Husayn al-Urmawi (N. 295), who was contemporary
with

Abu Abdallah

al-Rudhabari

(ob.

369 A.

H.).

LIST OF SUFIS.
115.

Ibn Yazdaniyar,

He

Abu Bakr

followed a

b. All,

al-Husayn

of his

path

XXXIII

own

in

of Urmiya.

Sufism and came


c

and other Sheykhs of lraq


opposed. It is greatly to be

into conflict with Shibli

whose doctrines he

regretted that the chapter which Sarraj devotes to

116.
117.
1 1

8.

is wanting in both MSS.


TS.
940. Q. 32. N. 219. Sh. I, 151.
p.
Zahirabadhi, Abu Bakr (41, 10).
Zajjaji, Ahmad b. Yusuf (177, 3).

him

in the

See

f.v.

Kitdb al-Lumc

Zaqqaq, Abu Bakr. His full name is Abu Bakr Ahmad


b. Nasr al-Zaqqaq al-Kabir al-Misri. He was a con

temporary of Junayd. Amongst his pupils were


Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq al-Saghir of Baghdad and Abu

Bakr al-Duqqi. Q.
JjViijM

119.

Ibn

is

25.

N.

213.

Sh.

I,

117 (where

a mistake for JjVsjH).

Ziri (194,2)

Abu

1-Husayn

b. Ziri (272, 14).

sahib of Junayd.
120.

Zurayq,
with

Sheykh
c

(287,6).

Abu Abdallah

Maghribi,

b. al-Jalla (ob.

contemporary
306 A.

H.).

XXXIV

INTRODUCTION.

Until
(Hajjf

five

years ago the Kitdb al-Lumc


ed.

Khalifa,

Fluegel,

N.

331,

l-Tasawwuf
11178) was known
fi

only by its title. Since then two copies have come to light,
one of which belongs to Mr. A. G. Ellis, while the other has
recently been acquired

by the

British

Museum (Or. 7710). Owing

the kindness of Mr. Ellis, the former

to

my

hands from the date

whom

MS. has remained

began to prepare this


edition until the last proof-sheets were corrected. The con
ditions under which the British Museum codex is accessible
in

not

are

attractive

any one

to

at

living

from

distance

have to thank Dr. Barnett, Head of the


Oriental Department, for the readiness with which he granted
my request that he would allow me to have the MS. pho

London, and

tographed.

The photographs made by Mr. R.

are so excellent that whatever inaccuracies

B.

Fleming

be found

may

in

the critical notes are probably due to me.


In the following description of these

Mr. Ellis

manuscript
B. They are similarly designated

A
(fif.

contains

\a

193^)

197
is

scription uJJ^ai}\

the title-page
ic

The

folios.

shall call

in the critical notes.

text

of the

Kitdb al-Luma

preceded by a title-page, bearing the

w_j\i5
^Vj-iJ T^\

memoranda (mostly
is

two MSS.

and the British Museum manuscript

illegible)

by

as

well

and ending

in

number of

as a

different hands.

a full table of contents,

Following

beginning .jLj\

i^A>

^j

L,

<jv.

-^v^

The

text

is

written

with great distinctness,

each page containing twenty-one lines, but diacritical points


left out frequently, and vowel-marks almost invariably.

are

= June

is dated the 10* of Rabf II, 683 A. H.


A.
D. The name of the copyist, Ahmad b.
1284

26th,

Muhammad

THE MANUSCRIPTS.
occurs

al-Zahiri,

(A

ff.

end of three of the four samd cs

the

at

ig6a) which

193^

MS. dated
A. D. This

superior to

is

15^,

the original
of which
(J-^V^)

is

transcribed from a

= April

he

the ;th of Sha ban, 566 A. H.

MS.

XXXV

n^i

a copy.

is

but that of age. There

in all respects

can be few manuscripts of the 13^1 century that are so well


preserved. The ink seems to have lost scarcely anything
of

its

as

clear

firm
as

and glossy blackness, and nearly every word is


if it had been written yesterday. The margins

have been curtailed by the binder s knife and honeycombed


here and there by worms, so that a small portion of the

numerous marginal notes has disappeared. These notes af


evidence of careful collation not only with the asl, to
which I have referred above, but also with other MSS. of

ford

some

cases

the

43#, 63^, 85^,

109^,

128^,

work

the
(ff.

2\b,

on

f.

in

the

).

In

has

scribe

copied samd

163^,

147^,

1830);

177^,

139^ he has supplied several words that were omitted


asl.

made by

Most of the annotations, however, have been

hands; they are plentiful in the first half of


has a
text but then become sparse. Unfortunately
lacuna (1790, last line) which probably covers between ten
later

the

and

and

fifteen folios,

have been wholly


(1)

(3)

(4)

the gap. Five chapters

fill

infidelity

brought against

1-Husayn al-Nuri in the presence of the Caliph.

Concerning

Abu Hamza

al-Sufi

2
).

Concerning a number of Sheykhs who were charged with


infidelity and persecuted.
c

Abu Bakr

Concerning
b.

1)

does not

Concerning the accusation of

Abu
(2)

lost:

Ali b. al-Husayn (read al-Husayn

Ali) b. Yazdaniyar.

This

is

attested

by such phrases

as

sLViu

*1>,

P
\

Jj

<dj\JL

il

&\M

il

*
<d

2) Probably Abii

Hamza Muhammad

b.

Ibrahim al-Baghdadi

(ob.

289 A.H.).
IV

XXXVI

INTRODUCTION.

Muhammad

Concerning

(5)

Musa al-Farghani and some

b.

of his sayings.

The beginning

of a sixth

sayings of Wasiti

),

Museum, Or. 7710)

(British

A. H.

dated Jumada

is

September 1153 A. D. The

August
worm-eaten in many
on the whole,
243

chapter, in explanation of the

has also disappeared.

places,

is

contents (2a

in a tolerable state of preservation.

The

b}.

though

text,

written clearly and remains,

After the Bismillak there

folios.

548

II,

text begins in

contains

an incomplete table of
the middle of a sentence
is

(30,
i) and concludes (242^, 1. 4 foil.) with a passage on love
(makabbat), which is now for the most part illegible and which
1.

does not occur

A. This passage, however, covers

in

a page.

The omissions

with A,

it

in

are very serious;

as

less

than

compared

defective to the extent of over a third of the

is

arrangement is chaotic. The correct order is given


second column of the following table which also

text. Its
in

the

shows what portions of the text are missing.

A
A,

fol.

11.

A,

fol.

la,

11.

10

A,

fol.

1.

itf,

a,

B
B, om.

10.
16.

B,

fol.

17

50,

A,

fol.

50,

1.

fol.

A,

fol.

6#,

1.

fol.

A,

fol.

io0,

A,

fol.

i60,

A,

fol.

170,

1.

fol.

320,

A,

fol.

32^,

1.

fol.

410,

1.

1.

fol.

fol.

A,

fol.

4 1^,

1.

15

fol.

620,

1.

A,

fol.

630, last line

A,

fol.

680,

A,

fol.

690,

1.

A,

fol.

950,

1.

A,

fol.

1050,

12

8
1.

60,

B,

i.

1.

B,

30,

1.

fol.

fol.

40,

1.

150, last line.

fol.

150,

fol.

430, last

fol.

69^,

fol.

870,

900, last line.

line.

10.

1.

fol.

870,

fol.

B,

fol.

430,

fol.

520, last line,

B,

fol.

680,

fol.

69*2, last line.

fol.

1090,

1.

8.

B, om.

1050,

12.

B,

fol.

900,

B,

fol.

2320;,

2.

line.

7.

B, om.

1.

1.

1.

B,

950,

1080,

fol.

B,

12.

fol.

40, last line.

B,

1.

fol.

fol.

7.

680,

69^,

15.

1.

fol.

ii.

B, om.

630, penult.
fol.

11.

3.

1.

1.

3#,

B, om.

i.

620, last

fol.

fol.

12

9.
1.

fol.

B, om.

7.

17^,

fol.

10

1.

io0,

A,

1.

6#,

1.

1.

1.

fol.

1.

238^,

I.

last line.

i) Abii Bakr al-Wasiti, the same person as Muhammad b. Musa al-Far


ghani mentioned in the preceding chapter. See List of Stiffs under Farghani.

THE MANUSCRIPTS.
2

fol.

16.

XXXVII

B,

fol.

B,

fol.

238^,

B,

fol.

62/5,

fol.

A,

fol.

1090,

A,
A,

fol.

109,5,

1.

13

fol.

1 1

2,

1.

fol.

113^,

1.

4.

B,

fol.

54/5,

A,

fol.

113^,

1.

fol.

1140,

1.

7.

B,

fol.

241*5,

A,

fol.

1140,

1.

fol.

115/5,

1.

4.

B,

fol.

52/5,

A,

fol.

115/5,

1.

fol.

H9/z,

I.

B,

fol.

56/5,

A,

fol.

fol. 147/5, 1.
1190, penult.
fol. 1530, 1. 1 8.
147^, 1. 2
fol. 1720, 1. 8.
1530, 1. 18

B,

fol.

io8/5,

1.

16

1.

A,

fol.
fol.

A,

fol.

1720,

1.

A,

fol.

172^,

1.

10

A,

fol.

1730, last line

As

1.

fol.

1 1

1730,

8.

1.

19.
2.

193/5,

last line.

1.

B,

fol.

B,

fol.

in

1.

last line.

68,

fol.

56^, last line.

fol.

last line.

last line.

2420,

540, last line.

fol.

1.

last line.

2390,

fol.

1.

241 0,

fol.

I
fol. 62#, last line.
1.
fol. 191/7,1.4.
1310, last line
fol. 1220, 1. 10.
109/5, 1. 2

last line.

1.

fol.

2300,

B, fol. 230/5,

fol.

232/2,

B,

fol.

1.

1220,

1.

10

242*5,

11.

fol.

1.

6.

1310, penult.

B, ora.

4.

fol.

17.

provenance of the present text of the

the

regards

1.

fol.

191^,

B,

Kitdb af-Luma

1.

B, om.

10.

1.

1780, 1.2.

fol.

fol.

12.

1.

20,

172*5,

fol.

1.

109^,

fol.

A,

A, fol. 1780,
A, om.

1090,

fol.

1.

239^,

A,

the

opening

of

lines

(p.

11.

!*

was put together by an


anonymous editor from written materials which were com
municated to him by several persons residing in Baghdad and
in this edition)

Damascus,

of

all

1-Waqt Abd

whom

al-Awwal

b.

who

in

Muhammad
This isndd

Abu
Abu 1-Waqt

derived their information from


b.

lsa al-Sijzi;

and that

465 A. H. from Ahmad b. Abi Nasr alturn received it from Abu Muhammad al-Hasan

obtained his text


Kufani,

stated that the text

is

it

in

al-Khabushani, presumably a pupil of the author.


will

not bear examination. According to the


Abu 1-Waqt died in 553 A. H. at

Shadhardt al-Dhahab,
the

age of ninety-five,

so

that

he was only seven years

Under 553 A. H. the Shadhardt gives the following account of Abu 1-Waqt

u\

&3jj>\

(Brockelmann

i,

*{ i$

157)
(

b-

467 A. H.)
(pb.

471 A. H.)

INTRODUCTION.

XXXVIII

when Kufani

old at the time

the

text

him.

to

alleged to have transmitted

is

Moreover, Kufani died at Herat

in

464
Then, as regards the persons (four men and one
woman) whom the anonymous editor mentions by name as
his immediate authorities, we learn from the Tabaqdt alA. H.

Handbila of Ibn Rajab that Abu 1-Qasim Ali, the son of


Abu 1-Faraj c Abd al-Rahman Ibn al-Jawzi, died in 630
A.H. at the age of eighty 3 ). He was therefore born in 550

A. H., three years before the death of Abu 1-Waqt, and


not possibly have received information from him. A

could

anachronism

further

involved

is

in

the

appearance of a

great-grandson of the Caliph Mutawakkil as one of the five

even

the

of

reporters

Mutawakkil died

text.

we allow 50 years

if

in

247 A. H., and

each generation we only

for

reach 400 A. H.

At

end

the

Ahmad

of

&

196^,

the copyist,

8)

al-Zahiri, has transcribed four samd

s,

in his original.

was copied in an abridged form by


566 A. H. It gives the names of seven per-

of these

first

Ibn Yahya

193^, 16

(ff.

Muhammad

b.

which he found

The

4
)

in

\JC

1) The Shadkardt, it will be noticed, makes the almost equally incredible


statement that in the same year (465 A. H.) Abu 1-Waqt attended lectures
on the Sahih of Bukhari and other books of Traditions.

as

2) Yaqut, ed. by Wiistenfeld,


his kunya, but Yaqiit reads

written

1-Waqt
3)

is

foil.

Bakr; which

For Abu

on the margin of A.

The Lttwtf

gives

Abu Nasr

confirmed by the samcfs


1-Waqt al-Bahri (1. 16) read Abu
is

al-Sijzi.

owe

these

to

details

Tabaqdt al-Hanabila.
it

IV 321, 14

Abu

He

Mr.

who possesses a MS. of the


of Ibn al-Jawzi (ob. 597 A.H.)
c
al- Aziz, received instruction from Abu

A. G.

adds that in the

Ellis,
life

Abd
Muhammad b. Nasir al-Silafi (ob. 550 A. H.). This is quite poss
c
c
since Abd al- Aziz died in 554 A.H. during his father s lifetime.
Abu l-Ma ali Ahmad b. Yahya b. Hibatallah al-Bayyi He seems to
stated

that his eldest

son,

1-Waqt and
ible,

4)

have been the owner of the original MS. from which

was copied. See below.

PROVENANCE OF THE TEXT.


sons, including

Abu 1-Waqt

the Kitdb al-Lumc

in

XXXIX

who heard a portion of


465 A. H. The name of the person
al-Sijzi,

whom

from

they heard it is not mentioned.


The second was copied by cAbd al- c Aziz
2

al-Akhdar

b.

al-Lumc
the

2th

in

b.

Mahmud

gives the

l-Ma

ali

Ahmad

whole of the

the

b.

names of
b.

Kitdb

of sessions which were completed on

series

of Rabi

It

Abu

(headed by
Hibatallah) who heard
persons

twenty-five

Yahya

an unspecified date.

at

553 A. H.

II,

The names

of two persons

added who attended every session except one. The text


which these twenty-seven persons heard was read to them

are

by Sheykh Abu

Yusuf

1-Fath

al-Dimashqi on the authority of


Kufani, from Khabushani.

The

Muhammad b. Muqallad
Abu 1-Waqt al-Sijzi, from

b.

samd^ contains the names of a hundred and

third

whom the
Abu

forty persons to

1-Waqt, was read by

Abu

entire text, as derived from

1-Fadl b. Shafi

during a number

of sessions, the last of which took place on the gth of Sha c ban,

553

A. H. Many of these names are

occurs

the

name
c

al-Qadir

al-Jili.

of

Abd

Abd

Razzaq (born 528 A. H.


years

of age

al-Razzaq, the

died

al-Qadir

died

when he heard

Among them
son of Abd
A. H. Abd al-

illegible.

in

fifth

561

623 A. H.) was twenty-five


Kitdb al-Lumcf on this

the

occasion.

The

samd c enumerates thirty-one

fourth

persons, including

two women, who heard Abu 1-Waqt s text of the whole


volume. At the head of the list stands the well-known author
of the

Addb

al-muridin,

Abu

1-Najib

Abd

al-Qahir b.

The same sawd c

Abd-

is given more
fully in various places on the margin of
supra}^ each record covering a certain portion of the text.
These marginal samcfs name Abu Bakr al-Kufani as the authority for the text

1)

(see

p.

XXXV

and Abu Hafs


2)

Umar

al-Farawi as the reader.

MS. ^a-Y\, The penultimate

letter

is

clearly sad, not mini.

INTRODUCTION.

XL
al-Suhrawardi

dallah

Rahim and Abd

563 A. H.), with his sons

(ob.

al-Latif.

The

reader was Yusuf

b.

Abd alMuham

Muqallad al-Dimashqi (already mentioned in the


c
second samd ), and the last meeting was held on the nth o f
ends with the following words:
Rajab, 553 A. H. The sama

mad

<~

b.

Cr*

-A ^-^

>^

me

seems to

It

likely

f*

that

the

isndd

is

a fiction based

A. H. occurs

in the first
upon the samd s. The date 465
c
record that Kufani s
samd those written in the margin of
c
text of the Luma was read to Abu 1-Waqt in that year;

and

in

his text

not see

the second samd*

the

any one
it

as

at

transmitted

editor

is

do

later

465 A. H.
date from one
as

Abu

1-Waqt

may have

but he

of Kufani

pupils.

persons who

are said to

the

anonymous

text

to

discredited on chronological grounds and also lacks

external

samd

early

given in the isndd of five

list

Had

accept the statement that Abu 1-Waqt


text from Kiifanf himself or that he heard it

have

the

asserted that Kiifanf derived

how we can

received

The

is

from Khabushani. For reasons indicated above,

received

from

it

authority.

None

of those

five

names appears

in

the

s.

authenticity

of the

text

been doubtful,

should

myself obliged to print the samd s in full, since


they might have helped us to settle the question one way
or the other. But there is nothing in the book, as it stands,

have

to

felt

support

or

justify

such a suspicion, and

the evidence

equally convincing. Qushayrf in his Risdla


from the Lunicf which agree
(437 A. H.) cites many passages
our
text.
with
Hujwiri, writing twenty or thirty years later,

from outside

made

is

free use of the

work, and he quotes verbatim a passage

on adab, which occurs

in the

present edition, p.

Iff,

1.

11,

PROVENANCE OF THE TEXT.


foil.

The Kitdb al-Lumcf

Ihyd.

is

one of the sources of Ghazzali

M. Louis Massignon has

XLI

my

called

attention to a

Tabaqdt al-Shdffiyyat al-Kubrd of Subki


A.
H., part V, p. 123, 11. 13
19), where Sarraj
(Cairo, 1324
is

the

in

passage

by Abu 1-Qasim

cited

of the

Hadith,

to Lumcf, p. Tvl*,

of the Lu/na

a veil

"Lo,

God

ask pardon of
c

(p.

al-Rafi

c
i

is

impugning the genuineness


drawn over my heart and I
as

a hundred times every

1.

n*

foil,

b,

(under

1.

foil.)

r.,

&\).

This refers

day."

3
)

was cited

Another passage

7V-

in the lost

rikh al-Siifiyya of Sulami (ob. 412 A. H.), whence it was


extracted by Khatib and published by him in the History

of Baghdad*}.

The

description

above

will

of the

two MSS. which has been given

my

explain

sufficiently

decision to

basis of the present edition, notwithstanding

the

relative in

its

Although, as a rule, the textual differences


unimportant, I have recorded almost every variation,
in age.

feriority

are

make

however

so that the reader practically has both texts

trivial,

before him.
in a

The

readings of

have been followed throughout


number of instances which

comparatively small

except
will be found in the foot-notes.
1)

341.

Kashf al-Mahjub, Lucknow ed., 265, 8


The same passage is cited by Qushayri, 153,

See

Attar,

320,

Tadhkirat al-Avoliya, II,

= my

translation, p.

and

in Persian by
and
Jami, Nafahdt al-Uns,
21,
5 foil,

714is

2) Sarraj

passage

JRAS

cited

following
for

1901,

by name in the Ihya (Biilaq, 1289 A.H.), II, 278, 6. The


which has been translated by Prof. D. B. Macdonald in

p.

745,

quotations from Abu Sa

H.,

11.

if

extent of
in

an abridgment

is

Two

ters

15

183,

foil.

id b.

of Lumaf, p. M**,

al-A rabi (Lumaf,

p.

^,

11.

1.

foil.

and

p.

JRAS ibid., p. 720. The


i*) occur in the Ihya, II, 269, \>]^
Ghazzali s debt to Sarraj may be estimated by comparing the chap

the

Lumcf

that

treat

of

music and ecstasy with the corresponding

portion of the Ihya.


c
as
3) According to Rafi i the Tradition in question was described by Sarraj

JxL

d-o-k>,

but the words used in the Lttmcf are

^Ji^>

_s\-

a la biographic a al-Hosayn
4) See Massignon, Quatre textes inedits, relatifs
ibn Mansour al-Hallaj, p. 25*, N. 23.

INTRODUCTION.

XLII

The omission

of words or passages in one of the MSS. is


I have not thought it necessary to record
but
always noted,
have been
every occasion when words which occur in

supplied in

As
the

by

f r
\j--X>

s?

MSS., e.g. such forms as

of the

y^)

printed text does not retain

the

regards spelling,

peculiarities

jV*-,

a later hand.

f r

all

for
J,V*x>

"*

t5^

Hamza

very

rarely

ap-

have generally restored it. Where


pears
has been added over a medial yd, the dots under that
it
MSS., but

in the

allowed

are

letter

sSC^L).

stand: thus,

to

must admit that

entirely consistent, for


left

unaltered, as J.~-

my

a53^L (the

MSS.

practice in this respect

write
is

sometimes the MS. spelling has been

= J*~.

Yd

often substituted for alif

is

-is

hamzatum
Ja)\

forms
4j^s

in the final radical of the verb.

e.

= &f

UyU\

g.

= \&j \*U\

g.

One can only

how

conjecture

If P 1.

11

foil.),

but theosophical;
blunders,

it

is

grammar was
he

did

= Ul\,

retained.

the author shares with

far

numerous grammatical mis

takes and irregularities which are found in the


(p.

^\

his copyists responsibility for the

says

MS. readings have been

In such cases the

e.

and consequently we meet with many inGorrect

\3a$^

not

the adab of the Sufis

is

MSS. As he

not philological

and though we may acquit him of gross

more than
imperfect,

not observe

all

likely that his

and that
the

in

knowledge of Arabic
writing the language

niceties appropriate to a high

standard of literary composition. The most common errors


and solecisms may be classified as follows: Use of the ac
cusative

instead

of

the

nominative

(^

instead of

jj

),

and of the nominative instead of the accusative (especially


after
tion,

^\)

after

omission

and

of the

^j^

id,

(19,8;

with or without a preposi

95,19;

154,6,16;

198,2;

AND GRAMMAR.

PECULIARITIES OF SPELLING
282,4;

313,4; 406,5,

etc.)\

use of the plural verb

precedes a plural subject (17,1;


ther

the

in

examples

18, 2;

use

foot-notes);

XLIII

when

158,22; 165,9;

it

fur ~

of the Imperfect in

apodosis of conditional sentences (116,19; ^5, 18 et


of the Subjunctive;
passim)-, use of the Indicative instead
the

omission of ^J after C\. With regard to these irregularities

and others of the same kind, I have acted on the principle that
while an editor is bound to correct flagrant faults of syntax,
it is no part of his business to improve the author s style.
But the chief

difficulties

of the

Kitdb al-Lumc? are not

they arise from the subtlety and abstruseness of the ideas which mystical writers have to ex
essentially

In

press.

linguistic;

their

though

initiated

it

it

may

to

meaning
undoubtedly suggests
be comprehended as a whole, but

text of this character

and

corruption

emendation. The
sented to

grammarian can make


a

bear logical analysis.


liable

no

that

employ language
gible,

to express such ideas the Sufis often

effort

critic

is

line

the

will

not

peculiarly

reach of
beyond
disarmed when the notions pre
the

almost

him are so obscure and

draw any sharp

is

intelli

to

elusive that he cannot

between sense and nonsense, or con

vince himself that one reading

is

superior to another.

For a large portion of the book we have to depend on a


single MS., and there are many passages which the author
cannot have
tical
I

verses

have done

written exactly as they


are

my

now

sometimes unmetrical

as

stand.

well

The mys

as

corrupt.

best to alleviate the difficulties of the text,

without altering it except in a few places where the remedy


seemed to be fairly obvious. That it requires further cor
rection
for

the

is

evident, but in editing a

first

time,

conjectural

work of

emendation

this description
is

only justified

when it can claim a high degree of probability.


The Abstract of Contents will, I believe, be found useful
both by those who wish to refer to the original and by

XLIV

INTRODUCTION.

who do

those

study of
the

that

not read

Muhammadan
English

Arabic but are interested

mysticism.

Index

(pp.

122

to the principal subjects discussed

in the

should be pointed out

It

130) supplies references

by

Sarraj and also to the

Arabic technical terms which he explains


his work.

the course of

in

In the Glossary I have collected a number of words and


forms which illustrate the author s somewhat unclassical style.

them occur

Dozy, but his examples of their


usage are generally drawn from writers belonging to a much
later period. The fact that Sufism was largely a popular

Many

of

movement

in

close

Moslems could not


vulgarise

deplored.
Sufi

in

touch with the poorer and uneducated


fail to lower its literary standards and

vocabulary; but this is not entirely to be


Unlike the philologists and lexicographers, the

its

authors

availed

themselves

freely

of the

and

living

growing language of their time, and helped to overcome


the academic influences which, if unchecked, would have
raised

against the extension and diffusion of

a barrier

Mu

hammadan culture amongst those who needed it most.


The book has been printed with the accurate and finished
workmanship that Orientalists have learned to expect from
Messrs Brill, and though the list of Corrigenda and Addenda
is

For these

a long one, there are few serious errors.

responsible, but

which

befall

preoccupation

more

my

the
or

will

hope they
most careful proof-reader
fatigue.

It

am

be excused as misfortunes
in

moments

of

only remains to express once

gratitude to Mr. A. G. Ellis for

having placed at
without
restriction
whatever, the manuscript
my disposal,
any
that forms the basis of the present edition and is the unique
authority for a large portion of the original text.

REYNOLD

A.

NICHOLSON.

ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.
Page

Line
I.

For

\&k>

read
-_,

.~~

tf

f,

For

&*>

.For

tiU

If

IF

Dele the

IA

I**

For

FF

IF

o>tj

(note

read

&.

Ansari in

Qushayri

(I,

Fariduddm

his

<Attar

(Tadhkirat

,^.-j-z>

fault

in

commentary on the Risdla of

172, 1) says:

with

rhymes

is

in

For ,la read .Lo.

I.)

i.

at

read

hamza

read

*X>

historical

^.-XAOJ,

matters,

al-Awliijd,

II,

and though he
it

seems

to

me

132, 3)
is

often

that he

a more trustworthy authority than Ansari as regards

the correct pronunciation of the nisba.

For

L\j>m

For

*i

S^

For

jFor

Jo

^*i
5

11

read
xi .Jo.

reat^

read will.
O

read
This saying in a somewhat diff
I^Ub
^Lb.
erent form is attributed by Qushayri (12, 8) to Sari

J^or

al-Saqati.

ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.

XLVI
Page

Line

f*

If

fA

11

For JJu read

The

(jMyj.

correct reading

is

probably u^Lsu.

See

Glossary.
G
fl

<%

6*

jPor

Dele

I*

j&Xo

read

after

>

*J5L\*3.

&JIJ.

The accusative

instead of the nominative,

yv-jiA^,

contrary to rule, (Wright

have written
ir

For

11

Id

For

but the author

may

read
^>J.

tv

85),

so.

it

t>J

IA

II,

is

-- -.

read

^*jJl

Jffyr

For jxli
II,

r^S.

reac?

A-

>

I*

J^or

w. feod w..

11

For

z&

J^or

llf

^or

111

Iv

For

Freytag, Arabutn Proverbia,

421.

vf

II**

Cf.

read UL&.

Lxll read
read

read

Joc>

(}*>

\^>

has

(as

o -

>

reac^

in

A).

>

A.^>.

dropped out before

>

fn

Iv

jf^or

in*

read

It^j**

lo

|l

^or

-*Jy (so

A-,

but the points over the

been added by a later hand) read

initial

have

ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.
Page
Ifl

&J$

For

o^ read
must be made on p.
1.

p.

PL,

p.

XXVII

Ifl

(note P).

tor

For

and

v,

^
UV,

H*V,

p.

The same

Q^
1,

I*,

1.

p.

Iv.

IAA,

1.

If,

correction
p.

!1/\,

1.

A,

See the Introduction,

2.

n.

For sjL^ read

read
CO

flo

For

HA

Perhaps

IA*

XLVII

Line

read

_O

<$\

For ^bCo read

Uf

.For

IAV

LiC) read

have

.^LAMJ

little

doubt that

we should

read

^5 and omit the words i^J3 ^1. Cf.

p.

HI,

where read
IAA

II

read

Hv

read
read
*

f.

For
Read

For
For

instead

of

instead of

instead

of

102a should be printed opposite

lJUx^
Ji

read

/"or

read

this line.

1.

I,

ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.

XLVI1I
Page

Line

For ^^.j\J read

F^o

I*

I*

For

Iff

If

The

If

suggests LpUS

sajt

or

description"

IfP

in

the sense of

"symbolism".

For the construction c\_x_otJl

!v

"metaphorical

^JUaj

see

Wright,

II,

218 CD.
Iff

Jfcad

lijU

/or

.
pt>

rfo

Perhaps

ffA

The following

<$U5

Of.

^yj.

verses

p.

1.

yf*l,

occur thrice

(pp.

22*, 33*, and

Quatre
Massignon
inedits, relatifs a la
biographic d al-Hosayn ibn Mansour al-Halldj where
in

53*)

textea

they are attributed to Hallaj himself. QT. gives eight


verses, and the order is different from that in the

Lumat.

The

are these
If A

variants

that

seem

me worth

to

noting

/br
fJ*A,

f.

j*_kXJf

jJ^G

^a^ lo

rf A

If

In the

L\Co ^x, but

in

the third version

(sic)

tc;t^

B.

Kashkul

(Biilaq,

1288 A. H-),

p.

118,

1.

26,

these verses are attributed to Hallaj.


o

The metre

of this

verse

requires

O
-^-x-^x_*J

13

^j,

whereas in the remaining verses the rhyme-letter must


be pronounced with the vrdb. Moreover, the rhymes
are

highly irregular,

although

the

MSS. present an

appearance of uniformity, which has been obtained at


the expense of

grammar

ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.
Page

XLIX

Line
_ O

_fl

S-.O-.

O _

_ G ^

For l**Xu read


These verses are cited by Qushayri
with the opening verse

(95, 4

al-

III, 62, 2

An sari

Shark al-Risdlat

together

See the supercommentary by Mustafa

kariyya

foil.),

al- Ariisi

on Za-

al-Qushayriyya,

foil.

o^

!v

J?ear^

V!

For AJJJ rea^ Joy.

I!

It

^LXPli;

^yo^

o^kLi. Qushayri has

alter

unnecessary to

is

j,

reading of the MSS.

the

= ,f^i
1*

For ^JLfJ5 read

For
(note

21

oUioLi

I.

For
(note

I!

foil,

rearf

Aghdni, IV 39,

read (probably)

~joA

read

1^
A).

^.
Abu

there,

name

Jarfar

is

Cf. N., f

De^e the reference to the Ansdb.

cannot

For

XLII.

rea^

al-Razi,

For

the Introduction, p.

For Aghdni, IV 21

If).

noticed

cf.

foil.

For

nr

but

be
(cf.

Muhammad

Abdallah

with

identified

PV1,

this

The person
al-Tayalisi
Stiff,

whose

o).

.LwJdi read
Js-^>l

1-Hasan

^j

Ahmad

L\b.

i**.v

For xo read L^s.

Ws

!d

For ^^y^J read

rrr

For

HT

For

X^Lil

s-

read X
read

^ad

Muhammad

b.

Salim.

A^>l

= Abu

ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA

L
Page

Line
ft

For
It

yJilJfj

read jjJUllv

seems probable that

^o?

and the following verbs


_ O

should be read as Imperatives. In this case

^A

be substituted for
.

tv

For

vt

For

HI

Iv

.For

*U^I

read

SL^i.

and
Of.

jLS?

H%

for
A

Perhaps

Grammar

requires

LXT LJU
(Of.

n%

ft.

i^Ui

fll

^ea^

fir

Read

flf

ir

Perhaps

io-

.JJI

X5l.

Of.

^^l^cji may

stand.

Of.

for

ABSTRACT OF CONTENTS.
78

For laqd read

liqd.

~0

v_a=>i

must

KITAB AL-LUMA
ABSTRACT OF CONTENTS.
1

The anonymous editor mentions the names of several per


sons (four residing in Baghdad and one in Damascus) through

whom

the

of the

text

him. All of them derive

Kitdb al-Luma

was transmitted

to

from the same authority, namely,

it

Abu 1-Waqt Abd al-Awwal


Sijzi al-Sufi

b.

al-Harawi al-Malini,

lsa b.

who

Shu c ayb

received

it

b.

in

Ishaq

al-

465 A. H.

Abu Nasr
al-Kiifani, to whom it was
communicated by Abu Muhammad al-Khabushani. Doxology.

from

Praise

teacher

his

to

God, who has endowed the

elect

among His

ser

vants with various degrees of knowledge and understanding

of Himself.

The whole

sources,

the

that

(c)

(a)

which

Prophet and

Koran,
is

his

of knowledge
(b)

revealed
family.

to

and

sciences

tions
their

of Sufism,

the

comprised

in three

It is

Saints. Blessings

The author

Preface.

nature of the present work.

is

Traditions of the Prophet,

the

on the

describes the

a treatise on the principles

including

an account of the tradi

and poems of the Suffs, their questions and answers,


and states
their peculiar symbolism and
stations

technical terms.

The author has

indicated the salient features

topic to the best of his power. He writes as an


orthodox Moslem and begs his readers to study the work
in a spirit of pious devotion and friendliness towards the

of each

t)

This should be

Abu

Bakr.

who, though few in number, are highly esteemed and


honoured by God. Some knowledge of the principles, aims,

Sufis,

and method of genuine Sufis is necessary in this age, in


order that they may be distinguished from the impostors
3

who

name and dress. Description of the


whose hearts God has vivified by gnosis and
their

appropriate

genuine

Sufis,

whose bodies He has adorned with worship, so that they


have renounced all things for His sake. Many of the author s
contemporaries were only theoretically acquainted with Sufism,
yet they composed pretentious books on the subject. This
unfavourably with the behaviour of the eminent
who did not discourse upon mystical questions

contrasts
Suffs

of old

they had undergone austerities and had mortified their


passions and had endeavoured to cut every tie that hindered
them from attaining to God, and who combined theory with
until

4 perfection of
pressed

the

practice.

isndds

and anecdotes

The author

states that he has often sup

and abridged the text of the traditions

in this

He

volume.

has recorded the answers

and sayings of the ancient Sufis inasmuch as these enable


him to do without the ostentatious discussions in which con
temporary writers indulge. God

is

the

enemy

of any one

who

embellishes or clothes in different language a mystical


thought belonging to the ancients and attributes it to him

purpose of winning fame or popularity.


I:
"Explanation of the science of Sufism and

self for the

CHAPTER
the

doctrine

the

of the

Sufis

and

their

position

in

regard to

^ulamd."

The author was asked, by some one who pointed out


that
5

to

diverse

many

explain the

argument how
Traditions.

excellent
religion

opinions

principles

were held concerning Sufism


its doctrine and to show
by
,

of

connected with the Koran and the Apostolic


replies by quoting Kor. 3, 16, where the most

it is

He

of the believers and those of the highest rank in


are

described

as

"the

possessors

of

knowledge"

c
(

Muhammad

l ilm).

(ulu

Similarly,

said

that

the

savants

ulamd) are the heirs of the prophets. The author divides


Culamd into three classes the Traditionists (ashdb al-

these

the Jurists

hadith},

and the

(fuqahd),

Sufis.

Corresponding

to these three classes there are three kinds of religious

know

knowledge of the Koran, knowledge of the Sunna,

ledge:

6 and knowledge of the realities of Faith. The last is identical


with ihsdn (well-doing), which, according to the definition
imparted to the Prophet by Gabriel, consists in "worshipping
God as though thou sawest Him, for if thou seest Him not,
yet

He

action

man

sees

with

should seek

ledge and
in

differ

his

their

possessing
7

Knowledge is joined with


sincerity (ikhlds], and sincerity is
thee."

God

and

this, that a

(wajh Allah] with his know

alone

The

actions.

action,

three

classes

mentioned above

theory and practice and spiritual rank, each


peculiar to itself, as the author

characteristics

now proceeds to explain.


CHAPTER II: "Description

of the classes of Traditionists,

their critical sifting of the


system
Hadith, and their special knowledge of
The Traditionists attached themselves to the external form

of transmission,

their

it."

of the Hadfth, and regarding this as the foundation of religion

they travelled to

all

relaters of Traditions,

and sought out the


they handed down stories

parts of the world

from

whom

about the Prophet and his Companions. They took pains to


all the information that they received, to discover
whether the relaters were trustworthy or not, to arrange
the materials which they had collected, and to distinguish

verify

the genuine

Traditions

from those which were of doubtful

8 authority. In this critical investigation

some achieved greater

success than others and gained such a reputation for learning

testimony as to what the Prophet said and did


and commanded and forbade was universally accepted. The

that

their

Prophet prayed that God would make radiant the face of

any man who heard an Apostolic Tradition and transmitted


it: hence
all Traditionists, it is said, have shining faces.

CHAPTER
various

"Account

of the classes of Jurists and the

which they are specially

with

endowed."

the function of the Jurists to study, interpret, and codify

It is

III:

sciences

by the Ko
ran, the Sunna, the consensus of public opinion, and analogy.
CHAPTER IV: "Account of the Sufis, their theory and
10
the Hadith

--a

task in which they are guided

and the excellent

practice,

qualities

by which they

are cha

racterised."

The

Sufis agree with the Traditionists

and

Jurists in their

and accept their sciences and consult them in diffi


matters of religious law. Should there be a difference
of opinion, the Sufis always adopt the principle of following
beliefs

cult

most perfect course; they venerate the


commandments of God and do not seek to evade them.
the

Such

is

by the
they
1 1

and

strictest

their practice in regard to the formal sciences

handled

Traditionists and Jurists, but having left these behind


to

rise

of mystical devotion and ethical

heights

self-

culture which are exclusively their own.

CHAPTER V:

"Account

feelings of the Sufis,

^ulamd have no

The

first

of the moral culture and spiritual

and of the sciences

in

which the other

share."

point

of distinction

is

that the Sufis renounce

what does not concern them, i. e. everything that hinders


them from attaining the object of their quest, which is God
only.

In

the next place, they possess

and mystical

qualities.

CHAPTER VI:

13
c

ulamd

The

in other

Sufis

application

"How

moral, ascetic,
(pp.

11

13).

the Sufis are distinguished from the

respects."

are

specially

of certain

which inculcate noble


cellent

many

Enumeration of these

by their practical
the Koran and Traditions

distinguished

verses

of

qualities

and lofty feelings and ex

actions such as formed part of the Prophet

nature

and character. The ulamd and the

jurists

acknowledge the

of these verses and Traditions without studying

truth

them

closely and drawing forth their inmost meaning, but the


Sufis realise the qualities and feelings referred to, e. g.,

abstinence,

14 repentance,

each of these

who

persons

states

attain

to

are distinguished

Sufis

patience,
is

represented

diverse

hope,

fear,

by

degrees

etc.,

so that

a special class of

therein. Again, the

by self-knowledge,

for

they examine

order to detect any trace of hypocrisy and


and latent polytheism, that they may escape
from those evils and take refuge with God. Finally, they

themselves
secret

in

lust

have derived from the Koran and the Traditions mystical


c
sciences which it is hard for the jurists and ulamd to under15 stand.

are given.

Examples

The

Sufis are distinguished

from

ulamd by grappling with these recondite


questions and solving them and speaking about them with the
certainty that comes of immediate experience. The whole of
the

rest

Sufism

is

of the

be found in the Koran and the Traditions of

to

the Prophet, a fact which

they investigate

who

it.

is

Those

not denied by the ^ulamd when


who deny it are the formalists

Koran and the Traditions only the


external ordinances and whatever will serve them in con
recognise

in

the

troversy with opponents. The author laments that in his


time this formal theology, inasmuch as it offered a ready

means of obtaining power and worldly

success,

was

far

more

popular than Sufism, which involves bitterness and anguish

and
16

self-mortification.

CHAPTER VII:
the

Sufis

are

tions supply

"Refutation

of those

ignorant, and that the

no evidence

in favour of

who maintain

that

Koran and the Tradi


Sufism."

The Koran mentions numerous classes of men and women


endowed with particular qualities, e. g.
sincere",
of God", etc.
friends
"those who trust in God",
patient",
In the Traditions, too, we find examples not only of
"the

"the

"the

special

classes

but also of individuals

peculiarly holy, such as

Umar

b.

who

are described as

al-Khattab, al-Bara, Wabisa,

Uways al-Qarani, and Talq b. Habib. The circumstance that


these men, though included among the Faithful, are set apart
17 by special designations, indicates their distinction from the
mass of believers. Moreover, the prophets, who occupy a
more exalted position before God than the persons abovementioned, are allowed by the greatest religious authorities
have been like common men in respect of eating and

to

and the ordinary events of life. The distinction


enjoyed by the prophets and by these holy persons was
the result of their intimate communion with God and their

sleeping

exceeding faith in His Word; but the prophets are distin


guished from the rest by inspiration (wahy), the apostolic
office, and evidences of prophecy.

CHAPTER
Sufis

VIII:
those

against

Account of the objection

who

claim the

title

raised

of jurist or divine

(faqih), together with an argument showing what

by understanding
Tradition:
one,

He

in religion

"when

gives

the

(al-fiqh fi

is

meant

*l-din)"

wishes to confer a blessing on any

him understanding

faqih by Hasan of
all

God

by the

in

Basra. Religion

is

religion."

Definition of

a term comprehending

commandments, both outward and inward, and the

endeavour to understand the mystical states and stations


mentioned above is no less profitable than the endeavour to

become

expert in legal knowledge. The latter is seldom


required and can be obtained from a lawyer whenever the
occasion for it arises, but knowledge of the states and
1 8

which the Sufis strive to become proficient is


obligatory upon all believers at all times. The lore deduced
(from the Koran and the Traditions) by the Sufis must be
stations

in

more abundant than the

is

legal

deductions

drawn by the

from the same source, because the mystical science


infinite, whereas all other sciences are finite.

divines

CHAPTER IX:
1

the

9 in

permissibility of a special

by

its

representatives.

refuse

arbitrarily

endowment

and the exclusive possession of

sciences,

religious

every science

who

"The

Confutation of those

recognise a particular science in

to

stead of referring the question to the experts in that


c

Some ulamd deny

that there

is

any

special

science."

endowment

in

The Prophet, however, said,


ye
much."
and
little
would
know, ye
weep
laugh
Now, if this knowledge had been part of the knowledge which
he was commanded to proclaim to mankind, he would have

the

of religion.

science

knew what

proclaimed

it;

and

if

it

"If

had been allowable

for his

Com

ask him about

it,
they would have asked him.
panions
Hudhayfa, one of the Companions, had a special knowledge
c
of the names of the Hypocrites, and Ali b. Abi Talib

to

declared that he learned from the Prophet seventy catego


ries

of knowledge which the Prophet did not impart to any

one

else.

The

truth

is

that the science of religion

20 amongst the Traditionists,


each of these three classes

the Jurists,
is

problems
desires

of Tradition,

to a traditionist.

be instructed

to

Sufis,

upon any

difficulty

and

No

connected

nor will a jurist bring legal

any one who


the mysteries of Sufism must

By
in

divided

independent of the others.

traditionist will consult a jurist

with the science

and the

is

the

same

rule,

who have thoroughly mastered


Let none vituperate a class of men of whose science

seek information from those


the subject.

and

feelings

and aims he knows nothing.

CHAPTER X: "Why the Sufis are so called and why the


name is derived from their fashion of dress."
The author explains that the name Stiff is not connected
with any science or spiritual condition, because the Suff is not
characterised by one particular science or quality but, on the
all praiseworthy qualities. He is
one
state to another, and his prefrom
continually advancing
21 dominant characteristics
vary from time to time, so that he

contrary,

by

all

sciences and

cannot be designated by a name derived from them. The


appellation Sufi is derived from the garments of wool (suf)
which used to be worn by the prophets and saints it is a
:

general term connoting

that

all

praiseworthy. Similarly the

is

were named al-Hawdriyyun

disciples of Jesus

on account

of their white robes.

CHAPTER XI:

of those

"Confutation

never heard mention of the Sufis

name

the
If

that

name

the

apply

title

there were

of Companion,

Sufi

to

which

no

is,

invented

cent origin

name was

amongst the
was impossible

Sufis

that

it

men who were known by


is

of

all

most honourable. The statement that


the

times and that

in ancient

Companions, the reason

that they

modern."

be argued

it

22 Prophet
to

is

who say

titles

Sufi

the

the highest and


is

name

of re

by the people of Baghdad is absurd


in the time of Hasan of Basra and

current

Sufyan al-Thawri, and according to a tale related in the


History of Mecca on the authority of Muhammad b. Ishaq
and others it existed before the promulgation of Islam.

CHAPTER XII:

23

"Demonstration of the reality of

the esoteric

science."

Some

formedists recognise only the science of the external

religious

declare

law comprised
that

the

in

esoteric

the

Koran and the Sunna, and

science,

i.

e.

Sufism,

is

without

meaning. In fact, however, the science of the religious law


has an internal as well as an external aspect and inculcates

inward as well as outward actions. The outward actions are

while

hunger, fasting, almsgiving and the like,


inward actions, or the actions of the heart, are

such

bodily,

the

as

faith, sincerity,

24 signifies

the

knowledge of God,

science

etc.

of the actions

The

of the

esoteric science
interior

which

depend on the interior organ, namely, the heart (al-qalb}\


and is identical with Sufism. The inward aspect of religion
is

the

necessary

complement of the outward

aspect,

and

9
vice versa.

Both aspects are inherent

Traditions of the Prophet, and

CHAPTER XIII:

in

in the

Islam

Koran,

in the

itself.

nature and quality of Sufism."


c
Definitions of Sufism by Muhammad b. Ali al-Qassab, Ju-

25

"The

Amr
Abu Muhammad al-Jariri
Ali b. Abd al-Rahim al-Qannad.
c

nayd, Ruwaym, Sumnun,


c
b. Uthman al-Makki, and

),

CHAPTER XIV: "Description of the Sufis and who they


Sayings of Abd al-Wahid b. Zayd, Dhu 1-Nun al-Misrf,
26 Junayd, Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri. The people of Syria call
the Sufis poor men (fuqara). Meaning of Sufi explained
by Abu Abdallah al-Jalla. It is said that the original form
of the word was Safawi. According to Abu 1-Hasan alare."

from safd (purity). Anonymous


The author s explanation of what is
really implied by the name Sufi
Qannad says that it refers to the dress in which the Sufis
27

Qannad

Sufi

definitions of

derived

is

Sufi

resemble each other outwardly, though they are very diffe


Shibli s answer to the question why the
spiritually.

rent

Sufis

named.

were so

remnant

Ahl

of the

al-suffa.

gave more then a hundred


c

Ali b.

Three

Abd

al-Rahim

been said that they are a


Ibrahim b. Muwallad al-Raqqi

has

It

definitions of Sufism. Verses

by

al-Qannad on the decay of Sufism.

by an anonymous Shaykh referring to three


28 points of view from which Sufism may be regarded. Definitions
definitions

given by Husri to the author. Saying of the Caliph

CHAPTER XV:

"On

Abu

Bakr.

unification (taw hid}"

Definitions of unification, according to the sense which the

Moslems generally attach

to

it,

by Dhu 1-Nun and Junayd.

Definitions of the term, according to the sense which the

29 Sufis attach to

it,

by Junayd. The author

comment on

the

saying of Junayd that "man should return from his last state
to his first state and be as he was before he existed". Saying

:)

Or

Jurayri. See note

on

p.

1.
fc>,

in List of

Addenda

et Corrigenda.

10

30 of Shiblf to the effect that the unity of God is utterly in


expressible and indefinable, with a brief explanation by the
author. Explanation of three answers of

Yusuf

b.

al-Husayn
concerning unification. The author then calls atten
tion to another class of definitions, namely, those uttered in
the language of ecstasy, and says that he will explain them

31 al-Razf

as far as

is

possible, lest

One must be
bolism.

Ruwaym

human

of

a mystic
s

any of

in

his readers

should be misled.

order to understand mystical

saying, that unification

is

nature, signifies the transformation of the nature

32 of the lower soul (nafs). Explanation of several

sayings
33 Shiblf.
of the

sym

the effacement

anonymous

on tawhid and wakddniyyat, and of a saying by


Another anonymous definition of tawhid. Description
first

stage of tawhid and the

first

sign of

taw kid by

Abu Sacid

al-Kharraz, together with the author s commentary.


Saying of Shibli "egoism impairs unification". Another

34

same

effect,

with the author

made by

Shibli

between the

saying of Shibli to the


nation.

Distinction

expla

unification

(tawhid al-bashariyyat] and the unification of


Divinity (tawhid al-ildhiyyat}. The author s explanation of
this saying. Two contradictory sayings of Shibli: on one
of humanity

acquainted with an atom


of the science of unification cannot bear the weight of a
gnat; but on another occasion he said that such a person

he said that whoever

occasion

the

sustains

whole heaven and earth on a single eyelash.

of the latter saying.

Meaning

35 the East and the

It is

related that Gabriel covers

West with two

of his six hundred wings.

Other traditions respecting the


sions of the heavenly
c

b.

Ata al-Baghdadi:

getting unification,

CHAPTER XVI:
subject

of gnosis
c

gnostic

is

drif)"

size of Gabriel

kingdom

"the

etc."

and the dimen

(malakut}. Saying of

Ahmad

reality of unification consists in for

The author

"Concerning

(mcfrifat)

explains what this means.

what has been

said

on the

and the characteristics of the

1 1

Two

sources of gnosis according to

Abu Sa

id al-Kharraz.

Description of the gnostic by Abu Turab al-Nakhshabi. Two


kinds of gnosis, marifat al-haqq and mafrifat al-kaqiqat,

Ahmad

36 distinguished by

b.

God

The author

Ata.

explanation

really unknowable; hence it


has been said that none knows Him save Himself, and the

of part of this saying:

Abu Bakr

Caliph

creatures no

is

God who hath

to

"Praise

said,

of attaining to the

way

know

to

their

given His

knowledge of Him except


Three sayings of

Him."

inability
through
Shibli on gnosis. Abu Yazid al-Bistami said, describing the
gnostic, that the colour of water is the colour of the vessel

37 which

contains

The author

it.

metaphor. Saying of Junayd.

explains the meaning of this

Anonymous

definition of gnosis.

Muhammad

Saying of Junayd: what gnostics desire of God.


b.

al-Fadl of

Samarcand

asserted that gnostics desire nothing

and that they have no personal volition, but when some


one asked him what gnostics desire of God he answered,
u

Steadfastness"(z.y/z^zwtf/)

b.

38

Mu

adh

al-Razi.

).

Description of the gnostic

Reply of Abu

who asked him why

the

intellect

God. Explanation of

this

saying by the author. Saying of

is

unable to apprehend

Ahmad b. Ata (which is sometimes wrongly


Abu Bakr al-Wasiti): "What is deemed evil
through

His occultation, and what

only through His manifestation,

Abu Sulayman

similar saying of

39

byYahya

1-Husayn al-Nuri to one

is

etc."

attributed to
is

evil

only

deemed good
good
The author quotes a
is

al-Darani and says that Ibn

words bear the same meaning as the Tradition in


which it is related that the Prophet went forth with a scroll

Ata

his

in

right

that he said,

hand and another


"Here

scroll in his left

are written the

hand, and

names of the people of

Paradise, and here are written the names of the people of

i)

Cf.

Fliigel,

Ta -rifdt^

preferring anything to

p.

God."

19,

1.

18,

The term

is

where istiqdmat

is

defined as

"not

explained by Qushayri, 111,27

fol.

12

saying of Abu Bakr al-Wasiti concerning gnostics,


with the author s explanation thereof.
Hell."

CHAPTER XVII:
has been said about

of the

"Description

and what

gnostic

him."

Three sayings of Yahya b. Mu c adh al-Razi. Three signs of


the gnostic enumerated by Dhu 1-Nun al-Misri. Anonymous

40 sayings: no one who describes gnosis is a true gnostic; if the


gnostic turns from God towards mankind without His permis
sion,

God

heart

is

will

filled

abandon him; none can know God unless

his

Abd

al-

with awe. Perfect gnosis defined by

Rahman al-Farisi. The author s explanation of this definition.


CHAPTER XVIII: "Concerning the means by which God
is

known. The difference between the believer and the

Abu

God

Himself, and that the

asked what

is

the

first

gnostic."

known only through


intellect cannot know Him. On being
duty imposed by God on His servants,

1-Husayn al-Nurf said that

is

he replied, "To know Him." Anonymous definition of gnosis.


Gnosis is originally a divine gift. Distinction between the
41
believer

and the

The former sees by the light of


God Himself. Three kinds of gnosis:

gnostic.

God, the latter through


gnosis

of acknowledgment, gnosis of reality, gnosis of con

templation. Definition of gnosis by

Abu Bakr

al-Zahirabadhi.

BOOK OF THE STATES AND STATIONS.


CHAPTER XIX:
their

"Concerning

Definition of the term

42

Explanation by
spirits

the stations (al-maqdmdf] and

realities."

are

maqdm.

Abu Bakr

al-Wasiti of the Tradition,

hosts arrayed (junud mujannada)"

the qualities to which the term

CHAPTER XX:

"Concerning

station

the

is

Examples of

applied.

meaning of

ahwdl}r
Definition of the term

"The

ahwdl by the author.

states

(al-

13

by Junayd. Anonymous description of the

Definition

secret

as

(hdl)

gained, like the

recollection
stations

(al-dhikr

by means

works of devotion. Examples of

the

relief

Muhammad

CHAPTER XXI:

"On

Abdallah al-Tustari

and Junayd
that

The author

God

expla

body

"the

pass over to

b.

Wasi

the

definitions

Malik

b.

Dinar, and Junayd.

the station of repentance


c
by Abu Ya qub

(tawbat}"

al-Susi, Sahl b.

you should not forget your

("that

("forgetting

your

sins").

The author

of al-Susi and Sahl b.

sins"),

points out

Abdallah

refer

the repentance of disciples and seekers, whereas that of

to

the repentance of spiritual adepts.

Junayd

refers

to

the

latter

sense

in

of

"repenting

So Dhu

44

dealings with

Definitions of repentance
c

states

heart."

Sayings of

43

when man

not

is

of ascetic practices and

by Abu Sulayman al-Darani:

nation of a saying
obtains

It

al-khafi}.

state

the

elect

Ruwaym

that

defined

repentance

trated

repent

common men

repent of sin but

God. The

expressions used

of forgetting

the definition

by

as

repentance."

1-Nun said that

gnostics and ecstatics in regard to repentance are

by

was

It

of

Abu

1-Husayn al-Nuri:

illus
"that

you should repent of everything except God." Dhu 1-Nun


alludes to the above distinction in his saying, "The sins of
the

(al-abrdr)"

is

good deeds of the pious

(al-muqarrabiri) are the

saints

Another

the sincerity

of

similar saying:
disciples."

"The

hypocrisy of gnostics

Explanation of the different

spiritual degrees.

CHAPTER XXII:
Three

The

"On

classes of those

first

class abstain

the station of abstinence

who

(warcf}"

practise abstinence.

from what

is

dubious

i.e.

neither

plainly lawful nor plainly unlawful. Saying of Ibn Sirin.

45

The second
bid

class abstain

from whatever their consciences

them avoid. Definition of abstinence by Abu Sa c id

Kharraz.

Harith al-Muhasibi never ate anything

al-

dubious

14

a vein in his finger throbbed

when he attempted

to take such

Story of Bishr al-Haff. Definition of lawful by Sahl


Abdallah al-Tustari and the author s comment. Traditions

food.
b.

justifying the appeal to conscience.

The

third class, namely,

Abu Sulayman

the gnostics and ecstatics, share the view of

whatever diverts the attention from God

that

al-Darani,

is

46 abominable. Similar sayings by Sahl b. Abdallah and Shibli.


CHAPTER XXIII: "On the station of renunciation (zuhd}"
Renunciation

the

is

basis

of spiritual progress,

sin originates in love of this world,

because

and every act of

every
goodness and obedience springs from renunciation. The name
of ascetic (zdhid) is equivalent to a hundred names of praise.
Renunciation has reference only to what
avoidance of unlawful and dubious things
of ascetics

classes

(zuhhdd).

The

first

lawful, since the

is
is

obligatory.

Three

class are the novices

whose hands are empty of possessions and whose hearts are


empty of that which is not in their hands. Sayings of
Junayd and

renunciation

in

47

Sari al-Saqati.

waym

The second

class are the adepts

(al-mutakaqqiqun fi l-zuhd), to whom Ruof zuhd as the renunciation of all selfish

definition

interests

is

applicable.

There

is

a selfish interest in renoun

cing the world, inasmuch as the ascetic gains joy and praise

and reputation, but the real ascetic banishes all these inter
ests from his heart. The third class are those who recognise
the

utter

of this

vanity

world and hold

it

so cheap that

they scorn to look at it hence they regard even renuncia


tion of it as an act of turning away from God. Sayings of
:

Shibli

and Yahya

b.

CHAFER XXIV:

Mu

the characteristics of the

Verse

of

the

adh

al-Razi.

the station of poverty (faqr] and

"On

poor."

Koran describing the poor. Poverty

is

great ornament to the believer (Tradition). Saying in praise


48 of poverty by Ibrahim al-Khawwas. Three classes of poor

men

(fuqard).

The

first

class are those

who

possess nothing

15

and do not seek outwardly or inwardly anything from anyone,


and if anything is offered to them they will not accept it.
Saying of Sahl

b.

Sahl al-Isbahani.

Ali b.
c

by Abu Abdallah

poverty explained

The reality of
The question

b. al-Jalla.

why faqirs refuse to accept food when they need it answered


by Abu Alf al-Rudhaban and Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq. Answer
c

by Nasr

given

al-Hammami

b.

the

to

question

why

the

poverty to everything else. The second class


possess nothing and do not beg either directly or indirectly,
Sufis

but

prefer

if

anything

Junayd
faqir

the

by Sahl

offered to

is

sign
b.

the

of

Saying of

faqir.

Abu Abdallah

b. al-Jalla.

Charac

according to Ibrahim al-Khawwas.

teristics of the true faqir

The

it.

Definition of the true

Abdallah al-Tustari.

Real poverty defined by

49

them they accept

true

do not possess anything, but when they are


in want they beg of a brother Sufi and expiate the act of
begging by their sincerity. ). Sayings of Jariri and Ruwaym.
third class

CHAPTER XXV:

"On

Ibrahim

and

of Junayd

Sayings

the station of patience

(sabr)"

al-Khawwas.

50 between Shibli and a man who asked him,

Dialogue

"What

is

the

The mutasabbir, the sdbir, and the


hardest kind of patience
sabbdr defined by Ibn Salim. These definitions are illustrated
by a saying of al-Qannad and stories of Dhu 1-Nun and
?"

Verses which Shibli used to quote.


Tradition as to the effect of one moan uttered by Zakariyya,
when the saw was laid on his neck.
Shibli.

CHAPTER XX VI:

"On

the station of trust in

God

(tawakkul}"

Passages in the Koran showing that trust in God is con


nected with faith. Other passages referring to the trust of
elect of the elect

the
52

God. The

first is

(khusus al- khusus). Three kinds of trust

the trust

"

.;

i)

Read xJJL\-o

of the faithful (al-mu minun).

"

..

instead of

JLJ>L\~o

(cf.

p.

111*

1.

P.

foil.).

involves the entire absence of self-interest and self-regard.

Sincerity

(jidq)

i6

by Abu Turab al-Nakhshabi, Dhu 1-Nun,


Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq, Ruwaym, and Sahl b. GAbdallah alDefinitions of this

The second kind

Tustari.

al-khusus}. Definitions

Abu Bakr
kind

is

of

trust

the

elect

(ahl

by Ibn Ata, Abu Ya qub

and Sahl

al-Wasitf,

the

is

b.

al-Nahrajurf,

Abdallah al-Tustari. The third

the trust of the elect of the elect (khusus al-khusus}.

by Shibli, an anonymous Sufi, Ibn al-Jalla, Junayd,


53 Abu Sulayman al-Darani, and another anonymous mystic.
Definitions

CHAPTER XXVII:

the

"On

and the characteristics of the

According

man

precedes

satisfied."

(9, 73),

satisfaction

with

the author, Junayd, al-Qannad,

by

Abu Bakr

Saying of

54

Koran

to the

station of satisfaction (ridd)

fied

who

those

(i)

God

in

their

own

circumstances

all

s satisfaction

whether they are

man

with

God. Definitions of ridd


c

Dhu

1-Nun, and Ibn Ata.

Three

classes of the satis

to preserve equanimity towards

those

(2)

who pay no

regard to

satisfaction but consider only the fact that

with them

satisfied

al-Wasitf.

strive

God

God

is

who realise that the question


with God and God with them

those

(3)

satisfied

depends absolutely on the eternal providence of God. Saying


of Abu Sulayman al-Darani in this sense. Ridd is the last
of the

stations

which the

first

and

followed by the mystical

is

states

of

observation (murdqabat).
"On the observation of
mystical states

is

CHAPTER XXVIII:

and the characteristics of such


55

The observer

he

is

observers."

who knows

that

God

is

acquainted
with his most secret thoughts: consequently he keeps watch
over the evil thoughts that hinder him from thinking of
God. Sayings of Abu Sulayman al-Darani, Ibrahim al-Ajurri,

and Hasan

The
of

b.

first is

Hasan

Ali al-Damaghani. Three types of murdqabat.

that of beginners and

b.

Alf al-Damaghani.
c

a saying of Ibn Ata.

God and

ask

Him

The

third

is

to keep their

is

described in the saying


is described in

The second

peculiar to those

who observe

minds always fixed upon Him.

Saying of Ibn

56

Ata.

CHAPTER XXIX:

God (qurb)"
The
state of
declaring
nearness belongs to one who contemplates God s nearness
to him, and seeks to draw near to God by means of obedience
to His commands, and concentrates his thoughts by constant
recollection of God. Such persons form three classes. The
first
class are those who seek to draw near to God by
various acts of devotion. The second class are those who
realise God s nearness to such an extent that they resemble
Amir b. Abd al-Qays who said,
never looked at any
without
as
nearer
to it than I was."
God
thing
regarding
Koranic

"On

the state of nearness to

God

that

texts

is

near.

"I

57 Verses describing the inward feeling of nearness produced

by

Saying of Junayd: God is near to man in proportion


as man feels himself near to God. An anonymous saying to
the same effect. The third and highest class are those whose
ecstasy.

nearness

Sayings

to

of

God causes them to be unconscious of nearness,


Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri and Abu Ya cqub al-Susi.

CHAPTER XXX:

"On

the

of love

state

(mahabbat}"

appears from several passages in the Koran that God


58 loves man and that God s love of man precedes man s
love of God. The author describes the man who loves God.
It

Three forms of

love.

(al^dmmat], which

The

results

first

Descriptions

of the vulgar
kindness towards them,

men

according to the Tradition that


benefactors.

the love

is

from God

naturally

love

their

form of love by Sumnun,


C
Husayn b. AH 1, and an an

of this

Abdallah al-Tustari,
onymous authority on Sufism. The second form of love, which
Sahl

is

b.

the love of the sincere (al-sddiqun\

is

produced by regarding

the majesty, omnipotence, and omniscience of God. Descript-

by Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri, Ibrahim al-Khawwas,


c
and Abu Sa id al-Kharraz. The third form of love, i. e. the

59 ions

of

it

Husayn (Hasan)

b.

AH

al-Damaghani

is

probably meant.

i8

love of saints and gnostics (al-siddiqun

wa

l-

drifun) results

from their knowledge of the eternal and causeless Divine


love: hence they love God without any cause for loving

Him. Descriptions of this exalted love by Dhu 1-Nun, Abu


Ya qub al-Siisi, and Junayd. Tradition: God becomes the
eye, ear, and hand of any one whom He loves.
c

CHAPTER XXXI:
Nearness to God

60

Three kinds of

(qurb)

fear

the state of fear

"On

may produce

mentioned

the

in

(khawf)."

either love or fear.

Koran.

While the

vengeance of God, the middle class


(al-awsdt) fear separation from God and the occurrence of
anything that might impair their gnosis. Sayings on the
latter kind of fear by Shibli, an anonymous gnostic in reply
vulgar

to

(al-

dmmat)

Abu Sa

fear the

id al-Kharraz,

Ibn Khubayq, and al-Qannad.

The

6 1 third class are the elect (ahl al-khusus). Their fear is described
c
by Sahl b. Abdallah al-Tustari, Ibn al-Jalla, and al-Wasiti.

CHAPTER XXXII:
62

"On

hope

(rajd)"

were weighed,
they would balance each other. Some one whose name is
not given said that fear and hope are the two wings of
Tradition:

if

the

believer

hope and

fear

without which

it will not fly. Saying of


Three
of hope: hope in God,
kinds
al-Warraq.
the abundance of God s mercy, and hope in God s

(devotional)

work,

Abu Bakr
hope

in

recompense (thawdb). Description of one who possesses the


second and third kinds of hope. Sayings by Dhu 1-Nun and
an anonymous

Sufi.

He whose hope

is

of God except God Himself. Sayings


who met Dhu 1-Nun in a desert.

in

God

desires nothing

of Shibli and a

SECTION: on the meaning of hope and

woman

fear.

The language used by spiritual adepts concerning hope


and fear is illustrated by a saying of Ibn Ata.
Another saying in the same style by Abu Bakr al-Wasiti.
63
Anonymous saying, that love is not perfect without fear,
nor fear without hope, nor hope without

fear.

19

CHAPTER XXXIII:

the state of longing

"On

Tradition on the longing for Paradise.

64

that

he

also

said

might be

filled

with longing to meet God, and he


long for Paradise hasten to do

who

those

that

(shawq)"

The Prophet prayed,

good works. Another Tradition giving the names of three


persons

who

whom

feels

longing.

Description of the mystic

for.

Two anonymous

of Jariri on

Saying

definitions of shawq.
and pain of longing. De

the pleasure

c
by Abu Sa id al-Kharraz of those who

scription

Three

Paradise longed

The

classes of such.

first

feel longing.

class long for the blessings

which God has promised to His friends, the second class


long for Him whom they love, and the third class, contem
plating

longing

God

as

felt

is

present

only in

them, not absent, say that


the absence of the desired object;
with

hence they lose consciousness of the longing which charact


erises

them

in

the eyes of their brethren.

CHAPTER XXXIV:
The author s definition

"On

help from

Him; he adds

the state of joy or intimacy


of uns: reliance on

that no further explanation

65 sible. Letter written by Mutarraf


G

Abd

God and

b.

Abdallah to

(uns)"

seeking
is

pos-

Umar

b.

Anonymous saying to the effect that those


God feel no fear of aught except Him.
Description of one who is in the state of uns. Three classes
of intimates
The first class are intimate with the recol
lection (dhikr) of God and with obedience to Him. Saying
of Sahl b. Abdallah al-Tustari. The second class are inti
mate with God and shrink from all thoughts that distract
them from Him. Sayings of Dhu 1-Nun and Junayd.
al-Aziz.

who enjoy

uns with

66

Ibrahim
the

awe

al-Marastani

Beloved.
in

the

conscious
gnostic,

had said

of

the
in

The

third

presence

of

defined

are

class

God

uns as the heart

cause

joy

in

they whose feelings of


them to become un

intimate
being
Saying of an anonymous
answer written by Dhu 1-Nun to a man who
.

a letter to him,

"May

God

grant thee the joy

20
of being near to

Saying of Sahl

"On

the

in

Shibli

who
who
in

God

(Kor.

13, 28),

of

interpretation

of

Characteristics

al-Darani.

Sulayman
Three kinds of

The

tranquillity.

ninat)"

first

by Hasan

at rest
c

b.

Ali

saying of

Abu

the

tranquil

man.

belongs to the vulgar

thinking of God; the second to the elect


peace
resign themselves to the Divine decree and are patient
find

in

but at the same time are conscious of their

tribulation,

who

reve

their hearts cannot rest with

God

devotional acts; the third to the elect of the elect


rently

acknowledge that

He

68 inasmuch as

is

infinite

their ardent search

in

Shibli.

by

Those whose hearts are

text,

of

recollection

al-Damaghani.

definition of uns

the state of tranquillity (itma

Abdallah al-Tustari.

b.

Explanation of the

67

and a

Him!",

CHAPTER XXXV:

CHAPTER XXXVI:

and unique: therefore they advance

and
"On

fall

into the unimaginable Sea.

the state of contemplation (mush-

dhadat}."

Mystical interpretation of Kor. 85,

Abu

Sayings on contemplation by
c

b.

Uthman

by Abu Bakr

al-Wasitf.

Sa id al-Kharraz and

al-Makkf. Saying of the Prophet:

"worship

Amr

God

as

though thou sawest Him." Explanation of shahid (Kor. 5, 306).


c
Three more sayings by Amr al-Makkf. Three kinds of
69
contemplation indicated respectively by Abu Bakr al-Wasitf,

Abu Sa

fd

al-Kharraz,

and

Amr

al-Makkf in his Kitdb

al-

mushdhadat.

70

CHAPTER XXXVII:

"On

the state of certainty

(yaqiri)"
c

Three forms of yaqin are mentioned in the Koran: ilm


c
ayn al-yaqin, and kaqq al-yaqin. Tradition:
al-yaqin,
God for certainty in this world and the next." The Prophet
"ask

also

that

said

have walked
the

Saying
yaqin

of
is

Jesus had possessed

in the air.

were

veil

if

my

lifted

revelation

Saying of Amir b. Abd Qays


certainty would not be increased."
:

Abu Ya qub

more yaqin he would

al-Nahrajuri.

The author says

(mukdshafat), which

is

"if

that

of three kinds:

21

ocular

(a)

71

on the

vision

to the heart

of Resurrection () revelation
revelation of the Divine Power

Day

real faith

by
(c)
by means of miracles. Three classes of those who possess
yaqin. The yaqin of the first class is described by an anony
mous Sufi, Junayd, Abu Ya c qub (al-Nahrajuri), and
Ruwaym.
The yaqin of the second class is described
Ibn
Ata,
by
Abu Ya c qub al-Nahrajuri, and Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri; that
of the

third

Ya qub

class

by

Amr

b.

Uthman al-Makki and Abu

the

Yaqin
extreme point

al-Nahrajuri.

states

in the

is

its

the beginning and end of


is

all

a profound and real belief

Unseen. Saying of al-Wasiti.

THE BOOK OF THE PURE IN UNDERSTANDING


AND OBEDIENCE TO THE BOOK OF GOD.

72

CHAPTER XXXIII:

"On

conformity to the Book of

Tradition of the Prophet on this subject.


Saying of
allah

b.

God and
Verses

73

Mas

ud.

The Koran

believe in the
of the

is

a guide to those

Unseen (Kor.

God."
c

Abdwho fear

2, i).

Koran from which the

Sufis

infer that a

hidden meaning lies beneath every word of the


Holy Book,
and that this meaning can he found only by means of
deep
thought and attentive study.
74

Such thought and study demand a sound heart (qalb


salim), i. e., a heart in which there is nothing but God.
c
Saying of Sahl b. Abdallah al-Tustari to the effect that
the hidden meanings of the Koran are inexhaustible, because
is the Word of God, who is infinite: it cannot be under

it

stood by

human minds, except

in so far as

whom He loves.
CHAPTER XXXIX:
the particular

God

reveals

its

meanings to those

application of the

"On

term

call (da wat),

Sahl b.
call

is

and the nature of

Abdallah said

general

election

in reference to

and guidance (hidayat)

called but few chosen.

(istifa)."

Kor.

special.

10,

26,

Many

that
are

22
75

It

appears from two passages of the Koran


that the elect are

35, 29)

the Prophets

(a)

sinlessness, the

Faithful.

the other believers

and cleaving to

manded
76
77

by

certain of the

(b)

The Prophets are distinguished by


revelation of God s Word to them, and the

apostolic office;

their pure devotion, self-mortification,

com

spiritual realities. All the Faithful are

good works.

to hasten to

Verses of the Koran specifying different kinds of good works.


CHAPTER XL: "On the diversity of those who hear the
Divine admonition and their various degrees
receiving

Some
Koran

in

respect of

it."

command

hear the Divine


it

fulfilling

78

(22,74 and

by worldliness and

but are hindered from

Verses of the

sensuality.

referring to such persons.

Others hear the Divine


repent and become

command and comply

active in

with

it

and

good works and devote them


and spiritual excel

selves sincerely to the pursuit of moral


lence.

Verses of the Koran referring to persons of this

sort.

The meaning of laghw (Kor. 23, 3) explained by Amr b.


c
Uthman al-Makkf. A third class are the savants ^ulama]
who fear God (Kor. 35, 25). Among these, again, are a special
c

class,

whom

the (Koran

describes as

3, 5)

grounded

"well

in

knowledge."

79

Explanation by
of those

who

are

of al-Wasiti are

Kharraz.

"To

Abu Bakr

grounded

"well

elucidated

follow

al-Wasiti of the characteristics

what

by
is

in knowledge".

The words
c

saying

best

in

of Abii Sa id

God

Word"

al-

(Kor.

wonderful things which are revealed to


39,19)
the hearts of mystics who hear the Koran with understanding.
refers to the

80

CHAPTER XLI:
cited

"How

the hidden meaning of the

by listening with studious attention when

According
of listening

when you

to

Abu Sa

attentively
listen

as

it is

Koran
read

aloud."

id al-Kharraz, there are three

to

is eli

ways

the recitation of the Koran:

though the Prophet were reading

it

(i)

to

23

you

when you

(2)

to the

it

God

Prophet

you

from

absent

being

self

(3)

when you

produced and from your

In the last case, understanding

it.

reading

though you heard Gabriel reading


listen as though you heard

listen as

concerns

wordly

is

of contemplation and purity of recollec

by power
and concentration of thought.
This explanation is drawn from a verse of the Koran

tion (dhikr]
8

al-A rabi.

the

belief in

which God causes men

"that

(2, 2)
c

Unseen. Saying of Abu Sa id b.


c
Definition of the Unseen by Abu Sa id al-Kharraz

to

referring

hearts to behold of convic

His attributes, whether described by Himself or


conveyed by Tradition. Since the ultimate apprehension of

tion

to

as

divine attributes, no less than of the divine essence,

the

impossible to

Unseen

man,

mystical theologians are agreed that


includes

(al-ghayb]

all

theosophists, ecstatics, gnostics,

CHAPTER XLII:

82

Koran

is

Mystical

the

the manifold experiences of

and

"Description

understand by

is

Unitarians."

of the

way

in

which the

mystics."

interpretation

of

Kor.

5,39;

57

23,

The

59.

words khashyat and ishfdq distinguished and defined.

According

83

limit

the

to

to the mystic sense of Kor. 7, 158, there

of faith, and

increase

all

is

no

mystical experience,

from beginning to end, is the fruit of real and infinite faith.


Again, from Kor. 23, 61, it appears that those who fear God

and believe
as

shirk,

one
it

Him

in

are free from polytheism (shirk}.

mystics interpret

and

acts of devotion

is

thing insidious

and

it,

in

consists in having regard to

seeking recompense for them;


hard to detect, and the only

means of discovering and removing


say,

ikhlds

84

purely disinterested belief in

by Sahl

The Koran
stricken

God,

by

b.

it

is

God

ikhlds, that

is

alone. Sayings

to

on

Abdallah al-Tustari.

(23, 62)

the

This

mentions those whose hearts are terror-

thought that they shall at

notwithstanding their piety and

zeal

last return

in

to

doing good

24
Mystics interpret this terror (wajal) as being due to
the inscrutable fact that God, in His eternal foreknowledge,
works.

doomed them either to happiness or to misery hereafter.


They cannot know what their fate shall be, hence they turn
to God with supplication and utter poverty of spirit. The
has

words of the Koran quoted above do not refer to evil-doers,


as is proved by the Prophet s answer to a question which
c

A isha

asked him.

CHAPTER XLIII:

"Account

of the

qarrabun and the abrdr according

sdbiqun and the mu-

to the

method of mystical

interpretation."

The author

cites

number

of passages in the

Koran

in

85-86which these classes of persons are mentioned, and using the


method called instinbdt (that is, drawing out the hidden
sense),

he shows that the muqarrabun are superior to the

sdbiqmi and the abrdr.

CHAPTER XLIV:

"How

to the utmost (tashdid)

The Koran

is

set forth in the

says (64, 16)

This obligation
should perform

duty of exerting one

the

in its real

"Fear

God

nature

is

with

self

Koran."

all

your
such that, even

might".

if

men

the works of the angels and prophets and

all

which they had done would be less than that


which they had left undone. The angels themselves say,
to Thee, O Lord! We have not worshipped Thee
"Glory

saints,

as

87

that

Thou oughtest to be worshipped."


The true meaning of "Fear God with

all

your"

might".

prayer of a thousand ralfas and were


you performed
one
to
ratfa
able
more, but postponed it to another
perform
time, you would have failed to pray with all your might
a

If

Similarly

the

in

passage

any inward
accept the decision of the Prophet, even were

of the

reluctance to
it

case

of recollection (dhikr) or almsgiving.

Koran

(4,

68)

a sentence of death against one

ture from the Faith.

implies

s self,

that

constitutes a depar.

25

CHAPTER XLV:

88

Divine

what

"Concerning

of the mystical sense of the

Words

said on the subject

is

(in

the Koran) and the

Names."

said that whatever lies within the


range of knowledge
and understanding is derived from two
phrases at the be
It

is

ginning of the Koran,

and al-hamd

Bismillatt

viz.,

the

(in

name

of God)

lillah (the praise

to God), because the faculties


of knowledge and
understanding are not self-subsistent but
are through God and to God. When Shibli was asked to

explain the mystical sense of the

in Bismillah, he replied
that spirits, bodies, and actions subsist in
God, not in them

the
c

answer to the question,

In

selves.

hearts

Ata

of gnostics

said,

"In

the

first

put

their

letter of

God

Bismillah al-Rahmdn al-Rakim: for

God

all

festation

"What

trust?"

it

is

that in which

Abu VAbbas

b.

in

Book,

i.e.,

the

signifies that through

things appear and pass away and through His mani


are fair, and through His occultation are
foul;

because His name Allah expresses His awfulness and


majesty,
and His name al-Rahmdn
expresses His love and affection,
and His name al-Rakim expresses His
help and assistance."

The author explains that good things


because God accepts them, and that
evil

only

89 said

that

God

because

divine

every

rejects

Name

them.

are called

good only

evil things are called

Abu Bakr

(attribute)

al-Wasiti

can be used as a

means of forming one s character


except the names Allah
and al-Rahmdn which, like the attribute of
diyyat], are

beyond human comprehension.

that the Greatest

the

initial

alif

Name

is

of

God

Lordship (szmahas been said

It

Allah (JJV) because when


removed, there remains Ilk (= lillah, to
is

and when you remove the first lam, there remains


lh (= lahu, to
Him), and when you remove the second
lam, there remains h, in which all mysteries are contained,
inasmuch as h means huwa (He). Thus the name Allah is
Allah),

unlike

ail

the other

names of God, which become meaning-

26

when

less

a single letter

is

taken away from them. Sahl

b.

Abdallah al-Tustari said that alif is the first and chief of


the letters, because it signifies Allah who united (allafa
all

bayn]

Abu Sa

and

Himself separated from all things.


al-Kharraz said that when a man is concentrated

things

id

is

on God, he reads the Koran with

real understanding,

which

greater in proportion to his love of God and his feeling of


nearness to Him. Saying of Abu Sulayman al-Darani rap

is

ture, not reflection,

is

Saying of

b.

Wuhayb

necessary for understanding the Koran.

al-Ward on the emotional

effects

pro

duced by reading and study of the Koran.


CHAPTER XL VI: "Description of the right and wrong
90
methods of mystical interpretation (istinbdf)"

sound interpretation must be based on the following

principles:

that the interpreter shall not change the order

(a)

of the words in the


limits suitable to

God

of

83;

that he

(c)

of the

sacred

93,6;

illustrated

salim

18,

in

(b)
is

that he shall not overpass the

a faithful and obedient servant

not pervert the form or meaning

shall

Examples of such perversion (Kor. 21,


no). The sound method of interpretation is
text.

by Abu Bakr

al-Kattani

in
explanation of bi-qalb

(Kor. 26, 89).

The author

QJ

Koran

one who

al-Kattani

elucidates the

explanation,

meaning of a phrase occurring

viz.,

passes

"he

away from God

through God" (faniya ani llah billah). Further examples


of sound interpretation: (i) Shah al-Kirmani on Kor. 26,

7880;

(2)

Abu Bakr

al-Wasiti

on Kor. 13,28;

(3)

Shibli

on Kor. 24,30; (4) Shibli on Kor. 50,36.


Another kind of interpretation is indirect and allusive
92
c
(ishdrat). Specimens of this are given two from Abu l- Abbas
c
b.
Ata, and others from Abu Yazid al-Bistami, Junayd,
Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari, and Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq. Abu Yazid
:

when some one questioned him concerning gnosis,


when kings enter a
by quoting Kor. 27,34:

al-Bistami,

replied

"Lo,

27
it

city they spoil

and abase the mighty men of

its people",

meaning to say that when gnosis enters the heart it con


sumes and casts out everything besides. The author declares
such interpretations are sound, though he adds that

that

God knows

best.

THE BOOK OF IMITATION OF THE

93

APOSTLE OF GOD.

XL VII:

CHAPTER

"Description

of

Pure

the

(Sufis)

in

understanding (the Koran) and their con


and
obedience
to the Prophet."
formity
The Prophet was sent to all mankind (Kor. 7, 157), that
of their

respect

he
62,

2),

i.

them

teach

might

Book and the

"the

the Koran and the Sunna.

e.,

mankind

Wisdom"

(Kor-

God has commanded

obey him (Kor. 24, 53), and has promised


94 that those who obey him will be rightly guided, while the
all

to

disobedient will suffer a grievous punishment. The love of


God towards the Faithful depends on their following the

Prophet (Kor.
believers

3, 29).

(Kor.

Tradition

33,

that has

He

is

held

up

as a pattern to true

21), who must accept as binding every


come down to them from him on trust
Those who act in conformity with the

worthy authority.
Koran but do not follow the Sunna are

really at variance

with the

Koran.

and

doing what he commands and in not doing


forbids, is incumbent on his followers, save in

Imitation

of the Prophet in his character

actions, in

what he
95 certain

cases

mention

as

which the Koran or the Traditions expressly


to

exceptions

the general rule.

Whereas theo

logians and lawyers have codified the religious and legal


ordinances of the Prophet and are the recognised defenders,

propagandists, and exponents of the religious law, the elect

among them (namely,


the

duty

Prophet

the Sufis) have laid

upon themselves

of imitating his moral and spiritual character.


character, as

A isha

said,

is

the Koran,

i. e.,

The
con-

28
formity with the Koran: he describes himself as having been
sent "with a noble disposition" (bi-makdrim al-aklddq].

XL VIII:

CHAPTER

96

the

"What

related concerning the cha

is

and actions and feelings with which God endowed

racter

Apostle."

Traditions regarding the excellence of the Prophet


his

duct,

asceticism,

knowledge

and

his trust in

God.

He would not
He never

97

meal.

humility.

How

allow

fear

of God,

98

found

fault

he prayed

A isha

about

that he gave like one

con
his

his humility,

food to be kept for the next day

for

with

his

food.

Signs

id al-Khudri.

his liberality.

who had no

of his

Description of his

lowliness.

manners and appearance by Abu Sa


Saying of

It

was

him

said of

fear of being poor.

He

always behaved with the utmost humility and meekness.


Stories illustrating his frugality and dislike of ostentation.

He

99

said that he loved equally those

on

whom

he bestowed

whom

he withheld his bounty. His praise


of the faqirs of Medina. He said that the poor Moslems

and those from

shall

enter

Religious

Paradise

men

suffer

five

hundred

tribulation,

Sayings and anecdotes showing

years

the

before

the

rich.

prophets most of

his unworldliness.

The

all.

nobility

of his character.

100

List of the virtues

which he possessed.

He was

habitually

sorrowful and thoughtful. In order that he might render due

prayer until his feet became


swollen. He did not revenge himself upon his enemies but
returned good for evil. His kindness to widows and orphans.

thanks to God, he stood

in

His clemency described by Anas b. Malik, and exemplified


by his treatment of the Quraysh when he conquered Mecca.

CHAPTER XLIX:

101
to

the

to the

Apostolic Traditions relating


indulgences and alleviations which God has granted

Moslem

Under

this

"On

the

community."

head the author enumerates various

articles

29

owned by the Prophet and quotes

of luxury

the

words

Had
Companions, "Eat your
such indulgences not been granted by God, His creatures
would have been undone, for He calls them not to moneywhich he addressed to

his

fill".

making and industry and commerce (which are only per


mitted

concession

as

worship Him and


themselves to Him.

and

human

to
trust

in

weakness), but to obey

Him and

In this respect the prophets are not as other men.

102

devote

entirely

Whereas

majority of mankind betake themselves to indulgences


on account of the weakness of their faith and their propen

the

and consequently are sometimes led into


sin,
prophets have within them a God-given strength
that raises them above self-interest. Moslems comply with
to

sity

pleasure,

the

Koran and obey the Prophet

the

classes

be distinguished:

may

of indulgences;

(2)

those

(i)

who

ledge of the religious law;

(3)

in different

those

who

ways. Three

avail themselves

base their conduct on

know

those whose knowledge of the

law does not extend beyond what is indispensable, but who


set their minds on spiritual states and good works and noble

and

dispositions,
real

as

faith

strive after perfection

Haritha

attained.

It

is

and truth and such


that

said

the

whole

founded upon four Traditions, viz.,


c
c
Abdallah b. Abbas, Wabisa, and Nu man

103 theory of mysticism

those of Gabriel,

is

The author adds a fifth, namely, the saying of


Moslem shall do harm to another with
Prophet,

Bashir.

b.

the

"No

or without

provocation."

CHAPTER L:

"On

what

recorded of the leading Sufis

is

in regard to their following the Apostle of

Saying of Junayd

"Sufism

is

God".

intimately connected with the


c

Saying of Abu Uthman al-Hiri. Story of


Yazid al-Bistami: how be turned his back without cere

Apostolic

Abu

mony on
104

Traditions".

a celebrated ascetic

who

spat on the floor of a mosque.

Another story of Abu Yazid: from respect

for the

Prophet

30

and

lust,

sensible

God

him of the pains of hunger


and God rewarded him by making him utterly in
to the charms of women. Anecdote of Shibli: when

he would not ask

to relieve

he was dying and unable to speak he seized the hand of


his servant, who was washing him, and passed it through
his beard in order that the ablution might be performed
in

manner prescribed by the Prophet. Abu Ali al-Rudhamentioned the names of his teachers in four subjects:

the

bari

Sufism,

grammar, and the Apostolic Traditions.


know God through God Himself and I

theology,

Dhu 1-Nun said:


know all besides God through
"I

the Apostle of

God".

Sahl

b.

Abdallah al-Tustari declared that no ecstasy is real unless


it is attested by the Koran and the Sunna.
Saying of Abu

same

to the

Sulayman al-Darani

effect.

THE BOOK OF MYSTICAL INTERPRETATIONS

105

(al-mustanbatdt).

CHAPTER LI:
the

true

"On

meanings

the

of the

method by which the Sufis


Koran and the Traditions,

of mustanbatdt.

Definition

They

are

derived by

alike

in

elicit
etc."

men

of

theory and

spiritual intelligence who,


conform
to the Koran and obey the Prophet. When
practice,
such men act upon that which they know, God endows
them with the knowledge of that which they did not know

profound

before,

a knowledge

peculiar

to

themselves,

and removes

from their hearts the rust produced by sin and passion and
worldliness. Then they utter on their tongues the myste
rious lore which flows into their hearts from the Unseen.
106

The key

to this

(Kor. 4, 84).

Its

the *ulamd (Kor.

grounded
the higher

in the

knowledge

is

attentive study of the

possessors constitute an elect class


4,

85).

Koran

among

Only those who are thoroughly

rudiments of religious knowledge can reach

knowledge that belongs to mystics,

as

is

shown

by the Prophet s reply to a man who sought instruction in


the latter. The Moslem lawyers and divines have their own
mustanbatdt, which they use for controversial purposes; and
so have the scholastic theologians. All these interpretations

opinion of the people who make them, but


the interpretations of the Sufis are still more excellent.

are

in the

good

CHAPTER

107

LII:

interpretations

sciences and

The
ists

nature of the difference in the

states."

Sufis differ in their interpretations just as the formal

but whereas

do,

differences

error,

the

"On

of mystics concerning the meanings of their

in

the

differences

mystical

of the

science do

not

latter lead to

produce

this

has been said that difference of opinion amongst


the authorities on exoteric science is an act of divine mercy,
result.

It

who

because he

holds

the right view refutes and exposes

the error of his adversary. So, too, the difference of opinion


amongst mystics is an act of divine mercy, because each

one speaks according to his predominant state and feeling:


hence mystics of every sort - - whether novices or adepts,

whether engaged in works of devotion or in spiritual medi


tation - - can derive profit from their words. This statement

by the varying definitions of the true faqir


108 (al-faqir al-sddiq) given by Dhu 1-Nun, Abu "Abdallah alMaghribi, Abu 1-Harith al-Awlasi, Yusuf b. al-Husayn, Husayn b. Mansur (al-Hallaj), Nuri, Sumnun, Abu Hafs alc
Naysaburi, Junayd, and Murta ish. All these definitions are
is

illustrated

different

in

accordance with the different states and feelings

of their authors,
tion

109

is

suitable

CHAPTER

yet

are

all

good

and every single

defini

and instructive to mystics of a certain

LIII:

the

"On

Sufistic

interpretations

class.

of the

Koran concerning the peculiar excellence of the Prophet and


his superiority to other

no

prophets."

Interpretations of Kor.

12,

108 and 7,28.

Interpretation of Kor. 41, 53, confirmed

by

a line of La-

32
bid which

Prophet described as

the

the Arabs have


is

spoken".

"the

The Prophet

shown by a comparison of Kor.

word that

truest

superiority to

20, 26

27,

Moses

and Kor.

94,

superiority to Abraham by a comparison of Kor.


and
Kor. 66, 8. Moreover, while God calls Muham
26, 87
mad to regard Himself (Kor. 25, 47). He bids all His other

foil.;

his

kingdom and glory and the wonders

creatures consider His

of His creation.

Again, love is more intimate than friendship, for love


from the heart all that is not itself: therefore Mu

1 1 1

effaces

hammad, the Beloved (Habib) of God, is superior to Abra


ham, who was His Friend (Khalil). Furthermore, it ap
pears from several passages in the Koran that whereas the
sins

God

of other

forgave them,

in

mentioned before the


they were

Muhammad

as

i.

sin,

the

his sins

e.,

that

fact

case the forgiveness

is

were forgiven before

Muhammad wrought

committed.

same miracles
others

mentioned before the

prophets are

not

only the

former prophets did, but also

which God vouchsafed

to

him

alone.

many
God bestowed

on him no special attribute such as He bestowed on each


of the former prophets (e.g., on Abraham friendship, on Job

He attached nothing
and He said, "Thou didst

patience)
self,

est,

112

but

God

threw"

(Kor.

except Him
not throw when thou threwto

Muhammad

8, 17).

Mystical interpretation of Koran 18, 17 by Shibli. As re


gards the meaning of the words describing Muhammad s

Ascension,
it

"He

transported His servant by

has been said that

if,

as his

includes the

great favour that

God

spirit

apostolic

offices

are

God would
,

which ne

and the body together.

conferred on the

consisted in his being chosen

i),

opponents alleged, the Pro

phet had ascended to heaven in the spirit only,


not have applied to him the name of servant
cessarily

(Kor. 17,

night"

by God,

Prophet"

"The

(Kor. 4, 113)

for the prophetic

and

not conferred as a reward for merit:

33

Muhammad would

otherwise

not have been judged superior

who

and performed
a larger amount of good works. God demands patience from
His creatures on the ground of the recompense which they

to the rest of the prophets,

lived longer

He bade Muhammad be patient


God s eye (Kor. 52,48). That is to

receive hereafter, but

shall

inasmuch

as

he was

in

God honoured him

say,

too

much

to

him

require

His position

anything that entailed recompense.

to

do

one of

is

unique distinction.

CHAPTER LIV:

113

"On

the Sufistic interpretations of

Traditions relating to the peculiar distinction

tolic

Prophet and his superiority to other

Apos
of the

prophets".

Mystical interpretation of the Tradition,

take refuge

"I

Thy good pleasure, and from Thy chas


tisement in Thy forgiveness, and from Thee in Thyself: I
cannot praise Thee: Thou art even as Thou dost praise Thyself".
from Thine anger

H4

in

ye knew what
Meaning of the Traditions,
and
would laugh little and weep much,
"If

etc.,"

as one of

you

am

my

with

Lord,

who

gives

knew, ye

"I

me

am

not

food and

The Prophet implored God to tend him as a child


and never leave him to himself for a single moment. Saying
drink."

Abu Bakr

Explanation of the
were uttered by the Prophet on his deathbed,
of

H5

al-Wasiti.

The Prophet said,


Adam, but I make no

am

"I

saying

the

boast of

by Abu Muhammad

al-Jariri.

words which
"O

chief of the
it."

The

my

grief!"

children of

Explanation of

this

point of the Prophet

words concerning Zaynab, the wife of Zayd, explained by


ask
Explanation by Junayd of the Traditions,
pardon of God and turn towards Him a hundred times daily,"
and "May God have mercy upon my brother Jesus! Had

Junayd.

"I

been greater, he would have walked in the


Comment by Husrf on the Tradition, "Sometimes I am with

his

faith

air."

God

in

than

God."

state

which

do not share with anything other


c

34

CHAPTER LV:

116

"On

from certain Apostolic

"A

meanings derived by the Sufis

Traditions."

Ahmad

Explanation by
Tradition,

the

man

Muhammad

b.

best food

b.

Salim of the

hand hath

that which his

is

earned".

is

117

Explanation by Shibli of the Tradition,


set under the shadow of my sword."

"My

daily bread

Explanation by Junayd of the Tradition,


ye had trust
God as ye ought, He would feed you even as He feeds
"If

in

Explanation by Amr b. Uthman al-Makki


c
c
of the words addressed by the Prophet to Abdallah b. Umar,
c

the

birds,

etc."

God as though thou sawest Him, for if thou seest Him


not, yet He sees thee". Explanation by Abu Bakr al-Wasiti of
the Tradition, "The friend (wall) of God is created with a dispo
"Worship

sition to generosity and good-nature." Explanation by Shibli of


118 the Tradition, "When the lower soul (nafs) is assured of her

the

becomes

she

sustenance,

Tradition,

and

"Thy

love

ye see the

afflicted,

Shibli of the Tradition,

God

ask

to

Shibli

Explanation by
by the present world

lation."

ruled

anything makes thee blind

for

Explanation by

deaf."

Explanation by Junayd of

quiet."

is

make you

from tribu

free

of the Tradition,

debarred

"When

"A

heart

from feeling the

Explanation by Muhammad
b. Musa al-Farghani of the Prophet s advice to Abu Juhayfa,
"Question the savants and be on terms of sincere friendship

sweetness of the world to

with

the

sages

and

Explanations by Sahl
"The

tions,

true

associate

the

believer

The author
119 asked

the

great

(mystics)."

is

by

he who
his evil
all

that

is

made

actions",

is

glad by his

and

therein

"Accursed

except the

God."

declares that the principle of Sufistic divina

founded on the Tradition that the Prophet


number of his Companions, amongst whom was

(istinbdt) is

with

Abdallah al-Tustari of the Tradi

world and accursed

recollection (dhikr) of

tion

b.

good actions and grieved


is

come."

35
c

Abdallah

b.

Umar,

"What

tree resembles

Man?"

Abdallah

that the Prophet was referring to the date-palm,


but since he was the youngest man present, he felt ashamed
to answer. This proves that mystical divination does not

divined

depend on age or experience but on knowledge of the


Unseen which is communicated by God.

BOOK OF THE COMPANIONS.


CHAPTER LVI:
and
1

20

their

good

"Concerning

the Companions of the Prophet

qualities."

Explanation of the Prophet

saying,

"My

whomsoever of them ye take

like the stars:

Companions are
as your pattern,

be rightly guided." Their authority as regards matters


of practice is well-known. The Prophet recognised the pre
eminence of particular Companions in certain details of ex
will

ye

ternal conduct. His description of their spiritual characteris

Muhammad

under four heads.

tics

merates

the

different

121 prevailed in the

first

religious

b.

and

Ali

moral

al-Kattani enu
qualities

which

four generations of Islam.

CHAPTER LVII: "Account of Abu Bakr the Veracious


and how he was distinguished from the other Companions
of the Prophet

themselves

by

which the

states

Sufis imitate

and model

upon."

saying of

Abu Bakr showing

the intensity of his fear

as well as the greatness of his hope. His words to the Mos


lems immediately after the death of the Prophet. Definition
of the term rabbdni. Abu Bakr al-Wasiti said that Abu

Moslem who spoke mystically, alluding


122 to the fact that, when he abandoned all his possessions and
the Prophet asked him what he had left behind for his
Bakr was the

family,

he

first

replied,

"Allah

and

His

Apostle".

This

is

sublime allegory for Unitarians. His being firmly grounded


in

unification (tawhid]

also indicated

is

people after the Prophet

death.

When

by

his

speech to the

the Prophet implored

36

God

help the Moslems on the

to

calmed him, saying,


Such was the reality

will fulfil

"God

field

Abu Bakr

of Badr,

unto thee His

promise."

God. The author explains


the reason why the Prophet showed agitation and Abu Bakr
equanimity, although the Prophet was more perfect than

Abu

of his faith in

Bakr. Moreover,

Abu Bakr was endowed

in a peculiar

123 degree
inspiration (ilhdm) and insight (firdsaf). Three
occasions on which he displayed these qualities. Bakr b.

with

Abdallah al-Muzani said that

panions

of the Prophet, not in the

prayers,

but in something that

said that this thing

124

Abu Bakr

amount of

was within

attributed

his heart.

and
It is

was the love of God.

to

him. Junayd
is

that of

declared that the

Abu

hath given His creatures no


their inability to

know

Him."
c

Evidence

story of his crying out,

dotes and sayings of


Characteristics

pattern

by the

in

saying

Him who
Bakr, "Glory
means of knowing Him save

CHAPTER LVIII: "Account of Umar


Umar was described by the Prophet

(mukaddath).

loftiest

be to

126

his fasts

Other sayings of Abu Bakr. Three verses of the Koran


c
by which his mind was occupied. Lines by Abu l- Atahiya
on unification

125

Com

surpassed the

of his
"O

b. al-Khattab."

as

inspiration

Sariya! the

hill,

man

an inspired
afforded

the

by the

hill."

Anec

Umar.

respect of which

Discussion

Sufis.

of

Umar

his

is

taken as a

attitude

towards

(mutawakkilun). Four things which, according to


him, constitute devotion ^ibddat).
c
CHAPTER LIX: "Account of Uthman."
127
He was specially distinguished by the quality of firm
quietists

ness

(tamkin),

which

is

one

of the

highest

spiritual

de

with the things


grees. Although he was brought into contact
of this world, he really dwelt apart from them, as the true
gnostic
his

own

does:

he used

his

wealth to benefit others, not for

pleasure. Therefore he liked spending

money

better

37

than amassing it. Instances of his generosity. Definition by


c
Sahl b. Abdallah al-Tustari of the person who is justified
in

more
c

Abd

are

the

rule

Abdallah

of poverty. Sahl b.

sometimes a man who possesses great wealth

that

said

128

from

departing

ascetic than

al-Aziz.

mistaken,

of his contemporaries,

any
Hence those who
for

e.

g.,

Umar

is

b.

exalt wealth above poverty

wealth does not consist

in

abundance of

wordly goods, nor poverty in the lack of such it is true


wealth to have God, and true poverty to need God. Anec
c
dotes illustrating the asceticism of Uthman. His steadfastness
:

appeared

in

his

behaviour on the day when he was murdered.

129 Saying of Junayd concerning firmness (tamkin). Four things


in

Uthman found spiritual good comprised.


CHAPTER LX: "Account of AH b. Abi Talib."
which

c
Junayd said that if Ali had been less occupied with war
he would have imparted to the Moslems much of the esoteric
knowledge that was bestowed upon him. This esoteric know

was possessed by Khadir (Kor. 18, 64), hence the


erroneous doctrine that saintship is superior to prophecy.
130 Characteristics of Ali which are imitated by the Sufis. His
ledge

of the

definition

Sayings on

faith.

nature of God.

The mystery

of Creation.

His analysis of states (ahwdl) and stations


be genuine, he was the first who discoursed

(maqdmdt] if it
on the subject. His answer to the question, "Who is safest
c
from faults?" On one occasion Ali pointed to his breast
:

and exclaimed, "Here is a secret knowledge,


find any one worthy to receive it

if I

could but

!"

131

AH

by

was distinguished from the

his

rest of the

Companions

of elucidating mystical ideas such as unifica

power
and gnosis. Exposition

(baydri] is a great gift. Saying


c
on friendship. His asceticism: when Ali was murdered, his
son Hasan announced that the whole of the worldly wealth
which he had left behind was a sum of 400 dirhems. At the

tion

hour

of

prayer he used to tremble and turn pale for fear

33

he

that

the

in

fail

might

committed to him (Kor.

trust

33, 72).

132

(nafs) to a flock of sheep which


soon as they are collected on one side break away on
the other. Statement of the characteristics in respect of which

Comparison of the passions

as

each one of the four Orthodox Caliphs


the

Sufis.

of

Saying

CHAPTER LXI:
133

an example to
Ali concerning four things wherein
is

consists.

good entirely

spiritual

(AM

"Description

Bench

of the People of the

al-Suffa)"

Passages of the Koran in which they are mentioned. God


rebuked the Prophet for treating one of their number scorn

Marks of respect shown towards them by the Prophet.


Their ascetic dress and food.

fully.

134

The Prophet approved of their quietism and did not com


mand them to work or trade.
CHAPTER LXII: "Account of the other Companions from
this point of

view."

The author
Companions
of the
c

lmran

following:

136

Hudhayfa
c

138

Abu
b.

Abdallah

Abu

Farwa,
c

Adi

b.

Usama,
c

adh

b.

Jabal,

Abu Ubayda

b. al-Jarrah,

ud, Bara

b.

Malik, Abdallah

b. al-

Abbas,

Umar,

Hurayra, Anas

b.

Malik,

Abdallah

b.

Umar,

al-Yaman,
b.

Jahsh,
c

Bakra,

Safwan

Abdallah

Muhriz al-Mazini,

b.

b.

Rawaha, Tamim

Abu

al-Darf,

Abu Ran the Prophet s client,


Ka b, Zurara b. Awfa, Hanzala al-Katib,
(Abu Kuthayyir), Abu Juhayfa, Hakfm b. Hizam,

al-Lajlaj

140

al-Farisi,

Dharr,

Hatim,

Muhammad

139

Mas

b.

Mu

Ubaydallah,

b al-Ahbar,

Haritha,

137

b.

Abu

1-Darda,

Abdallah

Ka

Talha

Husayn, Salman

b.

Abu

135

and quietism of the


and sayings
anecdotes
by relating

illustrates the asceticism

of the Prophet

b.

Bilal,

Suhayb,

Abd al-Rahman

b.

Abdallah

b.
c

Awf, Sa d

b.

Mus ab

Rabfa,
al-Rabi

c
.

b.

39

I4i

142

BOOK OF THE MANNERS (dddb) PRACTISED BY


THOSE WHO SEEK TO BECOME
CHAPTER LXIII: "Concerning Manners."
sire ever begot a son more ex
The Prophet said,
cellent than Good Manners", and he also said, "God disci
plined me and made my manners good." Answer given by
Muhammad b. Sirin to one who asked him what manners
bring a man nearest to God and most advance him in God s
"No

Answer given by Hasan

sight.

question,

"What

manners are most

one nearest to God

next

in the

Abi 1-Hasan

b.

al-Basri to the

useful in this world

and bring
c

Sayings of Sa id b.

world?"

al-Musayyib and Kulthum al-Ghassani. Ibn al-Mubarak said,


"We
have more need of a little manners than of much

Another saying of Ibn al-Mubarak.


The author divides men, as regards their manners, into
three classes: the worldly, the religious, and the elect

knowledge."

among

the

for the

most

143 speech,

The manners of the worldly consist,


such polite accomplishments as elegant
poetry and rhetoric. The manners of the

religious.

part, in

learning,

religious

are

mostly

discipline

and body they


and devote
lusts,

of soul

keep the commandments, refrain from


themselves to piety and good works. Sayings of Sahl b.
c
Abdallah and others on this topic. The manners of the

among

elect

the religious

of heart,

purity

(i.

e.,

the Sufis) consist mainly in

meditation, faithful observance of

spiritual

that which they have promised to perform, concentration on


their

mystical

states

Definition of adab

144

etc.

by Abu

VAbbas

b.

al-Jalajili

al-Basri.

Ata.

Sufis are

every detail of their practical

CHAPTER LXIV:
and

Saying of

distinguished from other people and recog


themselves
by their manners, which enter into
amongst

The
nised

purification."

lives.

"Concerning

their

manners

in

ablution

40

The
what

first

thing

to

is

requisite

recommended, and what

is

Ordinary

men

know what
is

is

obligatory,

most excellent

in itself.

should be excused

if they take advantage of


which are granted to them,
Sufis who fall below the highest

the indulgences and remissions


145 but there

standard

is

no excuse

of outward

for

purity

and

mentions the exemplary practice

had seen.

It

cleanliness.

The author

some

whom

of

manners of the

belongs to the

Sufis

he

Sufis that they

should always be in a state of purity both at home and


abroad, so as to avoid the risk of dying unclean. Saying of
Husri explained by the author. Anecdote of Abu Abdallah
al-Rudhabari. Saying concerning the endeavour of Satan to
get something for himself out of every human action.
146

Story of Ibn al-Kurrini (al-Karanbi) the teacher of Junayd.


Why Sahl b. Abdallah urged his disciples to drink plenty
of water and pour as little as possible on the ground. De
scription

of the

rule of purity

observed

Amr alMecca. How

by Abu

during his thirty years residence at


Ibrahim al-Khawwas preferred to suffer from
Zajjaji

thirst rather

than neglect his ablutions in the desert. Various practices


147 adopted or rejected by Sufis for the sake of purification.

Account of the manner


to journey

in

which Ibrahim al-Khawwas used

from Mecca to Kufa. Certain eminent Sufis

dis

and when obliged to do so, took


148 strict precautions that decency should be observed. Practices
connected with ablution and cleanliness. The most puncti
liked entering public baths,

lious attention to these

149 which the author defines


that

causes

rules does not constitute

waswasat

as a misplaced zeal for superfluities

neglect of what

is

obligatory.

The

right course

such matters depends on circumstances, e. g. the quantity


of water available. Stories of Sufis who persevered in ablution

in

though
150

it

was hurtful to them.

Stories of Ibrahim b.

CHAPTER LXV:

Adham

and Ibrahim al-Khawwas.

"Concerning their

manners

in

prayer".

151

The knowledge necessary for the due performance of


prayer. Sufis should make themselves ready for prayer
before the hour arrives. Consequently they need some know

ledge of astronomy and geography.


G
Sahl b. Abdallah used to say that
152
sincere

him

it

was a sign of the

have an attendant Jinni who impelled


the proper time, and awakened him if he

to

mystic

to

pray at
were asleep. Some Sufis engaged in devotional exercises by
day and night, and through force of habit never failed to

perform them at the appointed time. Description of the initial


rites of prayer. Sayings of Junayd and Ibn Salim on the

importance of intention
al-Kharraz
prayer?"

to

the

(niyyat).

"How

question,

Anonymous

Answer given by Abu Sa c fd


one enter upon

should

sayings describing the reverence that

by one who begins to perform the service of


prayer. At this time there must be no thought of anything
except God. Quotation from a book on the manners of

153 should be

felt

154 prayer by

Abu Sa

with explanations bySarraj.


concentration of mind which

id al-Kharraz,

The holy meditation and


prayer demands should commence
and remain
to

after

it,

before the prayer itself

so that the worshipper


as

were

when he begins

from one prayer to an

pray only proceeds,


and when he has ceased to pray, nevertheless continues
the mental attitude of prayer.
it

other,
in
J

Saying of the Prophet on

55

some
of a

to blush or

man whose

could

formed
beside

weak

this subject.

Awe

of

God

causes

grow pale when they begin to pray. Story


prayer was such that he

concentration in

not count the number of genuflexions which he per


accordingly he used to make one of his friends sit
:

him and count


to

rise

from

his

for him.

Sahl

place, but

b.

Abdallah was too

when the hour

of prayer

arrived his strength was restored and he stood erect throughout


the service. Anecdote of a man who, though he was alone
in

the desert, performed his devotions with the same punc-

42
tilious

ceremony

as at

to perform a
prayer of

home. Account of a hermit who used

two ra&as whenever he

ate or

drank

or put on a garment, or entered or


quitted the mosque, or
felt joy or sorrow or
anger.
c

Abu Abdallah b. Jaban. The


Imam (leader in prayer), to pray in

Story of

156

act as

the

prefer as Imam someone who could only


and another chapter, because the Imam,
is

said,

The
and

row

in

(he

make long

prayers.

Junayd

age, refused to forgo his prayers,

he had attained to

said)

life.

religious

Four

CHAPTER LXVI
It

is

recite the Jdtiha

as

the

Prophet

responsible (for the correctness of the prayer).


reason why the Sufis dislike to pray in the first

to

great

God

notwithstanding

row
his

by means of which

in the

beginning of his

which belong to prayer.


"Concerning their manners in almsgiving."

qualities
:

not obligatory on the Sufis either to pay the legal

tithes (zakdt) or to give the voluntary

God has removed from them


make it incumbent on them
Mutarraf
a

first

mosque, and to make their prayers too long. Even if


of them knew the whole Koran by heart, he would

one

157

dislike to

Sufis

the

greater

b.

Abdallah

b.

alms (sadaqa)

because

the worldly wealth that would


to give such alms.

al-Shikhkhir.

Saying of

God has bestowed

favour on the Suffs by taking wealth

away from

them than He

would have bestowed by endowing them


with much wealth. Verse of a poet who boasts that, in con-

158 sequence of his generosity, he is too poor to be liable for


the payment of tithes. Reply given by Shibli to Ibrahim b.

Shayban, who asked him what amount of tithes was payable


on five camels. Some Sufis neither ask for alms nor accept

them when
of

offered. Their

Muhammad

b.

motive

Mansur. Story

in

acting thus.

of a Sufi

Anecdote

who expended

1000 dinars every year upon his poor brethren. Munificence


Abu cAli al-Mushtuli towards the Sufis. Story of an eminent

of

159 Sufi and a rich man.

Extract from a letter written by a

43

Imam

celebrated

to a poor Sufi. It

not proper that Sufis

is

should refuse to accept alms that have been freely offered


by strangers. Tradition of the Prophet on this subject. Such

alms are a
food

gift

from God and

may

whom

handed to any one

or

either be used to purchase

knows

the recipient

to

be more deserving than himself. Anecdote of Abu Bakr alFarghani. Anonymous saying on the principle that should

and receiving alms. The true crfterion


who gives or takes or refuses alms for God s

be followed
of the

in giving

Sufi

sake alone

given to

him

is

receive

no difference whether alms are

Another

class of Sufis

alms rather than presents, arguing that


alms they only receive what is due to

poor from the

the

feels

or withheld from him.

160 choose to receive

when they

he

that

is

and that the

rich,

refusal to take

alms

a sort of pride and shows a dislike of poverty. Story of

Abu Muhammad

al-Murta

ish.

The Prophet

allowable to give alms to the rich.


Sufis
this

point

Tradition,
of view,

not

accept alms base their objection upon


for the Sufis, though poor from a worldly
c

are

spiritually

Saying of Ali

rich.

b.

Sahl

Another interpretation of the Tradition quoted

above. Derivation of the word faqr (poverty).


161
Although it is said that alms are filth, the
accept them without

wealth and

it is

hold that the

not to

ought

al-Isbahani.

said that

Those who

loss of dignity. If a

man

unable to give alms of that

is

alms of kind words and deeds. Bishr

poor

may

has no worldly

sort, let

him give

urged the
Traditionists to pay a tithe on the Traditions which they
wrote down and committed to memory, i. e. to practise five
b. al-Harith

out of every two hundred Traditions. Four things necessary


for those who pay tithes. The rich who pay tithes to the

poor are only restoring what really belongs to the

CHAPTER LXVII:
Explanation

Mine and

of the

give

"Concerning their

Tradition

recompense

that

for

manners

God

it."

said,

in

latter.
fasting."

"Fasting

is

Other Traditions on

44
fasting.

The author

the

defines

qualities

which constitute
fasting of Sahl

good manners in fasting. Description of the


c
b. Abdallah al-Tustari.

How Abu Ubayd


c

163

Some eminent

fasts.

tary

al-Busri fasted during

used

Sufis

Ramadan. Volun

to

fast

continually,

whether they were staying at home or travelling: their


and lust
object was to protect themselves from the Devil
and passion. Story of Ruwaym and a girl of whom he
begged a drink of water. Other Sufis adopt the fast of
David, i. e., they fast every second day. The author ex
the

why

plains

Prophet declared

method of

this

fasting to

be the best.

Saying of Sahl

164

Ahmad

b.

Jaban,

b.

Abu Abdallah

Abdallah. Anecdote of

who

more than

fasted continually for

fifty

on the ground that the


years.
lower self (nafs) is gratified by every habitual act, even
though it be an act of devotion. Story of Ibrahim b. Adham,

Some

dislike continual fasting

showing the importance of

who are
on
God for
depend

dervishes

entirely

as

usual

of the

detached from

their daily bread

the state of those who,

food

when

is

state of the

world and

this

more excellent

than,

they break their fast, partake

of
prepared for them. The dervishes

former class have their

the

The

food.

lawful

own manners

in

fasting.

For

obtained
example, none of them will fast without having
for him
wait
not
permission from his companions, who need
165 to

complete

director.

Sufi

his

fast,

unless

he

Anecdote of Junayd.

fasting voluntarily, hold

It

applicable
is

to a

company

66

in

this

a novice or a Sheykh. Story of a

spiritual

you see a
suspicion, for he must

said,

"When

world."

of dervishes

the sake of one of his disciples.


1

is

him

have got with him something of

an invalid or a

is

Rules of fasting

amongst

whom

Sheykh who

The author

there

fasted for

relates that

Abu

he saw at Basra, became celebrated


his
for his fasting, and that Ibn Salim banished him from
1-Hasan al-Makki,

whom

45

on

presence

account.

that

Anecdote of a

Sufi

of Wasit.

Saying of Shibli.

CHAPTER LXVIII:
the

in

making

is

of provisions

them from

relieve
fulfil

that

they should make every possible

perform the Pilgrimage once at least during their lives.

Want

and means of conveyance does not

this

duty, since

it

is

a rule of the Sufis

the utmost obligations laid upon

gious law.
three

into

rule

first

effort to

to

manners

Pilgrimage."

The
167

"Concerning their

Sufis

them by the

reli

who make the Pilgrimage may be divided


The first class are those who perform

classes.

one Pilgrimage, and for the rest of their lives are


c
content with mystical experiences. Sahl b. Abdallah and
other eminent Sufis followed this rule. The second class are
only

who cut themselves free from all worldly ties and set
to make the Pilgrimage, penniless and unprovisioned;

those

out

they journey alone through pathless deserts, trusting in none


but God, and never tire of going as pilgrims to His holy
168 temple.

Anecdotes

illustrating

the

manners

of Sufis

who

Hasan al-Qazzaz al-Dmawari made


belong
twelve pilgrimages with bare feet and uncovered head. Stories
c
c
of Abu Turab al-Nakhshabi, Abu Abdallah al-Maghribi, Ja far
to

this

class.

al-Khuldi, and Ibrahim al-Khawwas.

Another story of Ibrahim al-Khawwas, who quitted Mecca

169

with the resolution

not

arrive at Qadisiyya.

The

own

to

touch

food

until

third class are those

he

should

who by

their

residents at Mecca or in the neighbour


on account of the sanctity of the place or from
ascetic motives. Their manners are illustrated by anecdotes

become

choice

hood, either

of

Abu Abdallah b. al-Jalla,


Abu Bakr al-Kattani, Abu Amr
c

170
It

for

is

said

that

al-Zajjaji,

and al-Duqqi.

anyone who can endure hunger

at

Mecca

day and a night can endure it for three days in the


There used to be a saying that residence

rest of the world.

46
at

Mecca

alters the disposition

and reveals the inmost nature,

and that only true mystics can


of a

Khawwas
i/

who

dervish

undergo

offered

dervishes

who found
the

cumambulating

Tho

him.

in

hardships

reasons

travelling

fault

Ka

uncorrupted. Story

some money which Ibrahim

refused
to

live there

to

why

Sufis willingly

Mecca. Story of some

with one of their number for

ba

in

the

al-

because

daytime,

cir

they

fancied that he did so in the hope of receiving alms. Another

when they have vowed to


make the Pilgrimage they keep their word even though it
should cost them their lives. Story of Ahmad b. Dillawayh.
rule

of the

Sufis

is

this,

that

Also, while crossing the desert, they perform the obligatory


acts

far as they can, no less punctiliously


do
not travel by regular stages or com
They

of devotion,

than at home.

so

plete the journey within a fixed time, but set out

causes them to set out and halt


halt.

Every

rite

companied by
the allegorical

when God
them to

causes

connected with the Pilgrimage should be ac

the spiritual action or feeling appropriate to

Exemplifying

172-3

when God

this

it.

principle in detail, the author describes

meaning of the various ceremonies, such as

the ikrdm, the talbiyat, the kissing of the Black Stone, the

standing at
indicates

Arafat, the casting of the pebbles at Mina,

right way
by Ibrahim al-Khawwas, of

of trust in

and

of performing them. Story, related

the

God but proved

Sheykh who taught the doctrine


it in practice. Anecdote

false to

of al-Zaqqaq
though starving, he would not accept food
from some soldiers whom he met in the Desert of the
:

Israelites.

174

Another story of al-Zaqqaq: how he


one eye.

CHAPTER LXIX:

"Concerning

lost

the manners

the

sight of

of dervishes

mutual intercourse, and the principles which they


observe at home and abroad".
in

their

Two

sayings of Junayd.

Sayings of the above-mentioned

47

Abu Bakr

al-Zaqqaq and Abu Abdallah b. al-Jalla. Three


G
rules of conduct for dervishes stated by Sahl b. Abdallah
175 and by an anonymous Sufi. Three things necessary for the
c
dervish, according to Sahl b. Abdallah. Saying of Junayd.

Twelve

enumerated by Ibrahim alKhawwas. Anonymous sayings on poverty. It is a breach of


manners for a dervish to say anything that suggests egoism.
qualities of the dervish

Anecdotes of Ibrahim
and Ibrahim

al-Qalanisi,

176

b.
b.

Shayban, Abu Abdallah


al-Muwallad al-Raqqi.

Ahmad

Three fundamental principles of Sufism according to alQalanisi and another whose name is not mentioned. An

onymous saying on the

false dervish.

Khawwas

must not regard secondary causes

the

dervish

(asbdb). Saying of Junayd

CHAPTER LXX:

how

Saying of Ibrahim

al-

to treat dervishes.

manners

their

"Concerning

in

compan

ionship."

Saying of Ibrahim

b.

Shayban:

"We

were not used to

anyone who said, My shoe or My bucket


c
Abdallah and Dhu 1-Nun al-Misri to
b.

associate with

of Sahl

Sayings

God is the best companion for the Sufi.


1-Nun and Ahmad b. Yusuf al-Zajjaji.
Dhu
Sayings by
Disagreement condemned. Abu Sa id al-Kharraz said that

the effect that


177

he consorted with the Sufis for

fifty

years and never quar

them, because he always sided with them against


Junayd said that he preferred a good-natured liber

relled with

himself.

tine to an ill-natured pietist. Story of

Yazid and
of

Abu

Sahl

Abu

Hafs and
G

b.

Abu Uthman

Abdallah to

his pupil,

(al-Hiri).

Ibn Salim,

that Sahl had never pointed out to

178

Abu

Hafs.

How Abu

Ali al-Sindi instructed one another. Story

Answer given by

who complained

him any of the Abddl.

Story told by Ibrahim b. Shayban of his companionship


c
c
with Abu Abdallah al-Maghribi. Sahl b. Abdallah would
not take
beasts.

as

Dhu

his

companion anyone who was

1-Nun

answer to the question,

afraid of wild
"With

whom

48
shall

associate

Adham

b.

Three conditions imposed by Ibrahim

?"

on those who desired

Bakr al-Kattani overcame the


one of

his
c

by

plified
c

company. How Abu


which he felt towards

of a true companion

Abdallah al-Marwazi while travelling with

Three

men whose

classes of

mystical

society, according to Sahl b.

"Concerning

Abu Muhammad

manners

Abu Ja far b. al-Faraji,


of Abu Abdallah b. al-Jalla who
G

Story

in discussing

Abu Yazid
and Abu Hafs.

al-Jariri,

Junayd,

their

topics".

Sayings of

on the subject of
80

Abu

Abdallah, should be avoided.

CHAPTER LXXI:

exem

Ali al-Ribati.

179
c

dislike

The duty

friends.

his

trust in

God

al-Bistami,

refused to speak

(tawakkul] until he had giv

en away four small coins which he possessed.


Anecdote of Abu Abdallah al-Husri and Ibn Yazdaniyar.
Saying of Ibrahim al-Khawwas on the qualifications neces
sary for those

Sa

id

who

the

discuss

al-Kharraz rebuked a

man

theory of mysticism.

Abu

for using

symbols (ishdrat]
God. Junayd said that he did not know any
theory and practice more excellent than the theory and
c
practice of Sufism. Abu Ali al-Rudhabari declared that the
in reference to

knowledge of the mystic cannot be expressed in plain words.


c
c
Anecdote of Abu Sa id al-Kharraz and Abu Hatim al- Attar.
Saying of Junayd.
181

Shiblf told those

the angels would

resort

to

be

listening to his discourse that


in their place.

for

speak

Sayings

of

Sari al-

that

idle

folk".

How

Sari asked

the meaning of thanksgiving (shukr).

not

When

Junayd gathered round him an audience


the mosque, he said, "Alas, you have become

Saqati heard
of Sufis in

who were
like

in

long as Dhu 1-Nun was alive.


Sulayman al-Darani and Abu Bakr al-

public

Abu

Junayd to explain
c
Sahl b. Abdallah would

so

Zaqqaq on the value of oral instruction

in Sufism.

Why

al-

49

182

Abu Abdallah

the father of

Jalla,

was so named.

b. al-Jalla,

Saying of Harith al-Muhasibi. How Junayd used to answer


who questioned him on matters which lay beyond

those
their

Abu Amr
c

capacity.

spiritual

better to

commit

al-Zajjaji said that

it

is

a gross breach of etiquette than to inter

Saying of Ibn al-Kurrini


(al-Karanbi) to Junayd. Sayings of Shibli and Sari al-Saqati.
CHAPTER LXXII: "Concerning their manners at meal
rupt

Sheykh

time and

his

in

discourse.

gatherings and

in their

entertainments".

Three occasions, enumerated by Junayd, when the divine

mercy descends upon Sufis.


Muhammad b. Mansur al-Tusi said to his guest, "Stay
183
three nights with us, and if you stay longer it will be a
gift

of alms from

you

to

the difficulty of obtaining

al-Nawribati on the

when they

ascetics

demned by

Ja far

world,

together.

Story of

Ali

and

Abu Hamza

Ali al-Rudhabari in praise

Eating after a meal con


c
far on

Another saying of Ja

al-Khuldi.

and
it

is

dervishes.

eating with friends,

The author

by

his

men

account of the

proper for the Sufi faqirs to observe in

Sheykh who had eaten no food

reproached
instead

Abu

Two

manners which
eating.

enter a house.

sayings of Shibli.
one should behave when

gluttony.

food. Saying of

to treat dervishes, theologians,

way

who meet

of dervishes

How

Saying of Sari al-Saqati on

al-Saqati. Sayings of Abu

and Sari

of the

us."

lawful

host

days was

for ten

because he ate with two fingers

of three. Saying of Ibrahim b. Shayban.

Abu Bakr

al-Kattani would not eat any food that was not offered spon
taneously. Saying of Junayd.

was punished for refusing an


on the importance of purity
dwelling-place.
sick

men and

Sari

sleep

drowned. Saying of

al-Saqati
like

Abu

How Abu

Turab al-Nakhshabi

offer of food.

Saying of Junayd
as regards food, clothing, and
said

that

the

Sufis

eat

men who
c

like

are in danger of being


Abdallah al-Husri. Anecdote of

50

Fath al-Mawsili,
entertained

Ma

185

manner

describing the

by Bishr

which he was

in

al-Hafi.

ruf al-Karkhi accepted every invitation, saying that he

world and had no home except


to enter. Description by Abu
bidden
the house that he was
Bakr al-Kattani of a gathering of three hundred Sufis at

was only a guest

the

in

Mecca: instead of talking about religion they acted towards


each other with good-nature and kindness and unselfishness.
Saying of Abu Sulayman al-Darani: eating deadens the heart.

Ruwaym
of food

said
until

during twenty years he never thought


c
was set before him. Story of Abu Ali al-

that
it

Rudhabari. Anecdote related by Abu Abdallah al-Rudhabari of


a man who entertained a party of guests and lighted a
c

thousand lamps; on being charged with extravagance, he


successfully

challenged

his

accuser to extinguish any lamp

that had not been lighted for


b.
1

Muhammad

CHAPTER LXXIII:

86

sake.

"Concerning their

of audition (sama] and

if

God

Anecdote of Ahmad

al-Sulami.

manners

at the

time

ecstasy."

Junayd mentioned three things necessary in audition, and


these were absent, he disapproved of it. Saying of Harith

al-Muhasibf.

Dhu 1-Nun

Story of

erotic verses recited.

When

ecstasy on hearing

some

Ibrahim al-Marastani was asked

dancing and rending the garments in audition, he


quoted the word of God that was revealed to Moses, "Rend
thy heart and do not rend thy garments." The author says

about

that

this

subject

will

be fully set forth

in

a subsequent

chapter.

187

Junayd said that excess of ecstasy combined with


ciency

of religious

knowledge

is

harmful.

defi

Explanation of

saying by the author. Ecstasy, provided that it is in


voluntary, is not improper for dervishes who are entirely
this

detached from worldly


seek to produce ecstasy

interests.
in

No

one, however, should

himself by joining a

number of

enraptured and

already

persons
audition.

if

This,

become

it

So long as the heart


idle and vain.

spiritual illumination.

worldliness, audition

by participating in their
is most destructive to

a habit,

polluted with

is

is

CHAPTER LXXIV: "Concerning their manners in dress."


Three sayings of Abu Sulayman al-Darani. Reply given
by a young Sufi to Bishr b. al-Harith (al-Hafi), who had
expressed the opinion
frocks (muraqqci
1

88

that

Sufis

should not wear patched

di}.

by al-Jariri of a dervish who wore the same


garment both in summer and winter because of a vision
Story related

which he had seen. Saying of


Yazid s criticism of Yahya b.
behind

left

Abu

Mu

Hafs al-Haddad.

adh

him except the

Abu Yazid

al-Razi.
shirt

Abu

which he was

nothing
wearing at the time of his death. Description of the patched
frock belonging to Ibn al-Kurrini (al-Karanbi). The fine

worn by Abu Hafs al-Naysaburi. The author men

clothes
tions

the general

rules observed

by dervishes

in

regard to

dress.

189

CHAPTER LXXV:

"Concerning

their

manners

in

travelling."

c
Counsel given by Abu Ali al-Rudhabari to a man who was
setting out on a journey. Ruwaym s advice to the traveller.
Muhammad b. Isma c il describes a journey on which he was

accompanied by
Kattani.

Saying

Khawwas would

Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq and Abu Bakr


of Abu 1-Hasan al-Muzayyin. Ibrahim
not allow al-Muzayyin the Elder to

What

scorpion that was crawling on his thigh.

who

to his disciples

190

Three

years

thirty

reasons
their

rules

for

al-

kill

Shibli said

suffered hardships in travelling.

observed by

of travel.

Abu Abdallah

al-Nasibi during

The author enumerates

the various

which Sufis travel; he says that they perform

religious

home, and

al-

if

duties just as carefully as

when they

are at

party of dervishes are travelling together,

they show the utmost consideration to their weaker brethren.

52

Other

Sufis

a stricter

Abu Ya qub

to

According

which

illustrated

is

by
al-Khawwas and Abu lmran al-Tabarirule,

of Ibrahim

sayings
stani.

follow

al-Susi there are four qualities

that are indispensable to the traveller: religious knowledge,

and

enthusiasm,

piety,

good-nature.

Abu Bakr

said that the Sufis refuse to associate with

number who journeys

to

Yemen more

al-Kattani

any one of their

than once. Derivation

of safar (travel).
IQ 1

CHAPTER LXXVI:

"Concerning

manners

their

prestige (honour, influence, popularity), and


in acting for

The

the sake of their

friends."

author quotes a saying related

Abdallah al-Subayhi to the

effect that

by the pupils of Abu


it

until

poor

he

give

in

worldly goods; but he

made

has

further

consequence

is

sacrifice,

not entirely
namely, the

Story of al-Muzaffar al-Qarmisini and another

sacrifice of self.

Sufi

all

behoves the dervish

him

to sacrifice the prestige that accrues to

of his having resigned

in sacrificing

begging, and

in

who made themselves


them anything.

no one would

so despised that

Ibrahim

b.

Shayban

praise

of

al-

Muzaffar al-Qarmisinf. Anecdote of a Sufi who abased him


self by begging, which he disliked intensely. Story of a
novice whose devotion and austerities had gained for him a
he was told by a certain Sheykh that he
great reputation
:

must go from door

to

door and

beg

his

bread and eat

nothing else, but he found himself unable to obey; and


when he was reduced to beggary in his old age, he regarded

punishment for having disobeyed the Sheykh.


Story of an eminent Sufi who never broke his fast except with
192
pieces of bread that he had begged. Anecdote of Mimthis as a

shadh al-Dinawari.

How Bunan

al-Hammal learned that he was

a parasite. Story of a novice who begged food for his com


and partook of it with them on this account he
:

panions

was blamed by some Sheykhs who


begged

for himself.

The author

said that he

had

really

explains the true principles

53
of begging. Anecdote of a

Sheykh who

refrained from begging

he might endanger the spiritual welfare of a


fellow-Moslem, in accordance with the tradition that he who
fear

for

that

repulses a sincere beggar will not prosper.

CHAPTER LXXVII:

193

receive a gift of worldly

of a

Story

goods".

who

dervish

feeling (hdl) in

manners when they

"Concerning their

his

lost

faith

and

his spiritual

consequence of receiving a gift. Another story


same reason, was deprived of the

of a dervish who, for the

which mystics hold dear. Abu Turab al-Nakhshabi


said that any one upon whom much bounty was bestowed
tribulation

How Bunan

ought to weep for himself.


a thousand dinars.

al-Hammal refused

Story of Ibn Bunan four hundred dirhems were brought


to him while he was asleep, but he was warned in a dream
not to take more than he needed. Story of Abu 1-Husayn
:

he dropped three hundred dinars, one by one, into


the Tigris. Anecdote of Ibn Ziri, a pupil of Junayd, who
into possession of some money and left his companions.
came
194
Abu Ahmad al-Qalanisi would not let his pupils visit one
al-Nurf

number who had

and returned with money.


How Abu Hafs al-Haddad spent a thousand dinars on the
dervishes of Ramla. Story of Shibli, who bestowed on der
of their

vishes nearly

the

all

money

for his starving children.

four

dirhems

order

in

travelled

that was given

Shibli

195

received

al-Mu tadid

when
said,

God,
to

hast given

every

to

had

buy food

Story of a Sufi Sheykh who saved


he might return them to God
"These

are

all

the worldly

me."

sum

distribute

one

to

that

on the Day of Judgment and say,


goods Thou

him

of

money from

amongst

taken

as

the

the

Sufis

of

vizier

of

Baghdad;

much he wanted,

Shibli

more ye have taken,


and the more ye have rejected, the nearer are ye

"The

God."

the

farther

are ye from

54

CHAPTER LXXVIII: "Concerning


who earn their livelihood."
c

Sahl b.

Sunna

the

Abdallah said that while

condemn work,

to

Faith to condemn trust

al-Harith

it

The
is

to earn their livelihood or to trust in

Two

196

sayings

of earning.

mending
velling.

at

of

Abu Sa

Abdallah

id

an offence against

an offence against the

b.

by spinning thread.

livelihood

one who asked him whether

to

is

God. Saying of Junayd.

in

Ishaq al-Maghazili rebuked Bishr


his

manners of those

it

is

it

the

b.

and

earning

reply of Ibn Salim

the duty of Moslems

God.

al-Mubarak

in justification

al-Kharraz once passed a whole night


whom he was tra

the shoes of the dervishes with

Saying of

Abu

Hafs (al-Haddad). Story of a negro

Damascus who was a follower of the

Abu

for

How

Sufis.

Anecdote of

1-Qasim al-Munadi. Sayings of Ibrahim al-Khawwas,


Ibrahim b. Adham. General rules to be observed by

who work.
Abu Hafs al-Haddad earned

Sufis

197

stowed

Dhu

it

the

upon

Sufis.

a dinar every

of Shibli

Saying

day and be
to

a cobbler.

1-Nun said that the true gnostic does not attempt to

gain a livelihood.

CHAPTER LXXIX:
and giving and

short

of Junayd:
prefers

way

in

"Concerning

showing

their

to Paradise described

none has the right


to receiving.

spending

manners

courtesy to the

to

by

in

taking

poor."

Sari al-Saqati. Saying

take

Saying of

money unless he
Abu Bakr Ahmad

Hamawayh: money should be accepted or rejected for


God s sake, not from any other motive. Story of al-Zaqqaq

b.

and Yusuf al-Sa

igh.

Anecdote showing the tact and deli


c
of Damascus bestowed a gift of

cacy with which Ibn Rufay

money upon Abu


198

Ali al-Rudhabari.

al-Zaqqaq and Abu Muhammad alMurta ish. How Junayd induced Ibn al-Kurrini (al-Karanbi)
to accept some money from him. Whenever Abu T-Qasim
Sayings of
c

Abu Bakr

55

al-Munadi saw smoke issuing from a neighbour s house, he


used to send and ask for food. Story of Junayd and Husayn
b.

Answer given by Yusuf

al-Misri.

question whether one

al-Husayn to the
bestowing all one s pro

justified in

is

b.

perty upon a brother in God.

CHAPTER LXXX:

"Concerning

who have

are married and those

of the

Story

Muhammad
trust in

him

b.

marriage

who

children."

Abu Ahmad

al-Qalanisi.

How

Ali al-Qassar trained his little daughter to


b.
God. Story of Bunan al-Hammal and his son. Ibra
Adham said that a man who marries embarks on a ship,

and that he
Saying

suffers

Bishr

of

herself in

offered

of

the manners of those

shipwreck when a child


b.

al-Harith.

Story

is

born to him.

of a

woman who

Abu Shu ayb

marriage to

al-Barathi and

removed a piece of matting.


The author says that a married Sufi must not commit his
wife and children to the care of God but must provide for
refused to enter his hut until he

their

needs unless they are

he

Sufis

is.

tage

ought to wed poor

women who

of rich

when Path

al-Mawsili

voice saying,

"O

the same spiritual state as

in

women and

desire

kissed

Path, art not

to

not take advan

marry them. One day

his son he heard a heavenly


thou ashamed to love another

Me?"
The author points out that although the Pro
used
to
kiss
his children and clasp them to his bosom,
phet
his spiritual rank and endowments were unique; and that God

besides

is

jealous of the Sufis

when they

turn their thoughts towards

any one except Himself.

CHAPTER LXXXI:
alone or with
Sitting in

their

manners

in sitting

mosques condemned by Sari

al-Saqati. His defi

of generosity (muruwwat). Saying of a Sufi Sheykh:

nition
"the

"Concerning

others."

prayer-mat of the dervish ought to be on his buttocks."


Abu Yazid and Ibrahim b. Adham which indicate

Stories of

that

it

is

a breach of

manners to stretch out one

s feet

or

56

one

cross

to

Story of Ibrahim al-Khawwas and a

legs.

dervish

who had an

Yahya

Mu adh

excellent

b.

on

(al-Razi)

way

Saying of

of sitting.

sitting with the unspiritual.

Anecdote of Ibn Mamlula al-Attar al-Dinawari. Anonymous


saying: a man s friends show his character. Hasan al-Qazzaz,

who

often sat awake during the night, said that Sufism is


founded on three things: hunger, silence, and sleeplessness.

Junayd preferred

sitting

CHAPTER LXXXII:

202

Two
c

of

sayings

Abdallah used to

with Sufis to prayer.

Mu

in

hunger".

adh on hunger. Sahl b.


be strong when he abstained from eating

Yahya

and weak when he

ate.

b.

Saying of Sahl

(al-Darani) said that

Sulayman

manners

"Concerning their

is

b.

Abdallah.

one of God

Abu
trea

hunger
bestows upon those whom He loves dearly.
A saying of Sahl b. Abdallah on hunger repeated to the
c
author by Ibn Salim. Saying of lsa al-Qassar. Why a Sufi

He

sures which

Sheykh

said,

hungry".

him

visit

"Thou

art a

Another Sheykh
after

to a

man who

said,

am

"I

rebuke to a Sufi who came to

having eaten no food

CHAPTER LXXXIII

203

liar",

for five days.

"Concerning their

manners in

Anecdote of Mimshadh al-Dinawari.

It

is

sickness."

related of

al-

his body was infested by worms, and


when a worm fell to the ground he would put it back in
its place. Story of Dhu
1-Nun and a sick disciple to whom

Kurdi that part of

he paid a

visit.

Advice which Sahl

give to his disciples

al-Nahrajuri

b.

when they were

Abdallah used to

How Abu Ya qub


c

ill.

refused to let himself be cured of a disease in

stomach by means of cautery. Saying of al-Thawri to a

his

who made excuses for delay in visiting him. Sahl


Abdallah know a remedy for piles but would not use it.

disciple
G

b.

204

When
ician,

God):

Bishr al-Hafi described his

he
his

symptoms

to the

phys
was asked whether he was not complaining (of
reply. Saying of Dhu 1-Nun quoted by Junayd

when he was

suffering from a severe illness.

57

LXXXIV

CHAPTER
Sheykhs and
Saying
the poor

their kindness to their

How

of Junayd.

manners of the

the

"Concerning

disciples".

Bishr al-Hafi sympathised with

when he was unable

to help

them. Courtesy shown

to a party of dervishes. Story of

by al-Zaqqaq

Junayd and

al-Jariri.

Story of Abu Ahmad al-Qalanisi and a disciple. Anec


dote of Junayd and a man who wished to abandon all his
wealth.

How Abu

1-Hasan

al-

Atufi procured food for his

companions in the desert. How Abu Ja far al-Qassab fol


lowed Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz from Ramla to Jerusalem in
c

order to obtain his forgiveness.

CHAPTER
and

LXXXV:

"Concerning

the manners of disciples

novices".

Saying on wisdom (hikmat) cited from a book by Abu


anecdotes (of holy

Turab al-Nakhshabi. Saying of Junayd


men) strengthen the hearts of
Saying of Yahya

(b.

Mu

disciples.

on

adh)

wisdom.

Sayings

of

Mimshadh al-Dinawari, Abu Turab al-Nakhshabi, and Abu


c
Ali b. al-Katib concerning those who aspire to become
Sufis. Saying of Shibli on two kinds of amazement ((kayrat)
felt by disciples. How Shibli, when he was a novice,
pre
vented himself from being overcome by sleep. Manners and
signs

of the

Kharraz.

sincere

Saying

according

disciple

of Sahl b.

should occupy the disciple

to

Abu Sa

id

al-

Abdallah on the things which

mind.

by Yusuf

b. al-Husayn of the signs by which


known. Saying of Abu Bakr al-Barizi.
CHAPTER LXXXVI: "Concerning _the manners of those

Description
the disciple

who

is

prefer to live

alone".

Saying of Bishr al-Hafi. How al-Darraj met the hermit,


1-Musayyib, and brought him to Shibli. Saying of Ju

Abu

nayd on the

men

of great

solitary

life.

spiritual

Abu Ya

qiib al-Susi said that only

power can endure

solitude,

and that

58
it

was better

people like himself to perform their devo


the sight of one another.

tions in

208

for

Story of Abu Bakr b. al-Mu allim who retired to Mount


Lukkam near Antioch and found that be was unable to

customary devotions; he remained ten years in


solitude before he could perform them as well as he used
his

perform

do amongst
communicated

to

met

in

his acquaintances.

Ibrahim al-Khawwas by a

to

was

similar experience

man whom

he

the desert.

CHAPTER LXXXVII:
ship and

"Concerning

their

manners

in friend

affection".
c

Sayings of Dhu 1-Nun and Abu Uthman (al-Hiri). Answer


given by Ibn al-Sammak to a friend who quarrelled with
him. Sayings on the nature of affection.

Sayings of Yahya

209

b.

Mu

hammad al-Maghazili.
CHAPTER LXXXVIII:
hour of

adh, Junayd, Nuri, and

"Concerning

their

Abu Mu

manners

in the

death".

Verses recited by Shibli on the night before he died. Only

two of the hundred and twenty disciples of Abu Turab alNakhshabi died in poverty namely, Ibn al-Jalla and Abu
,

Ubayd

al-Busri.

Description of the death of Ibn Bunan

al-

Misri.

210

Abu

Story related by

Ali al-Rudhabari of a youth

who

expired on hearing a verse of poetry. Saying of Abu Yazid


(al-Bistami) on his deathbed. Saying of Ibn al-Kurrini (al-

Karanbi) reported
tion of the death of

by Junayd, who was

his pupil.

Junayd by Abu Muhammad

Descrip

al-Jariri.

The

described by Bakran al-Dfnawari. Account


of Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri.
saying of Abu

death of Shibli
of the

death

Bakr al-Zaqqaq which was immediately followed by his death.


How Ibn cAta was killed. Ibrahim al-Khawwas died while
211
performing an ablution. The corpse of Abu Turab al-Nakhshabi was seen standing erect in the desert, untouched by

59
wild beasts.

Junayd
Kharraz

of the death of

Description

remark when

Yahya

al-Istakhri.

Abu Sa

that

told

id

al-

into an ecstasy before he died.

fell

CHAPTER LXXXIX:
shown

trine

was

he

the differences of doc

"Concerning

on mystical sub

their answers to questions

in

jects".

212

Question

concentration

concerning

(Jam

and dispersion

(tafriqat).

The author

definition of these terms. Their

by Abu Bakr Abdallah

plained

Tahir al-Abhari. Verses

b.

Junayd. Saying attributed to Niirf.

by
and

on the subject. Sayings of Junayd

doctrines

Anonymous

213

meaning ex

Abu Bakr

al-Wasitf.

concerning passing-away (fand) and continuance

Question
(baqd).

Two
of

sayings of

/and and

Abu Ya qub

baqd requires that

al-Nahrajuri: the true theory

Man

the relation of a slave to his master

normal relation to God


should be maintained.

The author says that fand and baqd are the attributes of
those who declare God to be One, and who ascend in their
to a particular

unification

ordinary

Moslems.

He

explains

application of the terms.

214

Sayings of
Shibli.

Abu Sa

Two

the

is

not reached by

meaning and
Sumnun.

original

sayings of

Junayd, Ibn Ata, and


Ruwaym. The author enume

id al-Kharraz,

attributed

Saying

degree, which

to

rates five stages of fand.

215

Question concerning the realities (al-kaqd

Description by Sari al-Saqati of those


ities.

Sayings

of Junayd,

Abu Turab

iq).

who seek

the real

(al-Nakhshabi)

and

Ruwaym. Three

Abu

Ja far

kinds of reality (haqiqat] distinguished by


al-Saydalani. Anecdote of Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq
:

"every

reality that contradicts the religious law

elity".

Ruwaym s

man

realise the

answer to the question,

is

an

"When

infid

does a

meaning of servantship ^ubudiyyat)^ Another

6o

saying of

Ruwaym.

Muzayyin

al-Kabir of the

saying of Junayd. Definition by alnature of God as conceived by

the Sufis.
c

216

Saying of Abdallah
tifies

between

Shibli

by

with

reality

humanity

in the

Tahir al-Abhari,

in

positive

religion

ilm,

(insdniyyat]

made

Distinction

ilm).

and haqq. The

haqiqat,

explained

which he iden

by Abu

Ja

far

reality of

al-Qarawi.

definition of the reality of union (wusul). Reality

Anonymous
described

b.

which removes every obstacle


way. Saying of Abu Bakr al-Wasiti.

by Junayd

mystic

as that

Question concerning veracity (sidq).

Saying of Junayd. Definition of veracity given by Abii


c
Sa id al-Kharraz to two angels whom he saw in a dream.

by Yusuf

detailed definition

b.

al-Husayn.

Sayings of an anonymous sage,

217

Muhasibi),

Junayd,

Abu Ya

Dhu

1-Nun, Harith

(al-

qub, and another whose name

not mentioned.

is

Question concerning the fundamental principles (usul)of Sufism.

Five qualities enumerated by Junayd.


tioned

by Abu Uthman

importance
ciples.

Ahmad

not to

of

the

principles

men

Saying of Junayd on the


fail in fundamental prin
Sufis,

according

Abu

to

Seven principles of Sufism enumerated

Abdallah.

according to Husri, and another


of seven principles, according to an anonymous dervish.

List
list

principles

al-Qalanisi.

Sahl b.

by
218

Three

(al-Hiri).

care

of taking

Two

of six

principles,

Question concerning sincerity (ikhlds).


Definitions

1-Nun,
c

and

c
by Junayd, Ibn Ata, Harith al-Muhasibi, Dhu
c

Abu Ya qub

al-Susi.

Two

sayings

of Sahl b.

Abdallah. Definitions by Junayd and an anonymous Sheykh.

Three signs of the sincere man. Definition of sincerity


uted to

219

Abu

attrib

1-Husayn al-Nuri.

Question concerning recollection (dhikr).

Ibn Salim distinguished three kinds of recollection

(a)

with

6i

the

tongue,

defined

as

with

(b)

"being

nearness to

the

Ibn

God".

heart,

recollection

(c)

Ata

which he

shame because of

with love and

filled

said that recollection causes the

nature (bashariyyat) to disappear. Two sayings of


c
Sahl b. Abdallah. Three verses of the Koran in which the

human

Moslems
ent

are

kinds

commanded

God. There are

to recollect

of recollection,

corresponding

to

the

differ

different

Saying of an anonymous
Verbal
recollection
Sheykh.
(repetition of the formulas "There
in no god but Allah" and "Glory be to Allah!" or recitation
used

language

these

in

verses.

of the Koran) and spiritual recollection (concentration of the

heart upon

God and His

attributes).

Recollection assumes various forms in accordance with the

220

predominant
that

or

state

recollection

real

of each mystic. Shibli said

station

the

is

forgetting of recollection,

i.

e.,

forgetfulness of everything except God.

Question concerning spiritual wealth (ghind).

Junayd

said that spiritual poverty

and wealth are comple

mentary, and that neither is perfect without the other. The


signs of spiritual wealth described by Yusuf b. al-Husayn.
c
c
Saying of Amr b. Uthman al-Makki on the spiritual wealth

which

consists

in

being

independent

of

spiritual

wealth.

221 Saying of Junayd.


Question concerning poverty (faqr).

Junayd said that poverty


all

tribulation

its

true faqir

who

is

is

a sea of tribulation but that

by Junayd of the
hundred years before

glorious. Description

enters

Paradise

five

the rich. Ibn al-Jalla said that poverty must be accompanied


c

by piety (wara
Question

).

Sayings of Junayd and al-Muzayyin.

concerning the

spirit

(ruk)

and

the doctrines

of

the Sufis on the subject.

222

Two
two
heart

sayings of Shibli.

spirits,
is

viz.,

Abu Bakr

al-Wasiti distinguished

the vital spirit and the spirit whereby the

illumined. Other sayings of al-Wasiti.

Abu

Abdallah

62

attained

human

spirits in the gnostic

spirit (al-ruh al-bashariyyd]

and the eternal

man. Traditions

in

The author

who

union with God. Distinction between the

to

ruh al-qadima]
223

two

said that there are

al-Nibaji

has

declares

be

to

it

spirit (al~

illustrating this doctrine.

Ibn Salim asserted

false.

and the body together produce good or evil,


and that both are liable to reward or punishment. Those
that the spirit

who

believe

go

spirit

far

metempsychosis and
astray from the truth.

Qttestion concerning

The meaning
al-Bistami

the

to

eye to heaven.
a

certain

Abu

How
Amr

Sufis

man,

God? Let God


224

of the

(ishdrat).

Abu Yazfd

God cannot be indicated by


man rebuked Junayd for raising
Uthman al-Makki said that the

that

effect

symbolism of the
to

symbolic allusion

eternity

of ishdrat. Sayings of Shibli and

means of symbols.
his

the

in

b.
is

"How

polytheism
long

will

give indications to

(shirk).

you

Junayd

said

give indications to

you."

Yazid (al-Bistami) condemned both theological and

symbolism. Zaqqaq said that ishdrat is proper for


but
the adept finds God by abandoning ishdrat.
novices,
Saying of Shibli on nearness to God. Saying of Yahya b.
mystical

Mu

adh on the

classes

of religious

Rudhaban
Abii

different kinds of

men. Sufism described by

as an ishdrat.

Ya qub

symbolism used by

The

Abu

different

Ali

al-

use of ishdrat disapproved

by

al-Susi.

Diverse questions. Question concerning elegance (zarf).


Definition of the term by Junayd.
Question concerning generosity (muruwwat).
Definition

by Ahmad

b.

Ata.

Question concerning the reason


c

why

225
Sayings by Ibn Ata (who connects
Shibli, and an anonymous mystic.

the Sufis are so called.


Sufi

with safd), Nuri,

Question concerning the daily bread (rizq).

Sayings of

Yahya

b.

Mu

adh and another whose name

is

63

not mentioned.

rizq.

How Abu

who

Various opinions as to the cause ot


Yazid (al-Bistami) rebuked a theologian

questioned him about the source of

rizq.

answer to a question concerning the


Junayd
disappearance of the name of servant and the subsistence
s

Question.

of the power of God,

Junayd was asked,

Question.

226 to praise and

is

"When

man

indifferent

His answer.

Answer given by Ibn Ata when he was asked,


means of obtaining security of mind (saldmat

Question.
"What

blame?"

in fand).

happens

(as

the

is

al-sadr}r
"What

Question.

the

is

explanation of the grief which a

man feels without knowing


Uthman (al-Hiri).

its

Answer by Abu

cause?"

Question concerning sagacity (firdsat).

Comment by Yusuf

b. al-Husayn on the Tradition,


ware of the sagacity of the true believer, for he sees by

the light of

"Be

God."

Question concerning the imagination (wahm).


Definition of

227

wahm by

Question. Explanations

Ibrahim al-Khawwas.

by Abu Yazid

al-Bistami and other

mystics of the words sdbiq, muqtasid, and zdlim in Kor. 35, 29.
Question concerning wishing (tamanni).

Ruwaym

said

should not wish.

that

the

disciple

The reason

may

hope,

but that he

of this distinction.

Question concerning the secret of the soul (sirr al-nafs).


G
Sahl b. Abdallah said that the secret of the soul was

never revealed
he said,
228

"I

Question.

by

in

any created being except

am your supreme Lord."


Human and divine jealousy

in

Pharaoh when

(ghayrat] distinguished

Shibli.

Question.

Dhu

Fath

b.

Shakhraf asked

Israfil,

the teacher of

whether secret thoughts (asrdr) are punished


before actual sins. The answer given by Israfil.
1-Nun,

64

Three

Question.

Abu Bakr

different

states

of the heart described

by

al-Wasiti.

Three kinds of tribulation

Question.

(bald)

described by

Jariri.

Question concerning the difference between the lower and

higher degrees of love (hubb and wudd).


Question concerning weeping (bukd).

229

Saying of

Abu Sa id

al-Kharraz. Eighteen causes of weeping.

Question concerning the term shdhid.


Definitions
23

by Junayd and the author.

Question concerning the sincere practice of devotion.

Abu
on

this

1-Husayn

viz.,

God,

Hind

al-Qurashi,

by the Sheykhs

subject

cerity in

Ali b.

when questioned

of Mecca, replied that sin

devotion depends on the knowledge of four things,


self,

death, and retribution after death.


the nature

Question as

to

Definitions

of the

of the generous man (karim).

generous

man by

Harith (al-Muhasibi)

and Junayd.
Question concerning generosity (kardmat).

Two anonymous

definitions.

Question concerning reflection (fikr).

and tafakkur by Harith al-Muhasibi


Distinction between fikr and tafakkur.

Definitions

and others.
231

of fikr

Question concerning induction (ftibdr).


Definitions

Question as
Definitions

Question as

by Harith al-Muhasibi and


to the

by Junayd and
to

others.

nature of intention (niyyat).


others.

the nature

of right (sawdb).
another.
and
Junayd
by
s
Question. Junayd
explanation of what is meant by com
c
passion towards the creatures (shafaqat ala l-khalq).
Definitions

Question concerning fear of

God

(taqiyyat).

Five definitions of the word.


Question concerning the ground of the soul (sirr).

65
Definitions.

Saying of Husayn b. Mansur al-Hallaj.


232
sayings of Yusuf b. al-Husayn. Verses concerning
the sirr by Nuri and others.

Two

The author remarks


Sufis
c

are

Uthman

too

al-Makki:

the other half

that the questions discussed

numerous

is

"One

to

mention.

half of

of

Saying

knowledge

is

by the

Amr

b.

question, and

answer."

CHAPTER XC:

"Concerning

the letters sent

by

Sufis to

one

another".

Words

233

written by Mimshadh al-Dinawari on the back of a


which Junayd wrote to him. Letter from Abu Sa c id

letter

al-Kharraz

by

Amr

b.

together with

and

Shibli,

234

Junayd

Ahmad

to

Sufis asked

b.

Ata.

Uthman al-Makki

Part
to

of a letter addressed

the

Sufis

of

Baghdad,

made upon it by Junayd,


Part of a letter sent by Shibli to
Junayd.
The author relates how he and other

the observations

Jariri.

reply.
c

Abu Abdallah

) al-Rudhabari to write a letter to


a certain Hashimite at
Ramla, begging him to permit them
to hear a
who
was famous for the
singing-girl
of her

beauty

voice.

of the letter which al-Rudhabari wrote


impromptu
c
on this occasion. Verses inserted
by Abu Ali b. Abi Khalid

Copy

al-Suri in a letter

235

which he wrote to

Abu

Ali al-Rudhabari.
Verses written by Abu Ali al-Rudhabari in
reply to the
above. Answer sent by Dhu 1-Nun to a sick man who had
asked him to invoke God on his behalf. Another letter
c

by Dhu 1-Nun. Letter written by Sari al-Saqati to


Junayd containing some verses which he heard a camelwritten

driver chanting in the desert.

236

Letter written to (Abu c


Abdallah) al-Rudhabari by one of
his friends. Part of a letter from Abu c Abdallah
al-Rudhabari
to a friend. Letter written

Sheykh.

i)

This

by an eminent

Sufi to a certain

Extract from a letter addressed


by

is

the correct reading.

Abu

1-Khayr

66
al-Tinati

to

Letter

Ja far al-Khuldi.

sage in answer to Yusuf

b.

written

al-Husayn,

by

certain

who had complained

being
worldly feelings and dispositions.
prey
Letter written by one sage to another who had asked

of

237

to

him by what means he might gain salvation. Part of a letter


G
c
written by Ahmad b. Ata to Abu Sa id al-Kharraz, and
the latter

from a
Part

238

reply. Letter of a lover to his beloved. Quotation

letter written

of a

by a

written

letter

certain Sheykh.
to

Husayn

b.

Jibril

al-Marandi

by one of his pupils, relating how he became friendly with


a gazelle and shared his food with it. Letter sent by Shah
al-Kirmani to

Abu

Hafs (al-Haddad) and the

latter s reply.

Letter written by Sari al-Saqati to a friend. Part of a letter


c

from Junayd to Ali b. Sahl al-Isbahani.


The author says that it is impossible for him to quote
239
the long epistles which celebrated Sufis have written to one
another, such as the epistle of Nuri to Junayd on the sub
ject of tribulation (bald), etc., but that he will give the text

of one

Kisa

240
241

short

epistle

Abu Bakr

al-

al-Dmawari.

books and

243

to

by Junayd

Continuation of the epistle of Junayd to


Conclusion of the same.

CHAPTER XCI
241-3

written

"Concerning

Abu Bakr

al-Kisa

i.

the introductions (sudur) of

epistles".

Five introductions by Junayd.


G
Specimens by Abu Ali al-Rudhabari and

Abu Sa

id b. al-

A rabi.
c

244

Two more
Sa

245

specimens by Ibn al-A

rabf,

and one by

Abu

id al-Kharraz.

Another by al-Kharraz and a third which the author


tributes to him.

246

An

introduction

al-Kurdi

at

of Urmiya.

by
Another by Abu Bakr al-Duqqi.
Another by the same hand. Two anonymous specimens.
CHAPTER XCII: "Concerning their mystical poems".

6;

Dhu 1-Nun and Junayd.


Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri and Junayd.
Verses by Abu Ali al-Rudhabari.

Verses by
Verses by

247

248

249

250

Verses by Ibrahim al-Khawwas. Verses describing ecstasy


by Sumnun al-Muhibb. Two more verses by Sumnun.

Some

251

verses which Sari al-Saqati often used to recite.

Verses which Sari recited while he was engaged in sweep


ing his room. Another verse frequently quoted by Sari.
Verses spoken by Shibli on his deathbed. Verses by the
same.

Verses composed or quoted by Shibli on various occasions.


verses by Shibli. Verses on patience which are said

252

Two

253

have been composed by Sahl b. Abdallah. Verses by


c
Yahya b. Mu adh al-Razi. Verses on thanksgiving (shukr]
to

by Abu
More
254

V Abbas

verses

b.

by

Ata.

Ibn

Ata.

Verses by

Khurasani) on being rescued by a


which he had fallen.
255

lion

Abu Hamza

(al-

from a well into

Verses by Bishr b. Harith (al-Hafi), Yusuf b. Husayn alRazi, and Abu Abdallah al-Qurashi. Verses written to the
c

last-named by Abu Abdallah al-Haykali.


c
Verses by Abu Sa id al-Kharraz. Verses written
256

in

reply

by Abu Abdallah al-Qurashi or, according to


others, by Abu Sa id al-Kharraz. Verses written by Abu
1-Hadid to Abu Abdallah al-Qurashi. Reply of al-Qurashi.
CHAPTER XCIII: "Concerning the prayers and invocations
c

to al-Haykali

257

which the most eminent of the ancient

Two

prayers by

Dhu

Sufis addressed to

God."

1-Nun.

prayer by Yusuf

b. al-Husayn (al-Razi). Prayer of a


which was overheard by Yusuf b. al-Husayn.
Verse recited by a Sufi Sheykh in the hearing of Yusuf

258

certain sage

259
b.

al-Husayn.

prayer of Junayd, extracted from the Kitdb

al-Mundjdt.

260

prayer of

Abu Sa

id

al-Dinawari which the author heard

68

him

utter

Atrabulus.

at

prayer of

Shibli.

Prayers

of

Yahya b. Mu adh (al-Ra/i).


A number of prayers by the same. Answer given by a
261
had begged him to
certain Shaykh to Umar al-Malati who
c

invoke

God on

his behalf.

Mow

to pray for his fellow-passengers

by a storm

b.

Ad hum

refused

when they were overtaken

at sea.

Anonymous

262

Ibrahim

saying on

in prayer.

effect of sincerity

the

of Sari in answer to the


Prayer of Sari al-Saqati. Prayer
him/a. A prayer which Ibrahim al-Marastanf
request of Abu
in a dream. A prayer
learned from al-Khadir, whom he saw
I

which

Abu

learned from

Ubayd al-Husn

A isha

who ap

while he was asleep. Prayer of a Sheykh


peared to him
to the author
whose name is not mentioned. Answer given
the
Sheykh whom he questioned concerning

certain

by a

purpose of prayer.

real

prayer of Junaycl.

CHAPTER XCIV:

263

one

"Concerning

Ruwaym

and Yusuf

Precepts by Sari al-Saqati,


c

b,

to
(was<ij><i)

another."

Precepts by

264

their precepts

Atii,

Junayd, and

Abu

Abu Sa

b.

Bakr

al-Husayn
al-Barizi,

(al-Razi).

Abu

l-

Abbas

id al-Kharraz.
c

265

Dim 1-Ni m, Junayd, Abu Abdallah al-Khayyat


Dim 1-Nun s reason for
al-Dinawari, and Abu Bakr al-Warraq.
had asked him for one.
to give a precept to a man who
Precepts by

refusing

266

Story of

Abu Muhammad

al-Murta ish

when

dying, he

the sale
that his debts should be paid and
gave instructions
dirhams,
of the clothes on his corpse produced eighteen
b.
Ibrahim
of
amount of his debts. A precept
;

exactly the

an anonymous Sheykh.
Shayban. Precept by
Bakr al-Wasiti, by an unnamed ufi, by
Precepts by Abu
on Mount Muqattam, and by
a man whom Dim 1-Niin met

Dhu
267

1-Nun himself.

Precept by Junayd.

THE HOOK OF AUDITION

(savufj.

XCV: "Concerning the beauty of the voice, and


and
the difference of those who practise
audition,
OiAi TEK

it."

The Prophet
fine

that

said

the prophets before him had

all

voices.

Further Traditions showing that the Prophet held a sweet


in high esteem and that he liked to hear the Koran

voice

read with a musical intonation.

The author

explanation of

"Beautify the Koran by your voices."


c
on
this
Sayings
subject by Dhu 1-Nun, Yahya b. Mu adh
al-Razi, an anonymous Sheykh, Harith al-Muhasibi, and

the Tradition,

al-Husayn. The subtle influence of sweet sounds


illustrated by the fact that they lull sick children to sleep

Bundar
is

b.

and restore the health of persons suffering from melancholia.


Moreover, the

camel-driver

chant has a marvellous effect

upon camels worn out by fatigue.


Story, related to the author by al-Duqqf, of a negro slave
whose master had thrown him into chains because the sweet
ness

of his

voice excited the heavily laden camels to rush

along with such speed that all of them, except one, died on
arriving at the end of their journey. )
Definition

of the

expert

by Ishaq

singer

b.

Ibrahim

al-

Mawsili.

CHAPTER XCVI:

"Concerning

opinions of the Sufi s as to


Definition

by Dhu

Darani on the recitation


Definitions

paniment.

anonymous

mystic.

its

1-Nun.

audition

and the various

nature."

Abu Sulayman

Saying of

of poetry
c

with a musical accom

by Abu Ya qub

Description of

al-

al-Nahrajuri and an
c

samd by Abu 1-Husayn

al-Darraj.

l)

The same

was. See

my

story

is

told by Hujwiri, on the authority of Ibrahim

translation of the

Kashf al-Mahjub

p. 399.

al-Khaw-

70
Sayings of Shibli, Junayd, and an unnamed Sufi. Junayd
that audition is one of the three occasions on which

272

said

mercy of God descends upon dervishes. Audition con


demned by Abu Ali al-Rudhabari. Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri
defined the Sufi as one who practises audition. Abu 1-Husayn
the

used to stay and listen to music (samd c ) if he ap


proved of it; otherwise he would take up his shoes and
b. Ziri

Al-Husri wished for a samd c that should never cease,


and should be more desired the more it was enjoyed.
go.

CHAPTER XCVII:

273

"Concerning

the audition of the vulgar

(al- dmmat) and its permissibility when they listen to sweet


sounds which inspire them with hope or fear and impel

them

to seek the

afterworld".

Saying of Bundar
fulness

purpose.
is

b.

lawful.

al-Husayn on the pleasure and law


it is not connected with any evil

when

of audition

Quotations from the Koran showing that audition


The five senses enable us to distinguish things

from their

opposites,

and

the

ear

can

distinguish

sweet

sounds from harsh.

274

Sweet sounds form part of the pleasures of Paradise which


are enumerated in the Koran. Audition is not like winedrinking: the latter
is

is

forbidden in this world, but the former

The Prophet allowed two

permitted.

singing-girls to play

the tambourine in his house.

275

Verses recited by

Abu

Bakr, Bilal, and

A isha. Many

of

Prophet
Companions
poetry. Fourteen verses
are quoted from the famous poem, Bdnat Su^ddu, which
Ka c b b. Zuhayr recited in the presence of the Prophet.

the

276

The Prophet
poetry".

recited

said,

"Wisdom

is

sometimes

to be found in

Since poetry may be recited, there is no objection


it with musical notes and melodies and with an

to reciting

agreeable intonation. Various divines and lawyers have pro

nounced

in

favour of audition,

of Malik and a

e.

g.,

Malik

man whom he rebuked

for

b.

Anas. Story

singing badly.

7
It

Malik

well-known that

is

and the people of Medina

did not dislike audition.


Shafi

277

c
i

was of the same opinion. Ibn Jurayj departed from


settled at Mecca in consequence of hearing two

Yemen and

of poetry.

verses

good nor an evil


for

which a man

He

declared

act,

but resembles an idle word (laghw)

will

The author sums up

that

audition

is

neither

not be punished hereafter (Kor. 2, 225).


by stating that audition

the discussion

lawful, if it has no corrupt end in view and if it does


not involve the use of certain musical instruments forbidden
is

by the Prophet.
CHAPTER XCVIII:
and

"Concerning

their various degrees

therein."

Abu Uthman Sa

Description by

fd

b.

Uthman

al-Razi of

and beginners;
(i)
that of more advanced mystics (siddiqin) and (3) that
kinds of audition:

three
(2)

the audition of the elect

that of novices

of gnostics ^drifin).

278

c
by Abu Ya qub alNahrajuri. Three kinds of audition defined by Bundar b.
al-Husayn: some hear with their natures (tafr], some with
their spiritual feelings (hdl), and some through God (haqq}.

Three

classes

of auditors

described

The author s explanation of this saying.


The author s explanation continued. Three
279
itors

distinguished by an anonymous Sufi:

of realities (abnd al-kaqd


spiritual

feelings;

(3)

iq)

the

classes of

(i)

aud

the followers

who depend on their


poor (fuqard) who are entirely
;

(2)

those

detached from worldly things.

280

CHAPTER XCIX:

"Concerning

the different classes of aud

itors".

Those who prefer

to listen the Koran.

Malik and the Medina school by


i) The contrary opinion is attributed to
Ghazali (Ihya, Bulaq, 1289 A. IL, II, 247, 17), but cf. Goldziher, Muhamm.
Studien, II, 79, note 2.

72

Verses of the Koran and Traditions of the Prophet which


281

prove that listening to the Koran is allowable.


Further Traditions on this subject. The Koran condemns

who

only with their ears and praises those who


listen with attentive minds. Examples of the emotion pro
duced by listening to the Koran. In some cases the listeners
those

listen

Answer given by

die.

the effect
complained
Koran was not permanent.
that

282

Abu Sulayman

Abu

Shibli to

by

produced

who

Ali al-Maghazili

the

to

listening

said that he sometimes spent


over
a single verse of the Koran
nights
pondering
and that unless he had ceased to think about it he would
five

al-Darani

in

never have continued his reading.


Junayd saw a man who had swooned on hearing a verse
of the Koran. He recommended that the same verse should

be read to him again

senses.
"Every

certain

soul

whereupon the man recovered

Sufi

death"

voice from heaven saying,


verse

which

1-Tayyib

has

already

Ahmad

several

repeated

taste

shall

(Kor.

four

al-

Muqatil

times
182).

his

verse,

He heard

long wilt thou repeat this

"How

killed
G

b.

3,

the

of the

Jinn

?"

Akki describes the

Abu
terror

and anguish of Shibli on hearing a verse of the Koran.


Those who lack the spiritual emotion which accords with
283
the hearing of the Koran and is excited thereby are like
beasts: they hear but do not understand.

CHAPTER C:
Traditions

those

"Concerning

odes and verses of

who

prefer listening to

poetry".

of the

in praise of poetry.

Prophet

siderations which lead

some

Sufis to listen to

The con

poetry rather

than to the Koran are stated by the author as follows. The


Koran is the Word of God, /. e. an eternal attribute of God,

which men cannot bear when


created. If

284

is,

their

God were

hearts

to reveal

would crack.

it

appears, because

it

to their hearts as

It

is,

it

it

is

un

really

however, a matter of

73

common knowledge that


many times over without
if

the

is

reading

intonation

tive

These

man may

read the whole Koran

being touched with emotion, whereas


accompanied by a sweet voice and plain

he

emotion and delight

feels

feelings, then, are not caused

in

by

sweet sounds and melodies which accord with

it.

hearing

the Koran, but

by

human tem

peraments. The harmonies of poetry are similar in their


nature and their effects and easily blend with music. Since
a

certain

of man, their influence

God

than that of

"It

of

is

more

human

is

much

less

they say,

we should

prefer

to

listening

"that

so long as

theologians have regarded with


if this

is

we

retain

take delight in poetry instead

making the Koran a means of indulging

ing the Koran, but

spirit

powerful and dangerous

by reverence for the Koran.

fitting",

nature

between them and the

Word. Those who

poetry are animated


our

exists

homogeneity

ourselves".

dislike the

Some

practice of

done, the reason

is

that

shrink from hearing and reciting the Koran because

it

trill

men
is

reality (haqq), and they intone it musically in order that the


people may be drawn to listen when it is read.
CHAPTER CI: "Concerning the audition of novices and
beginners".

Story of a young man, a pupil of Junayd, who used to


shriek whenever he heard any dhikr. Junayd threatened to

him

he did so again, and after that time he used


on himself that a drop of water trickled
from every hair of his body, until one day he uttered a
loud cry and expired. A saying of Junayd related by Abu
dismiss

if

to put such restraint

1-Husayn al-Sirawani.
Story related by al-Darraj of a youth
a

who

died on hearing

two verses of poetry ). Another story of


c
by Abu Ali al-Rudhaban.
!

slave-girl

the
i)

408

sing

same kind
This
seq.

story

related

occurs

in

my

translation

of Hujwiri

Kashf al-Mahjub,

p.

74
c

Abu Abdallah

287

which he saw

the Maghrib:

(i) a Sufi begging for alms;


one
of whose disciples had
Jabala,

Sheykh named

(2)

mentions two marvellous things

b. al-Jalla

in

died on hearing a passage of the Koran, came to the reader


on the next day and asked him to a recite part of the Koran.

While he was

him

Jabala gave a shriek which caused


dead on the spot. Anecdote of Ja c far
The author states the conditions under which

(the reader) to fall


c

al-Mubarqa
it

288

is

reciting,

c
proper for novices to practise samd

If the

ignorant of these conditions, he must

is

beginner

them from a Sheykh,

learn

lest

he should be seduced and

corrupted.

CHAPTER

CII

the

Israfil,

"Concerning

the audition of the Suff

Dhu M-Nun,

teacher of

Razi whether he could recite any poetry.


Israfil

negative answer,

Ruwaym

described

the

said to him,

"Thou

of the

state

Sheykhs."

asked al-Tayalisi

Sufi

On

al-

receiving a

hast no

heart."

Sheykhs during

audition as resembling that of a flock of sheep attacked

Abu

wolves.

no

taken

1-Qasim
in

part

b.

by
Marwan al-Nahawandi, who had

the samcf for

many

years,

attended a

289 meeting where some poetry was recited. The audience

fell

When they became quiet again, Abu 1-Qasim


them
questioned
concerning the mystical meaning which they
into ecstasy.

attached
tation.

the

to

the
of

Story

street-cry

verse,

and

finally

gave

own

his

interpre

Abu Hulman, who swooned on

of a herb-seller.

The author

hearing

points out that

the influence of same? depends on the spiritual state of the


hearer.

one
29

Thus, the same words

mystic

and

as

false

may

be regarded as true by

by another. Story

Ghulam. Anecdote of Dhu

1-Nun al-Misrf,

of

Utba

al-

who was over

come by ecstasy on hearing some verses recited, but rebuked


a man who followed his example. Some Sheykhs possess
insight into the spiritual state of those

below them;

in that

case, they should not permit them to claim a higher state

75

than that which really belongs to them. Account of Nuri s


ecstasy a few days before his death. The ecstasy of Ali b.
al-Muwaffaq.
Description of a

2Q 1
to

Yusuf

b.

which

visit

al-Husayn

Abu

1-Husayn al-Darraj paid

Rayy. The

at

latter burst into tears

on hearing two verses which al-Darraj recited, though he


had previously read aloud to himself a large portion of the

Koran without any such

292

sign of emotion.

verse that used to throw Shiblf into ecstasy.

Another

verse that had the like effect on al-Duqqi.

CHAPTER
fect

CIII: "Concerning the characteristics of the per

adepts in

audition."

During sixty years Sahl

b.

Abdallah never changed coun

tenance when he heard the dhikr or the Koran or anything


else
it was only the weakness of old age that at last caused
;

him
c

293

to

show emotion. Another

similar anecdote of Sahl b.

The answer given by Sahl to Ibn Salim who


it
is
that makes a man spiritually strong and
enables him to retain his composure. Saying of the Caliph
Abdallah.

asked what

Abu

Bakr. Sahl b.

Abdallah said that

his state during prayer


he began to pray. Expla
nation of this saying by the author. Sahl was the same
after audition as he had been before it, i. e., his ecstasy

was the same as

his state before

continued without interruption. Story of Mimshadh al-Dinawari, who said that all the musical instruments in the world
could not divert his thoughts from God.

294

The author observes


their

senses

no pleasure

when

Sufis attain to perfection

such an extent that they take


music and singing. Verse of the Koran quoted

are
in

that

purified

to

one who noticed how quiet and


unmoved he was during the samcf. Various reasons which

by Junayd

in

reply

to

induce spiritual adepts to attend musical concerts.


295

CHAPTER CIV:
moral

sayings."

On

listening to dhikr

and sermons and

The profound impression made upon Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq


by a saying of Junayd. Answer given by Junayd to the
question, "When does a man regard praise and blame with
b.

Mu

Saying on

adh.

It

is

Wisdom

(hikmat] by Yahya
when words come from the heart
heart, but when they proceed from

indifference?"

equal

said that

they penetrate to the


the tongue they do not pass beyond the ears. Many further
examples might be given of the ecstasy and enthusiasm
caused by listening to dhikr or moral exhortations. Saying
c
of Abu Uthman (al-Hiri). Influences from the unseen world,

whether they be audible or

upon the heart


the heart

296

is

when they

produce a powerful effect


harmony with it, i.e., when

visible,

are in

pure; otherwise, their effect

is

weak.

The adepts, however, are not affected in this way, although


sometimes their spiritual life is renewed and replenished by
hearing words of wisdom. The object of the Sufis in audition
is not solely the delight of listening to sweet voices and
melodies, but rather the inward feeling of something

geneous with the ecstasy already existent


since their ecstasy

CHAPTER
The

homo

in their hearts,

is

strengthened by feeling it.


CV: "Further observations concerning

audition."

influence of samcf depends on, and corresponds with,

the spiritual state of the hearer.

Hence the

Sufis,

when they

poetry, do not think of the poet s meaning, nor


when the Koran is read aloud are they distressed by the

listen

to

negligence of the

reader

whilst

they themselves are

alert.

297 If speaker and hearer are one in feeling and intention, the
ecstasy will be stronger; but the Sufis are safe from any

consequences so long as the divine providence encom


passes them. Stories illustrating this. Muhammad b. Masruq

evil

Baghdad was singing a verse in praise of wine when he


heard some one say in the same metre and rhyme:

of

"In

Hell there
of

is

water that leaves no entrails

him whose throat

shall

swallow

it,"

in the belly

This was the cause

77
of his conversion to Sufism.

Abu

1-Hasan

a mandoline-player
singing

some

erotic verses, but a friend

whom

with

Raz c an(?) heard

b.

he was walking improvised a mystical variation

of them. Here, says the author,


of which the intention is bad

we have

may

a proof that verses


be interpreted in a sense

that accords with the inward


feelings of the hearer.
Shibli s answer to a man who asked him to
explain the

meaning of

is

"God

CHAPTER CVI:
and

dislike

the best of

"Concerning

deceivers"

those

who

(Kor. 3,47).
dislike the

samtf

be

present in places where the Koran is


recited with a musical intonation, or where odes are chanted
to

and the hearers

fall

into an artificial ecstasy

and begin to

dance."

Different reasons for such dislike:


(i) samcf

by some great

religious authorities

ous for novices and

penitents:

299 their vows and indulge

it

(2)

samd c

may

lead

in sensual pleasures;

is

is

condemned

very danger
to break

them
(3)

listening to

is the mark of two


classes of men,
and dissolute or the adepts in mysticism
who have mortified their passions and are entirely devoted

quatrains (rubcfiyydt]

either the frivolous

to God. Accordingly,

that they are not yet

some
fit

for

Sufis reject

samd c on the ground

They think

it.

it

better to

occupy

themselves with performing their religious duties and with


c
avoiding forbidden things. Saying of Abu Ali al-Rudhabarf

on the dangers of samd^. Saying of Sari al-Saqati on the


recitation of odes. (4) samd^ is apt to lead
astray the vulgar
who misunderstand the purpose of the Sufis in listening to

samd c may bring a man into bad company.


Some abstain from samd on account of the Tradition
a good Moslem leaves alone what does not concern

music;

(5)

300

(6)

that

him;

(7)

some advanced gnostics

are so fully occupied with

inward communion that they have no room

ward

experience of audition.

for the

out

BOOK OF ECSTASY
CHAPTER CVII:

"Concerning

Sufi s as to the nature of

The meaning

301

said

of

that

wajd
produces symptoms
is

the different opinions of the

ecstasy."

wajd by Amr
c

Definition of

(wajd).

Uthman

b.

al-Makki.

wajd explained by Junayd. It has been


some cases it

a revelation from God. In

of violent emotion, while in others the

One

subject remains calm.

of the ancient Sufis distinguished

two kinds of ectasy: wajdu mulk and wajdu


tion

of these

terms by another mystic.

Husri enumerated four classes of men, the


"ecstatics
c

who have passed away from

Abdallah

that

said

an ecstasy

if

Koran and the Traditions,


302

it

is

is

laqd.

Abu

Explana

1-Hasan

al-

last class

themselves."

being
Sahl b.

not attested by the

worthless.

Three quotations from Abu Sa

id

Ibn al-A rabi on the

nature of ecstasy.

CHAPTER CVIII:
The Koran and the

"On

the characteristics of ecstatic

Traditions

show

that fear

persons."

and trembling

and shrieking and moaning and weeping and swooning are


among the characteristics of such persons. Ecstasy may be
either

genuine

divides

those

(wajd)

or

artificial

whose ecstasy

is

(tawdjud).

genuine

The author
into

(al-wdjidun)

three classes:

303

(i)

those

trusion

whose ecstasy

is

of sensual influences;

terrupted only by

disturbed at times
(2)

by the

those whose ecstasy

is

in

in

the delight which they take in audition

perpetual and who, in consequence


(3) those whose ecstasy
of their ecstasy, have utterly passed away from themselves.
is

Also,
artificial
(i)

there

ascetics

classes

of those whose

ecstasy

is

(al-mutawdjidun).

those

others,

three

are

who

take pains to induce ecstasy and imitate

who are frivolous and despicable; (2)


and mystics who endeavour to excite lofty states

and those

79
might become them better not to
approved in them since they have
renounced worldly things, and their
ecstasy is the result of
the joy which
feel
in
austerities
and
they
(of ecstasy).

do

Although

such ecstasy

this,

it

is

asceticism.

are justified

then

try

by the Tradition,

to

unable

being

inward

(3)

weep!"

to

feelings,

and

mystics of the

control
into

fall

"Weep,

their

if

weaker type who,

movements

artificial

They

ye weep not,

or to hide their

ecstasy

as

means of

throwing off a burden which they find intolerable. The


words of Husayn b. Mansur
(al-Hallaj).

The

304

criterion

of

sound

and

unsound

Abu Ya qub al-Nahrajuri.


CHAPTER CIX: "Concerning the
of the Sheykhs who are sincere."

to

305

artificial

last

ecstasy according

ecstasy (tawdjud)

Two anecdotes of Shibli. Story of Nuri.


He threw a whole company into
ecstasy by his
of some erotic verses. Abu Sa id
al-Kharraz was

recitation

frequently

overcome by ecstasy when he meditated on


death.

The

reason of this explained

by Junayd. Explanation by
an unnamed Sheykh of the difference
between wuj4d and

who

tawdjud. Those
defect

the

in

dislike ecstasy,

means, follow the authority of

He

306

kind,
if

said
"If

to

Abu Uthman

man whom he saw

al-Hfri.

an ecstasy of this
you are sincere, you have divulged His secret, and

you are not

author

because of seeing some


is induced
by artificial

person whose ecstasy

sincere,

suggests what

in

you are guilty of

Abu

polytheism." The
Uthman may have meant by

these words.

CHAPTER CX:

"Concerning

porting influence of

the mighty power and trans

ecstasy."

Sari al-Saqati
expressed his conviction that

had

fallen into a

if

man who

deep fit of ecstasy were struck on the face


with a sword, he would not feel the
blow. According to
Junayd, such a person is more perfect than one who devotes

8o
himself to the religious law; but on another occasion he said
that abundance of positive religion

dance of ecstasy.

is

more

abun

perfect than

saying of Junayd to the effect that the


is superior to
the transport which

state of quiet in ecstasy

precedes

it,

and that the

307

is

superior to the

which precedes it. Explanation by the author.


c
Abdallah described by Ibn Salim.

state of quiet

The

ecstatic transport

ecstasies of Sahl b.

A story, related by Junayd, of


who said that his love of God had shrivelled
on his arm then he swooned, and his face became
criticism of Shiblf.

Junayd

Sari al-Saqati

the skin

so radiant that none of those present could bear to behold


it.

which

Amr

by

Description

b.

Uthman al-Makkf

of the ecstasy

the soul and increases

its knowledge of the divine


of all sensible objects.
unconscious
and
makes
it
omnipotence
c
308 Verse recited by Abu Uthman al-Muzayyin.
CHAPTER CXI: "Concerning the question which is the more
fills

perfect,

one who

This question
his

book on

quiet in ecstasy or one

is
is

discussed

He

ecstasy.

by Abu Sa

declares

proper and perfect condition

is

that

who

is agitated".
c

id

Ibn al-A rabi in

in

some cases the

quiet, while in others

it

is

agitation.

The

309

ior

quiet ecstatics are preferred on account of the super

of their minds, the agitated on account of the

firmness

superior strength

of their

ecstasies.

Quiet would be more

perfect, if we presupposed two equal minds; but no two


minds or men or ecstasies are just on the same level, and

therefore

it

is

useless

inferior to agitation.

to

The

assert

that

quiet

is

superior

or

superiority or inferiority of either

depends on the particular nature and circumstances of the


ecstatic state.

CHAPTER CXII:

310

"A

compendious summary of the subject


Abu Sa cid Ibn al-

from the Book of Ecstasy composed by

c
rabi."

Various feelings and spiritual states by which ecstasy

may

8i

be produced. Definition and description of ecstasy. It comes


in a moment and is gone in a moment. God shows His

wisdom

and

His

lovingkindness

His

towards

friends

by

causing ecstasy to be so transient.

Were

311

it

description

further

to

give a

otherwise, they would lose their wits.


of ecstasy.

Some

ecstatics

able

are

account of their experience, and this serves them as

partial

an argument against sceptics; else they would not divulge


it.
Remarks on the difficulty of distinguishing true ecstasy
from the similar phenomena which sometimes result from
sensuous impressions.

who keep the path


Moslem theology, and of those mystics who diverge from
The latter imperil their salvation by leaving this high

Description of the ecstasy of quietists

312
of
it.

way. Ibn al-A rabi says that the foregoing observations refer
to the outward sciences of ecstasy which can be explained
ordinary or symbolic language; the rest

in

since

it

consists

of immediate

self-evident to those

is

indescribable,

experience of the Unseen,

who have enjoyed

but incapable of

it,

demonstration.

313

The essence

of ecstasy and

incommunicable, and

is

of other

better described

mystical

by

states

silence than

is

by

speech.

314

Those who are

fit

to receive such

knowledge do not ask

questions, inasmuch as they feel no doubt.

Ecstatic states are a gift from

by human
works.
(of

effort,

Any

ecstasy)

God and cannot be

though some of them are the

fruit

acquired
of good

one who begs God to grant him an increase


has thereby strengthened the capital that ren

ders increase necessary, and any one

who

neglects this duty

runs the risk of being deprived of the capital which he has.

82

BOOK ESTABLISHING THE REALITY OF DIVINE

3 15

SIGNS

AND MIRACLES.

CHAPTER CXIII:

"Concerning the meanings of divine signs


miracles
and
(kardmdt), with some mention of persons
(ay at)
who were thus gifted."
G

Abdallah on ay at, mifjizdt, and kardmdt.


Sahl said that the gift of miracles would be granted to any
one who sincerely renounced the world for forty days; if
Saying of Sahl

b.

no miracles were wrought,

his renunciation

must have been

Saying of Junayd on those who dispute about


perform them. Saying of Sahl on one

incomplete.

miracles but cannot

the world for forty days. Four principles of

who renounces

Faith, according to Ibn Salim.

power

(qudrat) of God,

One

of these

me any

if

more,

you

room

the

called

and

receive

feed

house

beating

its

head.

at

not consort with

beasts."

The author

Tustar and went into

Wild Beasts Room where Sahl used


the

Abbadan who turned

which spoke to

"Do

are afraid of wild

relates that he visited Sahl s

faith in the

belief in miracles.

i. e.,

Sahl said to one of his companions,

316

is

wild

beasts.

earth

into

Story

of a

negro

gold. Story of a

to
at

donkey

Abu Sulayman al-Khawwas when he was


Ahmad b. Ata al-Rudhabari tells how his
c

a heavenly voice.
prayer for forgiveness was answered by
c
How Ja far al-Khuldi recovered a gem which had fallen
317
into

the

Tigris

by means of

Text of the prayer.

Abu

prayer for lost property.

1-Tayyib

al-Akki showed the

compiled by him of persons who, in the


course of a short time, had used this prayer with success.

author a long

list

1-Khayr al-Tinati read the thoughts of Hamza


c
Abdallah al- Alawf. The author declares that all these

How Abu
c

b.

men were famous


evidence

is

for

veracity and

above suspicion.

piety,

and that

their

33
318

CHAPTER CXIV:
ians who deny the
in

"Concerning

reality

favour of miracles wrought

between the

Some

saints

the arguments of theolog

of miracles, and the arguments

by the

saints,

and the prophets

theologians hold that the

gift

and the distinction

in this

of miracles

on the prophets exclusively, and assert that


involves

others

to

their

object of this doctrine

is

matter."

bestowed

is

its

attribution

equality with the prophets. The


to confirm the prophetic miracles,

mistaken, because there are several points in which


the two classes of miracles differ from each other: (i) the

but

is

it

prophets reveal their miracles and use them as a means of

convincing the people, whereas the saints ought to conceal

prophets employ miracles as an argument


against unbelievers, but the saints employ them as an argu
ment against themselves for the purpose of strengthening
theirs;

their

the

(2)

own

faith.

Saying of Ibn Salim

319

illustrating the use of miracles as

aid to faith. Story of the advice given


to

Ishaq

b.

Ahmad who came

to

him

by Sahl
in great

b.

an

Abdallah

anxiety

lest

he should be deprived of his daily bread. The lower soul


(nafs) is satisfied with nothing less than ocular evidence.
320

While the prophets are perfected and encouraged in


proportion as a greater quantity of miracles is bestowed
(3)

upon them, the saints in the same circumstances become


more dismayed and fearful, because they dread that God
may be secretly deceiving them and that the miracles which

He bestows upon them may lead to loss of spiritual


CHAPTER CXV: "Concerning the evidences for the
of miracles

rank.
reality

wrought by the saints, and the unsoundness of

the doctrine that miracles are wrought

by none except the

prophets."

It

appears from the Koran and the Traditions that

who were

many

persons
prophets had the gift of miracles,
e. g.,
Mary, the mother of Jesus, the Christian anchorite
not

84
Jurayj,

and the three men who took shelter

(as is related

in the

culous powers:

Hadith al-ghdr}.

Umar

b.

al-Khattab,

Hudayr, Attab b. Bashir, Abu


c
c
Ala b. al-Hadrami, Abdallah
c

alc

Amir

Abd

b.

Hasan

al-Qays,

Fatima, Usayd

Alf,

b.

1-Darda, Salman al-Farisi,


c

b.

Umar, al-Bara

Uways

al-Basri,

b.

Malik,

al-Qarani

These miracles are related and attested by the


greatest religious authorities, whose evidence on this sub
ject is no less worthy of credit than their evidence, which

and

323

the cave

Further Traditions concerning persons endowed with mira

321

322

in

others.

universally accepted, on matters of law and religion. All

is

miracles that

Prophet and

have been manifested since the time of the


that

all

rection are granted

Some Moslems,
and dread the
amongst the

by God

however,
loss

be manifested until the Resur

shall

mark

as a

of spiritual

who

elect those

of honour to

consider

miracles

rank,

desire

Muhammad.
temptation,

and do not reckon

them and

are satisfied

with them.

324

CHAPTER CXVI:

the various positions occupied

"On

by

the elect in regard to miracles, together with an account of

who

those

and

dislike the miraculous grace manifested to

fear lest

it

lead

them

into

them

temptation."

Abdallah said that the greatest miracle is the


substitution of a good quality for a bad one. Abu Yazid
Sahl

b.

al-Bistami

miracles

declared

that

when he paid no

attention to the

which God offered to bestow on him, he received

the

gnosis.

the

hearts

Other sayings of
of the

Yazid. Junayd said that

are veiled from

elect

His favours, by taking

Abu

delight in

His

God by

gifts,

regarding

and by relying

on miracles.
325

Warning given by Sahl

b.

Abdallah to a man who boasted

of a miracle which took place

How Abu Hamza

when he performed

his ablu

opened a door. Nuri found the banks


of the Tigris joined together in order that he might cross

tions.

85

the

but he swore that he would not cross except in

river,

Abu Yazid al-Bistami and his teacher, Abu


Story of Abu Turab al-Nakhshabi and a youth

a boat. Story of
c

Ali al-Sindi.

who was
326

in his

company.

Story of Ishaq b. Ahmad, who died in debt although he


could transmute copper into gold and silver. Discussion be
G
tween Ibn Salim and Sahl b. Abdallah, and between the
author and Ibn

Salim,

mad

exercise

refused

to

as

to the reason

why

Ishaq

b.

Ah

miraculous power which had

the

been conferred upon him.


327
Story of Abu Hafs or another, who wished to kill a
sheep for his disciples, but when a gazelle came and knelt
beside

him he wept and repented of

his

wish. Saying of

an anonymous mystic to the effect that equanimity in mis


fortune is more admirable than thaumaturgy. Story of Nuri,

who swore

he would drown himself unless he caught


of a certain weight. Junayd s remark on this. Saying

a fish
of

328

that

Yahya b. Mu adh
CHAPTER CXVII:
c

their

al-Razi.
"Concerning

those who, on account of

veracity and purity and spiritual soundness, reveal to

companions the miraculous grace vouchsafed to them."


Story of a sparrow which used to perch on the hand of

their

Sari
to

Story of a mysterious person who appeared


Ibrahim al-Khawwas when he had lost his way in the
al-Saqati.

his

329

Abu

Hafs (al-Haddad) of Naysabur, who put


hand into a furnace and drew out a piece of red-hot iron.

desert. Story of

The reason why Abu Hafs revealed


Story of Ibrahim b.

this

miraculous

gift.

encounter with a wild beast.

Shayban
Anecdote of Dhu 1-Nun related by Ahmad b. Muhammad
c
al-Sulami. How Abu Sa id al-Kharraz, when faint from want
of food, was miraculously strengthened, so that he journeyed

twelve

330

more

days

without breaking his

fast.

miracle

by Abu Umar al-Anmati.


A man stole two dirhems from Khayr

related

al-Nassaj

he could

86
not

his

open

hand

he came to Khayr and confessed

until

what he had done.

CHAPTER CXVIII:

"Concerning

the

states

of the elect

which are not regarded as miraculous, although they are


essentially more perfect and subtle than miracles".
Sahl

b.

seventy days, and when


weak, whereas he became strong when

Abdallah used to

he ate he became

fast for

he abstained from food. Saying of

How Abu Ubayd


c

Abu

1-Harith al-Awlasi.

month

al-Busri fasted during the

of

Ra

madan. Saying of Abu Bakr al-Kattani.


331

The meaning of security (amn) explained to Abu Hamza


by a man of Khurasan. How Junayd tested one of his dis
ciples who was able to read men s thoughts.
Story of Harith al-Muhasibi, who could not swallow any
food that was not legally pure.

332

Story of

Abu

Ja far al-Haddad and

persons endowed

shabi.

Three

whom

Husri had seen.

with

Ja

al-Nakh-

extraordinary powers
c

Why

Abu Turab

far

al-Mubarqa did not make

any vow to God during a period of thirty -years. Story of


c
Isma il al-Sulami who fell from the top of a mountain and
broke
333

his leg.

BOOK OF THE EXPLANATION OF OBSCURITIES.


CHAPTER CXIX:
difficult

the

interpretation

in the

speech of the

"Concerning

words which are used

of the
Sufis."

List of Sufistic technical terms.

334

Continuation of the above

CHAPTER CXX:
(i)

al-haqq

Sayings
335

(2)
(3)
(4)

bi
of

the explanation of these

"On

li

l-Jiaqq

Abu Sa

al-hdL Definitions

list.

id

Al-haqq signifies Allah.


c
al-Kharraz and Abu Ali al-Sindi.
l-haqq.

by the author and Junayd.

al-maqdm. Definition by the author.


al-makdn. The author defines the term and
his definition

words".

by quoting an anonymous

illustrates

verse.

(5)

al-mushdhadat.

This term

is
c

mukdshafat. Definition by
(6)

336

(7)

nearly equivalent to al-

Amr

b.

by the author. Saying of Junayd.


al-lawdmf. Almost synonymous with the
preceding.
Derivation of the term.
Saying of
Makki.

(8)
(9)

Uthman,"al-Makki.

al-lawaih. Definition

Amr

b.

Uthman

al-

al-haqq. Allah, according to Kor. 24, 25.


al-huquq. These are states
stations
,

etc.

As

mystic sciences,

al-Tayalisi al-Razi said,

huquq are opposed to


which
are
huzuz,
associated with the lower self
(nafs).
(10) al-tahqiq.

The

author

definition.

Saying

Dhu

of

1-Niin.

(u) al-tahaqquq. This term


tcfallum (learning)
(12) al-haqiqat

337

and

is

its

related

to al-tahqiq as alc
related to al-ta lim
(teaching).
is

plural

al-haq&iq.

answer given by Haritha

The

Definition.

the

to

Prophet s question,
the haqiqat of thy faith?"
Saying of Junayd.
(13) al-khusus. Definition of ahl al-khusus.
is

"What

(14)

khusus al-khusus.

Saying of Junayd to
(15) al-ishdrat.

Definition.

referred

to

classes,
in

khusus and

Kor. 35, 29.

Shibli.

Definition.

the science of Sufism


(16) al-ima.

Both

Definition.

khusus al-khusus, are

Abu
is

an

Ali al-Rudhabarf said that

is karat.

Anecdote of Junayd and Ibn

al-

Kurrini (al-Karanbi).
According to Shibli, Imd? in refe
rence to God is
idolatry.

33^

Two

verses

(17) al-ramz.

said

Definition.

by a

those

by an anonymous

Sufi,

who wish

poet.

Verse by al-Qannad.

whose name

is

It

has been

not mentioned, that

to understand the

symbolic utterances
of eminent mystics should
the
letters and epistles
study
which they have written to one
another, not their
books.
(18) al-safd.

Definition.

Sayings

of Jariri

and Ibn

Ata.

88

(19)

and safd al-safd by al-Kattani.


Definition. Three verses explaining the

of safd

Definitions

safd al-safd.
term.

(20)

al-zawd

Definition. Saying of

id*

Amr

b.

Uthman

al-

Makki.
339

(21)

(22) al-shdhid.

Saying of Abu

Definition.

al-fawaid.
Darani.

Definition. Verse (by Labid).

Sulayman

Another mean

ing of al-shdhid. Definition of the term


(23)

al-mashhud. Definition.
al-shdhid

(24)

is

Abu Bakr

al-

by Junayd.

al-Wasiti said that

God, and al-mashhud the created world.

al-mawjud and al-mafqud.

Definitions.

Saying of Dhu

1-Nun.
(25)

al-ma^dum. Definition.

Distinction

between al-mcfdum

and al-mafqud. A certain gnostic said that the universe


is an
existence bounded on either side by non-exis
tence i^adam).
c

(26)

al-jam

term

denoting

God without

the

created

world.
(27) al-tafriqat.

This term denotes the created world.

The two preceding terms

340

are

complementary

other. Unification (tawkid) consists in

Verse on

to each

combining them.

this subject.

(28) al-ghaybat. Definition.


(29) al-ghashyat.
(30) al-hudur.

Definition.

Definition.

Verses by al-Nuri

and another

mystic.
(31)

al-sahw and al-sukr. These terms are nearly synonymous


with al-hudur and al-ghaybat. Verses by a Sufi whose
name is not mentioned. Explanation of the difference

between al-sukr and al-ghashyat.


The difference between al-hudur and al-sahw.

34 J
(32)
(33)

safw al-wajd. Definition. A verse illustrating it.


al-hujum and al-ghalabdt. The former is the action

89

who

of one

is

under the influence of the

latter.

De

finition.
(34)

al-fand and al-baqd. These terms have been


mentioned
in a previous
chapter. Definitions.

(35)

al-mubtadi

(36)

al-murid. Definition.

342

Definition.

al-murdd. Definition. This term denotes


the gnostic

(37)

whom

no

(38) al-wajd.

will of his

own

is

in

left.

Definition.

al-tawdjud and al-tasdkur. Definitions.

(39)

(40) al-waqt. Definition.

Saying of Junayd.

(41) al-bddi.

Definition. Saying of Ibrahim


al-Khawwas.
(42) al-wdnd. Definition. The difference
between

al-wdrtd

and

al-bddi.

Saying of Dhu

1-Nun.

(43) al-khdtir. Definition.

al-wdqf. Definition. Saying of a certain


Sheykh which
author heard from Abu
1-Tayyib al-Shfrazi. Ex
planation of the words mcfa awwali khdtirika
which
were used by
Junayd in speaking to Khayr
al-Nassaj.
The thought that occurs first
(awwalu
is

(44)

the

l-khdtir)

said to be the true one.


(45) al-qddih.

This

Other meanings of al-khdtir.

term

is
nearly synonymous with ala difference in
respect of its ap
plication. Derivation and
primary meaning of al-qddih.
Saying of a mystic whose name is not recorded.
(46) al^drid. Definition and
of the term.

khdtir but

there

is

scope

used in a bad sense.


(47)

al-qabd
states

and

al-bast.

peculiar

to

An

It is

illustrative verse.

These terms

gnostics.

denote

The author

always

two

lofty

explains what

involved in each state.


Junayd identifies al-qabd v\^
fear and al-bast with
hope.
is

44

Verses describing the


gnostic

I)

By

AM

Abdallah al-Qurashi. See

p.

teo

the state of al-qabd

in

1.

if

90

and

the

in

three
verses.

of gnostics

He adds

The author

of al-basL

state

classes

are

explains that

distinguished

in

that al-ghaybat and al-hudiir

these

and

al-

sahw and

al-sukr and al-wajd and al-hujum and aland


ghalabdt
al-fand and al-baqd are mystical states
belonging to hearts which are filled with a profound
recollection (dhikr)
(48)

and veneration of God.

al-makhudh and al-mustalab These terms


.

are

synony

mous although the former denotes a more complete state.


The persons to whom they refer are described in two
Traditions of the
(al-Basri)

345

Prophet and

in a

saying of Hasan

concerning Mujahid.

verse in which both terms are used.

Story of a mystic who swooned


asked
to grant him spiritual rest, and
God
having
who excused himself by pleading that he was distraught
by Divine Love. Verse on the dahshat caused by love. A

(49) al-dakshat. Definition.

after

saying of Shibli.

Saying of al-Wasiti.

(50) al-hayrat. Definition.

Definition.

(51) al-tahayyur.

tahayyur

is

hayrat the

the
last.

first

certain

Sufi

said

that

al-

stage of gnosis (mcfrifat), and al-

Verse on al-tahayyur.

(52) al-tawdlf. Definition.

346

Verses by Husayn

Mansur

b.

would not

let

al-Hallaj.

An unnamed

mystic said that he


tawdriq enter his heart until he had sub

(53) al-tawdriq. Definition.

mitted them to (the test of conformity with) the Koran


and the Sunna. The primary meaning of al-tawdrtq.

Tradition of the Prophet in which the word occurs.

(54) al-kashf.
Jariri.

Saying of

(55) al-shath.

man

Definition.

Saying

of

Abu Muhammad

al-

Shibli.

Definition.

saying of

Abu Hamza which

of Khurasan described as shath.

Meaning of the

expression shath al-lisdn. Junayd wrote a commentary

on the shatahdt of
not have done
to be

347

if,

for

in

al-Bistamf,

his opinion,

and he would

Abu Yazfd was

indulging in shath.

verses

by al-Qannad.
Definition. The practice denoted
by

(56) al-sawl.
is

so

condemned

Two

Abu Yazfd

term

this

blameworthy one. Saying of Abu c Ali al-Rudhabarf.

Reasons why sawl should be avoided. The


term is also
used in reference to advanced
mystics who yasMna
billdh, and the Prophet said in his
O God,
prayer,
by Thee I spring to the assault" (bika
A similar
asulu).

expression

from

quoted

Khawwas. An anonymous

the

writings

of Ibrahim

al-

verse.

(57) al-dhahdb. Identical in

meaning with al-ghaybat but more


complete. Definition. Junayd, in his
commentary on the
ecstatic sayings of Abu Yazfd
al-Bistamf, explains the
words laysa bi-laysa as
being equivalent to al-dhahdb

^an al-dhahdb.

Other mystical terms used


sense are fand and
faqd.
(58) al-nafas. Definitions
Sufi.

synonym
Dhu

is

in

the

same

by the author and by an unnamed


al-tanaffus.

Verses by
it

is

1-Nun. Here
al-nafas is Divine, but
employed in reference to mankind.

also

of Junayd.

An anonymous

(59) *t-/itss. Definition.

concerning those
(kiss)

(60)

(61)

in

Saying

verse.

Saying of

who

Amr

b.

Uthman al-Makkf

assert that
they feel

no sensation

ecstasy.

tawhid al^dmmat. Definition.


tawhid al-khdssat. This term has
been mentioned in
the chapter on Unification.
Definition. Explanation of
the term by Shiblf.

(62) al-tafrid.

Definition.

certain

Siiff

said that there are

many muwahhidun but few mufarridun.


Husayn
Mansur al-Hallaj, when he was about
to be

b.

killed, said,

hasb al-wdjid
ifrdd al-wdkid.

92
(63) al-tajrid.

by the author.

Definition

by an unnamed Sheykh. The terms altajrid, al-tafrid, and al-tawhid coincide in their mean
ings but are distinguished from each other in various
Definition

349

(64)

(65)

ways by mystics. Anonymous verse on al-tajrid.


al-hamm al-mufarrad and al-sirr al-mujarrad. These
terms mean the same thing. Definition. A saying of
Ibrahim al-Ajurri addressed to Junayd. A saying of Shibli.
al-muhddathat. A term describing the state of adepts.

Saying of

among
c

Abu Bakr

the Moslems

Umar was one

that

God

The Prophet

al-Wasitf.

said that

there are muhaddathun and that

of them.

Sahl

b.

Abdallah declared

created His creatures in order that

He might

converse with them in secret (yusdrrahum) and they


with Him.

35

An

(67)

example of Junayd s mundjdt.


al-musdmarat. Definition by the author. Verse by al-

(68)

Rudhabari. Definition by an unnamed Sheykh.


ru yat al-qulub. Definition. A saying of c Ali affirming

(66)

al-mundjdt. Definition.

spiritual

of

God

in this world.

Definition.

Two

sayings of Shibli. Verse cited

vision

Tradition of

the Prophet.
(69) al-ism.

by Abu 1-Husayn

al-Nuri.

Two more

sayings of Shibli.

(70) al-rasm. Definition.

Saying of Junayd concerning one who has no rasm.


of a man are the knowledge and actions

351

The rusum

An anonymous verse.
al-wasm. Definition. Saying of Ahmad b. Ata.
al-riih
(al-rawh) and al-tarawwuh. Definition. Two
sayings of Yahya b. Mu adh al-Razi. A saying of Sufyan.
which are attributed to him.

(71)

(72)

(73) al-naft. Definition.

The terms

al-na^t

be synonymous, but the former


while the latter

is

(74) al-sifat. Definition.

summary

is

and al-wasf

may

a detailed description,

description.

93
(75) al-dhdt.

Definition.

Relation

of the ism and na c t and

sifat to the dhdt.

352
c

Saying of Abu Bakr al-Wasiti.


Abdallah al-Qurashi) ).

Two

verses (by

Abu

/-/jVtf. Definition.

(76)

Saying of Sari al-Saqati. The author

explanation of a saying of Muhammad b. c Ali al-Kattani.


c
(77) al-dcfwd. Definition.
Saying ofSahl b. Abdallah. Verse
on the pretence
2
(dcfwd) of love ). The author explains
c
a saying of Abu Amr
al-Zajjajf.

(78) al-ikhtiydr. Definition.

Saying of Yahya

353

(79) al-ikhtibdr.

Mu adh.
c

b.

Definition.

Explanation of the Prophet

saying ukhbur taqlah.


(80) al-bald.

Definition.

Saying of

Abu Muhammad

al-Jarfri.

Tradition of the Prophet. Verses on the


subject of

al-bald.
(Si) al-hsdn.

Definition.

a letter written
Shibli s

354

The

by Nurf

use of the term


exemplified in
to Junayd.

of the difference between lisdn

explanation

al- ilm, lisdn


al-haqiqat,

(82) al-sirr.

Definitions

and

lisdn al-kaqq.
the author and another Sufi.

by
The meaning of sirr
al-khalq and
The meaning of sirr al-sirr. A

Two

Abdallah.

verses.

The

reason

why Muhammad

making an
between verbal promises and

<aqd

1)

b.

from

refrained

(84)

saying of Sahl

Definition. Saying of a
sage (hakim) on gnosis.

(83) al-^aqd.

55

sirr al-kaqq.

b.

Ya qub

al-Farajf

with God. Distinction

spiritual vows.

c
al-hamm. Definition.
Saying of Abu Sa fd al-Kharraz.
Saying of an unnamed mystic.

See

p. tel,

2) Cf. p. rot,
3) cf.

rrr,

I!

1.

1.

1.

f
1

94
Verses by al-Rudhabari.

(85) al-lahz. Definition.


(86)

al-mahw. Definition. Al-mahw distinguished from

(87)

by
al-mahw.
with
Almost
Saying of
synonymous
al-mahq.
tams.

man who asked,


thou with Him

Shibli in reply to a

thee and art not

"Is

al-

the author.

saying of Nuri, with explanation

He

not

with

r"

Verse of an anonymous poet.

356

of an unnamed mystic.
(88) al-athar. Definition. Saying
verse inscribed on the palace
Anonymous verse.

of a certain king.

saying of Ibrahim al-Khawwas on

the taw hid of the Sufis. Verse.


(89)

al-kawn. Definition.

of the term. Explanation of a saying


(90) al-bawn. Meaning
of Junayd in which the terms al-kawn and al-bawn are

same

topic.

of the

term.

used. Verses on the


(91) al-wasl.

Meaning

Saying of Yahya

b.

Mu adh.
c

Saying of

357

(92) al-fasl.

Shibli.

Definition.

Anonymous saying and


Anonymous sayings and

verse.
verse.

of al-usul.
(93) al-asl- Definition. Meaning
c
The relation of the furu to the
(94) al-far\ Definition.
c
c
of Amr b. Uthman al-Makki. Saying of a
asl.

Saying

certain theologian.
(95) al-tams.

Junayd

Definition. Quotation from a letter written


to

Abu Bakr

al-Kisa

Quotation from the Koran. Saying of

358

(96)

by

i.

Amr

b.

Uthman

al-Makki.
al-rams and al-dams. Meaning of these terms. Extract
c
from a letter written by Junayd to Yahya b. Mu adh, with
c

of Sahl b. Abdallah.
explanation by Sarraj. Saying
Meaning of the term. Saying of Abu Bakr

(97) al-qasm.

(98)

359

al-Zaqqaq. Saying of al-Wasiti.


al-sabab. Definition. Saying of Ahmad

Verses by

Abu

Ali al-Rudhabari.

b.

Ata.

95
(99) al-nisbat. Definition.

c
Saying of Ja far al-Tayalisi al-Razi.

Definition of al-gharib

by al-Qannad. Saying of Nuri.


equivalent to al-tirdf. Saying of c Amrb.
al-Makki.

Al-nisbat
c

(roo)

is

Uthman

fuldn sahib

qalb. Meaning of the expression.


Junayd
used to apply it to the
people of Khurasan.
(101) rabb hdl. Definition.

(102) sdhib

maqdm.

Definition.

Junayd

said that true


gnosis

cannot be attained until one has


traversed the *ahwdl
and maqdmdt.
Saying of an anonymous Sheykh con
cerning Shibli.

fuldn

(103)

36o

bild nafs.

Meaning of the expression. Description of such a


person by Abu Sa id al-Kharraz.
c

fuldn sdhib ishdrat. Meaning of the


expression. Verse

(104)

by al-Rudhabari.
ana bild ana and nahnu

(105)

bild

nahnu. Meaning of these

expressions. Explanation of Kor. 16,


55
al-Kharraz.
(i

c
by Abu Sa id

ana anta wa-anta ana. The


meaning of these words
explained in a saying of Shibli which describes the
love of Majnun and how he used
to say,
"lamLayla."
A story of two lovers, related
Shibli.

06)

is

361

by

story

of verse
(107)

huwa

of Shibli

and a youth. Three

).

bild

huwa. Meaning of

this expression.

of Junayd on taw hid.

362

(108)

qaf al^ald iq. Definition of * a Wiq.


c
Sa id al-Kharraz.

(109) bddi

bild

citations

saying

saying of

Abu

bddi.

Meaning of the expressions bddi and


Quotation from the Kitdb ma^rifat
al-mtfrifat
by Ibrahim al-Khawwas.
bild bddi.

I)

The

verses beginning

al-Hallaj. Cf.

^| ^

lil

(1 .

Massignon, Kitdb al-Tawdsin,

p.

||)

are

134.

commonly

attributed

to

(no)

Definition.

al-tahalli.

Tradition of the Prophet on

the subject of faith.

Anonymous

363

(in)

verse.

al-tajalli. Definition.

pretation of Kor. 64, 9


of Nuri

saying of Nun. Mystical inter

by

al-Wasiti.

Another saying

).

Anonymous

verse.

Saying of Junayd. Explanation


by the author. Saying of Yusuf b. al-Husayn.

(112) al-takhalli. Definition.

Anonymous
(113) al-^illat.

verse.

Definition.

saying of Shibli.

explanation of a saying of

Anonymous

364

(114) al-azal.

The author

1-Nun.

verse.

term

This

Dhu

is

equivalent

to

al-qidam.

The

terms azal and azaliyyat are applied to God only.


Saying of an ancient Sufi, which some condemned on
the

that

ground

it

involves the

eternity

of things

(qidam al-ashya).

and al-abadiyyat. These are attributes of God.


Distinction between azaliyyat and abadiyyat. Defi

(115) al-abad

nition

of al-abad

by

al-Wasiti. Definition of

al-wasm

and al-rasm by al-Wasiti. Saying by an unnamed


c
al-Makki.
mystic. Sayings of Shibli and Amr b. Uthman
(116) waqti
/

365

musarmad. Meaning of

verse

by

this expression.

Shibli.

This expression has almost the same


meaning as waqti musarmad. It was us ed by Shibli
in concluding one of his discourses. Explanation by

(117) bahri bild shdti

the author.
(118)

Anonymous

saying and verse.

nahnu musayyarun. Meaning of this expression. Saying


c
ofYahya b. Mu adh concerning the ascetic (zdhid] and
the gnostic ^drif], with explanation

I) Cf. p.

1%

1.

foil.

by

Sarraj.

97

Two

verses

(119) al-talwin.

talwin

mark of

is

Shibli.

by

According to some mystics,

Definition.

The

contrary doctrine.

al-

al-haqiqat, while others hold the


latter refer to tahvin
al-sifdt,

whereas the former refer to talwin


al-qulub. Verse on
talwin al-sifdt. Saying of al-Wasiti.
verses describing the
musayyariin.
(120) badhl al-muhaj. Meaning of this expression. Saying

Anonymous

of Ibrahim al-Khawwas.

Anonymous

(121)

verse.

Meaning of al-muhaj.
al-talaf. Equivalent in meaning to al-katf. Story of
the Sufi Abu Hamza
x
(al-Khurasani) and verses by him ).
Saying of

al-Jarfri.

(122) al-laja\ Definition. Saying of al-Wasiti. Mystical inter


pretation of Kor. 17, 82.

(123) al-inzfdj. Definition.

by

author

certain
s

disciples

Sheykh (Ibrahim al-Khawwas,


to

opinion)
for

Saying of Junayd. Answer given


one who found

asserting that

fault

the

in

with his

they received their food

from God.
(124)

jadhb al-arwdh.

The meaning

of this

and similar

sumuww al-qulub and mushdhadat


Sayings of Abu Sa id al-Kharraz and

expressions, such as
al-asrdr,

etc.

al-Wasiti.
(125) al-watar. Definition.

verses

by Dhu

the question,
(126) al-watan.

Anonymous

1-Nun.

"What

How

saying and verse.

place does one love best as a

Definition.

Two

a certain sage answered

Saying

of Junayd.

home?"

Verses by

Nuri.

Explanation of a saying of Abu Sulayman


Darani on the superiority of al-imdn to

al-

al-yaqin.

(126) al-shurud.

A rabi
c

and

Definition.

Sayings

Abu Bakr

al-Wasiti.

foil.

of

Abu Sa

id

b.

al-

98
c

(127) al-qusud. Definition. Sayings of Ibn

370

Explanation of the

Ata and

al-Wasitf.

latter.
c

According to some, al-istind is


a degree that belongs to none of the prophets except
Definition.

(128) al-istindf.

Moses, while others maintain that


the

prophets.

of al-istina

onymous explanation

id al-Kharraz.

The author

(131) al-latifat.

says that the meaning of this

too subtle to be expressed. Saying of

is

all

An

Meaning of the term.

(130) al-maskh.

Abu Sa

id

al-A rabi.

b.

371

shared by

is

it
c

Saying of al-Wasitf.

(129) al-istifd. Definition.

term

Abu Sa

Saying of

Abu Hamza

Verse by

al-Sufi (al-Khurasanf).

Saying of a certain youth ad


dressed to Khayr al-Nassaj, who relates it. Three
Definition.

(132) al-imtihdn.

kinds of imtihdn.
(133) al-hadath. Definition.
(134) al-kulliyyat.

An anonymous saying.
Two anonymous sayings

Definition.

and

a verse.
(135) al-talbis.

Definition.

Explanation of a saying of

al-

Wasitf. Saying of Junayd.

372

Verse by al-Qannad.
(136) al-shirb.

onymous
(137) al-dhawq.

mous

Definition.

Saying of

Dhu

1-Nun.

Two

an

verses.

Definition.

Saying of

Dhu

1-Nun.

Anony

verse.

(138) al-^ayn. Definition.

Saying of al-Wasitf.

Junayd said that the anecdotes related of Abu


Yazfd al-Bistami show that he attained to the *ayn
al-jam^, which is one of the names of al- tawkid. Verse

by

Nuri.

(139) al istildm. Definition.

273

Two

verses

(140) al-hurriyyat.

Anonymous

by an unnamed
Definition.

saying.

author.

saying

of

Bishr

(b.

al-

99
Harith al-Hafi) to Sari
(al-Saqati). Junayd said that
al-hurriyyat is the last station of the gnostic. An

anonymous
(141) al-rayn.

saying.

Definition.

certain theologian includes al-

rayn among four kinds of

spiritual veils. The reason


the
father
of
Ibn
why
al-Jalla was called al-Jalla.
(142) al-ghayn. The term occurs in a Tradition of weak

authority, according to which the Prophet


ata qalbi. This
is

saidyugMnu

compared by some

ghayn

momentary dimness of

a mirror

when

it

is

to the

breathed

upon. Others deny that the Prophet s heart could be


subject to any such creaturely invasion.

No one

374

state

is

entitled, the

of the

author says, to describe the

heart either directly or

Prophet
sym
Verses on ighdnat by Abu cAli al-Rudhabari.
The author professes to have explained the fore

bolically.

going technical terms according to what God revealed


to

him of

their

at the time. Desire for


brevity

meaning

has compelled him to leave


(143) al-wasait.

much

unsaid.

Three kinds of wastfit disting


c
uished by a certain Sheykh.
Saying of Abu Ali alDefinition.

Rudhabari.
375

BOOK OF THE INTERPRETATION OF ECSTATIC

AND SAYINGS
WHICH APPEAR TO BE DETESTABLE ALTHOUGH
THEIR INNER MEANING IS TRUE
AND RIGHT.
EXPRESSIONS

CHAPTER CXXI:

(shathiyydt)

"Concerning

with a refutation of those


Definition

the signification of al-shath,

who condemn

and derivation of the term. Four anonymous


which mishtdh denotes
barn where

verses, in the first of


flour

is

meaning

it."

stored".

"a

Explanation

of al-shath

as

of the

applied

to

word mishtdk.

ecstasy. It

is

The

wrong

to

100
censure expressions of this sort instead of trying to remove
the ground of offence by consulting those who understand them.
Just as a river in flood overflows

376

when

so the Sufi,

l-nahr),

fi

banks (shataha l-ma

grows strong, can

himself and finds relief in strange and obscure

not contain
utterances,

its

his ecstasy

known

technically

as

shath,

which express

his

mystical experience and truly describe what God has

real

revealed

to

inmost

his

self.

Mystical

experiences differ in

degree, though not in kind, and the language in which they


are

must not be judged by ordinary stand


In such matters no one but an eminent theosophist

shadowed

ards.

forth

377 has the right to

criticise.

The

uninitiated

adopt the

will

they abstain from faultfinding and ask them


selves whether they may not be mistaken in regard to those
safe

course

whom

if

they blame.

CHAPTER CXXII:
and

the

difficulty

"Concerning

the sciences

in

theologians, and the proof that these sciences are

Knowledge

(^ilm)

one who doubts

general,

which the mystical sciences present to

is

this

true."

not bounded by the intellect. Let any


consider the

story

of Moses and

al-

Khadir (Kor. 18,64 foil.), and the Tradition of the Prophet,


ye knew what I know, etc.", which shows that the Prophet
378 was endowed with a knowledge peculiar to himself. Three
kinds of knowledge possessed by the Prophet. Hence no one
"If

ought to suppose that he comprehends all the sciences, and


consequently he ought not to charge the elect with being infidels
or freethinkers when he has never experienced their states.

The

sciences of the religious law (al-sharfat)

fall

into four divis

ions: Tradition, Jurisprudence, Scholasticism, and Mysticism.

The last-named
379

is

the highest and most noble. Description of it.

Questions connected with any one of these four sciences


are decided by the experts in that science, but whereas the
possessors of the other three sciences can have only a limited

knowledge of mysticism, the mystics may possess

all

those

101

other sciences

of which

mysticism is the crown and goal:


hence the former often deny the sciences of
mysticism, but
the latter do not
deny any brauch of the science of religion.

Whoever has acquired a profound


knowledge of one branch
of religious science is
recognised as the supreme authority
in his

380

department.
a

Similarly,

person

who

unites

divisions of religious science,

God

the Proof of

return

to

addressed to

al-shath.

have reached the end of

It

himself

the perfect

in this world, to

refers in a saying

To

is

in

whom

Kumayl

b.

self-will

is

the

four

Imam, the Qutb,


Abi Talib

Ali b.

Ziyad.

characteristic

is

all

of those

who

the beginning of

(which
the state of
perfection) and are advancing towards the goal
but have not yet attained it. In the
adept who has finished
his mystical

journey al-shath

CHAPTER CXXIII:
related

of

Abu

is

very seldom found.

"Concerning

some

ecstatic expressions

Yazid al-Bistami and explained

in part

by

Junayd."

The author

says that since Junayd has explained a small


portion of the shatahdt of Abu Yazid, it is impossible for
himself to neglect that explanation and
put forward one of
his

own.

He

so

many

why

quotes some remarks of Junayd upon the reason

different stories are told of Abu


Yazid, upon
of
his
difficulty
understanding
sayings, and upon the
character of his mystical
experience and attainments. The

381 the

author

observes that although the


sayings of Abii Yazid
which he is about to mention are not recorded in books
(musannafdt), their meaning

is

much debated and commonly

misinterpreted.

CHAPTER CXXIV: "Concerning


Abu Yazid al-Bistami."

an anecdote related of

The author says that he does not know whether Abu


Yazid really spoke the
following words which many people
attribute to him:

102

382

He

"Once

Him and

behold thee

to

me up and
me, O Abu

caused

me

to stand before

Yazid,

My

creatures desire

raised

said

to
I

Adorn me with Thy Unity

answered,

Thy I-ness and raise me to Thy


when Thy creatures behold me they may

and clothe me

in

Oneness,

say that
be
there, not I
they behold Thee, and that only Thou mayst
Junayd s explanation of this saying. The author points out
so

that

."

that Junayd has not explained

it

interpret

before

Him",

said to

Him",

and recollection (dhikr) when God


383

When

in

such a

as to

way

meet

critics.

and the words,

signify spiritual presence,

me and

said to

it

Accordingly, he proceeds to
himself. The words, "He caused me to stand

the objections of hostile

a mystic

feels

and

communion

allude to inward
is

"He

contemplated by the heart.

realises

nearness

the

of God,

every thought that enters his heart seems, as it were, to be


the voice of God speaking to him. Anonymous verses on this
subject.

The remainder

ultimate

of

Abu Yazid

is

saying refers to the

and passing-away (fand)

degree of unification

the Oneness that

anterior to creation. All this

in

derived

is

from the Apostolic Tradition that God said, "My servant


ceases not to draw nigh unto Me by works of devotion
until

him; and when

love

love him,

am

which he sees and the ear by which he hears,


The poet uses similar language where he says,
384

the eye

by

etc."

in describing

his love for a mortal,


"I

If

am

he

human

whom

love and he

whom

inspire!

thou

who

art I!

The two

l
I."

until

"Lovers

one says to the

"

CHAPTER CXXV: "Concerning


story told of Abu Yazid."

i)

is

certain sage said,

do not reach the height of true love


<O

love

love can produce words like these, what feelings

must not Divine Love

other,

the explanation of another

verses quoted here are usually ascribed to Hallaj.

io 3
It

related that he said,

is

Unity,

became a

"As

bird with a

of Everlastingness;

and

soon as

attained to His

body of Oneness and wings

continued flying

in

the

air

of

Quality for ten years, until I reached an atmosphere a million


times as large; and I flew
on, until I found myself in the
field of
and
I
saw
there the tree of Oneness."
Eternity,

Then, after describing its soil ands roots and branches and
I looked, and I knew that all
foliage and fruit, he said,
this

385

was a

Junayd

cheat."

explanation

the phrases

"I

became a

quoting instances

386

He shows

of this saying.

in

bird"

and

which tdra

is

"I

The author defends

continued

flying"

by

used metaphorically.

that in applying the attributes of Oneness and

Everlastingness to himself Abu Yazid follows the familiar


practice of ecstatic lovers, like Majnun, who could think of
nothing but Layla, so that on being asked his name he

Verses by Majnun and an


anonymous poet.
The words I knew that all this was a cheat"
signify that
those who regard phenomena are deceived. If Abu
Yazid
answered,

387

had been

"Layla".

far

advanced

theosophy, he would not have


thought of such things as birds, bodies, atmospheres, etc.
hemistich by Labid, which the
Prophet described as
in

the truest word ever


spoken

CHAPTER CXXVI:
Abu Yazid."

"On

by an Arab.
the

interpretation

of a

saying

attributed to

Text of the saying.


388

Explanation by Junayd. The subject of


and fand
al-fand.

this

saying

is

fand

"an

389

Remarks by the author on the

difficulty of

understanding

topics of this kind without a profound knowledge of


mystical
theology, and on the uninterrupted progression of mystical
experience from lower to higher states. The latter point is
c
c
illustrated by the
interpretation which Abdallah b. Abbas

gave of a passage

in the

Koran

(41, io).

IO4

39

Explanation by a certain gnostic of the tradition, which


occurs in some unnamed book, that God threatened to burn
Hell

with

His

The author

greatest

disobeyed His command.


of what Abu Yazid meant by

fires if it

explanation

the words laysa bi-laysa fi laysa.

CHAPTER CXXVII:
tain

attributed

expressions

the interpretation of cer

"Concerning

to

Abu

Yazid,

which Ibn Salim declared him to be an


with

author

the

report

of a

discussion

on account of
infidel,

together

of this

question

which took place between Ibn Salim and himself at Basra."


How Ibn Salim denounced Abu Yazid for having said,
to

"Glory

me!"

The author

391

that
it

if

(subkdni).

controversy

the whole saying of

would be

He

contends

Abu Yazid had been

recorded,

with Ibn Salim.

clear that he used the phrase subhdni in refer

ence to God. The author adds that when he visited Bistam

and asked some descendants of Abu Yazid about


they asserted that they had no knowledge of

it.

this story,

Other say

Abu Yazid which, according to Ibn Salim, could


have
been uttered by an infidel. The author s further
only
apology on behalf of Abu Yazid.
ings

392

of

Yazid
"They

393

Abu Yazid

His explanation of
tent opposite the
s

saying,
are

Throne of

when he passed

forgiven"

"I

a cemetery

of the Jews,

(mcfdhiiruri}.

His explanation of

Abu Yazid

a cemetery of the Moslems,

The Prophet

saying,
pitched my
His explanation of Abu

God".

"They

saying,
are

when he passed

duped"

(maghrururi).

depend on works,
but on the divine mercy. Theologians have no right to crit
said that salvation does not

who keep the religious


profound wisdom are commonly mis

icise

the obscure sayings of mystics

law.

Such words of

understood and misreported.

394

Junayd said that in his youth he used to associate with


Sufis and that although he did not understand what they

105

he bore no prejudice against them in his mind. The


author relates that some time after the controversy mentioned
said,

he heard Ibn Salim quote in public two sayings of


c
Abdallah; whereupon he remarked to one of Ibn

above,

Sahl b.

Salim
c

b.

that Ibn Salim

pupils

Abu Yazid

Abdallah and

would have condemned Sahl


with the same severity,

he

if

had not been so favourably disposed towards the former.


The sayings of Sahl are equally open to criticism, and if a
satisfactory explanation can be found in the one case,

why

not in the other?


395

Moses had been divinely guided, he must have


exacted the due penalty from al-Khadir when he slew the
Unless

youth (Kor.

Anecdotes showing the piety of Abu

18,73).

Yazid.

CHAPTER CXXVIII:
and

Shibli

396

leave

you

some sayings of

"Concerning

Shibli

their explanation".

said

of him,
are

"Go:

under

explains that

number

to

my

am

who were

with you wherever you

and

care

meant

Shibli

of his friends

in

my

to say,

keeping."

"God

be;

The author

with

is

taking

may
you",

but

he was regarding himself as non-existent, and


he spoke as one who contemplates the nearness (qurb) of God.
that time

al

on

Nevertheless,
vileness
viler

then

other but

Mu

another

of the Jews
they.
are

occasion

Shibli

referred

to

the

and Christians and said that he was

These two sayings do not contradict each

the

expression

of different states.

Yahya

b.

adh al-Razi said that the gnostic is proud when he thinks


of God, and humble when he thinks of himself. Similarly,
the

Prophet once

said,

"I

am

the chief of

he also described himself as the son of a


to eat

397

qadid

Meat

woman who

and
used

*).

Another anecdote of

l)

mankind",

cut into strips

Shibli.

He

said that his flesh (nafs)

and dried in the sun.

io6
felt

a craving for bread, though his spirit (sirr) would have

been consumed with

fire

if it

had turned

moment, from contemplation of God.


concerning
Shibli,

on

Abu Yazid

states

398
is

and stations

related of

He

for

if,

to

saying of Shibli

by

Sarraj.

not on unification (taw hid).


the meaning of an anecdote which

"On

Shibli".

me
room in me

said

for a

Sheykh, discoursed exclusively

reported to have said,

is

swallow

even

al-Bistami, with explanation

according to a certain

CHAPTER CXXIX:

aside,

for

Husri,

the

"If

occurs to your

"God

ordered the earth to

one or two months past, there were any


thought of Gabriel and Michael"; and he
of

thought

mind, you are a

Gabriel

polytheist."

and

Michael

Inasmuch

as

the

Prophet acknowledged the superiority of Gabriel, these


sayings have given offence, but they would not give offence
if instead of being presented in an abridged form they were
related with their whole context

399

The complete

saying belongs, as related by

400

and circumstances.

version of the anecdote to which the former

CHAPTER CXXX:

Abu Muhammad

al-Nassaj.

various actions of Shibli

"Concerning

which were regarded with disapproval."


He used to burn costly clothes, ambergris, sugar,

etc.,

forbidden by the Prophet. Once he


sold an estate for a large sum of money, which he immed

although wastefulness

iately

distributed

anything

for

his

authority

of

Abu

is

amongst

own

the

family.

Bakr.

people,

Here he

Money

is

without
is

reserving

justified

by the

not wasted unless

it

is

spent for a sinful purpose.

401

As

burning of valuable goods, he did this


because they distracted his thoughts from God. Solomon
acted on the same principle when he slaughtered three
regards

his

hundred Arab mares which had engaged

his

attention so

he neglected to perform the evening prayer


a like
(Kor. 38, 29
32). The Prophet cursed the Jews for
deeply

that

The author

reason.

Solomon, but not

for

Mystics

402

explains

from God

the sun was turned back

why

for the Prophet.

that whatever takes their thoughts

believe

away

enemy, and they endeavour to escape


from it by every means in their power. Traditions of the
Prophet on this subject.
their

is

CHAPTER CXXXI:
uttered

the explanation of a saying


hard for theologians to understand,

"Concerning

which

Shibli

by
and of various conversations between him and
Shibli

the

said,

finite,

towards the

and

see

The author

403

but

infinite,

all

explanation

of Shibli, with the author


or recited

He

404

by

see only the finite;

this in a single hair of


s

Junayd."

go towards the infinite, but I see only


go on the right hand and the left hand

"I

and

is

my

little

then

return

finger."

of this saying. Another saying


interpretation. Verses

composed

Shibli.

also said,

"I

studied the Traditions and jurisprudence

dawn shone forth. Then I


went to all my teachers and told them that I desired
knowledge (fiqh) of God, but none of them answered
(al-fiqh] for thirty years until the

me."

Explanation of this
Shibli

to

the

by

Junayd, and the latter


author.

the author.
s

question addressed by
reply, with explanation

remark by Junayd

by
concerning Shibli.
Another saying of Junayd to Shibli. Report of a conversa
tion between Shibli and Junayd. Sayings of Shibli on the
subject of waqt.

405

Further ecstatic expressions of Shibli in prose and verse,


with explanations by the author. Such expressions are the
product of a temporary state. If that state were permanent,
all

406

religious, moral,

Tradition

and

social laws

would be annulled.

of the

Prophet bearing on this question.


he thought that Hell would burn a single
hair of him, he would be
guilty of polytheism. The author
Shibli said that

explains Shibli

if

meaning and declares that he agrees with

io8

Another saying of

it.

in

from God.

separation

latter of

Shibli, to the effect that Hell consists

which

CHAPTER CXXXII:

407

sayings of

Two more

al-Wasiti"

by him, the

sayings

a Tradition of the Prophet.

supported by

is

explanation of the

the

"Concerning

).

isha. When her innocence was


passage referring to
revealed (Kor. 24, 1 1 foil.), she praised God, not the Prophet.

Explanation

of the

saying of al-Wasiti,

them

"Bless

(the

prophets) in thy prayers but do not attach any value to


in

He

not think

means,
which
thou
bestowest
ings
upon
ence for them have any place
thy

heart."

"Do

with the veneration of

408

them"

in

much

or

"do

thy heart

it

of the bles-

not

in

let

rever

comparison

God".

This refers to the mystical doctrine of unity (tawhid). The


reverence due to the prophets, and the superiority of Muham

mad to all other prophets, has been discussed above 2 Sayings


of Abu Yazid al-Bistami on the pre-eminence of Muhammad.
The Sufis believe that God granted to him whatever he
).

asked. His prayer for light.

Every peculiar excellence with which a Moslem

409

belongs to the Prophet. Criticism of the saints


of habitual turning

the result

"Concerning

the errors of those

themselves Sufis and the source and nature of their

Saying of
three

Abu

principles

Ali al-Rudhabari.

which are

the

avoidance of things forbidden,

(i)

endowed

away from God.

CHAPTER CXXXIII:
call

is

is

errors."

The author enumerates

basis
(2)

who

of

all

true

Sufism

performance of religious

duties, (3) renunciation of this world, so far as

it

is

possible

to the believer.

410

The Prophet mentioned

four things

which are

in

this

1) Between Chapters 131 and 132 there were originally five chapters which
do not occur in either of the MSS. See note on p. fv. The beginning of

this

chapter

is

also lost.

2) See Chapters 53

and 54.

io 9

world, but not of

and

barrier

it:

a piece of bread, a garment, a house,

Worldliness in other respects

wife.

is

an absolute

between God and man.

CHAPTER CXXXIV: "Concerning the different classes of


those who err and the variety of errors into which they
Three classes of the erring: (i) those who err in the
fundamentals (uM)\ (2) those who err in the derivatives
fall."

error

and

e.

i.

(furtf),

in

manners, morals, spiritual feelings,

etc.

Their

caused by ignorance of the fundamentals, by selfishness,


by want of a director who should set them on the
is

way. Description of them.


411
(3) those whose error is a slip or a lapse rather than a
serious fault, so that it can easily be repaired. Verse on
right

affectation (tahalli).

The Prophet

CHAPTER CXXXV:
derivatives,

the

first

and

definition of faith.

place, concerning those

who

declare

Sufis

using the word

that

wealth

err

in

err as regards

the
in

poverty

It is

wrong

superior

is

is

to poverty,

a praiseworthy

to suppose that the faqir

and does not acquiesce

man who

is

wealth in a spiritual sense. Others, however,

have argued that worldly wealth


and this is an error.

the

who

wealth."

Some

412

those

"Concerning

which does not lead them into heresy; and

the divine will

in

rich in worldly

poverty and loves riches

who
is

state,

lacks patience

not superior to

for the soul hates

goods

but the faqir

who

bears poverty

with patience shall receive a recompense without end. Poverty


is

essentially

praiseworthy,

though

it

may be accompanied

by some defect that incurs blame. Wealth, on the contrary,


is essentially
blameworthy and can only be praised in virtue
of some good quality, e. g. pious works, that accompanies
itself. Some mystics hold that poverty and
wealth are two states which must be transcended.

it,

413

but not for

This

is

an advanced doctrine.

It

does not, as some have

no
maintained, imply that there

is

no

spiritual difference

between

poverty and wealth. Those who pretend that there is no


are proved to be in error by the fact that they
dislike poverty but do not dislike wealth. True poverty
difference

not merely in indigence, but also in patience and

consists,

having no regard to one s poverty and


taking no credit to one s self on account of it.
CHAPTER CXXX VI: "Concerning those who err in respect

and

resignation
in

in

of luxury or frugality and asceticism, and those


of gaining the

respect
to

do

who

err in

of livelihood or of neglecting

so."

Only a prophet or a
ance, because they

4H

means

abund

saint has the right to live in

know when God permits them

to

spend
and when He permits them to refrain from spending. Until
a man regards much and little as equal, he relies upon the
worldly goods which he possesses. If his heart is not empty
of desire
desire

worldly good that he lacks and of


worldly goods that he has, then he is

obtain a

to

to

the

keep

any one who imagines himself

a worldling; and

be an

to

them
exception to this rule is in error. Others, again, devote
selves to austerities and find fault with those who are less
strict;

when

but as luxury
it

adopted

is

is

unsound, so too

is

extreme asceticism

habitual and ostentatious and

for the

purpose of

self-discipline.

is

not specially

Others of the

reli

bread and hold that no


gious insist on earning their daily
food is legally pure unless it is earned, but this is an error,
since the Prophet
in

God and

to

and

all

mankind

feel assured

appointed portion.

To

that

seek the

who

are

commanded

He

will give

means of

indulgence granted to those


God absolutely. Conditions to be

are too

to trust

them

livelihood

weak

their
is

an

to trust in

observed by those

who

seek the means of livelihood.

415

Others

sit

and wait eagerly for some one who will


wants, and they believe that this is the right

still

attend to their

Ill

But they are mistaken. Any one who abstains


from seeking a livelihood ought to be inspired by strong
faith and patience; otherwise, he is commanded to seek a

spiritual state.

The

livelihood.
is

more

course

latter

is

permissible, but the former

excellent.

CHAPTER CXXXVIII: "Concerning the different


who become remiss in their quest and err in

of those

and betake themselves to

of mortification

There are some who submit to


miraculous powers; and

call

asceticism and

languor

Languor

when they
hold

it

in

fail in

respect

self-indulgence."

austerities in the

gaining a reputation for sanctity and of being

discard

classes

hope of

endowed with

their object, they

contempt, and

this

they

(futur).

however,

is

only a temporary intermission which

the hearts of mystics, whereas the conduct of the

refreshes

here

to

persons referred

properly described

is

as laziness

and negligence. Saying of Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari. Others


travel and boast of the number of Sheykhs whom they have

met and deem themselves


for

the

in a privileged position.

of travel

is

They

are

moral improvement.
and cultivate liberal

wrong,
purpose
Others spend money and bestow gifts
ity, but this is not Sufism. The Sufis regard worldly goods
as an obstacle which prevents them from attaining to God,

and their object


not the

desire

to

in

justifies

Such a

tude,

and claim that

Others indulge them

their spiritual state (waqt)

belief

is

erroneous and leads to perdition.


"Concerning

those

who

err in respect

from food, retirement from the world,

soli

etc."

Some
most

the removal of that obstacle,

in their license.

CHAPTER CXXXVIII:
of abstaining

is

appear generous.

selves unrestrainedly

them

giving

and novices, supposing that hunger is the


method of self-mortification, have abstained

aspirants

effectual

from food and drink during long periods of time, without

112

having consulted a spiritual director. They are wrong, since


the novice cannot dispense with the guidance of a teacher,

and

it

is

a mistake to think that the wickedness of

human

can be eradicated by means of hunger. Sayings of


b. Abdallah. The author says that he

nature

Ibn Salim and Sahl

has seen a number of persons who, on account of ill-regul

from food, were

abstinence

ated

unable to perform their

religious duties!

Others retire from the world and dwell

418

that solitude will deliver

them

them from

in caves,

their passions

fancying

and cause

to share in the mystical experiences of the saints, but

the fact

that hunger and solitude,

is

if

self-imposed and not

the result of an overpowering spiritual influence, are posit

The author recalls instances known to him


men
who
reduced themselves to such a state
young
ively harmful.

weakness that they had to be nursed

of

of

days before
they could perform the obligatory prayers. Others castrate
themselves in the hope of escaping from .the lust of the

and even

flesh.

This

arises

from within and

useless

is

is

for several

injurious,

incurable

by

inasmuch as

lust

any external remedy.

Others imagine that they show sincere trust in God (tawakkul)


when they roam through deserts and wildernesses without
provision

for

the journey, but real tawakkul

demands pre

vious self-discipline and mortification.

Another erroneous

419

belief

is

that Sufism consists in wearing

garments of wool and patched frocks and


water-buckets,
vainly

suppose

mystical
or

by

etc.

Such imitation

that

they

can

in carrying leathern

avails

become

nothing.

Sufis

Others

by learning

and anecdotes and technical expressions,


praying, and weeping, although they have

allegories

fasting,

already provided themselves with food and money. All Sufis


renounce worldly things in the initial stages of their spirit
ual

progress and

enjoin

their

any of them acted otherwise,

disciples to
it

was

for

do the same.
the

sake

If

of his

or brethren. According to others, Sufism is music


and dancing and ecstasy and the art of composing mystical
ghazels. This is a mistake, because music and ecstasy are

family

impure when the heart is polluted with worldliness and when


is accustomed to vanity.

the soul

CHAPTER CXXXIX:

who

those

"Concerning

err in the

fundamentals and are thereby led into heresy; and in the


first place, concerning those who err in respect of freedom

and

service."

Some ancient
God one should
pense
master

for
s

his

Sufis held that in spiritual intercourse with

who expects recom


slave, who performs his

not be like a free man,

but

work,

like

without expectation of wages or reward,


his master may bestow upon him as

bidding

and receives whatever

a bounty, not as a right.


a

book on

assert

that

ordinary

this

as

life,

united with

to service.

servant

union

until

God

They

(of

man

free

is

however, who

heretics,

higher than the slave

so the relation of service ^ubudiyyat) to

only continues
is

There are

topic.

the

certain eminent Sufi has written

God

has become free

fail

God)

with

his

heart

God

attained; one who


and is no longer bound

to recognise that

unless

in

is

is

no one can be a true


free

from everything

except God. The name of servant ^abd] is the best of


names which God has given to the Faithful.

all

the

Passages

from the Koran and the Traditions

of this statement.

Had

been possible

in

support

any

creature to

gain a higher dignity than that of service to God,

Muhammad

would have gained

CHAPTER CXL:
respect of sincerity

it

for

it.

"Concerning

those

lraqis

any

held the

err

in

(ikhlds)"

The heretics of c lraq declare that no one


cere who regards created beings or seeks to
action,

who

is

perfectly sin

please

them by

whether good or bad. Now, certain mystics have

doctrine

that true sincerity involves the complete

H4
absence of regard for created beings and phenomenal objects
and, in short, for everything but God. The heretics in ques
tion

have
it

following

doctrine in the hope that by


and
deliberately, instead of letting
mechanically

taken

over

this

themselves as the gradual result of spiritual


experience, they would attain to perfect sincerity. Therefore
it
has produced in them recklessness and want of manners
it

develop

in

and antinomianism.
422

must be sought by shunning evil, by devotion


to pious works, and by cultivating morality and spiritual
feelings. These pretenders are like a man who cannot distin
Sincerity

guish a precious jewel from a glass bead.


CHAPTER CXLI: "Concerning those who err in respect of

prophecy and

saintship."

that saintship is superior to prophecy, an


caused by their arbitrary speculations on the
story of Moses and al-Khadir (Kor. 18, 64 foil.).
God confers peculiar gifts and endowments in accordance
423
with His inscrutable will. Examples of prophets and other

Some

assert

error which

persons
saints

is

who were

are

thus distinguished.

them

to

granted

The

miracles of the

obedience to

in virtue of their

the prophet of their time. How, then, can the follower be


pronounced superior to the leader? As regards the argument
that the saints receive inspiration directly from God, whereas

the prophets receive


is

that

the

it

through an intermediary, the truth

inspiration of the prophets

the inspiration of the saints


Al-Khadir could not have
424

is

illumination which

the splendour

Moses enjoyed. Saintship

much less surpasses


CHAPTER CXLII:
Those who

err

continuous, while

borne a single atom of the

of prophecy, but

of permission and

is

only occasional.

it

is

illumined by

never equals prophecy,

it.

"Refutation

of those

who

err in respect

prohibition."

in

this

matter hold that

all

things were

and that prohibition refers only to ex


They justify their conduct by the example

originally permitted,

cessive

of the
Sufis,

license.

communism which prevailed amongst certain ancient


who helped themselves to their brethren s food and

money and gave extraordinary


42 5

Anecdote of Path

so.

doing

pleasure to

the owner

by

al-Mawsili.

Hasan of Basra and a saying of Ibrahim b.


Shayban. These heretics ignorantly suppose that the abovestory of

mentioned

Sufis allowed themselves to transgress the religious

law: consequently they go astray and follow their lusts and

do not abstain from what

forbidden. Why should they


were
things
originally prohibited and
that their use was only permitted as an indulgence?
al

not believe that

is

all

though, in fact, lawfulness and unlawfulness depend on the


ordinance of Allah. That which He has forbidden is like a

preserved piece of ground

whoever roams around

it

is

in

danger of trespassing, and the proprietor does not permit


any one to take possession of it without establishing his
claim.

The

case

of purity and impurity

is

different, since,

according to lawyers and some theologians, a thing is pre


sumed to be pure until the contrary has been proved. The
cause of the distinction is that purity and impurity fall within
the category of worship ^ibdddt), while permission and pro
hibition refer to property (amldk).

426

CHAPTER CXLIII:
carnationists

"Concerning

the doctrines of the In-

(al-Hululiyya}."

The author

is
careful to state that he is not acquainted
with any of this sect and has derived his information from

other sources.

Some

of the

Hululis assert that

God

implants in certain

chosen bodies the attributes of divinity and that He removes


from them the attributes of humanity. This doctrine, if
it
is really professed
by any one as a revelation of the
divine

Unity,

is

false.

That which

is

contained in a thing

n6
must be homogeneous with that thing, but God is separate
all things, and all things are separate from Him in

from

their

God

qualities.

manifests in

the signs

phenomena only

of His working and the evidences of His omnipotence.

make no

Hululfs have erred because they


the

distinction

The

between

power which is an attribute of the Almighty and the


which demonstrate His power. Various Hululi

evidences
doctrines.

The author

opinions

is

an

says that whoever holds any of these

The bodies chosen by God are the


and prophets. God s attributes are beyond

infidel.

bodies of saints

nothing like unto Him.


The Hululis confuse divine attributes with human.

description,

and there

not dwell in

men

427

such as

faith,

is

and belief

CHAPTER CXLIV:

in the unity of

those

"Concerning

God, and gnosis.

who

err in respect

human

nature (fand al-bashariyyat)"


This is a perversion of the mystical doctrine of fand. It
based on the notion that when the body is starved and

of the passing-away of

is

God does

hearts, but creaturely attributes dwell there,

weakened

its

human

nature will disappear and that in this

way a man may be invested with divine attributes. But


human nature is inseparable from man, although its qualities
are

transmuted

in

the

radiance

of Reality.

Human

nature

must be distinguished from the qualities of human nature.


Definition of fand as the term is understood by true mystics.
destruction of the

Fand does not involve the


the absence of change

or

corruption are inherent in

428

CHAPTER CXLV:

(talwiri),

human

The author

change and

those

who

err in respect

l-qulub)"

says he has heard that some Syrian mystics

claim to have spiritual vision of

God

Him which

in this world,

resembling

enjoy hereafter.
adds that he has never seen any of them himself, nor

the ocular vision

He

as

nature.

"Concerning

of spiritual vision (al-ruyat bi

inasmuch

self (nafs)

received

of

information

that

they

shall

any man among them,

whose

u;
attainments could be regarded seriously, had been

mystical

seen by others
the

people

but he formerly perused a letter written to

of

Damascus by Abu Said al-Kharraz, which


and mentions a doctrine closely akin

refers to these persons

to

The

theirs.

vision of true mystics

shdhadat), which

in this matter.

astray
a

prey to

Iblfs

who

in

light.

and robed

contemplation (mu-

the result of real faith (yaqin), as in the

is

Some

case of Haritha.

is

Basrites, followers of al-Subayhf,

Exalted by their

austerities,

went
fell

they

appeared to them, seated on a throne

Some

were undeceived and

of them

brought back to the truth by their teachers. Story of a pupil


c
Abdallah.

of Sahl b.

429

Anecdote of some

of

Abd al-Wahid

b. Zayd.
were
transported to
every night they
They imagined
c
Paradise. On one occasion Abd al-Wahid accompanied them,

disciples

that

daybreak they found themselves on a dunghill. The


mystic must know that all lights (anwdr) seen by the eye
in this world are created and bear no likeness to God. Yet
and

at

the vision of faith

sayings of holy

was peculiar

is

men

attest.

The Prophet

and

to himself

CHAPTER CXLVI:
of

as the Apostolic Traditions

real,

and the

vision (Kor. 53,

not granted to any one

is

those

"Concerning

who

n)

else.

err in respect

purity."

Some pretend

that their purity

430 and hold that a man

and
This

defects,
is

in

an error.
e.g.

human

frailties.

to

be

complete and perpetual,

may become purged


that he

sense

No man

is

of

all

defilements

separated from them.


times free from all im

is

at all

phenomenal objects, sin, vice and


One must turn to God and continuously

thought

purity,

pray

the

is

forgiven

of

in

Muhammad, who used

to

accordance
ask

with

the

practice

of

pardon of God a hundred

times daily.

CHAPTER CXLVII:

"Concerning

of illumination (al-anwdr).

those

who

err in respect

There are some who


divine

by

light

-- and
majesty

commit

assert that their hearts are illuminated

the light of gnosis and unification and

they declare to be uncreated. They


all the lights that can be perceived

this light

a grave error, since

and known are created, whereas the light of God does not
admit of description or definition and cannot be comprehended
43

by human knowledge.
The correct meaning of
ledge,

derived

from

God,

the commentators on Kor.

the light in the heart

of the
8,

criterion

from

may

know

(furqdn),

23 interpret as

heart in order that thereby truth

the

is

which

light put in
be distinguished
"a

falsehood."

CHAPTER CXLVIII:

"Concerning

of essential union ^ayn al-jam

They

refuse

those

who

err in respect

c
)"

to attribute their actions to themselves,

and

they justify their refusal by the plea that the unity of God
must be maintained. This doctrine leaves them outside the
pale of Islam and leads

them

to neglect the laws of religion,

inasmuch as they say that they act under divine compulsion


and are thefore clear of blame. Their error is caused by
inability

to

distinguish

what

is

fundamental from what

is

derivative, so that they connect with union (janf) that which

belongs to separation (tafriqat}. Sahl b.


what he thought of a man who said,

do not move

until

am

moved."

Abdallah was asked

"I

am

like a gate:

Sahl replied,

"This

is

either

the speech of a saint (siddiq) or the speech of a freethinker


(zindiq)"

He meant

that the saint regards

all

things as sub-

43 2 sisting through God and proceeding from God, but at the


same time recognises the obligations of religion and morality,
while the freethinker only holds this doctrine in order that

he

may commit

as

many

sins as

be pleases without incurr

ing blame.

CHAPTER CXLIX:
intimacy (uns)

"Concerning

and unrestraint

(bast)

those

who

err in respect of

and abandonment of fear."

H9
Some imagine

that they are very near to

God and

stand

Him, and when they believe this, they


are ashamed to observe the same rules of discipline and
in a close relation to

keep the same laws as before. Hence they lose all restraint
and become familiar with actions from which they would
formerly have shrunk in horror; and they fancy that this
is

nearness (qurb) to God. But they are

of

and

discipline

and

states

stations

God bestows on His

honour which

much

mistaken. Rules
the

are

servants;

if

robes

of

they are

sincere in their quest, they merit an increase of bounty, but


if they disobey His commands, they are stripped of these

robes of good works and driven from the door. They may
deem themselves to be favourites, but in truth they

still

have been
gination,

Dhu

the nearer to

rejected:

Him

from

the farther

God they seem

in

ima

are they in fact. Saying of

1-Nun.

Saying of an anonymous sage.

433

CHAPTER CL:
the
^an

doctrine

those

"Concerning

who

err in respect of

from their qualities (al-fand

of passing-away

al-awsdf}"

mystics of Baghdad have held the erroneous doctrine


that in passing-away from their own qualities they enter into

Some

the qualities of God. This involves the doctrine of incarna


tion (hulul) or the Christian doctrine concerning Christ. The
belief

ancient

in

enters

meaning is that when a man passes


own will, which is given to him by God, he

his

into

be derived from one of the

true

Its

Sufis.

away from

to

said

is

question

the

of God, so that he no longer regards

will

himself but becomes entirely devoted to God.


in this

form

is

strictly Unitarian.

interpretation suppose that

and are guilty of

come immanent
in

the

heart

is

God

infidelity,

in

men

faith

in

is

The

Those who give

doctrine
it

a false

identical with His qualities,


as God does not be
What becomes immanent

inasmuch

s hearts.

God, and belief

in

His unity, and

120
reverence for His name; and this applies to the vulgar as well as
to the elect, although the former, being in

CHAPTER CLI:
doctrine
that

assert

in

err in respect of

sensation."

by some mystics of

held

is

who

those

"Concerning

the doctrine of loss of

This

to their

are hindered from attaining to the divine realities.

passions,

434

bondage

lose

They

lraq.

their senses, so that they

they
transcend the qualities which belong
to objects of sensible perception. But this is wrong, since
loss of sensation cannot be known except by means of sensa
ecstasy

perceive nothing and

tion

and sensation

be obliterated

in

ecstasy,

the

as

just

light

nature

it

may

of the stars

is

cannot be altogether
Under the influence of ecstasy a man may cease to be

rendered invisible by the sun, but


lost.

human

inseparable from

is

of sensation

conscious

Sari

as

this state will not feel the

CHAPTER CLII:
the spirit

it

al-Saqati

said,

blow of a sword on

"Concerning

those

who

a person in
his face.

err in respect of

(al~ruk)"

There are many theories as to the nature of the spirit,


but all who speculate on this subject go astray from the
because

truth,

God

has

declared

that

it

is

beyond human

comprehension.

According to some, the

435

spirit is part of the essential light

belongs to the life of God. Some


hold that all spirits are created, while others regard the
spirits of the vulgar as created, but the spirits of the elect
as uncreated. Some think that the spirit is eternal and im
of

God

others say that

and

mortal,

does

not

it

suffer

punishment hereafter; some


some give one spirit

believe in the transmigration of spirits;


to

an

infidel,

saints;

define

dom

three to a Moslem, and five to prophets and

some hold that the


it

spirit is

created of light;

as a spiritual essence created of the

(al-malakut),

whither

suppose there are two

it

spirits,

returns

when

some

heavenly king
purified;

some

one divine, the other human.

121

All

these

manifestly

erroneous

doctrines

are

the result of

forbidden speculation (Kor. 17,87). In the author s opinion,


orthodox Sufis believe that all spirits are created that there
;

no connexion or relationship between God and them except


in so far as they belong to His kingdom and are subject
is

to His absolute sway; that they do not pass from one


to

the

another;

that

they

die,

like

the

body

body, and experience

pleasures and pains of the body, and are raised at the

Resurrection in the same

body from which they went

forth.

INDEX OF SUBJECTS, TECHNICAL

WHICH OCCUR IN THE


ABSTRACT OF CONTENTS.

TERMS,

ETC.,

anta iva-anta ana, 95.

A.

bild ana, 95.

Antinomianism, in,

abad, 96.
abadiyyat, 96.
c

abd,

114, 115,

118.

anwdr,

113.

117.

Abddl, 47.

aqd, 93.

Ablution, manners of the Sufis

C
^V>

89.

r2/,

10,

39, 40.

in,

8,

abnd al-haqaiq, 71.

asbdb, 47.

abrdr,

Ascension of

13,

24.

Abstinence,

adam,

Asceticism, no,

88.
15,

18.

See

Elect, the.
12,

God,

and zuhd.
3.

94.

greatest

name

of

tfy^/,

8.

82.

25.
c

ayn

dmmat,
86.

17,

al-jam",

98,

al-yaqin, 20.

amldk, 115.

amn,

S** Stat

Audition, 50, 51, 69

Almsgiving, 42, 43.


c

asrdr, 63.

aw sat,

26.

the

the,

athar, 94.

mystical.

Allah,

ashdb al-kadith,
as!,

37, 95. See States,

altfiq, 95.
alif,

1 1 1

ions, mystical,

ahl al-khusiiS)

ahwdl,

Muhammad,

32.

13.

adab, 39. See Manners.


c

71, 96.

18.

96.

azaliyyat, 96.

118.

77, 78.

123

Dervishes, manners

B.

46, 47.

of,

dhahdby 91.

in Bismillah,

the,

dhdt, 93.

25.

badhl al-muhaj, 97.

dhawq,

bddi, 89, 95.

dhikr,

bahri bild shdtf, 96.

98.

75, 76, 90,

34, 60, 73,

24,

23,

19,

102.

bald, 64, 66, 93.

al-dhikr al-khafi,

baqd, 59, 89, 90.

Directors, spiritual,

bashariyyat, 6 1
89, 90,

#.$/,

1 1

1 1

Doctrine,

8.

59

of,

37.
53,

112.

differences

Sufistic,
foil.

of the Sufis,

Dress,

Begging, 52,

109,

See Sheykhs.

6.

bawn, 94.

&y/0,

13.

8,

7,

51.

74.

E.
bild bddi, 95.

nafs
,

Earning a livelihood, manners

95.

of the Sufis

64.

in, 54,

10,

1 1

1.

Eating, manners of the Sufis


C.
in,

Communism,
Companions
the, 35

49, 50.

Ecstasy,

115.

of the Prophet,

50,

99

91,

08,

113,

Elect, the,
20,

21,

85,

120.

5,

22,

6,

7,

27,

15,

See

Errors, of the Sufis,

Creation, the mystery

Evil,

of,

37.

11,

foil.

F.

dahshat, 90.

Faith, 23, 36, 37, 82, 83, 87,

dams, 94.

109,

96,

dcfwd, 93.

117.

fand, 59, 63, 89, 90, 91, 102,

21.

manners of the

108

25.

D.

at the time of, 58, 59.

16, 18,

39, 84,

30,

Contemplation, 20, 106, 117.


See mushdhadat.

Death,

20.

Audition.

foil.

Companionship, of Sufis with


one another, 47, 48.

da wat,

7881,

76,

51,

103,

Sufis

116.

fand an al-awsdf,

fand

al-bashariyyat,

1 1

9.

16.

I2 4

fand a I-fand,

ghind, 61.

103.

6.

faqih,

ma

al-faqir al-sddiq, 31, 61.

far\

43, 6 1.

14,

rifat.

God, the nature

91.

Sufis, 53, 54.

Gnosis, 26, 27, 77,93,95- See

faqir, 109.

faqd

bestowed on

Gifts,

S^

Poverty.

of, II, 37,

60.

Grief, 63.

94.

H.
/*j/, 94.

43~

Fasting,

45>

86.

hadath, 98.

5>

fawd^id, 88.
Fear, 18,

/^/,

24, 35, 37, 89.

23,

6.

l-din,

86,

lawful,
1

113.

Sufis in,

fuqahd,

3.

fuqard,

9,

fur

if,

13,

14,

44, 49,

60, 71, 73, 86.

al-yaqin, 20.

1 1

94,

futur, IT

See hurriyyat.

manners

Friendship,

furqdn,

haqiqat, 59, 60, 87, 97.

10.

Freedom,

92.

haqd^iq, 59, 87,

fir as at, 36, 63.

Food,

93.

al-hamm al-mufarrad,

yz^r, 64.

/^ fi

hamm,

86.

53, 71,

13,

of

the

hay rat,
Hell,

57, 90.

spiritual

conception

of,

108.

58.

hiddyat, 21.
14,

71.

yh)tf, 93.

8.

hikmat, 57, 76.

109.

,to.y,

i.

91.

Hope,

8,

35,

89.

hubb, 64.

G.

hudur, 88, 90.


Generosity, 64.

hujum,

ghalabdt, 88, 90.

/mlul,

gharib, 95.

Hunger,

ghashyat, 88.

huquq, 87.

^//^,

hurriyyat,

23.

ghaybat, 88, 90, 91.

88, 90.
vSV*?

119.
56,

Incarnation.

in,

98,

112.

99.

Freedom.

ghayn, 99.

//ww

ghayrat, 63.

huziiz, 87.

<z7tf

huwa, 95.

6><?

125

5^

istinbdt, 24, 26, 34.

Inter

pretation, mystical.
c

ibddat, 36,

1 1

istiqdmat,

115.

ifrdd, 91.

ftibdr, 64.

ighdnat, 99.

-c

i/isdn,

95.

/z>4/;

itmcfninat, 20.

3.

ikhlds, 3, 23, 60,

113.
j.

ikhtibdr, 93.

jadhb al~arwdh,

ikhtiydr, 93.

97.

ilhdm, 36.

>^

c
z

ledge.

ilm al-yaqin, 20.

imd\

kardmat

(generosity), 64.

kardmdt

(miracles), 82

112.

kawn, 94.

imtikdn, 98.

khashyat, 23.

Incarnation, 115, 116, 119.

khdtir, 89.

Indifference

to

praise

and

blame, 63, 76.

m//, 92, 93.


21, 98.

istifd,

istildm, 98.
istind

c
,

98.

23,

48,

62,

87,

Elect, the.

95.

16,

15,

87.

9, 22,

religious,

three

esoteric,

30.

kinds

Symbolism.
ishfdq, 23.

5^

Knowledge,

74, 76, 77.

inzfdj, 97.
26,

8.

Knowledge,

Interpretation, mystical, 22

ishdrat,

khusus al-khusus,

115.

insdniyyat, 60.

foil.,

khawf,

khusus, 87.

Indulgences, 28, 29,

30

foil.

kashf, 90.

97,

Imitation,

27,

7.

karim, 64.

87.

^^w,

4,

8.

K.

5^ Know

100.

60,

3,

1 1

118.

Illumination, 61, 117,

88, 98,

59,

Jurists, the,

/to, 96.

^ilm,

of,

3.

Knowledge, three sources

of, I.

Koran, conformity with the,


21

foil.,

90.

Koran, hidden meaning of the,


21, 22.

Koran, mystical interpretation


of the, 22

foil,

30

foil.

126

Koran, recitation of the, 22,

the

of

Sufis,

the,

3959-

foil.

69

26,

Manners

maqdm,

kulliyyat, 98.

86, 95.

12,

maqdmdt,

12,

95.

37,

Stations, mystical.

md rifat

latifat, 98.

written

104.

by

one another, 65

Sufis to

Light, the inner,

foil.

mishtdk, 99.
117,

118.

Mosques,

sitting in,

ned, 55.

mubtad?, 89.

lisdn al-haqiqat, 93.

# al-haqq, 93.

mufarridun, 91.
mukddathat, 92.

*/- *70*,

90,

88.

Miracles, 82

lisdn, 93.

Love,

mawjud,

foil.

in.

Liberality,

Longing,

93.

muhaddath,

36,

muhaj, 97.
1

8,

32,

102.

95.

93>

36, 64, 80,

mifjisdt, 82.

mukdshafatt 20, 87.

M.

mundjdt, 92.

muqarrabim,

13,

ma^dum,

88.

muqtasid, 63.

mafqud,

88.

murdd,

mahabbat,

murdqabat,

17.

muraqqcfdt,

mahw,

murid, 89.

94.

muruwwat,

86.

malakiit,

10,

16.
5

55, 62.

musdmarat, 92.

ma^khudh, 90.
120.

24.

89.

mahq, 94.

makdn,

92.

19.

17,

maskh, 98.

bi-laysa, 91,

Letters,

\ I

88.

mashhud,

87.

al-haqq,

Marriage, 55.

lawtfih, 87.

/tfj/.*-<2

1 1

mcfrifat al-haqiqat,

97.

law ami

12, 90.

Gnosis.

lahz, 94.

lajd

11,

10,

ma^rifat,

laghw, 22, 71.

musarmad,

96.

condem

mushdhadat, 20,

117. See

87,

Prayers, specimens

Contemplation.

n,

Predestination,

16,

foil.

mutasabbir, 15.

mutawdjidun,

78.

mittawakkilun, 36.

Prophets,

the,

6,

83, 98,

108,

114,

22, 29, 69,

116,

Sufis in, 39, 40.

91.

Purity,

115,

117.

See safd.

Q.

nafas, 91.

95,

nahnu

38, 44, 83, 87,

34,

bild

qabd, 89.

116.

qddih, 89.

nahnu, 95.

qalb, 8, 95.

nahnu musayyarun,

96.

qalb salim, 21, 26.

Names, the Divine,

25.

qasm, 94.

/,

qaf

92, 93.

nisbat, 95.

al-^altfiq,

95.

qidam, 96.

niyyat, 41, 64.

qurb,

Novices, Sufi, manners

of, 57,

17,

18,

105,

119.

qusud, 98.

74-

R.
P.

rabb hdl, 95.


Patience, 15.

rabbdni, 35.

Pilgrimage, the, 45, 46.

rajd,

Poetry, mystical, specimens

of,

8.

See Hope.

rams, 94.

66, 67.

Poetry, recitation

of,

70, 72

61,

rasm, 92, 96.

rawh, 92.

77. 79-

Poverty,

14,

109,

15,
10.

120.

manners of the

Purification,

N.

10,

24.

Prophet, imitation of the, 27

mustanbatdt, 30, 31.

105,

68.

of, 67,

Precepts given by Sufis, 68.

97.
c

mustalab, 90.

*/j,

75-

82.

mushdhadat al-asrdr,
Music, 113. See samd

muwahkidun,

4042,

Prayer, 24, 37,

musayyarun, 96, 97.

37,

43,

52,

rayn, 99.
Recollection, 60. See

128

Repentance,
ridd,

Salvation, 104.

13.

sawd c 50,69

6.

foil.

rizq, 62, 63.

samadiyyat, 25.

ruh, 61,92, 120. See Spirit, the.

sawdb, 64.

al-ruh al-bashariyya, 62.

saw I,

al-ruh al-qadima, 62.

Self-sacrifice,

rusum, 92.

Sensation, loss

ruyat

al-qulub,

92,

116.

S>*

See Audition.

91.
52.
in ecstasy,

of,

120.

79, 91,
c

shafaqat ala

Vision of God.

l-khalq, 64.

shdhid, 64, 88.


S.

shahid, 20.

sabab, 94.

sharfat, 100.

sab bar, 15.

shatahdt, 91, 101.

j0&y,

15.

shath, 90, 91, 99

^^,

63.

jAtf///

al-lisdn, 91.

sdbiqun, 24.

shathiyydt, 99

j#r,

shawq,

.ytf/tf,

foil.

19.

Sheykhs, manners of the,

sadaqa, 42.
sddiqun,

foil.

57,

74, 79-

17-

9, 62, 87, 88.

5^

Purity.

98.

.?/>,

safd al-safd, 88.

shirk, 23, 62.

safar, 52.

shukr, 48.

jfl/w al-wajd, 88.

shiiriid, 97.

j^/t^

is karat,

95.

Sickness, manners of the Sufis

sahib

maqdm,

95.

^/

^/^, 95.

^w/,

in,

120.

j(/itf,

Sin,

of the,

104,

118.

92, 93.
13,

63.

Sincerity in devotion, 64.

Singing. See

108.

Saintship, asserted to be supe


rior to

71,

j-^, 60.

88, 90.

criticism

18,

siddiq,

Saints, the, 83, 114, 116, 118,

Saints,

56.

prophecy,

saldmat al-sadr, 63.

14.

samd

sirr, 64, 65, 93,

al-haqq, 93.
al-khalq, 93.

c
.

106.

129
al-sirr al-mujarrad, 92.

tahqiq, 87.

sirr al-nafs, 63.

tajalli,

sirr al-sirr, 93.

tajrid, 92.

manners of the

Sitting,
in,

Sufis

97.
112.

Solitude, 57, 58,

61, 62,

the,

120,

121.

See ruh.

21,

37,

See

hdl.

64,

06,

103,

119.

16,37,

maqdm and

106, 119. See

of, 7, 8, 9,

of,

62.

tarawwuh,

92.

and Traditions,

tawdjud, 78, 79, 89.

tawakkul,

9.

Sufism, founded on the Koran


2 foil., 8, 22,

foil.

15,

48,

112.

Trust in God.
tawdlf, 90.
tawdriq, 90.

principles

of,

47, 60,

108.

sukr, 88, 90.

sumuww

taqiyyat, 64.

tashdid, 24.

104.

derivation

Sufism, definitions

27

tawj, 94.

tasdkur, 89.

maqdnidt.

Sufism,

tamkin, 36, 37.

tanaffus, 91.

Stations, mystical, 12

subhdni,

116.

tahvin, 97,

tamannif 63.

States, mystical, 12, 13, 16

Sufi,

takhalli, 96.

55, 56.

Spirit,

96.

Symbolism, 10,
See ishdrat.

63,

T.

9,

tafriqat, 59, 88,


109.

10,

106,

35, 88, 92, 94,

108.

5^

Uni

fication.

87,

100.

tawhid

dmmat, 91.
taw kid al-bashariyyat, 10.
tawhid al-ildhiyyat, 10.
al-

Terms, technical, used by the


Sufis, 86
99.

tafrid, 91, 92.

tahayyur, 90.

tawhid,

tawhid al-khdssat, 91.

tafakkur, 64.

tahaqquq, 87.

13.

95, 98,

al-qulub, 97.

tahalli, 96,

taw bat,

118.

Thought-reading, 82, 86.


Traditionists, the, 3, 4, 7.

Travel, manners of the Sufis


in,

51,

52.

Travel, the purpose

Trust in God,

of,

in.
54,

16, 34,

15,

3o

waqty 89, 107, in.

waqti musarmad, 96.

112.

IIO,

13, 61.

^,

wdrid, 89.
U.
"ubiidiyyat,

wasd^it, 99.

wasdyd, 68.

113.

59,

ulamd,

2,

4,

3,

5,

Unification, 36, 59,

7,

22,

30.

102,

103,

and

See

118.

Union,

jam

20,

19,

94.

92, 96.
106.

Wastefulness,

waswasat, 40.

wusul.
uns,

w^/,

wasm,

See taw hid.

107.

92.

1 1

watan, 97-

8.

Unseen, the, definition


nsu/, 60,

of, 23.

^vatar, 97.

Wealth, worldly and

109.

61,

109,

spiritual,

10.

Weeping, eighteen causes

V.

64.

Veils, spiritual, 84, 99.

Vision, of God,

116,

wuddy

64.

117.

wujiid, 79.

W.

wusul, 60.

Y.

wahddniyyat,

wahm,
wahy,

10.

yaqin, 20, 21, 97, 117.

63.
6.

Z.

wajal, 24.

wajd, 78, 89, 90.

wajdu

liqd,

wajdu mulk,

wajh

Allah,

wdjidun, 78,
34.

78.

zdhid,

14, 96.

42.

tf/#7,

78.

zdlim, 63.

3.

^r/,

62.

zawtfid, 88.
zindiq,

118.
14.

5^

Asceticism.

of,

GLOSSARY.

Jo!.

Juljf,

wildernesses"

"wilds,

= Jof

_j

in

an affirmative sentence (195,14).

of person and

WW

(178, 16).

(240,2).

ace.

C<

J],

and

*,

"to

take any owe to a

place"

take a person with

"to

owe"

(192,9; 429,6).
>L

II

^St

^Lf (37,18).

^4^7
>L

1.

L>|.

III
II

^[5
"to

(37,19; 364,11).
(140,10; 165,16; 198,20).

sing,"

Verbal noun iuotj (276,16).

Apparently used as an interrogative particle (225,


(168,12)

i,

yiL iLUf,

Ka ba.

feminine (217, 17), but perhaps j*d) should be read.


"an

evil

impulse".

(14,10); ol^iJIj
|.

the water-spout of the

III
G

is

18).

^1

L^bj^p^ LfjLUj)

o^U

(77,12),

(157,13). Cf. Wright, II, 376.

with *Lil (255, 11; 386, 15, 16).


^1. Synonymous
gnon, Jf*7a& al-Tawdsin,
ijf,

"essence"

(98,22). Dozy.

p.

(32,10).

162.

fe

Massi-

132

ajl.

jji.

II

>

V_AJ UAA^,

beginner, a novice in

"a

j^f

3j? (37,18).

*I?

(37,19; 364,4,10).

Jj. jLjt (18,6;

50, 14; 60,19,

etc.).

after prepositions.

<s)bb

(142, 18).

(188, 20; 190, 15),

JL>i

329,17).

Ujj, interrogative (308,5;

bj,

Sufism"

(34,5);

b|

^Xl

(405,17).

V
jkj,

fortune"

"good

bo. IV

with

^1,

(188,12).

= ^j3

manifest"

"to

(254,17).

a class of the saints (177,23).

^XJ),

The Persian words

LJ

\^>c<u_Xj

made

occur in the reply

"0
,

unfortunate one

Abu Hamza by

to

!"

a native of

Khurasan (331,4).
j^Xyo,
fy.
LJ.

V
IV

"common,

J^

for

jif

V.

profane"

Of.

(10, 18).

14,12; 87,1; 386,5.

in verse (251,18).

"to

religious laws

neglect,

to

abandon the observance of

(406,2).

X-oLLJ! (168, 14)

is

mentioned as the name of a place

where pilgrims were surrounded by an Arab brigandchief (Ibn al-Athir,

IX

129, 16). It belonged to the terri

tory of the Banii Asad and lay on the road from

and Kiifa

to

Baghdad

Mecca. Cf. Bibl Geogr. Arab., VII, pp. 175

and 311.

(146, 3

= 188,

15),

"pieces

of cloth inserted in a garment

for the purpose of widening

it".

Persian

jj^o

and

jj-j.

133
See the Lexica under

and Jawaliqi s al-Mu carrab


I have not found any other

(joy>o

by Sachau), p. If, 1.
example of the word written with

(ed.

i".

forms are

and

&o>j>

(jo>o,

drop of

"a

foul

"a

a science

Shibli

smell".

opposed

VIII

to

uto be

stinks?"

JU^j jus in this passage differ in


as cited in the Lexica.

(340, 4).

<3.

satisfied",

JJi

of

UJL^u
jLJLS
it

(jl^b>

(150,4; 211,4), where

i5

j,

isjeJ

>See

BL\>i_j

^^ same

among

l^o

"a

box or

chest".

Dozy.

my thoughts" (168,

sense (297,

^u,

(237, 3).

(204, 15).

t*j$TJC^xi, "concentrating

- o

^UiiJL,

j^uilj

(211,10).
^wrrt/

is

think you of

ecy^-t (409,14).

UJL>

IV

and

pi. (jL>o,

"What

said,

meaning from the same phrase

>

J^U>L>,

comparison with which theology

in

The words

(182, 13).

The usual

(79,6; 240,5).

spittle"

in Arabic.

pi.

\j,

K,gj,

Cl

1).
o

-*-^uJl

is

enumerated

the possessions of the Prophet (101,

doubtful.

L>|

(224,15=

19).

9).

180,7), but the reading

134

c
3b-, of

ecstasy,
O

IV

that are fixed

LJ,

(306,7; 434,9,11).

Does this mean


Qk-otJl (27, 16).

iCJj(A^uJi

With

violent"

"

>

intently"?

throw"

"to

Dozy under

OL\>

and IV.

II

(193,22).

end of the izdr or the part

"the

Bj^o,

QL\>=.f^i
&

Cf.

"the

"*

of the izdr where


(136, 18).

it

is

round the

tied or folded

Freytag renders

IM<-^>

by

"conclave

waist"

domus",

03
error caused

having mistaken

his

by

See Lisdn XVI, 264,17


G

VIII

-JTJ>.

foil.

from

"safe

"guarded",

criti

(398,16).

With

Q^,

refuse obstinately to do

"to

of the nafs of a Sufi


in water that

IV

for
j^\:>

^yjL^^Aj of language,

cism"

an

03

"to

be

was intensely cold


Followed by

able".

anything".

who shrank from making an

Used

ablution

(146, 4).

and the Imperfect

(131,4; 156,5; 166,10; 291,14). Followed by the Imper


fect

without

*.j

(50,19; 288,12).
(181,18),

for his sake to

^=

walk

yto

Ji^-ki<Jf,

(nafs)".

term
foil,

"objects

"the

"

of

desires

"I

See

sense"

J^Ji^>

is

Dozy under

_*a>.

(388, 6).

and interests of the lower soul

Whatever appertains

and 336,12

should have had a desire

opposed to
foil.; also

to

the

vJj^Ji->.

nafs

is

Ja=>.

The

See especially 47,

15,17 Ouy^Jf

J>^k>);

39,6; 77,11; 102,9; 164,8,10; 413,17; 414,3.

18,7;

135

or B^li,

"confectioner"

w ecstasy,

"sweetmeat"

"the

(101,12).

(185, 16).

state of quiet succeeding

rapture"

Go(306, 15).

J^>

in used in

of aw

ecstatic person,

into the state of

G-

the same sense (306, 18).

quiet"

"one

who has

passed

(306,17; 307,1).

verbal noun (284, 16).

noun from &xc

away from

him"

"he

turned

^r>,

(229, 4).

(37,17).

c
L>.

x>.

X
V

hide"

"to

(139,17).

be agitated in
_ OG

"to

Persian

"a

ecstasy"

man

L\Jjy>,

VIII

in charge of

be disordered in mind, to

"to

the reading
O

(278,6; 292,4).

an

ass".

dote"

(410, 21),

if

sound.

is

Muzaffar al-Qarmisini (191,12) and

X-i^>.

Abu Hafs

al-Haddad* (194, 11) wore two khirqas at once. See Dozy


o

under
xiy>.

M^j
O

^a.v*:>

G
*~>.

"a

rag"

(188,23).

o -

(329, 21)

"a

hole (in the roof of a

x&L<Uk>

(325, 5),

it,

a rattle

mystical

"the

to a crying child to

something given
o

amuse

mosque)".

(?).

Cf.

elect,

experiences"

x^uxi.^ui (Dozy).
the

Sufis

who have enjoyed

(46,4; 52,16; 67,12

et

passim).

36

Sufi s

"the
r>,

(46,5; 52,17; 67,16

^bu

JJ

L>

"intimacy".

~>,

the highest

of

grade"

See under

etc.).

*ili

Sl^l (400,

1).

VIII wcwn

o/"

p/ace.

gJ&xJi

</<e

ysLxJi

o/"

ocean o/ Deity

(240, 5).

VIII

to

"to

save, to

c,

draw

m^

l>

in the breath
rescue"

J,

"controversial"

with"

(256,11).

(106,14).
G -

"

?.

diminutive of

oi-v_L>,

(248,18; 271,6).

(240, 15). See Glossary to Tabari.

"mingled

>,

oUL>,

worn-out

"a

garment"

(249, 2).
o

344,

or concealed from the

"withdrawn

(J**A>,

mind"

(233, 15;

8).

Go,
"discussion"

habitually,
,

with

v>

"to

etc.

/ot?e,

o/"

u to

(394,9).

ordinarily"

self in

garment"

(38,14).

induce ecstasy voluntarily or by means of music,

(187,5; 277,19; 303,9; 336,16; 342,6).

IV

(358, 6)

= u*^ IV,

^Ali,

(358,7).

JJ*UA>,

The

Siifis

making

q. v.

"obscure",

"

(208, 19).

spurious"

"corrupt,

wrap one

(391,5).

explained as

do not travel
tour"

(190, 4).

VII ^Loji, used mystically


"occult"

G io_
a -Jlo

(240,2).

(358,5).

Q^JJJ,

"for

the purpose of

137

The Persian words

friend

"O
[>

c>^_j<->

were used by

!"

Abdallah of Tustar in speaking


Salim
of Ibn
(326,18).
Sahl

to

b.

the father

(33,11; 243,3; 384,14).

(14,17; 42,7; 54,15; 296,10; 335,3).

pi.
/J>

o _

W*7A J*c or

Q,

"to

notice

the

escape

of

any

one"

(128,10; 423,3; 426,8).

IV with
VI

transport the

to

uj,

nition, 347, 13) or

any one

let

"to

induce

to

(344, 17).

^Uo

as

(see the defi

artificial

it

means"

by
291,1, where the correct reading

(187,6;

II

known

affect the state

"to

mind"

taste"

is

(372,10).

ft^

s.

(266, 5).

Muhammad
amounted

When

c
dying, Murta ish desired Abii

al-Muhallab al-Misri to pay his debts, which


eighteen dirhems. After his funeral, the

to

which he wore were valued

clothes

and were sold

for that sum,

y*Lj

at eighteen
ft

UK

dirhems

___
__j^i,

amount of money obtained by selling his clothes


exactly with the amount of his debts.

The phrase bears another meaning


o,,

Jj
were

rid

^A
of

UAoJl~>

it

(the

in

the

i.e.

tallied

the sentence

,0.-

U-LJ
samd

(272, 11),

on even

"Would

terms",

we

that
i. e.

with

neither loss nor gain. See Dozy.

IV
<jp

under

(252,19
IV.

verse;

317,6; 404,9).

&?e

Dozy

138

to

AJli! opposed
O

ilitjAS. (368, 9).

oUeb,,

(299,3).

"quatrains"

with j,

"giving

where the MSS. have

t0#A

7, 1,

be

to

uj,

more hope
and the

L>J

characterised

to

any

wrongly,

text,

by

one"

anything

(62, 9,

L>.l).

(6,17;

etc.).

III

of rival

"adjustment

sUJj-*,

claims",

opposed

to

alJyo (425,6).
0~

The meaning

J 3

of (j^a/J!

is
ol3>^

(61,13) as L^ilcLb if L^kij

explained by the author

^c^

L0^Xj.

VIII with
one"

IV

seek profit for one

"to

self

from

(200,14).

used mystically in reference

(358, 7;

VIII in

385, 5).

Jj>^x
)

^,

Cf.

(358,7).

to

Jus^jJi

same sense (358, 7; 388,

the

11).

^o.

.<&

with JbC,

o bjJ!

"the

^v&J),

UftW with j,
iC-oUj

to

the

Sheykh"

oJ: IV

Me

heart"

(217,2).

(290,19).

(142,6).

(29, 12).

JO-

,*&jJ)

girdles",

of

XJL\/O_AW

The words

dancing

elative

opposed

refreshing to

"most

o^xXiJ

(397, 8),

appear to mean,

"I

"I

should have bound

should have caused

my

hearers to depart from the true doctrine of unification


tawhid)".

The

.0:

is

the badge of dualism.

139

U"

.UJf

(329, 11)

according to the com

*-X^-.

mentator on Qushayri, 194,11.


o

Ill

"secret

.fj**,

iXojj*.

3 w,

JCx*w

(364,19).

Axyli
S

>XxyL

(29,12).

_o>

^5y

r^*^>

(^j

JjJot-Av

"wild

(289,9). In the street-cry

marjoram"

LJ the redundant

though Kalabadhi

in his

(Massignon, Notes sur


letin

feminine (344,8).

converse",

a^

is

probably correct,

/"

L
Kitab al-Ta arruf has
^5^ yJu*
dialecte

le

Arabe de Bagdad [Bul

de Vlnstitut frangais d arche ologie orientale, vol. XI],

p. 11, n. 1).

VI ylJcJi
Ill w^/t

VI

to rely

j^J],

with

but

defined (342,

^j,

see

is

Addenda

of

OJl (291,1)

read

amjthing"

et

1 1

upon anything

"Poor

Yahya!"

(188,12).
"to

be pardoned

(7, 16).

"a

kind of

boat".

See Dozy.

ver& of surprise (404, 20).

II with ace. of person,

"to

(177,13).

permit"

II

"just

"to

of

yi*jjf.

11

Xj^Ujw (317,2),

iCx^,

(187, 6),

Instead

Corrigenda.

Ow

IV

VI.

(347, 8; 413, 4, 10).

III passive, with j of person and uj,


_
for a mistake

<-*&>

used as a Persian adjective in the words

L*.

upon

See also under

affect reliance

"to

List

5).

measure, due

let go,

proportion"

to leave unharmed"

(417,22).

(327,3).

140

LT
^i.

c^-^j

II

be

87,6,
.

(297,

1),

(44,11; 412,19).

(_X-jJs.xiJcJi

should

cU^JUJ

to

opposed

"inattentiveness"

Ui
J

Goo

--

oi

"the
,

command
and

rigorously

that religious obligations


fulfilled"

perfectly

(86,13;

etc.).

with

"to

^Ij,

expect

impatiently"

(415,6); with J*c,

= J^ oy*I
_ o

"to

be acquainted with

anything"

Goo

-eager

LJl-XCOCwl,
0~,~

LJj

^yi,

_,

<

"price"

(159,7).

expectation"

iLsyfc

(404, 0).

Lane under ou-&.

(47,18). See

(131,11).
_ o

i.

(317, 3),

handkerchief used as a purse

"a

ii,

>

Persian

The Arabicised form X^JLAV^ occurs


Qdtf

the Burhdn-i

in

(Vullers, Lex. Pers. II, 426).


"something

"trans

(254,5);

tyrannical"

(410,20).

gression"

a non-mystical sense

in

j-xJa

unjust or

mystical sense, with

(375, 6

(385, 12).

376, 3)

in

See Dozy.
G

w, mystical term (346,11; 375,5,

(346,17; 380,12);
,

adjective:

fc,

"a

(375,6

14).

etc.)] pi.

ol^

(374,11; 380,5).

o b^kii

oUl^

barn where meal


This word

is

is

(380,10).

sifted

unknown

to

and

stored"

the lexico

graphers.

&. II (284,20;

345,18; 346,1). The

last

instance
s

in
Cf.

a verse by Hallaj and alludes to his

Massignon, Kitdb al-Tawdsln,

p.

^LxA;

138, n.

3.

occurs

VIII with

be concealed

"to

^j-c,

probably the correct reading

with J^e, of a saying,

in the opinion of

w^,

"an

ingot of gold or

w
V

(398, 17).
(326, 11

foil.).

Persian

be altered to the detriment

"to

one, to be perverted in

beg

"to

for

its

author"

(197, 3

alms"

XjJuJLo (72, 2

424,

6).

such a

way

as to excite

(393, 14).

210, 15).

Cf.

Dozy under xJbuX,^, which

incorrectly vocalised.

is

IV

be unseemly or abominable

11

silver"

of a saying,

suspicion against

but

(177,2).

with Js

of any

(225,3),

is

"to

any one

from"

>

(43, 6)

^oxi

>

The phrase ^Ji^s^o


sense

AJ
^_aA-ji (generally used in a bad
*suM) means, I think, with j of person
reveal anything to aw^/ owe", in a passage

= B^kXaJL

and uj,

"to

which may be rendered:


any one really
professed this doctrine and supposed that his teaching was
revealed to him by Unification (tawhid), he is in error".
"If

(426, 7),

jbo.

...LsdxD,

VIII

"to

(169,18).

bewilder, to

transport,

372, 19
p.

(192,7). See Dozy.

"crown-lands"

"to

"parasite"

foil.).

to

Cf.

distract"

deprive

my

of

(296, 19); mystical term,


consciousness"

translation of the

(228, 12

390.

&ft\M

(162, 6).

of sounds,

"composed

into a

Kashf al-Mahjub,

melody"

(285,8).

142

wto

L:Lui3

(387,14
G

or L_jL&3

(j^

389,11,12).

foil.;

o -

mystical term

.*.*/nV,

VI

= *LLs

used mystically

el/to

o/"

*Ae eyelids,
cover"

"to

J^c,
G

"to

(ibid.).

become

closed"

(251,

VII

1).

(240,3).

>

garment worn by

^Juko,

where

joined with

is

it

(27,13; 38,15,

Siifis"

=:>

iotiyo).

Not

in the Lexica.

cj

term (294,3). See under


\3j

vJJpLL, mystical

(303,3).

>=r^

>

tumour caused by

"a

(346,3).

plague"

(135, 17).

"occasion

IV

of

censure"

(385,13; 394,20).

(185,21; 406,16).
with if,

jJLb.

to

look forward

to,

to

desire"

(108,5).

In the phrase exX^wJl


the
^JLLJI (349,13)

meaning of the former word

is

uncertain.

Read,

perhaps,
o

o
"with

^J,

a cheerful

otjj! (52,1; 66,10

JLlL, mystical
G

foil.;

countenance"

412, 5, 8)

term, 228,14;

357,20

(161,9).

= LuJLi
foil.

o
f

(j*ULjf,
,

"a

^ r^

"object

a mystical sense (388,11).


of

desire"

female player on the

(98,2; 147,18; 158,17).


ttmbur"

(298, 6).

(14, 2).

143

"reserved

(344, 6),
G

Ill

or morose in

disposition".

(303,12) appears to signify

JL*->LL-*

"cheerfulness,

gaiety".

xb, purity of heart (279, 20).


G

w -

u^yJax), of saZ/,

IV

make

"to

xJLLo

dark"

seasoned"

with^f,

(328,9).

(411,6).

o^G-o

o ^

"mixed

KjUa*

dirhem wrongfully

"a

(*-^

obtained"

(210, 15).

VI

ir7A

/^ ^^

V)

^,

(225,6).
absence"

"in

(265,13). See

Lane

with

passive,

one by

God

as

"to
L->,

an

act

have anything imposed upon


of

service"

195,19;

(116,11;

318,11,13).

with

Q,

"to

VIII ^eJJiit,

become

"keep

effaced"

Jo (214,

(J

the

iddat"

(139,19),

5).

used as d

formula of divorce.

"to

Ill

"to

seek

alms"

present one

(171,7).
s self to,

83,11); of a dervish,

any

one, to

"to

occur

put one

to"

(30, 15, 17; 71, 17;

self in the

way

ot

approach any one in the hope of receiving alms

(48,21; 175,1; 184,13).

144

"evil

an

"objections to

oLtoJjw,

suggestions"

argument"

(71,2).

(9,11);

"doubts",

AnsarPs commentary

Cf.

on Qushayri,
(348,8
-c.

150,25 and the definition of

"the

"the

&lic

obligatory religious

"an

jc

.+-;!

L^

in a verse recited

uUJ,

sjfc

the mind,

Jj,

with

"to

"to

wander,

have a

by Shiblf (405,5).
to

opposed

ordinance",

be

to

distracted"

thirst for mystical

"

Jdac

^.^LjtJI,

(144,15).

VIII of

(289,

God"

VI

acquaintances of

(344,3).

gnostics"

->i,

j.jc.

(353,3);

gnostic"

"to

pt**,

jt.

^.Lc

foil.).

know God, to bo or become a


seek to know God" (353,2).

"to

II

(344,6).

experiences"

3, 4).

M>fYA

Q,

"to

cease from practising rules of discipline

(406, 2).

Joe. VI
be

"to

Sc. VIII
ic

JJifi,
is

find

borne"

the vision of

God

or the like too awful to

(373,2).

form a thought in the

"to

"fortress"

mind"

According

(265, 3).

(331,8

to Lane, this

foil.).

meaning

of doubtful authority.

and

with ace.

"to

know

[y>,

from

another"

*iJL*Jo

"a

(distinguish) one person

(159,20).

means

of livelihood

on which one can


o

reckon"

(326, 6

consistent

with

419, 13, 15).


real

trust

Such
in

God

29 and 110.

are in

(tawakkul).

Richard Hartmann, Das Sufitum nach


pp.

ol^JL*-x>

Cf.

al-Kuschairt,

145

T.,

to

opposed

Ou

ig
1.

420,

p.

cJui,

kglc

phraae

and

stations

mystical

^joj-^L^J.j nthe Stiffs of the lowest

who have

grade, the novices

"his

not yet entered upon the


"

states

hand

(46,4; 70,16,

festered"

(304. 10).

etc.).

The same

used by Abulfeda, Annales Muslemici, vol. Ill,


16 (cf. Freytag under Jw-c) in reference to

Ami r who was wounded

in

the hand by an arrow

and died of blood-poisoning.

with ace. of

an

^,

of God)

y^r^n and

cause any one to be occupied with

of a certain kind, to predestine any one to do

actions

good or

"to

evil"

(26, 19,

where

must be understood after

jc; 38,18; 392,17).

g
"blind"

(255,6).

^ V
.

become strange or

"to

~.i JJb,
O-- o

a foreign

extraordinary"

country"

(247, 10).

(192,21).

r.

J-

>

VIII ^sJow,

II

<c

a source of

plunge any one in

"to

inspiration"

ecstasy"

(381,2).

(381, 8).

__

^c,

a term denoting absorption in ecstasy (381,9).

lx3tf,
.,

^ic..

II

with

one"

^.

i^c,

"erotic

"bleached"

ace.

poems"

(419,21).

(187,13). See Dozy.

and ,ji,

"to

conceal any thing from awy

(290,21).
"senselessness

caused by

ecstasy"

(311,5).

<5

^Uc,

o/*

mystical

saying,

"abysses,

profundities"

(181,20).
k

with

"to

^JJ,

46

implore the help of

(173,12;

God"

184, 16).
o -

yi, of mystical

language^

"absence"

L^lli,

IV and

o~CJ,

X3

_yi-ftj>

(387,16,17; 388,16

(373, 16

foil.).

Cf. the

4, 6).

(foil.).

Jlc,

(381,1).

(183, 10).

"gruel"

55

profundity"

used in a mystical sense (374,

definition of

:^03.

"depth,

science of mystical

"the

revelation"

= Siifism

(18, 16).

>3.

do not

know

Kl&>5$i

"to

in the phrase

<3_s>

o_3

xi/ (146,3; 188,15).

sjj.Lsrj

^AVO

the meaning of

"the

Absolute Oneness of

become disordered

God"

in intellect, to lose

(348,19).

one

wits"

(285, 20).

aJ.

M?^A ace. and

VIII iw

(415,4).

vj,
the

"to

provide

owe with

awi/

food"

same sense (415,6).

mystically

=^

(388,10).

}J5.

YV with
to

ace.

of person and

any one from

(^) any

U^L>w,

one"

"to

(375,

deliver a greeting
1

1).

See Dozy and

the Glossary to Tabari.


y

j;i.

~<&

v-jJsJ

w/^/t

j^JJ,

"bringing

awy one nearer

to

God"

(142, 6).

147

IV

any one with anguish" (266,15), where the


parallel to, and apparently synonymous with,

fill

"to

_y>.

verb

Of
it

is

order that

V
to

of clouds,

V of ecstasy,

with

"to

"to

come

elative

(5,

doubtful.
(343,5).

away"

56, 1

an end,

to

is

used of material as opposed

austerities",

spiritual asceticism

(j-^t
,

be cleared

"to

practise

"to

it

The reading, however,

234,4).

*3. V

adapt for use, to soften


to others"
be
communicated
might

a crude mystical saying,


in

413, 13

to pass

414,

4).

(310, 15, 16).

away"

of yl5 (120, 12).

of person,

"to

block any one

to prevent

s path,

be
any one from going on his way" (62, 14). V
unable to continue one s journey" (189, 21
cf. Dozy
be
under the seventh conjugation of
5). VII
"to

reduced to
obstacle

does

silence"

to

any

(225, 18).

(109,11).

one"

"to

"to

\-t

<r

make one

s self

an

The tenth conjugation

not seem to occur elsewhere except in the sense

given by Dozy, which

XxLS,

"a

is

inappropriate here.

piece of money, the fare paid to a

boatman"

(317,3).

ja*5

JJLi.

II of gates that are opened quickly,

"to

"to

eat

s.

live

frugally"

rattle"

restored"

<;&

O^ CT*

(267, 5).

(166,9; 191,17,

become capable of doing anything,

strength
)

little, to

"to

to find

etc.).

one

(329,19).

Z-Z

J^

^i

"^

ne

ea8 ^ I can ^

see

(291,6).
"a

professional chanter of poetry, which

ally erotic in character

and was recited

throwing the hearers into

ecstasy"

was gener

for the purpose of

(186, 11; 290, 1; 292, 5).

148

-li

one

to

rise

"to

signifies

under the influence

feet

of

is

(186,15,16); |.U3

ecstasy"

used in the same sense

(187, 5).
Sufis"

"the
,

"diarrhoea"

s,

(186,16,

etc.).

(150,1).

of /*-jl5,

pi.

j>,

"the

attendants

in

a hammdm"

(147, 18).
o-

G*.

xyo^xi

VI

"acts

of

yl&dl vlo,

VI with
II

"subsistence"

"to

o _

(^Ic

(243, 3).

self-mortification"

"love

"to

of amassing

= oL\L^
riches"

throng round any

one"

(415, 14).

(410,3).

(233,16).

(191,18; 199,15).

beg"

J
"a

i*hf t of

pi.

small fragment or crumb of


limbsj

bread"

with

"clothed

flesh"

(205, 16).

(251,4;

352, 18).
-O

5
"the

of the

hidden vices of

the soul, the secret feelings

(171,4; 172,22; 296,16).

heart"

(M^-JL^ (242,14)

The

saj

be ^U^j,
G

appears to signify

"arcana,

mysteries".

however, suggests that the true reading


"metaphorical

may

description".

^Ju5
small

"a

bag

articles"

(XI, 221, 10

or

satchel

(194, 20

foil.)

the

266,

U&

used by Sufi s for storing


6).

is

According
sbl

to the

Lisdn

149

cbCo

>\xJi

&*3

^^J

under

Cy. Jawaliqi

^Lcj

Jsj^b

Dictionary under &LuJ:

Lii

&uU3j

^5

and Vullers Persian

tf

V ^yo

seems

ote

to

to bear the

*ixJI Lbl^,

vl^l vjlf

"nature

"subject

^U$
ftt. II

o-

to Ux-Lo as

(355,8).

wse^ as a wown,

same relation

to

(?)",

241,19; 363,18.
(365,1).

change"

in verse (255, 13).

(37,17).

^. ^3

equivalent to 3

is

(399, 17). Cf. 398, 5,

where

reads

instead of

*$}

L\J. JuJ,

O
L\J.

w;orw as a garment by Sufis (188, 19).

felt"

the text

in

Ill

^.

is

a mistake.

oUo^U

>

(222,8). Perhaps

olk>^x>

should be read.

iiJj. xJuftH oLcJJ (222,2).


v3jJ.

II

to

delight"

(368,7).

In these passages
Ql^vJ feminine (121,18; 411,9).
is

equivalent to

and the

^Lo

definition,

or

353,19

^UJ

.U_c. Cf, also 44,2; 62,18;


foil.

o
.

axy,
in

IV

a subtle or spiritual

influence",

such as resides

music (269,13; 284,13).


"to

372, 10).

cause any one to lick (taste) anything 11 (253, 6

150

i&S

424,

&

II

give awy owe a mouthful of

"to

IV

receive inspiration from

"to

God"

(423, 22

1).

Dozy
sJ.

with

M>*7A

(184, 6).

Cf.

IV.

tmcfcr

L<?

food"

^J],

communicate anything

"to

to

aw/

owe"

(428, 16).

U. IV
^J.
c/

with vj, o/ ecstasy,

i^o^U,
c/

flashes"

"gleams,

with jJ]

need of any
II

(245,14).

(239,19).

"taking

refuge with, having the utmost

(235, 15).

one"

with j of person and

v_j,
1

_.

anything to am/
^1.

transport"

J.

"to

owe"

indicate

"to

or

signify

(244, 7).

BJLJ veroa^ noww (100,5; 173,7).

^
1

jJ

wsed as a negative particle (26,8; 210,11); as a


equivalent to

xLl3

lo

(387,13

^JJ>

foil.).

(387,13; 390,5).

relative, followed

by feminine pronoun (2,7; 11,8; 123,

19; 257,2); by feminine verb (320, 8,9).

*.

03
xXx>,

"enjoyment"

=^
Ji^ =

VIII

l5

"apricots"

(64,7).

(39,5; 297,11).
(396,5).

(199,16

used figuratively

foil.).

in

the

laboriously and without

See Dozy.
sense

of

pleasure"

"to

read the Koran

(43, 3).

in

"adepts

Siifism"

opposed

to

(404,16).

fj

"in

j,,

opposed

public",

^JWl

to

"in

private"

(262, 18).

Si

"full"

"Si,

(194,15). See Dozy.

O "inaccessibility,

secluding one

self

from

society

(312, 1).
>o-

c5

^A

LotXlf X

"the
,

ordinary materials of

life"

such as

food, clothing, etc. (11,12).

oy

II with
to

-yo.

*
.h>.

"to

discern, to

"to

"to

cause any one to die (in a mystical sense)

(242,4).

anything"

Q,

IV

by mystical interpretation the hidden meaning


Koran and the Traditions of the Prophet" (4,10;

j.

VIII with j

IV

"to

etc.).

comply with a

2lJu|, of a sweet voice,

II

(311,19).

distinguish"

6,3; 9,1; 14,14; 81,2,


.

same sense (244,8).

elicit

of the

;Jo

in the

draw a

"to

command"

"melodiousness"

deduction"

(306,17); III

(230, 9).

(269, 17).
"to

come

to

quarters with, to have actual experience of any

close

(15,2,14; 20,6;

thing"

75,13; 77,3; 179,17; 358,4;

369,12; 379,3; 404,3; 422,4).


G

o^;^,

"mystical

experiences of a permanent

kind"

mystical
(3,19; 78,3; 378,20). xJJLL^ (345,12),
state that has become lasting". Of. R. Hartmann, Das
"a

<

SfifUum nach al-Kuschair^


.

VIII in a mystical
12

239, 18).

sense,

"to

p. -86,

note

enravish the

2,

and

heart"

p. 88.

(228,

152
&cio

of spiritual delight (217,

unlawful"

ably
.

"that

(joJJ! *Li\Jf,

^)

be intent,

"to

is

absolutely and unquestion

(221,14).

utmost in

the

which

3).

to

faculties to

the

Of.

(153, 15).

prayer"

one

concentrate

Glossary to

Tabari.

^laj.

speculation,

"mystical

^fej,
G

G w
pi.

jbli,

disputation"

(239,12,13).

"one

jUai,

who

speculates and disputes on

mystical subjects (239, 12).

&xj.

IV

be refreshed with

joy"

(106,3); VIII

exhilarate"

revive,

refresh,

"to

"to

(303, 4).

^sj.

Ill t0#fc

"to

jj-,,

be averse to

anything"

(164,10);

VI

o -

with

^,

*^3.

xliU&ft,

iaSi.

VIII

sensual

<ithe

purity,

o/"

same sense (169,11; 285,7).

in the

"to

be

nature"

(368,13),

destroyed"

(341,2).

C/. Dozy.

oS
1

t,

with J,

elative,

"making

^n e/ more

poignant"

(261, 16).
.

those

JsLo, of

who are dumbfounded by fear of God,


(84,6).

>J.

V
Ill

^. X

j,
3 lu

8t

ojpp.

passive, with

God"

&&. V

"elegance"

(398,13).

M>t7A

J,,

"to

^o

(5,2).

B^

^,

"to

(2,14).

be possessed by

^y^wlt, ^.A^yi
plunge into

sin"

^e

(386,7).

(265,7).

thought of

153

mistake,

"error,

410,20; 411,3, where

i^S ==LL^J

it

is

with t^,

(7,16; 156,11; 393,13;

slip"

opposed to
"to

^>).

rejoice in contemplation

<

of
13

(372, 3).

God"

10 or ^cO

or

used for the purpose of calling attention

j>,

(65,18,19; 117,3; 153,19; 159,11;

emphasis

for

The phrase
171,7; 177,23; 183,11; 325,6; 404,15,21).
to the
different
in
translated
according
be
must
ways
context. Cf. the Glossary to Tabari under
"essence

Xj-0,

or absolute nature of

y.

God"

(81,13;

255, 16).
"my

A>10,

eye became

inflamed"

(174,3).

,010, contrasted with ^10 (349,11).

10

explained as meaning

(j>jCxM

(350, 1).

V L\^ii

AXJ

IV

See

(356, 18).

J\

Ja^,

waist-belt

"a

or

girdle",

in

which money was

carried (194, 12).


-

\J&&\ X*L,
ition"

II

"largeness

of nature, generosity of dispos

(294,18).

w*

^,

"to

re g ard with

ritual

L^Ivj

in

(149,4

foil.).

It

suspicion".

by the author
denotes an excessive zeal for what
religion

is

defined

154
is

superfluous,

what
G

is

obligatory
in

same

the

II

j,

wl>

.-

bring to

tlie

adept in

with

4, 5).

and established

settled

in

(369, 2).

(224, 6

Siifism"

UJt,
of"

Ji, of

upon any
"to

xjyj* (340,

read r^iwj
s

as opposed to the novice;

385,9: *xcyU*Ji

G _
a<#

completion"

entire possession

VI

become

"to

-O - O

156,11.

feminine (282,2).

"to

154,8;

(210, 16).

V m^A

149,3;

sense,

OiAe

to

J^ofjj opposed

mystical state or station

145,14; 148,16.

Dozy under

Cf.

Yl

Cf.

(fartfid.).

o _

(jJj-**5

the neglect of

leading to

(faffiil),

one"

"the

ultimate

goal");

"to

take

(343, 3).

benefits,

to

^e bestowed abundantly

(193, 14).

make an impression on

the

mind"

(342, 18)

O/ Dozy.
.

"detraction,

censure"

376,17; 393,12).
.

JU%,
IV

"protection

J$

(30, 6

given by
34, 2

God"

81, 16).

(240,18).

(2,15; 20,8;

ivr

ni

rvv

<u.

IV

ryo
<

HA

\^
\yr

\yr

\A.

TAI

ryy
\yr

Ui

m
tvi
ivr

M.t M.V-i.o ^o-\^

Mor Mil

Mn

MVi

rro ^r\i

t\.-A"\

iAY

<A--vr

MW

MTi Mil

<nv

<r.v

oy

<Y.

MU

MIT

<r.i

TAY
ii

nY

irv

ryo

\vr

rv

vn

vvi

trx

Mil

J.al\

<

r AI

no

\i

rvi

\v.

irr

MA- i\Y

<

o.

nv
\

<

l^

<rrv

Jl>;\

<rro

<rrt

<r.\

<rrv<n.

nv

r.n

\VA

ilo

Jlj

JWJ\

r.i

o"\

-.

<

rrr

1.1

<TAA

ill

r\
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30

rrr

1A

TAA

v\

i.y
^

rr

\\\
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\\o

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r.

<

ru

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<

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rvv

vv.

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irr

rr

<

iA

no ar

11.

in

i-

<

1
-

<

\\\

rii ^r.

<\AV

riA

PI

<

4tt\

JU

\VV

rv\

TAA

rvv

<

TTA

n nr
<

IYA

u
a
\AY
IY\
\Y.

ar

<ru

Jils\

1
-

oo
it5?>-V\

ni
Mil
M1"\

ni

IYA

tot

<1V

<i.1

<u^

Ml. MAt MA. MV1 MVo MVi MY^

nv cni
lAi

<

IYA

\"U

\o\

MY

<nr

<

\\
r

nr MAI
lYo

in

4^9

(\)

either

(0

i\.

J,J

o^vw

(cf.

Kor.

Ju\

Mj

oo,.
79, 3)

iV^i

t-V;V\ J.;

If il^L^l is the plural of

or c^tu, would be possible.

dilj\

(see Dozy),

()

^^

AJ

a LJ lAf.1936
-

0) Snppl. in marg.

(0 Kor. 17,87.

JUS

flc

^
J\

\j
f

ii,

u^ 0\

\o

^lj.

word

is

almost obliterated.

J\

(J

iJ\

A.\s>\c>\

Jp

Up

<

^iU j

^ L-L
ti

A*5

vilila)

ic\

u-)^.^alVj

V)-

JuJ\

:>*

JjVsJ

<

uj\Af.l92?>

i\J\

0)

Text om.

()

A*$>

(*)

\y>Ua.

marginal passage reads


A
( )

i^Wc-

UM_^C-.

Joni\
(J>

()

oli^.

(^)

^Ui^

Suppl. in marg.
(jV*x_j

("^)

^r..

28

The

^V^^.

r-

^j J

A-*JL;

iclA\\

J\j\

iyv

\j\

J.J

^kbrAf.

Jp

ti^J

"

\*

&*

U
5>

GUV.

Suppl. in marg.

r)

5jL^\.

Text om.

r-

J^l

\S
jJ>

Ltf-

ii

j^\ C^

(j

<

ui\

Kor.

^,0 *^

8,

23.

\o

JS (jr^

(0

.ix^j..

.oil

.,4

A,

<ji\

Jp cu5j jj^

Qj
j-

>

j\

dili

f
>

\](

iiiV^_j
\

J \y\

Vklc dili

U\

<a\

JL^ ^ci\

\
<*~j

JU

Ci5

(0 Kor.

24,

31.

(?)

Suppl. above.

(M Text om.

ls

JVs

-.

fr

^b *^

i^r

V-

.0i

Cr*

^ ^^J

^u

^
o

Kor.

o3, 11.

iTA

ci\

ju

Vc

0)

iry

j.

Vc

UV,

V\

Vc

^
4
O"

V^ C

"*

A*aJ\

is

Jc

(3"*

J\

JiailV.

Jp

.^

\>

A-oJ

(0 Text om.

4..

i.^

JV$

C^Wlc

40.V>V\

i\

UlHfS

v_A>

LT-U

J,\

^*

..

ii,\U\

J,j>(n

U
U.Af.1886

4il \

^Jc JJ jl\
__i

>

0) Text om.

<

r )\>.

(^)

Je>

4\

4\L>

in

Ul\

Uj Cii Ji Jo^

VJ

^ij

-*

s*

"

xtt

^$>-

J*\ UTir^ti

t^V

^*j

4.-JL

"^

(M Snppl. in marg.

4*0^"

(0

rL

(^)

Kor.

80,

2732.

trr

Jp Lj\

*.

&

i\

AX^lJVt

ff*J\J U\J\J

LJ\

di3\
;

JW.187&

U
4C\J\

JV, ll^

(0 Uaii.
text

and

J^L

is

suppl. above,

(^)

Kor. 19,25.

(M

() Suppl. in marg.

is

om. in the

trr

V.

Lj

(\)

Kor.

() Kor.

V.jl^

24, 40.

18,

64,

^ i^J

^C:

VoU-

(0 Suppl. above.

0) Kor.

7,

142,

cr ,

(^)

v)

Suppl. in marg.

Kor.

18,

GQ.

1)

A ) Kor.

QJ.
18,

72.

tr

1-1 \

GG,

U ^
,

igw

i\

L-*

J\a

^^

1V$

>

L>

Jj

ac;

4j\Af.l86&

^\

>

(3

4^

diSi
\

CVi^

(^)

Kor.

() Kor.
marg.

64.

25,

38, 40.
(^)

^^

(0 Kor.
0) Kor.

15, 49.

38,

44.

JW

(?)
(Y)

Kor.

Kor.

written above as a variant.

21, 26.
15,

99.
)

Kor.

(*-)

J j--_^

A)
-

38, 45.

Suppl. in

if

cs**^
<

cr

*^J ^-^J

dil j

ialc

**

-r

^ ^
ii

Ai* dlta

Af.lSGa

JuJ\
.

>

^.

V.

-j

(\)

Suppl. above.

(0 Here the text adds:

J^\

Jf these words are genuine, there must be a lacuna

UjJ\

in the text.

J^>.\

J.

<

OP

v*y\
f

0-3^1?

(5/-

ci\

(3

Jj\

jVi
<>

(0

Text om.

V.

to

J.

ak

o*

^
)

.Y\

O
j\

J^
U

\5j

_^5

Jp jjy

JU\

J\ J-\J

5^5_j

4_J^

Vo

Ul\

jv,

So

text,

but probably we should read ^v^a*

lj dili Jt

it v

Jlo

cH

ti\

J^j

^^

~s
,

Vpl

vi\U\ U

27

J*

(3

,J\

^fttA*

VI

s__j\

vfiij

Mfll
V.

0+-*

V:Vj
(D

V,

VJ
f>-

cAs

\y jrl
\

*-

is

Jc

(0

c^-o\Jj

() So in marg. Text

\\

A,

^-^

iJsj

ialc (j

u-^

di! 3

-a-

jw:\

u-^AM

^J

>

o-

The

last

two

letters of

by conjecture.

(M

Suppl. in raarg.

have been cut away in binding and are restored

JViJ
\

oA*

oy^-

0) V;\T

US

dili
*

ic

ac

V\

oUJ\ d

Jy^A\\

J\

-.

^1

\*

4a\

\
<^

J^

A)

J\5

i r
\

^ __^
x

s-*^

\i\

.)A.)

oJJ.JtA

4.A^- ^/V^iJl

L^-_5 J*&\ OJ\^A

v*)>^

\^ oj^al

(J"to

^y
Afl82ct

^>

^y-^

^U Jl\

-\

away
(*)

JaM.

in binding

Kor.

39, 13.

^*^

4>:

Cry.

*
0)

>

r)

Ji

Suppl. in marg.

The words

<u^

and are restored by conjecture.

and

^
(^)

have been cut


Kor.

6,

161.

in

u, j\ j

<

^^

diii O-.V

S^-j ic

^1

5yA^

ilj

<J

U^
v,

JAdl

JU

MWJ

JU
V\

j A/US

^
"

"

<j\

^^

J^

^J\

1^
x\^U\\

a^

cJd\

(5/j

V-

^U

U>

r
\

/u\

v^Jiai

t^vu ^Ui3]() gji\

.UjAf.1816

U\

<j

U\
o

Oey^V
in marg.

(0

J-Juy.

(*)

^j,-

)*-.^.

Suppl.

r-

Vjji\

U\i

>

J\5

rb

f-

^u-

>

\o

<J,\

ft

0) J-Ju.

(0

(?)
]i>^L.

^l

Cri.A^.

U^>-

(*)

Uj>-

3,

V\

C^>x^.

,5JJ

4jt*

Jcsi

()^.^.

iaVc

,j.

jTl>

u-Aj

JoA
i^

ajij

uJ^

4il\
J^-*"j

viU.A3

jtX^

\JLil

4,1

.y^

r)

^.

(^)

-k
H*"*

O"

^"

Suppl. above.

>

**

Yi

^J Jr^

vilJj

Jp

\i

Ju^
^yL\

(0 Suppl. in marg.

Oj jyi.

() Text om. from Aj*\


partially cut

^9 V^

VJ y\3

(^)

away

to

Uj

<d^9_j.

The words

in binding. In marg.

,jVi\

suppl. in marg. have been

^j$\

V_j.

0) Jcj^.

i.v

Af.1796

^
,

^a>.^L

J**

4tt

v\

P-

(^)

At

A.,

^o

Ls\

this point there is a considerable

j^i

lacuna in the text (A), five whole

chapters and a portion of a sixth chapter having fallen out. Their

given in the table of contents at the beginning of the


(1)

MS.

titles

as follows:

viiii

(2)
(3)
(4)

(5)

ot

*-

<UC.

&.*
j

\s \,

(0

Ttu,^a

are

\3\

JU3
i\

jw:\
^%>

J^

w j\

^X

^-^

i/*^

U
i

^r V^ 31^

\r

^JO, j

\o

AX-

U,

0) Kor.

23,

110.

(0

r-

i.o

-^_|_jy\

<u-*r

-y0

f?

4W

l\

.-,

It

..-

V;\

^l

Al

i\

V,\

*.

* I

U-X\

V;\

v\

J\3

Ai

<^\

X?

V\ J\

^J

t3

CAd A=.
\\.

^1

dl^L

^J

(^)

v_^^>-

Jp 4^

(^)
<y^.*\.

J->P

^c- written

0) Suppl. above.

above as variant.

(*)

Kor.

35, 11,

\o

A.,

|l

O^ ^y

4J53.

"

^^-a

i^/XJ^ jW

a^rlj

^\

s~

e"

iC& ^J&j ^y. JS J JVJ


y;

4JU\

r U]^

4\

i\\

Oir!

ui

o& ^/^* O
Sly

^^^

4j)\

o^O-A O^ Jyi

A-l

4.LAP-

^J"!

JVii

-V^ O
4.A&
^^4 U

^^ ^-^J

tfj^-^M

VI

<-VC

\i

AU

U.

Aft

U JaP

di A diU,
Ja>-

^
\i

AU\

*cS^

c5>-

ot}.

4tt\

dl^

oVulV\

dlly

AHI\

A^J

U\

(^)

^.3

AJU-

\o

oJ^

\;\

lj^i

A.

Here

proceeds

(fol.

131a, last line):

occurs in the chapter entitled


penult, in A).

^^

marg. The words \j\ and


restored by conjecture.

<\i\

()

^>(

u oj

(0 Text ora.

\^

(^)

^o
c

-^a

^j^

j_j.

J.^

V^

4ll\

AAJ\

j|Iii\Af.l786

This passage

^>V

(f

l-

119ct
>

f\\*>j

Snppl. in marg.

(*)

Suppl. in

have been cut away in binding and are

0)

AJ

Y)

r-

Suppl. above,

U ji\

V\

(ji

di\A. a..,

sti

xp-

O*

4.0

Uto

\o

<j^V

Af.lTSa

A in

0)
()

B J

(^)

marg. adds j Juu

0)

V,As.

\jT".

(OB om.
(

Y)

B om.

Oi)

V,iu\

U>.

4\JU

CO

^J^T^ii

om.
olj-

^^

>

^J.

jTj>

s*

adds

(^)

j\j

\i>

(VO Kor.

O^T.?

(r-)

AV,y.

Y)

58,

8.

Kor. has

() B

N\.

fiilj

*y>

(5^^\j.

W AB \k^.

(\A)

B
(rr)

adds ^-aU

^Urt.

^J.a

^j.

Vl:
f

U; Ji\

^(

^Ju

iX*

iiiyo

1,^^

^J

^ Vj^i\

A^J

Y)

Vj al\ JV5

A5

J^- ^,j

<ui\

^,\

jV

^)

>,M

rb A

JV^^*r-/
f.

jb

om.

(0

*^j W

om.

<li\

(5j\

^j

^-

(V)B

L$*\

(^)

^L.
(^)

in marg. A.

fcr

ij^i Vj^

4p-

}U>.

A
(

\^9O J.~,Af.l776

A)

l)

(\0

)i*

ojy-.

0)

)A^-.

B ^.

^J\ J\5.
The words M^^ 5l

(^) The passage beginning

and suppl.

&

r ,\., V\

adds vilU.

0)Bj\y.

\,j.

(^)

,\

4/ju

jJU*^

*.;\

-f
*>.

\/\

ti\

()

B VtJc

^WL*

*a\

om.

^j.

om. from

to
>^

t5j^

and ending
jVa

A)

^ are
iV^ ^

suppl. in marg. A.
is

omitted in

Several words have been mutilated by the binder.

\o

AiU

o^

^U

JVs

VijSi

J\

Ai
>

J\a

0) Kor.
(")

0)
0^)

A
B

38,

2032.
0)

j^U.

adds

orn.

k\

ij

i^.

ll )
(

or)

(V)

() B
adds

j_,\i

>

(f)

\,.

(^)B^..

J,^3\.

^AH

(0

j\

o^V^

4\ SL

5_,.

51L,.
\.

(*)

A)

A
B

OOB

o,.

26

*:

Jt^j

,/

V^^>

Uw

r AX^

f.1706

JU

JVU

0)
)

B om.

B 4

lip

(0

B om.

()

Jii.

B om.
0)

jib,

y)

^^

adds

4tU>\

g^

^l

J\5

^J

jl;VC

0) B

^iH
(

A)

( (

<!"*)

(f-)

J^

"^

^M

o^.-

^.-w^

A.\

^ Ji^-

o\i\.

^-JV,

B J^.

^A

Jj,.

(0

om.

(^)

() B

\U^ jyi\ U^V,.


0) B

(>

V,xU;_,.

B Jj.
B

>

OsW0)

^WJ.

(l)

B ^^

Unpointed in the MSS.


(>i)

(W)
^c.

<n

Of) B ^\.
(W)

^\.
o>s-

AB

oa

B
.

VUi
(V)

(")

(t)

\f_,ii

csi.

A j-^A

(*")

JJJ\.

U.

A o^ uU.

Ju

jl,

Uc
V.

0)

B
)

Y
>

app.

-j

^\

(")

J\i.

,i.J/\.

(0 Kor. 57,21;

yV^l.

U\.
oV.Ji\.\.

0)
(^)

B dl_^.

&,.

(A) K

Oi-.

0)

0-)B

B U-.

62, 4.

B om.

cm.

(H)

(0 )

B ^.i

(Y)

}!_,.

1.

(*1)

(i)

B JiU.

If_,

4S\

4,

(1)

A.

V,

^\

JV5

^-

>

to-lj

J*

\o

\il
J.J,

jr-

0)
)

(A)

r>

B om.

AS.

B-r-

0)

0)

<

jj.

00 B

oU

()

om.

tfJu.

(\\)

Y)

B ju*.^.
B

^J\>.

m
\

Jc

V;\

JJ^

>j

Vc

J\5

B
()

oui.

(^)

5-X-i

and so app. B.

()

^\.
(A)

(^)

AB o
AB ^Jy.
J

to

jV

B U5.
B

A
c.

0)

jp.

^St.
.

a correction in A.

is

\.

(^)

ABcu^.
\x-.

(^)

O 1 AB

A^Jj^. B 0^\j.
(\ Y )

y)

Jj^\.

^.
^)

iuo

A U.

u A
)

(^

0111

from

U
ilLJJ,

AiJW

<U>\

V\

Ju

i^^
J>.

0)

()

(0

om.

adds

0)

18, 75.

(^)

o v .W a

lc

(^

(^)

di^b.

&\jf>

1 ) Kor.
18, 73.
)

adds

0111.

AM\.
i.

B
(

(^)

Y ) Kor.
18, 74.

B ^\.

0) A^.
(^ B

A) Kor.

AB ^T.
n B J ^..

(\ r )

om. 4\ ^-

\5.

oVut-

tf Jl\ IJ*

^y^\

iiv.

c.u

li-(
-A*!

A
>

s^^ailV,

1L

4*

y,

(")

0)

om.

from

Jr

(\0

B VL

(V)

to

(\^)

y.

(A)

f.
\i)

0)

B om.

0) AB

ua\

<U1^

B om.
B om.

Jut ,V

4\r^

(7)

(r)

OsJJU

,Af.l736

-)

VI

J^>

ir

j^.;, ^.

>

vij

i, ^
WV.

yj

\l,

"!\

yu<

jy,
V\

*^

V;\

A,i.

jj

^jjS\

j
:j

V.-J

JiU\

Jt t^f
,

Kor.

(\)

(fol.

232a,

/\

CA^\

(V)

B om.

(\ r )

on

-J_/^i

(0

21, 23.
1.

form part
in

__^t

of the
fol.

(A)

12.

1.

105?;,

om.

(\^)

OY)

^^

j^\ iLi^ J\ ^i^j o

fol.

(^)

J\5.

.>.

_jU;

x^.

122a,

1.

dUj>.

\
<J\^

1)

0*0

()

^.
A S^L^^. B

OA)

(\")

B U\.

B ^^U

<j

u-V.

and occur
<u\c.

C)
1

V^A,.
5j

Here

^V^T j. These words

J\ ^a*j oV::^C

10.

<-<_/>

The continuation of the present passage

B on

iAt Jfxlijj

Oijj)>-

chapter entitled

occurs in

B JJ.
B ^?.

AB

proceeds: -^

6)

*JM

,i_J

U^U.

(\\)

uu

B J*r

0) A

4Jil

i.

JW U

V\

4^

,i\

\o

-r

_*-^

r ci\J
>\

>

(n
V\

r-

J,Vj

(0
0)

(Y)

L3fe

Kor.

9,

30.

(^)

0) B
n
(

(^)

Kor.

49,

AB \^.
12.

(M
(A)

om. from

^V<T^.

Kor.

5, 21.

to

(H)
)

adds

()

j3^.

B
0) The

adds iV\.

are obliterated in B.

(>.

oin.

jl
e

/j.

00 A

^>.?

OY)

1)

\J\.

AB

B U\.

-~

tiUl

Jy;

4.^,

4tt

j\ j\yl\

Vc

ti\J

<i^aij

\j

4ii\

Uj

<;\

y>

U\J U**

V.\

Jlij.)

^L

dil JS.

^.1

Vt

^.

(J,ViJ

v_jl^>j

diuj

Tcu^i iiA;

oUi

4.^i.

.Ua^J

Ju-Jj

l\

/>u>

i\Af.!73

r-

(\)

0)
-)

<ui,u.

OJJ

(5")

(Y)

^.

AB

from u*j

Kor.

Jq\

are

4-Jf J.

AB

i--

U.

obliterated in B.

U^Vj.; are obliterated in B.

0V) A^iV,.

(V

kj*j
(U)

iJ**to

21, 25.

(\)

l)

A)
(

(ir)

ji
ut-

(^)

Tlie
-

()

oiu.

B o\j
(^)

(^) The words

words from
(U)

4a\ to

__
*

U
\i

j, u;-xn j.^.

->

^*

^^ Jfc j^j

3 jU- ^^6 V^

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(0
0)

AJ

<j\

\i

0)

All I,

00 B

(*)

(A)

(\0

()

adds jxU.

]j

J,

om. from

<

JiVilV\

*-.!

(^)

on
(

p.

Y)

1.

(0

^V^,.

ft

r.

(^)

4iLj.

A)

j\^)\.

Kor.

of
(

B
is

n A
)

J\5.

(\)

doubtful.

app.

^.

1A )

(fr )

1.

B ol^
0)

^Ic.

B jW\.
(

(^)

77, 8.

written above as a variant.

(^)

Cf. p.

\0

sitjpra.

^l

The following words occur


(0)

3j*

j^a\.
)

U ^L.

(^)

B om

00 B

Illegible in B.

(H)

OY)

B om. from _uJ\ ^

to

^.Jfc

^.

JLAl

with

J^-

0^)B^\J^

A ^jj.

B dAU.

(1)

The reading
")

B uUj

V..

V.

ii\

0)

V.

SSas-j.
)

J\.

0)

om.

(^)

B Ju&.

(V)

r)

om. from

to
^

r)

0*-)

A.

Jjo.

u B
)

9-^.
(

J^^ji\.
V>.

(0)

J>.

adds

(^)

om. from

d^

J^oj}\ ^-l S\^.

(^)

^VV

adds

B J^,.

JoV\j

to

^&

^
JAl\\

Jjjdj

cArf

^^
"

"\\

--U23

*^

^ ^
o^j

* ^J
\

"*

>

41

>

V.

0)

^\

B om.

()

00 A

^\.
0) B

(0

^UJ.
(Y)

\5.

o.

-)

,0.

B om.

^) B

om.

\.

A)

OH B
^>

f>!

(^)

<u^.

J\j

<0

fV-

\1

*tJl

__

j \

\.

J\i

\j ft**.

ju

^^ 05

B om.

(\)

0)
(

(0

(\A)

The words from


(r)

13, 39.

(^)

U.

(A)

B
V.

V.

to

^.

<u-v

Jcj^

(r\)

*.^

om.

rl ) So both

^^J.

MSS.

(^)

(ro

j^.

^3

^iV\

A ^V.
B

(^)

(\Y)Bora.

are snppl. in marg. A.

()

4^%.

\\3

00 B

oiJu

0)

(\M

(V

this verse.

\i\i.

iiV,^

(V)

J^.

B om.

(U)

Vul

V<-

(^*)

for

Kor

U\

un-a

V
/\ V\
.

JU

(V

*Jb

"j

il

^\

4
>

>K

^ U
4\

^>

cj^S

V;\

J\a

V.

Jlj_,

<

(C\J11

U
\

om. from

B j^l.

0)

A Ji.
B

() B

lj

o Vi-.

(^)

,j!-.

(0

ji^\.

0)

J^>-

j.jl\.

to

J_,

I!

lj

yi\ ^j.

(f)

B j^\

B j*.

A At
<n)

om.

Kor

B^^.

with Jfc snppl. above.


-

(W)

>

r -)
(

Jl.

om. from

lil

to

V
~0^.

(*)

(t)

0?)
<U)

B jli.

A
B

om.
^liK

B J\-

j;

4U

V.

A!

iVx*)

4i)\

u-/

r)

Jlu

Ju*

sa

4Jll

JU.

4.

L.

(r)

(Sj.Jr

<B\

<^j

C ^J J\;

\o

("*)

adds tsj\}\.
<

^.-Xj^H.

LMn 5, 308,
() A J^
A U

(0

v)

penult, Cf.
viJS

j$*.

(V

om.

Lane under

oW.%

A)

^U.

j-y^

B^yi.1. This saying


(1)

_,_>.

dJb.lyi.\.

explained in

is

B jy-K

The reading of B

__,yj.

B Jo\i.

u A
)

^.W. B

is

doubtful.

Vx^,.

(^)

OT>

,&._).

lf )

j.X\.

0*0

has been written above the line by a later hand.

0) A

()B O ..

A t?iV;_,.
r
(

B
B

\>fc

In

A ^

w A J^W.
)

om. this

verse.

j
J>

<OJ

4.i.iwj

*j

v^UA 3^
t(A)

JuJ\

ii\

s^W

^1-

(T)

A
B

A
0)

^.
^\3.

il

\l

(^)

00 B

Y)

B om.

A JW.
OM B U,.

(^)

(A)

P,

A om

00 A

i.*.

^V

cAsi

V;

u\

4Jj

V\

AB

0)
-)

om.

(A)

c**-j

4
I

(\H

JW

(^)

oU

A
()

in marg.

AB
(^

app.

adds

mB

0)

r)

B A-\

(\0

(^)

Y)

B om.

u B
)

<^.

AB ^.

V,

JVs

>_jP"

*
O>^

v\
\o

jjj\on

2^

(\)

()

(^)

(H

B om.

0) Kor.

53,

(?)

om.

Y)
(

11.

(^)
]J

Vc.

AB

B_U1.
\Jub

(\)

A\.

(A)

\)

S\

A
A

J*

Ja\ilY\

JuJI
y-Xiu

J (T

>

<

Ui

Jp V^w&Uj

o-

C-

J\s

<ul

^ 5?

^x^

4\
>j

>

4 \Af,155a

0)
_j

J,

written above.
ji, but

(A)

to

J^V^. The

(^)

(H

W.

B oVU^.

B J,^^

cf.

(^

()

\jbj.

p.

X^^.

(^)

B ju^\.

C) B
1

(^

ora.

Y)

AB

1.1 supra and the Nafafat al-Uns of Jami,

i^.

00 Boj^\.

words are suppl. in marg. A.


(^)

AB jU.

U.

(\^

AB

00 B

with

-AJ]

om. from

22.

J\5

JAd\

*
V.

YJ

"**

>\

jV j\i

^
^ui O u\\
oUV,

V.

5,

u/j

>

j^^

^isii

O uii

V\

\>y\

V.

4.

i-X

.^
\

4^

1ui\
ui

J\y\

^\y\

v!Lw>-

SJo
(\)

of
(A)

V.^>

B om.
is

(0

(**)

A
()

doubtful.

Bi5J>.

<;a

Jc.fr

->>y\

\j\

(^)

\j>.

<L&)Y\

<AxJ.

dUo.

4^

JS

JAJ,

A,

0)

00 B

V-

\L\

ioW!\.

5
.

s_j.ji5

(M

Jii^.

u^*

\i,\^.

(\\)

^^ ^**j

ci

Vc

The reading
Y)
(

dS

B jtrt.

Jo^-

t tY

j\

,\

,5 Ji\

V.

i\Jl

(A)

V\

Jy *r* J
.,\AJ^

4^-

4,0

dilj

o-

A)

Jj\o\

0) B

c^JJ but JJG

i\i.

dl

(^)

0) B

in niarg.

Jes-jjs.

<w

J\5.

\.

ir )

r)

(\

B JW.

B om.

il\.\aL-V\^.

Limn
(^)

xiii,

200,22 has

A 5^U\.

(\

J Ul\ Jlo U*?j

uaxli\

uJjU\\ Jlo- AA&

>

A^

\)

^.

4i

_,^.

A ^Ui.
B

^.

B om.

(H

^1\

dJuU\-

0) A^LJiA*.
(^)

(\)

A
A

om.

U,.

B \i^.

7)

0\)
(

Y)

A ^^A.

l^,,.

n B
)

()

^LO

(\0
Ji\

B
(

A)

^.
om.

T>

B ^j!

J\.

app.

this verse.

(^)
Y)

...

B om.

Ui f

>Vt

V.

V.

v\

o)
(^)

A ^.

(i)

from

to
^j>\ii^

(^)

(^) Kor.

^ u

2,

^j
()

^15\.

AJV

di^G.
246,

>v^\

(V)

(\0

(^)

j^

0)

^UJ^
(\)

B om.

^ ^\ u\ J\LO

^\I\\
A)
(

0\)

jjjj..

\\5.

jt.

(n

Coi\

\i\i.

40 J3 \i^.

^\

om.

j>J**.

(\0

B J^.

A ^o B

of the Kitdb

iy

10)

last

A)
(

line.

oin.

This verse

al-Tawd*ln>

()

\c^ li\.
1.

uJyo

p. 138.

B ^VU.

J ^Ws J
!

The

c^^>^

is

("^)

^^

cited (unmetrically) in

r)

(")

jja".

O>j

iliVC.

^j

Jii.

00 A

is

resumed

**.

Here B proceeds

These words occur in

text of the present passage

0)

oyi\.

Massignon

in

B on

0) B

edition

L ) 15

J^L

(fol.

122,

on

fol.

173a,

fol.

191,

1.

4.

ii^_5(?)_iu..
(H)

B ^.

"O

>

>

-r* Xl*
|

>

*^

J>

v^JL,.*^

Vx>

M<

^J,\

3y>-

jjild

^-^
--

^ii

J\3 ^i5

U\

,^^

jC

U ji\

V-

s-^>

Jp. J_^

ij-.-X.

S^n/^j

*J [ji

,.

0)

()

AB

(0
1

Jo.

U^y. B
*,.

()

B om.

l)

(^)

(A)
!>

CO B
(^)

AB

(^)

^)

B om.

W B
)

o>U

rt

^^i ^

sjUa*
-^>^\5

V\

^i>.

>\

u<

^
B _^u.

0)
)

(o

A ^u.

(^)

in

AB

(^)

\^Vs.

marg.

(\i)

tfA..
(

1
I"

The words from

(^)

A.

A ^Ui\j.

()

U A
)

4>l>

cul.

\i\

AB ^J.

to Ja*i\

Jlo c^^

in marg. ^.

(\)

^V,.
(^)

^Ji\.

W.

B om.

(Y)

<r-)

are suppl. in marg.

Bj,^^.

(\")

(A)

Jj\

\i.

A ^J.

(\H

(W)

j<5.

adds

JW

a,Jl\
(3

0)

<uij5.

^x^j\.

r)

0) B
B jp*}, j^\.
(^) B
^\UJ.
^^Vi^.

AB o^j.
Y)
(

()

0^)

from dUi
(^)

A U.

<j

to

A!

r>

<ui\

CX:>,,.

(^-)

^U^

B om.

(^)

orn.

from

j3

to

1
B U OAUJ.
AB 4.^.
(A) A
B oy.j\kC

4^.

B ^U^..
(\) B U\.

J.

?)

(U)

^V..

<\U1

^V^.
oui

(^)

B/3.

(^)

B om.

J^
l.

j.t-

(^ A )

A ^^U\.

*r
-^j ^^

J^j

J"-

VI

jf.

0)

()

B om.

CO

^xij.

j^.

0)

(V)

Jii.

B om.

(A)

\)

00 A
(^)

dlys-.

Oj^.

dl_^s-.

OY)

0^)

A yi. B

jkL.

^Ji:.

(^)

(\A)

AB

i.

V.

&

<C

X,

C-ic

(^)

*>}>

Y)

(0

^i.

^
>

B of*

>

^-^

B 3^1.

(\V)

pj*.
app.

J^

A ) Kor. 85,

(0)

0)

3.

)A^.

(\?)

B W.

(?)

WB
^b

A C^

in marg.
}

and so throughout

this

Jc>.

definition.

(T-)

B om.

(^)
corr.

^..

b_jil-.

in marg.

(H)

B om.

JJ.

(^)
r
(

B>.

adds

0) B

(^ B

^A\.
(

o.x^.

A ^U\.

O A o/.

n B
pA~
n B

(r?)

^yi.

Al

jc

J\

(0

lc

ic
(U)

j\i\

om.

this

i;y

verse.

It

(0

(i."\).

with AlVoi\ in marg.


(A)

(^) B

J\5^.

o^\.

(^)

()

(^)

occurs in

,.

CA^\.

00 A

\,*\*j\.

after the

0)

>A

J*V^.

(\)

words

A U^. B j

(^)

Jol.

om._j

0*)

VcV^.

^j

JUhrt

V/.~i

(M

V..

om.

\^.

00 A O U\.

\s?\.

(H)

A
Y
( )

app. j,

** cA*

4JL2>-

jl. A^UCO-

A*

;>.

-t

L.

V.

JU

\o

()

B om.

(A)

0)
(^)

jVi.

Kor.

Y)

B om. from

00 B

35, 29.

to

^)

W.

Y)

Nafafat al-Uns,

p.

,..

93,

1.

A.

J^i.

om.

(^)AW.

ousx

J*j.

2 foil.

22

j*j.

Cf.

JAf.l49

(Y)

Jl\

d \a**
J

li>

(\)

(H

A j^\.

<u^

\j>.

B om.
0)

00 B

0) B ^iutt.

0) A

^ o-

^ JVai

-V

r-V4

Jx^iU

(3

B ^U.

Kor. has

(3^\

JU

riOJ u-i*^

J Su5l\

^\5^l

adds

CJ

LU JK

y)

0\)
<u^,

B J^aii^
^U.

B o^U

(^)

^Ui.

(^)

y.
(^)

B om.

(\V)

(A)

U A

p,

00

B ^_P\.

Kor.

(^)
Jr>,

<

Lr ^y\.

U\.

3,

J.^
Kor.

127.

24, 25.

B ^J^W^.
(\A)

JV

,3

,j\jr

U.
"

ij*&\0\

"1\O

,_^JLfl)\

-UM A

4ji^J

^^)JL\\

x
ii ."^.C

^>

J\5

(\)

(0
J>u.

()

A ^.

(A)

Jg3i.

(H)
f

f.

B
p.

The word
(^)

^.
(^)

^
rn,

The

is

last

\"\

two

^\.

app.

^.

(1

(^)

(W) Kor.
*egf.

(?)

(!")

letters are

;\

J\ ^

JW

JW

J\

(t)

B om-

AB JW.
j^)\.
0) B ^.
(\H B
^
A o^Vb. B app. ^.Jfcj.
(\) A JoW.

partly obliterated in B.

^.

d^U.
1.

<dJJi

Y)

\i/j>.

50, 36.

(\A)

B jl^V).

Perhaps Jub, but the

obliterated in B.

(IT)

(^) So both MSS.

MSS

read as above.

sV^U

\o

SJ?

\4

V,\

1^ U

-J

itf iT^O)

V;\,

X)^j>

(\1)

Af.1486

0)

B
(

y)

om.

IX

^.

^ ^1
(t)

A ^\,.

^^

WB
from

d)]^j

AB c^*.
(A)

(^

to

B jTu.
B UU,

4.

Kor.

23,

73.

(\A)

B om.

on,.

(V)

()

AB ^ilj^.

(t)

adds

^.

JVi JVi.

0")

(\t)

V^,.

(H B o/3

(I

JU.

^.

(0

ojj,.

marg<

00

J>.

J^ ^.

om.

in

AB

(1)

(\^)

corr

(W)
(r-)

om.
j^.

K om

lU ,\.

iuj,
iiaJl,

jei

0)
()
A)
(

V.\

^i

B om.

V.\

JLL},

ij,
f>9

i/lij,

fU.^ JV^\O

(0

AB VS^ ^_j
iu
CA_JA -u*i\. The word is illegible
\j>

(^)

B j&\-\.
(?) B om.
0) B jV-ii-V^*,.
in B.

0)

,*&\\

Y)

v B

1)

om.

.\i\i

JV

J,

J,

\V. ^

^-^

di

^JW

J\ii

J\5 A*.

V;

j^

0)

o^A-ii

(0

\Vs.

(^)

e..

*L-.

(*)

om.

om. from

^S

to

<uU.

0)

c-i^i*.
i.

(>)

Y)

(^

f.

Here the text of

*SjLjT
1096,

1.

2.

l^ a

^
(

breaks off
1.

>

18).

(f.

191a

The words

adds k\
us^

Y)
(

B om.
1.

4)

^-\
C_

^\.

^A^.

U.

(^)
(

A)
(

B om.

J\jji\.

B OA

and proceeds j^f. j\


jVs
d\tu>

occur in
^j^>-^

B on

L o)

JV3

v,;\

J\3

V*

t!

T
r>^\

fa

\r jy,
^

vUa^

JVs r

axa

4il\

\5

(5-X-,S-

0)
)

(^)

B ^A,.
jii\.
(\\)

(V)

B om. J.

0111.

(A)

(\ r )

l)

By.

JJUP^.
.

B
B

Ji

dJJVwi

jUj

A,

"i,

JV

"

J^*i

V\

jU

U JU
(

0)

00 B

cm.

^AL

to
(?

(i\.

A)

0111.

(i)

l.

o-lj.

jJi.1. Perhaps jtiil.

om. from

(^)

B Jj\.

(f)

jVJ.
(>)

^.

V )B^J.

()

VjdW.

(A)

AB
(^B

B
j^-l.

(")

(*)

^jy.

(^0

jji.\.

(H)

^Vi.

]i

<^

J^.J
v)

Ujx)\

<i\

c<Juj

J^Vj5Af.l46a

*\1\

iku-

^^

J\
>

JW

^\

\
>;

>

^T JV;

^"

ex-

V;\

\j

Jlii

0)

om.

(0

B JW.

(^)

commentator on Qushayri, 194,18 gives ^ Js^


(V)

B U,.

A)

(^)

()

\j>.

L.

as a variant.

(VO

() The

ClJ^.

0)

JVs.

>

j\i

jjjjj

^JJ

^
Jc

Jc

iai~i.

iai-j

j^

JJV J.U

Jp iJ-^J JVi

4H

J^

J\>\

\j

J\5

JUJ

V,\

V*

^)

T,

adds

B om.

B ^-.

B
)

r)

om.

411

-fr

0)

00 B ^ff.
(^) A

om.

Y)
(

JVi.

B
(A)

Af.l45(,

J*\

JL o^ Ofj

\o

0) B om.
)

i^.

(0

*\j\.

B
0)

^.

0-)

B om.
(

Y)

4cJl.

(A)

j*\

y Jj^ JU
\

J\a

Jli

iA;

JVi

JU

^^

\J\

(\)

(*)

(A)

(^)

om. from jjU

B om.

dJii

B J p-V\.

()

^\.
(^)

W A
)

,i

JT*\:

y.

(^)

J\5 (i ^

Cr^^JV,.

B OuU^\.

to

4.1

^.

r)

0)

Or)A-4i^-,

A ^\^\
.

J.

(\)

JU

*Jj (Si

V.V,

y,

^\

JV5 JV5 j\

y.

^t 53

UC

u
B ^.

0)
1

^)

A jU\.
B
B

^\.
oA5,

B
(

Y ) In

om.

00 B
(\M

()

()

ii).

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states

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A ^\.
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written above.

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The copyist
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to

US

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are suppl. in

they were omitted in the original MS.

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on A 4-

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45.

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A
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Other readings in J.R.A.K. for 1001,

B J J^,.

variant,

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724,

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note.".

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as

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B

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om.

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57, 14.

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is

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suppl. in marg. A.

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B om. o\

om.

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r.

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f

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A
B

B A^L

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i,.

(H)

3.

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J\SJ.

references in JM.A.S. for 1901, p. 740, note

A)
(

^Mm,
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C1 )

()Bj-\.

VI, 111,
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om.
1.

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ly

Other

V*

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4.,

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26, 218.

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B

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n B
)

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adds

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B

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k.

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B om.

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B

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II,

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as a variant for
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in inarg.
.

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,

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B

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B

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and so

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A^ C^

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(i)

B om.

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as a variant,

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)

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r)

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0)
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binding.

word

is

critical

s.j

ig

Y)
(

suppl.

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in marg.
A
( )

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()

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ending

om.

points.

and so app. B.

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0) The passage beginning ^-_j and

but several words have been cut off

app.

(^

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almost entirely obliterated in A, and


)

U B om
)

(^)

is

^\

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written in
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^\-

without dia
(^

r)

Ao^i.)

Jp

Jji.Af.128a

(A)

ex,

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j\s

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B om. Jy,
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transposed.

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in

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in

gives ,iL
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l.

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(\)

0) B
adds

om.
.

these verses
as a variant

B -i^W

OH
(H)

\,

^V,.

4tV^

/ Ofj

JyO

A.J^

U;

VV

La*

u
4]

o^.i JS

JVo

j^jj,

^3i\

Li

c-

JaS*
t

Al\

9ci3

(^)

0) B
U.

B ^J.

v^^(^)

(0 Kor.
(Y)

B om.

(^)

73, 4.

orn.

A.V\\

(^)

B J^.

^j ^\
B

\^.

(i)

A yUi.
(A)

J\3.

(^)

()

om.

B om. from

As

to

\j\

\i\5

A ^,0,,
AB ^\

0)
0)

r)

v
oj^-

and ending dali


AJW^*
.

(VO

B AoUi.

c\.

(^)
(^)

(^)

13

^.

BdiijjVC.

(V)

(jVa

is

(U

A ^Ji.

B 5L\.

(A)

suppl.
)

(i)

A k^.

The passage beginning

(\0

(^)

()

0111.

marg. A.

in

(r-)

(^)

-Sj.

B iUld.

-i^.

(\^)

AB
B

Y)

u
L V,
ii,

VuiV\ ^.j^

(\)

om.

()

B om.

0)

(0

4.,

adds

B o/i

Kor.

0*)

^ B -^

(\0

(ft)

(^)

B om.

<w

Kor.
\

V^i

Kor

B jTi j

B 4\ ^Tj.
f

^-

^"

.>.

59, 21.
\.

B om

U;,j \c3 V\.

B A^i.
)

o\/V

(Y)

i_v

J.,

2,

166.

0) B

om.

B om.

54, 17.

i^
A\\.

A om

(^)

Vul=

Jo

ujV.

,3

a~L>>
j>

^
JU

.;\

^!

* **

diAc

vlilaij

<

c-^tr-

5l.c>

V^

J^J

r^\

Jx

5U

\J\

<-JC\-

-*J

J\5
V .\

v-ix^:

.VJll

*J\ \o

\jj_j
)

^*9y.

i
r.

note

p. 735,

0)

oin.

(*)

(^)

Kor.

(^)

1.

^^.

\\

0)

00 B j.
(^)

A JU.
(ri) A U.
(r) B 4
(?) A gives
^9^\ us a variant for O LJ
B J\ii.
(V) A om.
(A) B jl
^.

(^)

^p^.

B diu~.

182.

o-fc.

B
B

r
( )

()

JVW^.
3,

(rr)

(\>)

B o

(\0

K or.

17, 88.

it

JU

on

o- jj\

^ a^T^
dUi

u J.

>_,

)
>o

<

y\s

Jo

-.^

^.t

A)

J^

J\y

^_,V^\\ A,

><

J\kS

(*)

(M

adds vie

dJli

0) Kor.
jit
(**)

Kor.

j/1 o
from

47, 18.

J5\

()

Ji..

Ji.._,

8,

to

iil

0)

21.

(W)

B^

dUjH

jj\

oV._,.

(0 Kor.

^.

o>\

0111.

0) A^.J5.

Instead of

Aj

() B

J\i.

Kor.

5, 86.

118.

5,

J\

01)

The name

has \i

is

]!

\j_f- [.

u )Badcls\il
rl

(V)

(0

om.

(f)

B
V.

ora.

B ^-.

(A)

<!..

U\

^.U o ..

Jj-J\

^a

^\ ^

Illegible in B.

(>

f)

A<\

\jl\5

B JW.

^s-\ \J
(r-)Bom.

doubtful. See .ZZMS. for 1901,

a ,^! ^VT

Js>

S^

1^1

JP

i*

V;\

^"

(^)

B om.

4U \

^-^ ^i\ J\3


~

() Kor.

13, 28.

0) Kor.

59, 21.

00 B

adds

(^)

B om.

C"0

B
f

^J\

/I ^i^9
0"^)

Ivor.

0:-^

4, 45.

95, 1.

^.

\y .Xo ^i\

JJ5

j^J

o.
Kor.

(V")

\cA,^I,

Kor.

(\*)

C-r1\J

j>-^-

L?

73, 4.

(*)

22, 36.

B
(

00
o\J
O B ,5^.

Wi\c>

A)

A^^.

Kor. 17,84.

-)

B om.

^V, Uiaj

J_,\

(T) Here

.^o^Ui

Jil

A
Ai

\2

A J^.

39, 19.

B J \SJ

U\ Jc

44J.\_^5

00 Kor.

B &\.

(H)

^^

^j

39, 24.

ixio-

<uj\

OY) Kor.

Jc

(H

0) Kor.

00 B

4-

I*

J""

proceeds: Jc

**

s"

>\

v^.

r-

Af.1256

0)
0*)

A
B

(0

Jj;

4^\.
.

Kor.

ora.

57, 21.

(^)

B ^
(A)

()

B Vp

o\.,

TYA

Cr*
4fc\

Jp jjAxi N,

(V

>^

r^**

^Ir*

^^A2 ^

\? o

i\

_>

JcP-

^)

adds Jc\

B iuU.

()
(A)

(0

A\\\J.

J.

A ^W.

<&\

^J
B

01)

0)

A^l-.

B om.

(\i)

O y)

Jo.^

Sj

adds

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^o.

5ki^.

B om.

>ii\

A ^ki B

B om.

(\0
(^ r )

\.

Y)

ii\.

A
B

^>^k..

adds

B om.

ryy

<3

u-

V<f

x
1

"*"

JJJJ,

ttt

(0

JU

iaj,

^UJ, y

^^

B om.

B
.

^ ki*

-.

(^)

Y ) Kor.

B
2,

<

<u\

225.

()

^j.

B om.

<w

^4
(

oin.

and the next four

0)

<u)Wtf-.

./

i\

,j.

21 foil

(^)

-/

or

this

Q~M
dl\Vx>

^a

om.

(^)

\\3.
lj

k_/

i>

-^ 1\..

v>

(0

verses.

u B om. kl
r

Vft\^"\..
i^

0*0

^v

<uj\

om. from

but the passage has been suppl. in marg.

A -, J\
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\\

adds _J\.b

n B J,o A
\^
)

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^i\9

(^

,-,*.

00 B

om.

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j Jo

B om.

5i

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to Vc

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<

Aghdni,

w A
)

IV

i ^U\

xo

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x /

"

<

&\ j

o^4\j

j:>\

r)

-U:

V/\ *U

**

i Ax

"

*i5^\

J>

Both verses are

0)

(0 Lisdn has

429, 16.

ibid.,

(Y)

(^)

is

f/i^.

^<

)A.J>t-

(^)

(3iO-

o-#?.

corr. in
A>\

marg.

(^)
(

(^B a

w A J^U.
)

following verse are transposed.

1)

u^

with

c^L

This verse

<j

ki.
j.Uj.

n
(

<us\

a.^.

^J

the seventh in A.

is

UJ

(\\)B AA

written above.

u A

A JL*\

(^ This

0)

OOBJj^l

B>\,

<vi^*-

()

partly obliterated in B.
(

B j..^ ^^1

(^)

"^

hemistich

and the second verse

in Lisdn 13, 127 penult.,

cited

In

1
O"

this

A JVo
and the

A J^.U B J
.

"*\

rvi

V\
\

jc\

o^\

V.

3 0) Af.l23a

-"W

^
<r

a^^

UjH

Y
>

4a\

l\

^J
^

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ii

(\)

(M

CLs

om.

^\

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J\3

om.

(\)

A)

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I-

(^)

(^)

()

0)

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(\ r )

(i

B VioY^.

(0

iJbi\.

B om. ^\

(A)

\T\-

B j&\

Kor>

B om. from

^Yl,

^.

0)

30 14

to

fy\

i\\j^.

(Y)

B om.

(U)B

AA

^.

B
i>JL>

adds

(H)

jj^\
B Jc

iiV,

A\i\

(^)
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B om. from
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OY)

to A*.

Vu^o-

Uu~

1 dD-

li\

j^

4.

d.,

Af.1226

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jcd

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Ai

(*)

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B om.

0)

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Jp.

4\1\

(?)

B ./i
B OvJV

(W)

om.

Jj

Jl\

(")

J=..
(

(l )

(U)B

()

i.

00 Kor. 51,21.

B \;jU\j.

^.

i^\J\j

(f-)

J\5.

om.

fp\ J\i.

<j-j

(*)

()

A ) Kor.
(
41, 53.

0)

>

(n A Jjt. Bjv forjl; jj.


n B jSV.
l
o
\jl\
(

>

Sjy^\ OsiJiCu-

Kor. 31,18.

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(H)
18

rvf

J\i

J\S

>-

0)
()

(A)

(OA

B om.

0)

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flistf.

(^)

(^)

(*)

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Y
( )

J\5

om. from

AB J,U.

B
.

(^)

for

Jy, O ^T.

to

3U

sl,Vs

(^)

^L,.

J^c-^

B
B

rv\

JVa \T^\ ^ji\

^Ia>

Jp JA\\

JL J\5

L,\

k~s

c--.

as variant.
(A)

adds
.

()

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(^)

tf^U.
(\0

(0

U\.

-u*.

(*)

(^)

AC^

(^

(^)

B om.

B om.

)i\

ora.

with

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Y)

A\i.

om.

>Vs

t"Y.

u.

0)

iT\ f uj\

Oi
u

ti

B om.

^ ^J

(0

^ J^

WBJLJU.

(^)

00 B

jiiVi.

OY)
^J\.

k.
(r

OA)

O B

Jl.

A ^j
\.

jjj
B

B
Jd>

00 B

J\5

AB

0)

0)

j\i

Oi
(\)

JV5

om. te^b.

^W.
B \^.

^.

(\\)

0) B

N\it.

(r-)B

^.

(ft)

(HJB^j
(r\) B

om.

JVU

\
J>.

\i\

li

\Sj>

\Jb

yi
,

>lt

The words from

to

i-j.Wi\

^j

<j_j

(^)

Y)

J,.

(^) Kor.
0?)

AB

(A)

6, 96.

om.

(M

\j>.

AB

L..

AI

0\)

adds

i\.

gives

-L.

B J

(0

are snppl. in marg. A.

()

B om.

as a variant.

om. from

J\i

0)
(^)

to

B ^.

riA

0)
(^)

(A)

(^)

om.

Js^JJ.

(0
(-)

XV9.

B J vi^.

A ^^^ f j,l..
u B om. from

B
0)

(\H

(\)
(

A\i\

^ with

^J\

B om.

0^)

A
to

Jc.

\V)

r>

B
)

0)

B y\5

A
adds

Kor.

S.

suppl. in marg. after

^5.

(H)

A\J.

for

31,

18.

<^-

\^. B \^.

^J.

om.

^\

J\5.

(Y)

&jj.

A)

(^)

K or.

18,

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1-2.

r~lV

CJ&

U;

JU\
r
>

_Ll!<

AB

(\)

0)

A
B

v)
(

AjiUJ.

(0

db\3.

om. from
om.

B A*

48 \

for

<-

B om.

B JL^J.

(?)
(A)

B
B

Jc^js..

J5i.

0)

_,

Kor.

35,

1,

J\5

1)

()

om.
(

^ Bd

J=>.

om.

(\)

om.

A.

j^ ju

j>j\

(3

V;\

05
3 \o

pe

0)

0)

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(0

B^.

om. from

adds

adds

fr)

to

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(^)*

B om.

(^)

J\b

dJu-

-r

(H)

i2tf.

^u

Cf.

A)

Kor.

AB oUu

0)

45, 26.

B ^ ji\

Y)

(r-)

(\

J\SJ.

om.
JVi.

V.

-\

V,

J\ii

w^

vU^ ^
iSVili ^i\
JU

X,

UJ\

<iJj

>\

^U

tT

00

**"

iUa?--

JS-\

i_s\.ivH iil,

-Xis

J\

y^

X,

~^\

X,

let

<J

J\B
Vt

B om.

(^)

from

to

(0

on

fol.

1096,

*A begins in

B on

_-\>

(Y)

0\)

13

\,

(A)

62& by the words

p.

Ti^,

I.

(\0

JW

app.

^_j

A^\

JuS

j\.

\3.

(^)

()

A*p\.

B om.

^Jjj which are the last words in

*<J

A>

viii

is

\p

-^^^

^i-H\

The passage beginning


repeated in
(^)

B on

UV^\\

JW.

fol.

which occur

0) The sentence

supra.

the last line of fol. 131a.

and ending ioVCU

B om.

1.

fol.

B J^JP.

^\wj^\. The words

62a are followed on

fol.

in

^_jj>o

^li

4.!

W\
V*

2426,
)

J\5_,

u_j3u
11.

13
JL.

^V"

fit

^ oj^

^^

^5- 0)

Ju\Af.ll9a

Jc

u j^\

o/

^W

(\)

0)

B om.

adds

(0

Ocj

00 B ^\j.

0) B

app.

(V)

(^)
^

i^o^ iS^j.o-X^i

A
)

^.

(?)

B OP.
Js. B

V^LI

Jus

B
(A)

app.

J\5.

B om. dJu^
^Ju:.

A ^^

(i)

^.

(\0

() B

\jtP.

(^)

Vij.

Aa\\=>(tc).

(^)

B om.

with V^.Joa written above as a variant.

but the latter half of the word

is

almost

illegible,

\1
\>.\

_fJ\-\ Jl

AA

_iJi*\S.

dk\

?-

15

dik-\

,,

V\

-VH
JV;

J\ Ji,

(\)

(^

(H

\.

di^,.

0)
)

app. oyj.
B r^jV^ which

00

Bdli\

(H)

B v.

\;J,

is

d)L\.
(\Y)

(^)

Y)

(?)

(^ AB

B j^\

by

48J,.

A)

as a

om.

(^)
<&\

A.J-,

()

n)

o^->-.

variant.

W B ^^.

^.

instead of

^j;.

^3.

also given

B (5\i\

0\)
(\)

i3

co

4jj\

&* J^J (1
J\3

\y.Jt>-

jL*C-j

V-

dllc

JUV1

lilJU J\

^
V\

\-

V.V,

B om.

(H

(*)

\Jut_j.

0)

B J

B ^\\y.

00 B

om.

\.

B om. from
(V)

00 B

J^

B om.
om.

to

}^

<,i

j.

U
c
ol

diUl,

JV, di;\

^
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dii\>

dil

j(*Y)

.j\ V.\

\i\jr.

(0

(V)

\.

B om.
B

dJb

B om. from

(A)

dJuJi.

00 B

\J

to

V.

B om.

00 B

di;\
0>0

B J J\y.

A)

^\ d

^t

ii\JL\

Ui

ii)VJ\ J

U.

.U

oi^ 0)

\i

I -V/\ ill

^U iiJe
J>\

>

4\ I

0)

()

(I"

U(..

adds

om.

B om.

J\5

o
(V)
:

U\ W C

iJ\ U

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om.

(^)

0)

0)

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f.

(*)

(Y)

00 B

B JL^

adds

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C.
B

app.

\i

di.

0)

i^

J3 ^

di

V.

<>

Jp
dili

B om.

0)

(0

V;U

with

^_&

written above.

()

4c>^*.~~*

(*)

iljTj.
tJ

A)
(

but

corr.

om.

with o^a** as variant,

(j\cA.WU

above.

("^)

gives

As.

t>

(\ A )

^s.

B J.

reads

(^)

._?

U JJ

d,.

uv*i^U.

as a variant.
)

It

is

()

00

Jic
AJ

doubtful whether

t oV,;

V;\

j)\

4^

U Jc

^i

^Ji\

AV/\

4A1

^\

U
J

^_lcJ

Jyj, 1^5o-

41) \

C^>cC-

V\ J\

0)

B y.

(\0

but VJc

(0

()

J.

om.

B om.

0^)

B om. O

^A"

^i-

written above.

0)

^3

O
)

B ^jU^-

(*)

B dJUu.

dlj\ \Ai.

dJu,*J

A U^. B

(\

jut.

l)

\c3
>\

(V)

A
Y)

-j.

U
B

,^c-.

r-

Toy

<Ui\

i>

d U V^ iS.
)

j^ a

(v-

V.

<\

J\s

^c
)

A>

ei*,

J\ V^.U

\u
f

V ^Urrt

iiLJU

j\y

&j&\ U

(H AB JV^.
(?) B v^) B ora.
_^ j,\ J\5.
() The original reading of A seems to liave been \\^Jl\ ^.^^^ujii.
B JV^.
Y B
C A \*.
(A) B adds
(\-) B om. from
jJ^\ ua^.
JA\.
(U)
to 4\
00 A ^
^AJ o^ t5 Ji jfX ^*

("^)

^\

<^-

17

P,

V,

\i\

vL,^^

vli;

OxUj, ^J^Vas JV\ ^JLs^

>

dillc

ilU

B om.

0)

y)

oL

(A)

V^..

(")

V^.

{_

V*I?

the end of
1.1 to p.

0*0

fol.

for,

B on
^\.^

(^)

diVil.

viAst^.. Perhaps

B om. from

(^)

(\T)

fol.

54a,

(P-

ril,

B U,

^jM

last line,
1.

^^

4\

j^

f\
to

0)

yVs di^J

^\ J\

are followed

lAftipra).

(M

<.

A_,yJ\.
B jJji\.

0?) This

1.4.

(H)

A
B

\jj.
\.

(H)

is

AB

the

^.

These words,

by the verse UL^J

The remainder of

beginning of

(W)

Bs

56a corresponds with the text of this edition from

0")

<\.

\^j

A^iUi.

B>.

adds

dl

A ^ U.

^ QJ
;

J5J

app. yj
A ^V^. B

()

which occur in
v

(0

Bapp. ^,j^\.

Jj

fol.

A \^.

text to
p. T

5G& in B.

(U)

TOO

*v-

flrlA-ik

^uc

l;

U
.^

"

fjV*i\

^J&*j

"

A_^\

-E"

-\

^ ^j

>

jj

J5

JLP

OlJ.lc

^-

instead of Ofc 4\
(^)

sJic.

B W-. A

^.

(0

^J.

\.^\.

\f\.
(^

to

ojU

B
Y)
(

Cf.
\.^.\.

J>xii

Massignon, Tawdsin, 162.

A V^U. B

^JAii.

0\)

B om. A\

in marg.
as a variant.
^_^ai\ ^awai. J^Tj
tST

(^) A.

(^)

V^-U..

B VkU.

(^)

A
( )

A jCU.

(^ r )

V^;

S
\

jU

is-j

tf*

5j\J J\

()
*

rf

orV^\, stands for V/^J

l^.

AB o^y.
0) A V^Vuo.

(t)

(^)

VpJ^. B

B om. from

om.
"^

or

rot

^)

l"^

So both MSS.

AB ^,1
A JU.
B
B

1^

B om.
B U.

(^)

AB Vj jC.

B om. dib

w A
^1 ^,

Uft..

this

()

(^)
(

^-a.,.

A.\_J.

^0 B

>/

^ ias

"

ON

(j,^

and the following

verse.

(^)

Partly obliterated in B.

Jut.

00 B

OM B

\.

(\\)

^^.

vocalised by a later hand.


.

Y)

V^li.

AB ^_^^.

(\)
A)

B om.

j,\t.

^jk^V.^.

Af.ll4

X,

Akc-

0)

0)

the beginning of

(^)

B ^c.

OA)

dio^,.

AB Uyt*.

(0

r->.

B om.

()
is

AB

(^)

j.

(V)

fol.

52b.

^,.

(^)

(^)

A l^.
(\-)

B ^.

() B

\.

4j\

(A)

J jxii^.

<^

U.

00 A
(H)

(i)

\.

This verse
\3.

\0 B

W)

<,^.

V,,,.

ii3

il^

o ,jj\
Jt

V.

\o

o
\

0)

()

(A
(V)

(\\)

r\t.

C ) Here B proceeds

\ii\,.

115&,

jjLSJJj

The present passage

5).

for

but

for

<^

(\0

Jip

corr.

(fol.

is

5G6, 1): bc._,

continued in

A)
(

<a\

^3\.

^jJi ^
<\,

(0 B
1

fol.

vk.

B j/i
j^\ J\5_,.
A JLi.
(\^) B
^\.
(H) A
f
.

in marg. A.

A)

^.j.
B om.

-uAtf

(^)

(\i)

(\V)

,
<j

^<i>

B on
B

Jii,

B om.

AB

jy\ o di
\

fol.

241

(\

(\)

^^

?;,

1.

B o^.
B ^U\

^ ^\ \f

*Jic

JVs

u>-

v^n

j\

^;-

ij\_/

^^

J\

V.

j\5

\o

0) B
(

AU,

<u

with V^ written above as a variant.

reading of

is

last three letters

0)
(^)

A
B

^.
adds
-^c

V\>.

(^)

seem

to be

A)
(

JLIL.

B ^jb*

()

*Jr,.

P>

*J>j

(^)

>.

Ov^\ Oi^

ft

!Lwbi\,

(H)

AB

(W)

(^)
VWj\.

A j

xl>

adds G^,
(\Y)

<

1)

o-A>^.

doubtful as the beginning of the word

(V)

Uj\5

is

uv^

obliterated:
Oi-^

B y-.
in marg.

Alij

93

The
the

_j.ft_j.

Bom.

To.

V\

-^
t->j

j\

j\

^Ji^

^\ i,

Af.ll3a
*

0)

A p^.

0)
(A)

,^
ljut

in niarg.
(\i)

>.

(^)

UL

^aj| as variants.

adds Ci\.

(\)

B V^

(\ r )

^Vi.

0\)

^^.
(H)

Kor.

(V)

00 B V^J^.

Ju>^\.

and

B ^jU.

26, 62.

A ^

\3Jl,

(^)

jic

Af 1126

W)

* V

U
0)

Xjt
(

A)

om.

O!

(0
()

A i5jVi^\ Ac

are uncertain.

B JJJ^I
B

<u,

the text of

(^)B^.

68&, 10).

(^)Bj3_,.

^^ Botl1

tlie

text

(^

j\.
Y)
(

and

B om. ^c

tlie

B om.

m eaning

c^

J-^^ J^-

of this verse

>.

(^) The original reading in

(^^BV^.

B om.

B jl.

0)

(^)

u B
&\.
)

A seems to have been

verse occurs in

B_^.

u^^j J-aj j^L


B on fol. 546, 1.

(^)ABU..

(^)

J\^J\.

(^)Adi^.Bd]Vl

breaks off and proceeds

The present

(\H

adds T^\.

(^)B^.
(B

fol.

686, 1

riO

)Here

=A

A
^>jj-

fol.

xij

^5^~Ji

y3

,j\

1J

U-"\

>

-1 ^

<JW3

X1S

ocr

**

\\

>

j*\
^ ^

*c>j

^U\

ji!..

OyJ!\.

->M

J\.

n B
)

rr )
(

00 A

0*0

Li>\

(^)

om.

(Y)

(J.LJ

r
^

f.

om.

(A)

^ B

A*J

V^^

(\\)

J,.

(1)

and om. from

^-

for

A
om.

0)

^\.

B
V<J.

B _^\.
(^)

(0

*^

t*4

AB

tf-

Jc

j~>

>\

0)

<*

>

B om.
.

to

uy~N-

om. from

to

J^.

this verse.

**

"

"

>

\<^

__

\<^

\"

JuP. L.seP

Oj-^9

x__

^-ij^

jU\

(\)

for

the

A dU\

(0

Vyj.

()

Oyi\

^ji^.

first

hemistich runs:

.iJ.

app.

B om.

0)
3\&>\

<u?>\

B J^\.

(^)

Y
( )

U B
)

(\\)

Caj\

^.

15JL\.

0)

djo.

00 B ^,J
(^)

app.

A ) In
(

^
A

<^.

*->y

00 A dl^.
(^) A ^\ for

^J^

J-_^ JL\-jV\ cAa.

0^ A

(i)
>J\.

OY)

A.

U
\

4fl\

jyo i^\

Aiil

Jji^

Jcju-\

jA^

c^>-\

^ Jo
J

SJa>-

<

^4

O"*

^*^b

A^

^,

^.
JVs

Ov

()

<;

oin.

passage beginning

\
j>.

^\^

to

4.4-j

^\

^Y^.

J\5.
(

u B
)

-.

and ending ^J3

of the chapter after the words


4a\

l)

B om.

() The

__

A)

adds

0)

adds

occurs in

A;\

<uA._j.

0)

V^J.

(\H

iV^.

(\)

^_^\

rjL

^V^.

c5j\Jl\.

i\

the end
Y)
(

0111.

)B om. from

(Ju^U).
(

at

(^)A\3.

*-)

B om.

V.V,
-

dili

V.

<

Vp

s-

J\i Ji\J

n,

u,\

A,

(A)
<

.Jo

^v\_,_,

di\

,v.5_,

dJVii_,

(^ v u

.jiipj

r
o
oAf.llla

B om.

B +\.

(r\)

c.

^.

<^.

(^)

jjj\

^J

(r)

om.

^)

Ai.U

a U. B ^U.

^-

0)

00 B

B O s..

r)

\^

^.

for

(r-) B
^/IU.
(rr) B app **..
.

(H)

l)
(A)

B
B dh^.

(^)SobothMSS.

J uJy\3 G4j

jO

Aoo

<

lo^iU tab.

Ji\

diAc

A,

jo\

(\)

B
(^)

B A^.

^k.

gives

00 B oy.

(0
0)

^.

i^ di^
0V)

(^)

0j^JU.

Oj

j^\.

0*0
OY)

()

0!*\5.
(Y)

^\5i*.

COB

as variant.

B om.

diV?

iVj diy^

B
B

adds ^\

()

J5.

om. ^ y-\.

dLJ^H,
>\.

o \.

(A)

(\U

(\)

om.

ji*)

B^l J Ao.

dl

c*

o
^ CP^

(i)
.

diU*
f
Vc

Lie

j^

(di^U

cdiiL^

dil

A,

J dll^^^
di.
9>*y

1)

dkUU.Af.110a

^ ^\

0)

P-

B J^^.

(0

breaks

off

i~.aJo

Jo\.^ ci

passage

0)

(fol.

5j

239 a, last line).

^\j

Ajti."

continued in

U\.

y)

adds

the

first

4\

Uo\.

The following words (B

which

B ^vj-p. Here

(^)

occur in

on

fol.

B on

^i^

JW.

(^)

app.

G2Z,

(A)

to

// stroked through.

O A) B

fol.

ui\

1.

108?>,

1)

0) B

239 6,

()

are

1)

B om.

U\.

The present

are suppl. in marg. A.

^.Xo.

2.

*,.

(^)

^3.

the text of

fol.

y>

is

(^) The words from


(\T)

B v^J.

r)

o^J

Ci)\^

Jc.

U A dl-^^. B
dilb^with
)

\.

B U.

Y)

adds

rtr
V.

pf Jp

\Aji\

1*^

U
V,

\o

i5\

(\)

(0 This

JbJ^\.

^U

gins with the verse


(^)

Here begins B

adds

0)8^^.
(^)

B om.

uj\

fol.

Y)

is

J>J

00 A

iuii\

Uii-i.

the last word on

\^.
J^ ^^
2387;. A vfi,
j^

Vc

(A)

fol.

241a.

Vj which occurs in
1)
I

dljTi \3\.

B om. from

\\*~

j^

Fol. 241^ be

A at fol.
()

to di!

00 B

(^)A
<;^.

113?>,

5.

adds 4

^^V,

app.
^>,.

Af.l09a

di\

\c

0)

0)
(I

(^)

(W)

(0

y)

v\)

om.
(

A)

(*)

B om.

B
.

00 B

B A

om.

\A)

Vc

A
18

t-j
l^\

di.
.

oi U ^^ ^
i^ks^

JW

dUW

(5-X^

<

Uc ^jy*^ 1 JW
)

J,

Jc

(0

y
\

239

fol.

00

with

6, 1.

VJfc.

as

0) B fy.
(\A)-

i.

jt.

jj-Xo
(?)

A)
(

Here

proceeds

238

(fol.

b,

^V^a^-VV These words occur

(A

-w- JLL,

fol.

B Vft,.

(^)

109a, 16).

JoJ^

di\U

(^)

a.U\.

^Vf
\.

1):

()

for

om.

00 B

o3c>,

ciV

(rO Bdii.

(dl,
.j>.)

di^

in the following chapter

(^) BdiJc.

_,.

iLb-

The present passage

1)

00 B

a variant,

(H)

,^-\

(ji^

is

(^)

continued on

ja*j.

0*0
OY)

AB

g>

U
-

^\ O! -^Ji
diii
<&

vJ\J

iV

(V>

AW
J\

S>\

l^L<\\.

1)

JW

(^)

B om.

(^)

B jUi\.

1A )

(r\)

BdU,.

()

L,.

A 6j^\.

0)

V^-U,^V^. B Uw^r),

4ii\

om. ^_Ao.

(H

J5.

B om.

(A)

&\}\.

^J

orn. 4a

(\)

(^ r )

\.

A
(

(^)

Jk*I.

Cf.

(H)
^Jc>V\.

()

M-V j

om.

om. Ja^ J\.

^j.

Kor.

A ^.

Partly obliterated in B.

Y)

adds

A J
0?) A
J
)

(1

81, 4.

OY)
(

r>

A ^V
A

^i

Jc

0\>

^Jt

ijy JV5

*i\

>Y\

A.Uj

^^"

B tfjj^.

(\)

0)
)

(^)

A
B

om.
) t\

(H

ora.

jT J^^.
^. (^) A

^L!

^*\\

(^)

(Y)

B Vv^j-

Ac\.

as variant.

(^

\\
(

(\ r )

j3.

A)

^.

()

j\.
0^)

li\

J.

^v

u\

"^

JP

iSi

dko j ik.

dJLo

Ji.j

v,

i-i-J, il\M\,

di-L

(J,\

JLW

/) \

^_-A-4\^

JJ

di A

(^

()

5^jll\

(0
0)

B om.

(V)

J\>.

J\ii
to

t,\^T.

(\)

(^)

^.
.

(V)

B ^ii\.

(A)

0) AB dW.
(\i)

A AUJ^.
B

ora.

B Jp ^ J

JU.

(\0

(^

>.

B om.

B om. from

\j

v.

J\ io-

J\

j/;

^j -$2\
^ \U-J

,>>

0)
)

B
)

(0
0)

B om.

B ^ou-

B
)

t53

for

A\i\

A
<

o j\

t^ oV-

V.

din-

xjj

o4

i\

\~*\

,#j

OVf

Jj

J^U

Vv-J

>-,*),

Af.l XJa

j u^ iJ\

Jj\

o-*.

^-

(t)

tf i

\f.i.
WMi.mi.

n
J)

o; Jirl

U,.

II

M>

o,n.

A A\d\.

0-Mt

JL^..

A jr^.

(It)

^.
I!

4\

Al!

(11)

I)

A \i,j.

^^.

(fA) ](

it

(f,
for

|(

4i.

J,

(H)

I!

,,,,.

t#

^.

(\V,

>%,

(ff,

(fl)

|!

J..

(")

4^, rfW J\J.

OOis

4ii\i_,.

>j.

(f-)

V_,.

<ft)

(>

0>)

>

,.

^ly

V.

J\

u^

o>

Jp

*!

o-

j\^

cW

J\

J
)

Ju^\ J\
ji

V\ villi

J J^; U

Jl>

,vOll

II

v^

oj
v\ dlSi

IJ

^^.

0) Here

(fol.

1096,

(0
1.

2)

B om.
has

oVV^\\

occur near the end of the oVa\j3\^

(^0

V^

B
B

above

(^)

for
.

iw^ifc

dVy

j\3*.

I
(^) A
0) A

B ^U.

0)B^J\5.

^V^"

(H)

J^

to

00

U.lu.

(A

147&,
1.

Bv^.
0*-)

(^)Bo^.

These words

-o-\.

fol.

B j

()

om.

011 fol. 232a,

in marg. vju.LiKj as a variant.

om. from

^^ UW- o

oV,^ o\J\

continuation of the present passage occurs in


(A)

()

U5\.

6.

1.

2).

Y)

The
^\

(V^B^U.^.
A
written
^J,>o

(^

Y)

B ^1^.

^-jj

0)

(H

0111.

()

0)

^.
0)B^.

in

(\)

supra.

(^)
See p.

(>vLai.

^to LJ.

^u

*jj.

^J-

B o^^.

T^l, note

(^)
(

V.

_jLai.

n B
)

(^)

J\5_,.(

Y)

A^W.

o^-.

)ABj\i..
(^) B
(

WA

^.,5.

A)

A ^U.. B

(^) This passage occurs


.

o^>

^^.

(^)
A)

B ji^.
om. from

a^ J

\s\

.Jl^ J.LU
>

V^

irt

V.

jU-Yl
^iil\

J\5

J\Sj

J J&W

<

*^\\

J U*V\

V.

c^\

(3

>i\

u-cH
*

4,

V.

Uc u3\ U

(\)

()

^\.

(H

^j.)i.

^ jU. ^ ^W
1

app.

JjjWj.

of this chapter from

words

(A)

^\^.
L/

NJ
^<

..\A

\.

<,.

C1 )
(\0

A
A

^\ o-J^\

U ^J\

Here
\*

dj^>-

J\5j

A,

Jc

The reading of B

-u^..

(^)

JV5.

Y)
(

is

W B om.

JL.

inserts the concluding

\ty

to

ujy-i,
doubtful.

(^

A &\.
l

\o

V\

U\

B om.
0)

(Y)

(A)

(^)

B
B

(\\)
Ji\.

0) B

rn

\l

JjL

(0

0)
to

(0

om.
(

B<^..

(^

^\ Oy-.

(\0

Y)

A
)

A JL/Vj-

^ B

J^V,.
^^Vj.
B ...VsjJ. The word

is

A)

BjiJ.

A T.
C1

partly obliterated.

()
0111.

rrA

uJiUj, JJL\

f kj\s.\

^^

JVd

l5\

J.lj5\

J.J

V;\

\o

(n

A.

(\)

L)

orig.

4^

(^)

A ^3y

(\)

Cf.

(^)

Kor.

0)

\i.

(0

i^\ J\ JjJ\ Jyo^.

B cJLj.

()

om.

v)

(*)

B J^JP.

adds

A)

B om.

_,:>.

but

coir,

later

00 A

i\.

(H)

76, 1.

oYV

by

0)

hand.

om.

(\f)

AB

\^)

il\jj.

OY)

A)

oL-V\.

(r-)

^-

B
B

rrv

AU

^
^i,J

l\lal\

jxl\ v^Vi

Jc

o^P

J\

4t^-

i*

oV

dii J

Jp
B om.

(0

0)

o^t.
(Y)

Kor

35

00 B

to

B di^

l)

AB

29>

has

from
for

B om.

adds

\j\

Jc

JU ^

Ojijl\.

U,j oiJ\ c?^


*

411 \

e>*!

r oiJ\ J

jJVki

***j

4il

Ji\

JU<>

JL

>

(\)

(0 B

jVi.

l)

^j.

C)

adds lfj ^\.

0*)

() B om.

B dL^-.

from

to
fjt>j>\

^,.

(^)

00
B

0)
Ai5Ji\

i,l<r.

A U

(^)

with
(Y)

^written

^^.

0\) B^yjiV,.

^J\.
A jT

(\)

(\1)

B J^,.

above.
(A)

(\0

(^Y

*"

jj

Ic

0)
the

^
05,

jjj.

word

is

A*J.
2.

(0

ora.

indistinct.
(Y)

(^)

(0

(\ r )

B ^.AU.
Ulj.

(0

\jb\jiw *il.

*Ju
(A)

()

<ul^\

J.U..
.

appears to read Vk^j,^, but

B ^^c^ ^L^oA.
(t) B
^.o.

00

Kor.

30, 39.

0)

AiJiio

(\) Kor.
(\0

15

adds

Vs\

cj^U-k J,U\

Ji\ ^V

rrt

V\

J\

J\5

JV.3 A]\^,

J J^i J&j

Ait

JVaJ

^j

aW i-^^

4ll\

i J-*

0)

A ^^i.

() B JJ.
(^)

(OB
0)

om.

AB ^^L-,.

adds ^j\J\.

(^)

(V)

A.

Vk

V^.

(V

W.

(^)

1.

U\.

supra,

where read

Boi\.

dA.W

(^)

0*)

A.B.

B U

A dlU. B

^
instead of dilv-

di

Jji\ altered to j\5ji\.

^\ c*-\ j\.

Of. p.

j.

diVsi.
e

(\ r )

(\)

B om.

-/\

A;

^*

D.c.4jj.

J,\Lu

JU

tfjtf

JV;

^v

^j

JL

J\i

Jo

0)

Jo-J

00 B

om.

Jl\ JviP

om.
J

adds dllU eu (Kor.

>

JU Z
(0

adds

67, 1).

u B
)

00 B

om.

jc.

fO B om.

01)

J\5

J\_i.

\i,.

V.

Jt*

rrr

J,U\

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instead of

()

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app.

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0)

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42, 52.

(^)

U
.

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(^)

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app.

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Kor.
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ri )Bji9.

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adds

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to

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from

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proceeds

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in marg. as variant.

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A) Kor.

33, 41.
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147.

rr )
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(^)

r
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joy.

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to

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to JU.

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2,

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(H
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seems to have

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partially

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is

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Attar, Tadhkiratu 1-Awliyd,

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cf.

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has been stroked out,

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(^

16, 55.

has

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JU

for
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but the words are suppl.

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(Y)ABU.

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55, 26.

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in marg.

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marg.

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l)

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l)

So the MS. Perhaps

p
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di/uAf.916

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uri)

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0)
0)

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f)

passage beginning
in marg.

("^)

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and ending

() The

(M Suppl. above.

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is
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suppl.

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Af.88a

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r)

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ju

j\

app. altered into

uAv *L~

(^)

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4.p

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(0 Some words seem to have been omitted here.

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10

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r-

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26, 218.

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L^\

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05

(0)

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J>J

corrector has indicated that the text should read:

Uai\

<

f^T

^ jt

V.

Ai

$\ Jp

f
(r)

JU

Jc^

jVc

j\
4il\

J,

j^J\ J\

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written above.

JUi

(0 Suppl. above,

(^)

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0)

>

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i^L.

i5

j^ai* a: -^^

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J&.J \j^ JS l
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(Y)

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4^j

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>

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Vxu.;

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4A1\

In marg. v^3
(^)

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Y ) In
marg.

v-sjj

UJL^I

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()

above.

...
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Snppl. above,

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above.
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Jb\x.

added in marg.

A ) Kor.
42, 28.

(Jj/ corr

() In marg.

niarg.

Suppl. in marg.

0) Kor.

uy.
(^)

34, 25.

(^) ls.si\

\\.

Kor. has

corr. in

marg.

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u\

Vj ji\

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^1

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in marg.

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3,

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Jji

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1

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added in marg.

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in marg.

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CA^-(Y)

J.J J^i, Jji\

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ending

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in marg.

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hand.

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(

A)
jt>

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v,\

0)

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<

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f
(^)

hand.

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I

1)

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lli V-

(H ^, added above.
()

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l^^ J^
(^)

in marg.

Erased by a later

_->

rl

j *^*\y*

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411 \

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l)

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corr. in

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12

marg.

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*

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in marg.

(^)

corr.

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in marg.

(Y)

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a A,.

(A)

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()

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corr.

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(\)

^\

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in raarg.

written above.

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A.!*).

r)

4\iP

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^O

corr.

5^

in

j\ ^iii\

\o

corr.

marg.
^>^

(^-)

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corr.

in

marg.

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in marg.

0) US

IVI
u

\/\

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0) Jc, but
saying

is

read 4*i

see

(^)

mj

translation

attributed to

^y

The marginal version adds: i^i

43t oj

Shibli.

^ O^

of the Kashf al-Mahjub, p.


Y)
(

A
( )

o_^o.

^^ A^*!

(^^>

27,

iJ) o-o

where

this

Probably we should

\-i\3

4)i\

A*-,

^_x:0
^tf>

Jc

JQ V\

i\3

4.;U

Gri-v, JU

411 \

flfjtfej fa\j~\i

J>

AJ\

4ii\

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u^^\

v.^

^>

ti

J^ j
V;\

(^)

\\3

1 on

L.

(0 In marg.

\Tj\ A.i^
p.

\"\1.

]^^

4xiJ^Jj
(*)

also

(^)

The passage beginning ^=- and ending

occurs on the marg. of

The marginal version has

Lr

,U\

JV^

A
.

fol.

75. See note

() Om. in

text,

ivr

\i\

i\

Cii\

.i

dlii

V.

f.766

iaiVi-

<J>\

0) Suppl. in marg.

^-5 but

corr.

C^

written above.

Ovr*"V\^

1)
C

Y)

r)

^^V\
,J^.o

diii

In marg.
VjJ^L

() Kor.

written above.
in marg.

39, 75.

1)

Orig.

Cl

(()

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>

Lf-Je.

>a^

r*

JU.J,

\j i*>

dlli

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tj

i^-J\

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j j^li^

o^ U i
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i.

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(^)

(0

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() In marg.

in niarg.
(^0

^L.i^\

^J.

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corr.

(V)

^U.

0-^.^5.9

in marg.

as variant.
(^

(^)

j\

erased and

("^)

^\ suppl.

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i.

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JU

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^ ^j ^\ ^ ^j
\i

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J^

^\;

^j^
r>

cr

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(\)

was

In marg.
iLiVa.

(0 U^.

J>.

()

(^)

jy.

1)

The

orig. reading-

V.

o~>-

U*

oVdl

a\ Ili

Joo\

J>\

V-

Ji i

l^

A^J

fls

0*0 The text has

in inarg.

The

is

story

is

rendering
(^)

told in

^J

j^Jx;

BJU_/\.

the
3

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Tadh. al-Aivliyd,

if

added in marg. a passage beginning


ending

jT

in the text

O)

Orig.

^5

*U

on

^LiiiV,

p.

^
\Y^,

but

i.^4.
1.

Jt>

corr.
Va

c^>y

\? (A

(^)

^U
JU

fol. 77a,

(V)

corr.

(vocalised

149, 9

J^l

^_j\
1.8).

^ 3 ^.

in marg.

at

by a

ine.

Suppl. above.

1
Hfc"

iL"^

()
(A)

later hand).

where the Persian

foil.,

you had looked

Suppl. in inarg.

C")

II,

^J

iu,

(^)

^J^J^ J^

*s-^ J^i

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is

ancl

which occurs

erased before dlb

^-

(t)

j\^

0>

HA

JA,

o-

o-y J\3

4,i

r.

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)

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2,

119.

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w
^l

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marg.

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>

orig.
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erased,

and

reading seems to have been

x,

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added in
(*)

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variant,

l)
(

Kor.

C")

3,

91.

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() Kor.

22, 28.

(^)

0)

In inarg.

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added in marg.

->

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r\

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^

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last

two

letters

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added in marg.

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ir

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(\)

corr,

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above.

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for

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V\

J\ \^ki,

\o

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^^

(^)

in

marg.

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39, 13.
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(V
as a

added in marg.

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variant.

l)

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(

v)

V^V^V*

corr.

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ili

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Jj
.

oi^J

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ur y\ J \Jj \

a . Li isxJ\
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<vj.

r)

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9, 60.

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11

f.

71 ft

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it.

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()

9, GO.

written above

stippl.

i^U

In marg. ^JJM

in marg. after
^iii\

and

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written above.

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written above.

Y)
(

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but corr. above.

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^^^ J

sVi

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d-Jt^j ill9
j

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4,1

70a

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U

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from U\:\

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AB

Y)
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lowing

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words

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(0

to
^\>

AB

Here the text of B breaks


(fol.

69?>,

1.

l)

JVls

The portion of B corresponding

In marg.
)

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Snppl. in marg.

^j**).

?*$>

CA

off

fol.

A^

V.W^V\
69a,

^*j

1.

J>L

U,.
(^)

(fol.

o^

4\|T^

to

AB

A J^,

()

J.^.

near the beginning of the chapter entitled

(A)

J^..

J>^

QQa, last

occur in
4:>_j_j

12

*^^

fol.

95&,

B om.

(^

AB

JW

The

line).
fol.

1.

iJ

fol

32a,

2-t-^- s-

L/

J^..

1.

7,

^r\

8 is wanting.

Snppl.

above.

>

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J\j\3

^U i

JU J^

^J\

JUaJl
^

r)

iJ*\

\>

^A\(^)

\-

0j ^lf.69a

>

JVu cdli j J Jjj 4i^_,

^Ju j

ip

with the verse


1.

8.

The

text of

lacuna on

(M B

^\

fol.

*,\*?\.

W^ ^W

68ft,

ending on

(0

U,

fol.

(^)

0)

^iJ\.

jj_j.x,\

o^i-

^V-^.

(^)

U*^j

on

fol.

114a,

continued without any

adds in marg.

o;.

Jlo

above.

corr.

00 B
B

iArf>_5

which occurs in

B j^Jo.

-u

ti\

<Dl\

last line, is

52a,

B om.

(^)

0~^)

1.

1.

(0)

^J

(j.VJ

1)

U\

adds in marg.

J.
(^)

\3Vi.

(\t)

B,

(\)

Y)

V-\.

in marg.

\oo

V.

,U

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o<0

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4.;\

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4i5j f

&*A ^Af.686

c*^ \J\

0)

()
(A)

B U*.

B oj&\.

00 B
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(r)

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j,#A\

J^^

(^)

Y)
(

B
J=>_5^.

^.
J^u-J

B ^U\.

(t)

^V<

\3Vj

breaks off on the

AJ\.

(^)

line

of

(\i)

-VV^

fol.

(M

A oU\
A om.

B ^..

^^
last

B om.

^y.

but

B om.

o\J

JV.J A\\

^U O \.

in raarg. as variant

0)

\i\j.

52a==A

fol.

6S&,

1.

Here the text of

10. Fol.

52b begins

j\

dl)-&Af.G8a

J j

(^)
r)
(

app.

or

but the middle

k-j

o^- added in marg. A.

_AA*

in

marg.

B S^\.

letters are

almost obliterated.

^>jj.>

-o>.

^ ^* ^
00 B
B

B ^9^
OH0) B S^V,.

(^ B
(V)

^.

B U*.

()

A adds

A)

B om.

(^)Suppl. above.

adds

(\M

B om.

(>-

V.

411

>

(\)

0) B

5^$J.

0")

dij,.

(Y)

(^

<d\\

<^j.

u A
)

orig.
AX.

altered

(^)

(A)

00 B

^^u,,
(

Suppl. in

^^ j\^\.

A\i\

B il^U.

by a

B om. from

^^aJL,

later

om. from
to

B^bl.

to

(*)

(^)

Jrjj JP.

hand.

o/^
B __au
p..

to

B om.

B $for V* J.

j\

(^) In marg.

<wi;

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B om.

(^)

(^)

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OA)

B om.

()

J\5.

A
(^)

\j\j.

J^o
B

Joo

\J\

Jc

V.

JVs

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(^)

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B om.

passage

Vs

ij^

(0

runs thus:

4,

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dJi

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this

0)

B om.

0-)

added in marg. A.

,.

(\\)

Y)

om.

J\

A)

JjV\

Jy

cu5jJ\(

i^*c VI dili

X?

\i

**

V\

(^)

so

C ) In
1

A)

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in marg.

A j

om. from

0\)B^J..
(H) AB
<u~.

but

is

Avitli

(^)

^.

l)
(

to Jc

Y)
(

jc i-yj^ *-

00 Bom.
OY)

in marg. gives

()

\^.\.

given as a variant.
viJji\

(0

WjuJ^j written above.

B
(^)

<j^

V/
t *^K>\^

diii

g\

o^9ji\

app.

adds

^ ^bV,

for

5"iLaJ\
j:>.

^Lus.

O^

U\i.

l^Jow^

A)

B o^AJ\.

as a variant.

(^)

AB

and
J\5.
^i_j.

\0.

\a

U
j j

AU

j-ay

A
\

^J
B

A(S

<

c\X\

r
>
<

i2._j ^j

4__ij

corrector has stroked out the

above.

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(0

0)

J^-

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0111.

(^)

(^)

"-

-i;,.

*^>-j-

ja>.

words *3\ ^,
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l)

^V

00 B

.W.

(Y)

4~i.

J~-*J

>-V\.\

in

^j

and has written

()

B om.

i.\

>

Ci.\<

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(AJsul\

V.;Jj

(A)
"&\

\^;\

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\LiV\.

^^v-o

jt

(^)

WA
(

y)

(^)

()

B om.
B om.

(^")

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(1)

OA)

J^.
adds

in

marg.

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^>

V^Vo

0\ ci

Iii

marg.A

(MB

(^)

JuP^\^ Jj.

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(^)

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(H)

l)

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to

AB Ul

Jc.

adds in marg.

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0)

04, 10.
(^ r )

(^)By_5.

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A)

diii j.

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OY)

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added

VI

in marg. A.

B c5j^

^=>\

om.

t5>U.

-4

AU

<

\i\

4*j

Jl

\i

must read

0)

^
(

\->V

() B

B
r -)
(

\f

^.

dilj.

adds in mar g-

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(A)
*.

B J3l
B om.
(r\)

*^\
5

CO

a
00 B
a

j->^.

B om.

0^)

n B

(^)

(^) Altered in

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^^

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^,

r)

\t

instead of

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to

rjj

Y^

in

by

B U*j

(\\)

^U,

ojVo-^

B om.

a later hand.

(^) In marg.

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(rr)

tlY

\o

\i\i

^ ^o.^^ y\.
B om.

0)

(0

adiis in

in

marg. adds Oyu.

B
jij,

0) A

^o.
but there

\.

is

marg.

A)

(^)

B ^j.
B

A)

\3^.

^U-^-

() Written in

om. Suppl. in marg. A.


(V)

OY)

f^.

(7)

(K)

j^.

om.

^^-

(1)

0)

with tashdid.
1

c^.V,.

Jr>\,

(U)

AB

in marg.

no indication of the place where these words should

be inserted. Probably they are intended to follow \rj^.^ in which case

we
r

lu

ULf

fi

VL\

J.^

^^i

11

4U\

>.V\

o^"\

3/S"jt

sU

4:

U)

ciW(

^.

J AU

W
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4fl\

\p
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(^)

ij^Tj.

r)

stands) occurs again in

^j \f^j _^

A)

0)

pL.

(^)

icviac..

Ail 4.J t5

ki.

marg. A\=ji\

^-y.

\9

fol.

1.

84&,

J^ J*^
\

adds

0)

G,

This passage (which

must leave

where the text runs: jAs^

JL-*

i\j>^\

JO

^.

l
( )

ia-i

Ojij\j,
(

J.^..
)

Y)

B ojij^

>j>

o~~>.,

^.

()

in marg.

in marg.

(^)B

A.<?

as

it

^fc?

A in

^x^, B
B
o-^>>-.

0)Bj\5

fVLj,

_?4jiaj

dJio

J&

4.1

,ji-i

L?

<jT~

9jV\

j*

j>

L>

^^j ^i AaViaj^ 3^v^y\ ^y^^

"*

VA^

^3

"

"

>

>0

^i,"

T"

\"

**-a

>

J^,JcAf.G4a

*"

^*

Jyl

H c-ii^

C->j

(A
(>

fol.

A)

1.

(\Y)

8).

The following

text begins in

B on

<*}

fol.

43b,

1.

B
B

0)

()

0)

(\0

956,

c:-^yv^

diii^.

(r)

^ ^U.00

JAtt.

B^.

B
>j

0) Kor.

B om.

0?)

(^)

js..

<^j

(^) B

G4, 16.

(V)

7,32.

jV*i 4\

B^b.

Kor.

^\

J\5.

(i)

B ^.

A Uj\
(

A)

(^) Bdlli

B om.

^ii.

10

1.

lit

1)

^^ ^1

B om.

(^)

Awa

()
V^j>.

(A)

(^)
(

<\

(t)

V,.

B ^.

1^

VU

(fol.

90&,

(0

J\5.

B om.

(^)

<*.

(^) After

Here B breaks

4.

off
1.

B JuT,

fr

o>

app.

(^)

Y)

<^*-j.

(\\)

last line

occur

near

of

the

fol.

90a.

adds
(\ r )

has a word which looks like dl*.

on the
1)

A>c,

(\)

AJ.
\;

The next words J

end of the

o^wi\

v_jb\

V
>\\

A!

AiO^i

^
V-

A]

4\

\>

W
(\)

om.

(0

\^ViJu.\.

obliterated in B.

0) B

,\.

(*)

Y)

(^)

In

B ^y^\.
jy.

(A)

orig.

()

^^VV The
B

om.

word

<a\

<^j

B U.

H)

UJ\.

is

g^\

partially

jVd.

00 B

f.

636

itr
>-

J\i<<

ju:$

^ J^\

UV

4fl\

V.

ci\

J\s,
(T
<
>

<

4s

^.UJ,

Jc

0)

B,

jp.

V:

i\j5.

B ^.
<V5-^

^li\

4\.

0)

f)

^o

for

B ^V\.

00 B j^.
0*0 A
J^.

(\\)

iL.

<UJ

B om.

(Y

_XLw

1)

B om.

B ^^i^.

with

OT)

B a.

in marg. as variant.

mB
0) B

om.

Ill

J>.

Vl 30\

VA

i\^\

V^V^

d\

V*

i.

O*.

(^)

Kor.

59, 9.

() ^- with
fol.

(\0

87&,

1.

r)

Suppl. above.

written above.

_jV>

(^")

Suppl. in marg.
(

("^)

Y ) Here

A)

B L*jd\.
0*) Kor.

(^
66, 6.

om. from

00 B

^\>

to

w\

(^)

resumes on
s

1)

j>\.

8.

4ii\

om.

^4

it

V\

O
\J\ V

J\3

sr^

w.\

vjt

\J\i\9

A&
.

O*-

.->

O
-^

ji^

4)1\

J^-j

vw

Wj

^*J JTU

J^-

li

f.62

ay.

Jp

si

^ ix^

L?

Lp

>^

In marg.

<

r
>

<!_ji\

Jr

&1

__| 3

>

ju*

^^

jfl.

[jo.

villi

u-^0

*
-

-Jl

H)

^A.

J^^_

Atf

^ J\j -Lp

^j

^ c^-^
- ^A

ViVj

*l^

^U
-\

U JU3

\f

ji

\^i\

4.u*

\Jb

-^ oU

^)

Suppl. in marg.

Suppl. above.

(0
(^ Kor.

^
74,

*i^

<i

,<y

(probably a misreading of

89.

r-i>

.v.^

^.jJ=^

r-

(r)

4-ic

f.

4
r>j

corr.

(\)
jC

(^)

In

marg.

in marg.

6y.

J\5

(0 Suppl. in marg.
() Apparently altered to

(^)

In marg.

C)
1

i>Vp.

J.

have

supplied these words which the sense of the passage seems to require.
(V)

Orig.

A*j, but

has been stroked through.

(^)

Kor.

45, 20.

61ft

yw

jy

^
A\

lcM

Ai

jo

^j

O$

*J
V*

^lu:

<dc

iL

0) Suppl. above.
marg.

(0 In marg.

UT

4il\

iaLjj

c-f

VI

^r^-

(i)

In

4\i\

\i

ju

V.

fU>

^
111,

.T^

jv,

4*

Vu

^L

4tt\

\
!

i* 5\ J\i _,

j\~>Y\

u-^jo

marg.

() The
(^)

last letter

Suppl. above.

has been erased.

0)

A.

Jo

ujj

(*)

^.

0) In marg.
*)

O&J

^jj

<u

Suppl. in niarg.

jL-

suppl. above.

Y)

VJ

i,

1\

^L-j

J\3

y ^y
XP-

4)J\

^j j J

J^

J\

315

\o
>

A.i\

4.x

/,

4iP

4J\3

>_.W \

<U)\

,<>^,

Jc JJj

+\yp\ &\ CX^-

k^ O^VU\

.n

V-J^

_^j^

dI)3Af.59&

ut

C\
r

"

^o

(^)
(*)

Jj a_JLj

o , Ic.

suppl. below.

_j

vJ^j

orig.

altered to

U
4.^

4*

4)1 \

(0 4\ added in marg.
(?)

^J3j\j.

reading seems to have been


i

has
corr.

to

J^^i o^v-^.

^.

J^J *^J

A)
(

(^) Suppl.

Y)
(

marg.

C*)

\^-i.^>-

C ) So

J^^. Ibn Sa

Altered to

Or

(^

corr. in

(^)

In marg. ^sJ.

\p\.

^.

in

d,

IV

marg.

above.
(1),

The

173, 20

-U? ^cM

^
C\

4\1\

rl>

^^
3

<-^

A\i\

O \JL
;

(0 In marg.

Suppl. in marg.

u-

(^)
L$>W-

Kor.

15, 43.

*\

l)
(

Suppl. above.

<xP

Af.59a

4\i\
^s>j

J\3

si?

^j

-i^>

uj\

<UJ

Jj^j

liW

411

\j\

o\j

J&

J^jJ

^ ^u^
V ^t ^

M^all JA\

>

t5j

\j\j A-JiSj

^rci^

(1)

l.

iL>

-U^a.J

411

AU>

J\ rU=

Kor.

2,

marg.
but

<Jo.\

corr.

in marg.

by

(0 Kor.

274.

J\

^^
<uo\

dlS

J^i

JU t^v

^3

10^

4ii

<^.

(*)

^Ic

later hand.

6,

Kor.

52.

18,

(f)

W_/>

0) Altered to

(^0 Written above.

ri S-

^J^\.

(")

^^

() Kor.

27.

Y^
^

After

80,

y.

in marg.

1-2.

\f~h>-

)
_

/ J\.

written above,

(^)

Orig.
(

In

4/J^,

Suppl.

/\

V.

411

411

14

JJT-J

(0 Suppl. above.
Suppl. in marg.

(^)

u^S A

^_j\^\

jfi

written above.

)>

OVi

**

Jp L-3j

4. \

\o

VJ

4.J\

J\ij

V\ b-i
>^

4il

(^)

In raarg.

() In marg.

0) Vki?.

^V,

^
(

diU>

jp

r)

Kor. 3,184.

^ J^L

Y) Kor.
33,

72.

,j^

*\

(?)

<^\

Kor.

3,

^j Jr

132.

(M

t*&

4\1\

^
<

A^U

-X.O

c IAC- J\3

J!AJ,

UV\Af.57a

Jp
Jo

A\l\

*
^^"^

O^

In marg. Sj^-^\

^V\ vj

4\S\

r)

Text om.

(^)

Inmarg. iA.

(iUJ\
-

j\

>

vC\
f

-A,

U\\

!^

*L?
Ar

5i

(^)

\^:\

<,

>\

Marginal note:

^aVi^J.

() Kor.

j,

JcjlA Va^VL*

^A5

(0 Suppl. in marg.
18, 64.

0) Kor.

18, 66.

V/ 3c.

*ji\

<:

(^)

Y)

pyj_j iV\ O!A


Suppl. above.

Suppl. above.

^V^

V ^J&
(

l)

A)

in marg.

,j\

Vj\.
Suppl.

rA

ialc A9

JUP

Vc

."\

V.

\j

*\

IL>

y>j

^5

J-

j^^ui^
)

<iY\

da

Snppl. in marg.

Kor.

2, 131,

^jy

.,

4, \

4AP

{J^^

V^

i*\ftU-Vlj

Jc

r)

^\

In marg.

^Oll gjJCj

uj\*.

^^M
(^)

Jc

Suppl. above.

TV

J
4

J\i\

dl;-

V\

4il \

4^J

4AJ\

JuP

J^M, J\3
r

(^)

Altered to
(*)

1G9, 8.

should be

VU

r)

Suppl. in marg.

,yu written above.

&*

J\.

()

0) See Tabari

(^)

Text om. but

cf.

Qushayrl,

corrector has indicated that the reading


I,

3006,

1 foil.

(V)

In marg. SJ^u

ci\ *i

t VSi\

After

UA
marg.

^JLl

dlli
.

in marg.

_xxt.

(o)

(r)

\c

JUi

^^

CX,.

jJ

_.

Snppl. above.

Altered to

V;\

(^)

(1)

In marg.

j>^U.

Suppl. in marg.

(Y)

1)

In
.

J ^)

JU

A;,\

J^

4.i\

4tt

i.

411

9>

V.

>

Y\ i*u.

Lp

J I t^\ Jji; )

ixu

^iJ

Af.546
)Af.5

V,

\*

^-^-.^i

AaP

j Jp
(^)

by a

Suppl. in marg.
later hand.

(0

but

has been stroked through

iJ^
lc

4.,
.,

CU

^ ^ CVi

4\

JT\

Ai\

i-*C-

JcO

Suppl. in niarg.

() Kor.
occur
(A)

0)

the

Diwdn of Abu

in
\.

(^)

J^

but
l-

_5

*&

4U\Af.54a

V\

r )\AJo\.

11, 8.

{}$

[A^]^

iP

(\)

\i\

(^)

Kor.

10, 107.

has been erased.

Atahiya (Beyrout,

(\0 Diwdn,

t.

4il

1886),

p.

Y)

i)

Kor.

2,

147.

These verses

274,

911.

J&j

Vf

^1 V.

4fl\

4,J\

Jp

4jil

4il\

^-

(^)

Suppl. in marg.

() In marg.

(0 Suppl. above.

4ii

4il

irr

tf Ji\

U*j 4\

J*\

Jy

J^j oU

^^

si^s

r*^

^^ ^-V\

4ii\

v_jVft>J

Vx

Jj\

<5y

J
-X*)

Jc

4\ e^
y-j

<

il^

J\3 \fj\

dil

V,

j>^

^^

^,U

VI

(\)

A
C

1)

111

marg.

Vp

r)

(5^-1

added in marg.

corrector has stroked out the words

Altered to

marg.

\^? by later hand.

Y)
(

in marg.

(^)

^AW^

4^V\f* and has written


() Suppl. above.

A Kor.
( )

8,

12.

(1)

diii
<u/>

Vp

above.

Suppl. in

f Oi
l

A^

\J\

ll

li

CP-

4\
c^>

oV

(J^*-J

^^

>

V)

<JVl

i-J-^

^>^

(^)

t5i\x*.

but corrected.
corr.

in marg.

4\

(3

^1^>>.

() Kor.
(

A)

3,

Orig.

73.

Jy

(0 Suppl. in marg.

(^)

0)

In marg.

^\\

o-sx^-i-.

added in marg.

but corrected.
^.>-J^\^

V\

4^- 48 1

Jj\

^>j

(*)

Orig.

Y)
(

cJ>

jit-

j
S^^S^

o/j^.\

ir.

^Vx<T

<Acub

^J^ j

cl

0j?

Cu au,i

-"bc5V\

\r jw

0) Suppl.
)

in

L-.

might be either

(^)

marg.
(^)

>

cannot
or

Altered to

ascertain

the

oyt\iai\

by a

later

hand.

correct form of this nisba:

it

1^

Vi\

A*?
4il\

S>

iL U

^** *Lp 4\
4.-^

4\

"

^^

uS1

<8

>*J

5r

Jj-^)

4JU\

-r

_/^

V^j

l \o

4A1

\)

Suppl. in marg.

() Kor.

56,

1011.

0) The penultimate

(0 Kor.
(1)

letter

9,

101.

Kor.

of

j\

(^)

^./l
9,

is

73.

corr.

Y)
(

\j>.

by

later

Jy

C\J

hand.

(A)

(*-)

J&j

Owi^

Suppl. above.

pointed in the text both as

^->

and Jj

"

HjS ^

<>

& ^^
*^j

o-

a).\

-r

Ji_,

<

JU

<

4J1\

J\i

"^
\

[AJLH

J^

CS

JU

<

JW ^\S vi

ol

^ ^-j

Jy
<

V^ U

JU

l Jlu U\ J
0) Kor.

^*tfW-

4,

87.

(r)

^^ In marS-

^\.
4^J3.

(^)

Y)
(

^^.

Suppl. above,

(i)

5D\

Suppl. in marg.
(

A)

corr, in

marg.

\o

CPU

*U

<

^^

jAii \TfUiJ

<

V-

(^)

The

Suppl. in marg.

C ) jj.
1

original reading seems to


(*)

In marg.

Y ) In
(
marg. ^jj.ai\.

stroked through.

(^)

^1

corr.

have been
^I\i-

r)

() i..J^\ added

A)
(

Orig. Jjjj.

in marg.

Kor.

18, 6.

d^*>..j

but

in marg.

\*

has been

A
I

* Al

.\\_..-

.1

c<-

(**"*

4.

AM

J^

-^]^)

A!!
>

ob U=

*VH

.y

U
\

V-

\I\

4^

JU 4\ [Jp
o ^K^VWi^

villi

x^

Ji-j

->^o

^La

V1\
y,3 J

^i

^Af.506
(\)

^,

marg.

0)

cU5\

^c-.

suppl. in marg. after


I

1)

^U ^\

^"j^U..

r)

added in marg.

written above as variant.

Suppl. in marg.

(^)

In

() In marg. V^C*.

-s

f4

ji

U
o\

jJ^

Ju*

V;\

j.^>-

*L?

<J

<s

A&
ULj A^

4U

^,

j\

\J\

s^>

4JU

411 \

^**^

-3

4jt^J,

i/

^f

U5^ vSJu

JV^

Jl^

9*

U, \jU
0) Suppl.
)

In marg.

in marg.

In marg.

^^ ji

(^)

Snppl. above.

r.

^ Jy #

u
,;ic\

JU U

V-S

j^.

y Vd Caj\
4il\

jW\

A.^l>-

ov.

U^

cl\\

k\ u

VI

^.Ul

JU\

^LJ

4.,

0) c-Jo
)

Kor.

corr.
47, 21.

(0 4\*P\

in raarg.
I

1)

Kor.

20, 113.

suppl. in marg. after

di!j>.

/""^

[5
Af.48&

*1^>

<uj\

J^\

oJ^f-

J
di.

J*

\Va

A.

^
.*\\ \\i

~~~
I

U 5i^

"

L.\\

Kor.

96, 19.

(H

^c-

corr.

written above instead of j.


(^)

In marg.

^_^ftA,

-.U,

Uii

in marg.

() In marg.

:<i

".N

,.\\

*x^0)
\o

,do>

(^)

i\).

Snppl. in marg.

0) In marg.

^-

j^ jlj

.,

u\

\*\>,

SO

yi-aJ\

<3>t

J.>\

dij

oUafJUv.

v-iV,

iSSI

L-jViT"

^ 3^ A? 3^ A

;>i5\

^
jl

<L.

44,.

*J\L

(0 Kor.

0) Snppl. above.
hand.
after

(*)

\xL

wJb,

Kor.
(

corr.

17,

18,

() Kor.

1.

Y ) Kor.
52, 48.

in marg.

(^)

17.

(\\)

4,

(A)

Kor.

16,

Orig.

128.

but corr. by later

0) \j^. snppl. above

113.

Kor.

3,

200.

OO.jA=.

0) Kor.

(^

39, 13.

\\\

i)j

(A)

dj

o^i

UD Jju OP

JiJ\

JU. dius

JJ ^5 Jl
u

*U

0i)

o*

(\)

1)

Kor.

Text
(\\)

^,

but

corr.

oi

above.

() Kor.

93, 5.

has>i9.

JV^,

(^) Kor.

but
48,

corr.

10.

0)

Suppl. in marg.

20, 119.

A ) Kor.

by

r)

later

Kor.

0) Kor.

38, 33.

r)

hand.
8,

17.

(^)

1 ) Kor,
20, 120.
9,

43.

Suppl. above.

n J^
)

Kor.

37, 102.

Y) Kor.
38, 24.

00

Kor.

48, 2.

0?) Kor. 4,08.

suppl. in marg. after

id.

45*!

o--

J\a

U (U)

JU

r.

Kor.

41, 53.

(0 Snppl. in marg.

(^)

Kor.

20,

2627.

(*)

Kor.

94,

() The marginal note ends with two words which


appear to be U* J

1.

^J

0) Kor.

00

Kor.

00

Kor.

26,

7,

88,

87.

(Y)

K or.

66,

8.

184 (quoted
incorrectly).
17.

(^) Kor.

25, 47.

(A)

Ko r.

0) Kor.

94, 6.

(U) Kor.
0*0 Kor.

30,

4,

7.

124.

Kor. has

6,

75.

jj;^.

j
-

4JVI

ulUJ

4il\

w
\

Ja\

\1.\

V.

y
0)
-)

_j,

but

corr.

In marg. U_j.
snppl. above.

in

JCvP

-.-"c

^0 ^^^

marg.

Y)

<u\\.

(A)
>>?.

>*"

>

f^^J

(0 Snppl. in marg.

() C^ written above
(

>

^"

^P -^,

(^)

as variant.

a*^"J

("^)

Kor.

Suppl. above.

Kor.
^8.

^>

12, 108.

.466

(5 A\\

U
Jb

Suppl. above.

(0 In marg.

Suppl. in marg.

Orig. ^j.,
(*)

but

corr.

Text om.

dx>\

by

later hand.

C")

() Suppl. above.

Suppl. in marg.

been altered to
Y)
(

J\ o\k

(iij/\

In marg.

0) The words

and i?-. has been added in marg.


,-^j
A)
(

o.

suppl. above after

AX,\

after

i*j have
<uj).

f
\

>\

uu ;

j\

\, y\ 4

>\

Jj\

\o

v\

^ U*

U\

^,\

Cl oji

JP-

kl^U.

(0 Kor.

4, 84.

(^)

^,>"

In marg.

S>J\.

(^)

(*)

Kor.

4,

j-^- A

85.

f.

\.o

ic

ju-

dUi

yc

[u

]^

\f V\

V.

Suppl. in niarg.
.

(*)

Kor.

(^)

47, 26.

Orig.

Ui

but corr. by later hand.

() ,s.

("

(^)

In marg.

fe

j4*M0 o-jt^j

V.\

L^tJUrfaSj^

AJ*Vl

iou~ Jy* j\

;y

^<C

J^

i***"

JL\

4ii\

JL\

**~

J^

JU

^\

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in

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24, 53.

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is

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to

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Kor.

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98-99.

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by the

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corr. in

title

marg.

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41*1.

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B^L.
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7).

of the next book

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1.

15

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33, 28.

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to

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76, 21.

om.

Jc>.

(^)

uii

^y, J

(A)

0\)

^ ^U.
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23, 64.

JVi.

l)

are suppl. in marg. A.

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B ^yi.

C)
1

Kor.

(H)

64,

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16.

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r)

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for

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27-28.

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83, 25.

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76, 20.

83, 24.

from UL-&.

i5Ji\.

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to

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ic

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cJ,W

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viUi Ji-UaJ^ tj \i3Vl

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A

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23,63.
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83,

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10-11.

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7,158.
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23, 61.

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23, 60.

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adds

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partly obliterated in B.

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in B.

A) Kor.
31, 26.

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Kor.

40, 1.

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39, 19.

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to
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3, 13.

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39, 12.

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(i)

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in

C.e

B ^W^

citation is

has been stroked out by a later hand and the

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r

60) but

A ) Kor.
(
16, 99.

(^) Kor.

J*C\ (n) Jte

added in marg. Text as in B.


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words

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34.

31,

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B yS^l.
B JV5 V^j.

(r) Kor. 7,198.


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18, 27.

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147.
(^)

29,69.

Jtu-

<a\

J ^a;^ k^\,

(\ r )

Kor.

3,

0)

Kor.

33, 23.
\l

140.

r ^)

B^\iU

Kor.

0) Kor.
(^

\jAftW_,

f\^

O1 A
)

J^^

\j>\

Kor.
(rr)

35, 6.

rA ) Kor.
(
79,37-38.

4, 79.

Kor.

6,

(^) Kor.
(H)

Kor.

2, 62.

1)

Kor.

Y) Kor.
5,93.

169.

3,

26.

5,

27, 40.

^\

^Vfcj

Oi^

O^

u A
(

Kor

adds in marg.

32.

J5.

45, 22.

^^

Kor.
(

rv )

\3u

r<

3,

>

182.

B om.

3,

om.

^y^

adds

(\A)
12.

B om.

(!"*)

dlii.

Kor. 42,19.

the rest of the verse.

^W & U^ ^^

(Kor. 79, 39-41).

^y.^^ V^V.

B l%l
Kor.

A) Kor.

73 )-

(^)

Jj~*^ \^^

(\Y)

8, 24).

B om.

<uj

145.

2,

adds in marg.

0?) Kor. 98,4.

(Kor.

Kor.

(?)

Kor. has *^\j.

(\t)
(

2, 38.

B J^iV,.
B adds iVV

Kor.

(r*0

1.

2,

(0 Kor.

2, 38.

2,

Kor.

(r^)

^iy.

Kor.

(^)

J>

OU

**
I

J&\ C\

J\

S^VxsJi

(A

wliich occur in the chapter entitled

<u~ii

last line).

fol. 63&,

0) Kor. 27,60.

B o^.

0)

of the verse.

0^)

^
B
_5

The

Y)

B J&.

r)

^\ oj^.

OOBj^u.

B J^j*.
O^.

JfGj,
Jiks.

text of B

(\i)

^U^V

0^)

B
B

Here

*^o_^\

(?)

Kor. 22,74.

J(^)

^
l^j

(A)

Kor

(*)

35 29

J^
(

J\a

A\i

<j

resumes, without any lacuna, on

fol.

69&,

()

^ B om

^nt
1.

1.

om.

the rest

>

B VikoV\

Vik^>Vl.

J\5.

f.

and ^ has been suppl. in A.


ri
(

oU\^a\U

A)

rf

inserts in marg.

(^

WB
(

^U\

J.

Ji-J\.

Kor.
V^.

5, 53.

jU, ^\

A)

Kor.

r
(

sij\jV\

5, 52.

O B om.

*->Vj

Vi

CU

J^J

^^V
uJ^

\J\

liSl

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>

(r)

dili

\s\

JuJ\
V.

4AJ,\

J^

u-ij

^ jr

jv;

3 j\

A\!\

(\)

Kor.

26,

37,

8182.

Y)
(

B J^jc.

8889.
(*)

r)

A
( )

A9_5-

()

In marg.

)*\s*.
l

is

(^)

(H)

/!

to

yii\

Suppl. in marg. A.

fjfj&A gf ^^B o^^.

om. from

B om.

Ali.

Aii\^i>

Tex t

B Juk.
B

io\>.

the last word in B,

fol.

^L

A- ^Ji

AjV^

0)

B j\^\ o^

00 B
AB

app.

(5 3i\.

43a. Fol. 436 begins


9-y_j

Kor
AJ\.

A proceeds

J^ ji^l

(U) Kor. 10,26.


OY)

(^)

.49.

^\ jj ^ ^^

as in B.

(^)

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f^

0) B
OA)

JV*iV\

Kor. 2,1

om.

B ^5^.

^ r/

liu

<

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Vc

S1

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ro
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>

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j
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()

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l)

B
B

0)

(A)

^.

OA) Kor.
Kor.

50, 36.

^^ &&].

B j^.

In

01^
Kor.

38, 28.

17, 9.

JD

Kor.

(?)

16, 91.

^ ^.^
(1

1)

the final alif has been supplied.

00 B

0) Kor. 15,21.

Kor. 36,11.

00 B

^J.
(

(0 In marg.

Jc>.

om.
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dl>

Kor. 6,38.

(Y)

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B om.
()

4a\

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0) Kor.

00 B

Kor.

4, 71.

c^

(U)

4\ J\S aij

has

x?

for Cr

C^^

J^JP
(

3,5.
.

Y ) Kor.

(^)
2,1.

17,84.

AB jk.
(\)

(^ r )

adds

A ) Kor.
36,1.

B
5

ui

v
OjW

A)

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Jl\

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JU

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^U^
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0)

o^stil
4l\Uf.31a

0)

B ^.

(0

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Y)
(

0)

B Jp

(A)

Altered in

,j.c-.

00 B ^.^
(\0 in marg.

Oi

to

j}\

(j

*$>

om. from

A)

^U^,V\ with

c**-^

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()

()

j^\.

0\)

written above as a variant.

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which seems

to be the reading of B.

B om. from

to

J^V\

<J^

(^)

j>A9.

^Vo but

\^iB.

A^c>\.

(\)
(^

OJ

(^)

B jU_, dl^b

to Ju\jT.

V^ as variant.

0)

B^J.

O^W

(^) Kor. 15,75.

Kor. 51,20.

w B
)

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kJUS)

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hand.

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r)

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1)

a
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Y
( )

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om.

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B oV^lV,

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( )

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later

4^1.

/>

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& y\ JU

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j^

(\)

yJ^

B om.

r)

J*liU.

()

in marg.

(A)

om. from

A
(

B ^j^U,.

in marg.

^L.

^
0)

(^)

app.
A)

<a\.

y \^

\r\>-(

to

0)

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(\)

j^

^JL.

00 B U-,Y\^;
(^)

>

(^)

A-^.

Kor.
(V)

J^..

163.

om.

^ii\. The reading of B

(\0

^
(H)

c-^llaUjb.

(H)

(V)

J^
is

snppl.

doubtful.

^.
O^B^jp.
A ^U^J\.
Y) B om.

^ has been suppl. in A.

adds in marg. SJubllVi


J\o.

7,

j,\.^.

(H) Kor. 57,3.

<

s^

1X5

ew,Ul\

<

jA\-ii,\

tt\

J\

Ji\

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4*

v. 4

B om.

()

()

50,36.

J^
(*0

is

_,_,.

0)
fo=._,\.

B
_>t.

B Jai.

written in

WB
(IY)

0) Kor. 85,3.

jSiW.

after

Jr>j

(I"*)

(0

JS\

**_, ^ii\ J\5.

JutVi.

v
( )

J\i.

00 B u_lc-.

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om. from

to
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om. Os-

as a variant.

om.

>

r )

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(I

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(A)

*)

li.

(1)

Kor.

adds

o^.,.
")

B
^_,.

4*.

t)

ri )

B a^_j which
ijyi\.

IV

<4Ujl>Y\

JW

4il

JV5
<

AB

0) This passage occurs in

written on the margin of

(0

from
(Y)

(\0

J\

0)

A^-J

om.

app.

B om.

to

A.9^iA

44^1 Jc.

Kor. 2,148.

13, 28.

A
( )

(*0

V on

A
)

B J&.

iV.

X,

11) and

p.

also

is

om. from

om. from

B o \.
OA) B

(H)

J\is

A ^.
0) A om.
in A has iVo for i$-.

()

The marginal version

(^)

note

(see

V\

in this place. I give the text according to A.

^>fK^_j.

j\^\.

\jLj.

U\.

Kor.

above

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to

^;\Ja^.

(^)

^xL^ but \yt\j written above.


to
ji.

Jc^
B
j jsJ>

o>-^-

AJy.

^^
(^Y)

Kor

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(\0
-

Jn marg

1(5,

128.

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Jt

JU

iVl

sH

-A,

j\

(
>

<

B J13.

(H

om.
C

1)

J*^.

ginning J\i^ji\ jc

()
(

Y)

JU

4\1\

AB

()

3>.

Here both

and

AiWij

.uj\

y~^\ Ju*j and ending

()

3.

^V>.\

^.*>.

,JA

evidently belongs to the next chapter. It has been supplied in marg.


its

proper place by a corrector (see the following page,

the corrector has written in marg.

J=^
(\\)

JP.
Kor. 89,27.

0)

om.

(\ r )

tt\

Kor.

ex*j

J j^\

13,

28.

1.

to

^->U\
<3

W>^>

<^-

JA^>>

00 B

J\5.
(

\iU

add the passage be

Kor.

2,

262.

1.

).

which

in

Here

10

jV OA
\

^^

(j^y\

v-A,
(j\>

a:

CV\

Jj\

(\)

Jo\.

l>Jo

in

B A*.

(0

om.

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orig.

reading of

0)

as a variant.

but JS- written above.


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for

J.^\

is

(^)

^ r)

^-

U B

cr^ O/i-

()

>j>\.

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A)

om. from

Js*JV,

had

>

tfj>.

orig.

^\

(\)

to

^\y^\j.

00 B
but
<^\j

AB

AJtf

^C-

which

iwajiU but ,_-J-0\ written above.

written above as a variant.

4\

for
o>^i

<^-j.

0*)

was

1)

BU

also appears
(

(^
(^)

Y)

A jfi

AB U\.
B
c5><al\

has been stroked out.


..

+*

li

0)
U<

V,

cr
X,
lu\

ii\

JW

(\)

but
A
( )
(?)

(0

jjU.

(^)

U,

J,^l\\

0)

After

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j\Li\.

written above.

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((1

))

iJfi.

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4\

(i)

Y
( )

has a word which

and a corrector has restored


(^)

B tf.\.

..^ B
1

^rV

is

B
is

om.

JU

A
<\i\

partly obliterated:

suppl. before i\.

this reading in A.

()

ora.

(>

Jj

om. J\3

v.,

Is.

J\5 yai,

\J>U

V.

JW

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W
0)

0*)

B Wji^ OjA.
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() B
0) B
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B

0) B
OY)

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adds

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oy^

^l

to

JW

JWj
A\i\

A)

J*V\.
.

r>

B om.

(V)

(\0

(A)

0*)

lij^.

A ^JU.

but these words have been stroked out.


(

4^,.

^\

jWj

in marg. A.

Suppl. in marg. B.
)

(^)

app. CnOj...

jc

A!>\

1)

in marg.

(^

sjii,

vi

j&

4B

.(4J1\

^
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"

Ji5

"

4)1\

oV

\;\

(0

0)
but

ViJos-

0^)

B a

Oi)A
*

ifj.

written above.

\i.

(f)

T-.^-

00 B
0) B

(*)

\,.

<c;VJi.

l.

(IY)

om.

AB

(A)

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(1)

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marg.
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JV

AB
VJ

OJ

j\5j

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f.26&

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0)

om.

O. o\5S.

()

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in marg.

0)

(^)

J^lil

B UU.

(Y)

B ^^j.
(\0 B W;\
JW.
18, 110.

00 B
(^)
(

om. w\

B o/3

<*.j

^]\ J\5.
(\i)

Jc>.

(*0

^j.

(A)

1>

0)

(^) Kor.

AB ^^i. A

(0

(\\)

W )B adds the remainder of the verse: \Jo\

^\.

^ VVj

0)

Kor. 33,21.

Bom.

Kor. 17,59.

si

Ji*

\o

a.;\

0)

(^
(

Jo

B om. ^\
diii.

A ) Kor.
3^169.

for

^ ^T.

j^\

J\J.

(r)

B om.
C ) Kor.
1

0)
55,46.

B
B

U\

eu~
)

^\

om. UVs

AJ^.

Kor. 24,37.

Y)
(

Jlo

J\B aU\

J,l *

^\
Ai

4tti

->

^^
JU

<a\

-/>

^ (0

oleA/

jrl

oyj:\

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C-VuaM

jl U

5^00 ^

yU\^>

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i.\\

^
(0

marg.

()

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5^jf.

(0 In

om.

A)

after

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to

0)

(H

U.

(^)

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3.
^J

C=H\ follows

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Jo U&* ii-i\ oVa.^

^^U
C5 J.\\

(^)

jU\.

J^ JP

S^\ Jc(?) VuJ.

Jju\\ Jc

om.

<a\

Y ) Altered in
(

0-)

li\
(

r)

to

suppl. in

B ^si.

/J^
U

a-i

Kor. 3,29.

(^)

()

0) B
1

om.

.0)

B om.
B

(Y)

*-

(^ r )

<^^c>

J>.

(0 Kor. 2,160.

Jj.

^.

(^)

J-yjj.

ol

B %_,

fx
A

(^)

(A)
Jc>.

vi^ji.

Oji-XoJ\ but

(*)

B om.

jVk.U\\ added in marg. A.

in marg.
corr.

Bj"^.

<^

in marg.

\J

L-

>

>

J\

AX

^
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1-fy

41
>

JV5 Sj^

U<

^ i^t?

JU

J\i
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Jii

A\

0)

()

^.

(r)

om.

0)
0)

(rr)

o/3 ^J.

B ^l.

dUAi

(^)

A ^J.

JW

JU

\s^^

B di^,

(Y)

has ^\ as a variant.

,3=>_5.

but snppl. in A.

0) B ^Ji.
n B

\J>U

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B J^\

(^BjVSj.
(")

B om. ^\

^^

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A
( )

om.

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(^)

*^

W B ^.

V^.xT U.

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(^)

4^ ^.

OV)

jU

B J\y.

jVi9 v,V\.

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4\

AB

ora.

^\.

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^s-

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Kor.5,59.

4B\

\f -ii-^
\

>

0)BU.
0)

(0

B*^.

00 B

2,182.

(*) The words

i-.^) V\ -^

B yy\.

cm.

-_,

om. from

ij_^3

A)

J^V.

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J.

^\

is

^o

mB^\ki.
^li\ J\5.

to
J\i_,

l)

V.

W
W
()

Ay^\.
O

Of) Kor. 17,59.

56,84.

0V)

Y)

<

jia

B ./i ^J.
Kor.

written over

(^)
i

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o-i^j-

C>)

00

50, 15.

om. from Jlw^\ to

suppl. in marg. A.

^.

()Bom.

B MlX-

Kor.

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B

0"*)

Kor.

r
>

00

;
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^J u fG
jl

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J\^.

JvL,

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dill,

45 j

V.

A)

Ua. JW;(

41) \

JV; \f

JU

V.

a
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JU

^\

*/>

\3_,

l ^U. o.U

0) Kor. 33,52.
has

f]^.j

V^
(U)

(0

V-

JJ

om.

() Kor.

fa.

J\5.

(*)

ji

(^ r )

^
Iii

7,195,

Kor. 50,17.

0)

J>.

om.

(M Kor.

^.

0-)

^.

9, 79.

(V)

Be*-

a later hand has supplied


^,1 before C
in

A.

i)

A ^.

V.

411 \

(^)

l.

Ivor.

(^)

G4, 4.

0) B

adds:

(\Y) ],

\^* Cc

^.

(\A)

Kor.

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(4\\ U^_,

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A.UiJl,

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l jfcA J\f\

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r)

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for

0)

(^)

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J^.

B om.
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iio,

V\

H 4

j^^c

but ur~li\ erased and


5,119.

4B\

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oin.

given above:

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W.

W
*&.

ej

Ui.\.

^^\

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(^)

(j^-

J*** V^jJ\

ui\

written in marg.

()

4e>j\.

^.o,,,.

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(\V)

00 B
(^)

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B
V<iAi^

B om. 4\

has the saying of 3\ii\

jU5i\

Y)

0^)

(with

0)

^^uj..
(

J^j

OJ ^JL^
(

V^.

for

^^

A ) Kor.

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B OVJ.

(^

J^V\ ^JL\.
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j^

(\

r)

A)

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n B
)

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B o\\.

Ai.

J\a

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0)

j.c..

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j^xi.
(

A)

m\ V\
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B Y^.
(^) B
^J.
(\0 B om. from

written above.
is

()

B Ujjj.

tj^.^,.

(0

ON A

suppl. in marg. A-

._j

0)

.^

(^)

ojC ^

but

to

Kor. 5,119.

^l^^.

corr.

.-j.

(Y)

ji-.

(\-)

Jj^j

O^

in marg.

B om.

om>

^ ^j

(^) Kor.
(^)

0)

l*aJ\

^i\ J\5.

9, 73.

A (Sj^
*

B fe

A has

but

^c

j>Vui\

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Ai. vA,

yM

.-AxT

of

<j3\

j\a

J-

>\

Ci,

^. U

<

i,

v\, I; jl\

<

5>

adds in marg.

.(*)

j.

OSj\, 4\ Jl

WBjoJl.
(H)

om.

(*0

KjJ j.

(^) The passage beginning


marg. A.
corr.

by a

(^)
later

A UU\

hand.

0)

u;jVf->\

jJw..
(11)

\r

(0

B O J,

0)

li.

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from

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in marg.

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om.

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161, 17.

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B OA^
(i)

^j-

^-\

(A)

(^)

^Vij.

B ,_9,

(\)

^iy

V^

o^B om

&3J"

00 A

c.

1).

^i"

marg. A.

j^ J^
om. U

^}

1.
4?>,

^.
B

^s

Jc\

(0)

^
(\

r)

ou^

Bom

^JB

^=>

J\5

^
Aen

*LP 4\
Vi

(\)

ol.V,^ jU-V\

in

marg.

(^)

^^9

4
-)

ij\i\

(0 Kor.
written above.

suppl. in marg. before

5,

112.

Kor. has 3\.

() In marg. A-V

(^)

Suppl.

("^)

v.^J

t*

J^
o^
dili

Af.

\T-Vi"

J o

V\

Vl^

i*

Jo

Volc\

L iW
f

,v

^)

In marg.

In marg.
0)

JA*.

which appears to be a variant of


1
I )

So in marg. Text:

suppl. below,

A
( )

x-\j

(0

() Suppl. in marg.

^.

corr.

rj-U)\

by

later

hand.

05

L.
>>

JV;

A.L

JO

\J

CV.

di^

^-^>\

\.

a
(^)

Sup pi. above.

above.
(V)

oj-iU.

C")

Snppl. in marg.

() So in marg. Text:
j-^UV.
(

A)

So in marg. Text: *L\,.

(^)

ic

Kor.

5, 71.

(*)

Snppl.

0) So in marg. Text:
J\ii.
(V

yyU,

^\j&\ jTl

* ^

JuJ\

Jc

^4

^o
r

u^fr J:

^-

U ^J

dJ_^

vdlj

^^

V ^j

iiil\

\j U

V\

^o

^^

^i jjto
J

V^_\i>-j

U\ U*

Ac.

r
fJU*j

<^yb

*p

J,\

>

A.VJ^\ u-)j\3

V^iAs

j ^_/-A
J

j^l yAk\\

[i-i^aji\

Jt

0) So in rnarg. Text:
^.^.UA.

^
(

j5\.

Kor. 18,27.

Y) So in
marg. Text:

00

uiV

added.

<uVO.

"^

AC.

ci\jJ AU\

VC\

^ ^1
^ r^ ^

j,\

(A )

t5^\y.j-

Kor. 18,109.

J,>

v\

V!b

(5^>i

(0 Suppl. above.
()

ti

"i

l)

r>

(5^. ^VJ\ j^Tj ^Jcs

(1 )

A,

(^)

In marg.

Suppl. in marg.

0) Kor. 14,7.

t^

V.

\>

^-

la
1

"

""TVjjJl

\o

\i\i

JL
0) Inserted below.

hand.

(0 Suppl. above.

Snppl. in marg.

() Kor.

^i
(^)
^^-^V>

9, 123.

(^)

added by

later

d)\3 corr. above.

f.

8&

Sl&-

j\

.y *-fyd\ O* fa

<y

ik

^ vV

fM

v>

o\ *

aA

(^)

o-o I,.

(0 So in marg. Text:

Suppl. in marg.

marg. Kor.

50, 36.
(

61

(*-)

Y) In
marg.

Suppl. above.

^IV^.

O^\j.

() Kor.

13, 28.

(^)

Suppl. in

0) In marg.

i*i\

JA\

JiaJ\

^i.^a.J.

u^^j ^JjV^j ^j\j

A.l\jtL-\

^^ ^

^)

^:^

snppl. in marg. after

Suppl. above.

-.

(*)

(0 Corr. to

j^.

In marg.

0) So in marg. Text:

^J.Si

4j^i\j>j

^^

A^.

^^

&}J&$ by

() Text:
V^^l

Y
( )

^^^iVj added by

later

hand.

V/JjU

later

hand.

^ JW JJ3,

oVj\^ J
J>

lS
<j

^^

^3****

-J ^ J \5

1-

JX.^

3c>\

Jx>^\

4a\
J>j

Jc-

4JX.LO

J^

Suppl. in marg.

*jlc

r)

>

>^

[viviV*^

"

>

oUc^
A)

0\j

So in marg. Text:

^3

J **

)-V5

oVa\JU

5>v.l\

(j^>\^\^

^^

Jc O L :J

\i

>\

y>-

ji

>

[Jte]0>

AJ>

JV; *,V

ic\

^s^

i^
^

Suppl. in inarg.
inserted before
o in marg. Text:

(0 So in marg. Text:
Ujj\.

oVWuUo^,

()

^^
( A)

in

*i*w

4>\->\

^^>\s

marg.

*
Jf>j

i LTrJ

erased.

>

4\

*^ai!lj^

0) Kor. 68,4.

So in marg. Text:
\^Ai^.

f.

6&

c.

B \\.

()

but

corr.

B om.

0)

in marg.

but

corr.

S^

in marg.

^j>_5

*l*ll1

tf-

but

corr.

in marg.

(^)

J,VjiJ

Here B has a considerable lacuna extending

V\
^jr>\

J>\

Kor. 39,3.

^\

J,\
r)

(A

fol.

10&,

Suppl. in

1.

(^

1).

marg.

0?)

(*)

<u^.

to the

i.iVo

in

marg.

words \^J\ U-U


written above.

V.

JJi

1 ^

\^.^

(^)

(M

oin.

Y)

om.

in

corr.

V.

marg.

f)

B om.

A)

r)

Here
-^

V/.
\ft!"j

(^)
(\)

but

45Ji\.

OH B jUlj ^b.
B ^.
n B om.
B ^ji/i^,
(

corr,

in

marg.

resumes

(fol.

OY)

1.

(^)

1).

^.

^^ Suppl. in marg. A.

^.

B om.
(^)

36,

{.

B^J^^.

B iJj-^
(^) B
OA)

A-r

<>

JAxJV

3-^1 J^l?

J>-

i\

<oi

^-

x.

v-,

-^

JV5

(^)

marg.

In marg.
(*)

.y^.
V vt

corr.

r)

So in marg. Text:

above.

J
(

Text has

yv^

w^W ^d^,

(^)

Suppl. in

but the word

has been altered. The original reading appears to have been oV*J\,.

A-

f 5&

lU3

u-jV;

J>

_ki.l

jO U^

wu-

4^C>

4^j

"

^J ^-^

^
<u

/j

u\

A.

0) Text:

\o.

r)

Text:

marg.

^>jj.^

0) Suppl. above.

0) In marg.

^W.

(^)

Y)

^,A\\.

(*-)

Suppl. in marg.

Qj
(

A) Kor.

() In
9,

123.

f.

^4

Vjj
.J\
A

bj^

u*5lafe\

^U
*

dl\j
A

**

*Ls ^-

^o ^

4,

A JVL C^.-X/\ (f)

4l.\J

i^Ja>

Ju.

V\

^
"^

Vs (i)

Jp \JuaJ

(^ Kor.

and

J\i.

2,

137.

OVJi>

^p

*_j\j

^ii

(^)

V^

r)

j^\

^,\

written above the line, between

Suppl. in marg.

(^ So in marg. Text:

c-JS Af.

L*.

JW

tii

:j

~>

V-

oU

^A^\

V.

di) J

V.

(\)

l)

Kor. 59,7.

suppl.

above.

r)

dJii

()

o\

J)J

VT suppl.

(t)

^^

suppl. above after oj\.

above as variant of

As\;

JL

,^ sr

uj

Vl,0

"**

Jw

Kor.

(^)

Text

ci\

58, 12.

O^-*

Ivor. 40, 18.

(^)

Kor.

17, 22.

l)

So in marg.

"

\\

*\\

c.

j\

dili

i\

^-A)

C\
f

>

r
-X*i

li
>j

0) In marg.
4?\j*j
of the verse

above

after

is

<dj-

.*

r)

added in marg.

^Lxi

(^)

Jc.

() Kor. 3,16.

(*)

Kor.

Kor. 3,98. The remainder

5, 3.

4,^1 has

been supplied

C ) So in marg. Text: Jc
1

LL.lt.

,3

\o

Ic

So in marg. Text:

^.
Kor. has -\

l
( )

<&

o^.A^

Var. in marg. A^l.

r)

^O

So in marg. Text: U.

() Suppl. in marg.

(^)

0) Kor.

ji

12, 52.

f.

26

j^ial^

^j

0) So in marg. Text:
a^Vf_jI

ext

00

^\J

The words

1)

<i&\

^iV>

after

<J,2..

in marg.

cj^^V

A
( ) Kor.

27, GO.

j>Vw

r)

Ua.j.\

^o

-X5^

>

Suppl. in marg.

() Kor.

c*j
0)

57, 21.

Jwali-a

jU,

A**^ are

So above.

0) Kor.

35, 29.

J6

Jp

SlSU

<irf^\

JiVi\V\^

isejj^a.*^

oj^j

Jc

..

iaiJ Jc.&

MC

\o

^^.i

jc
(Li iJ

(^)

JJi

and so always in A.

Aii^
^i>

r)

jVxi i\

(^)

(^ Here the text of

been torn away.


words ^$1^
f.

56,

1.

j>

p.

M,

1.

0) So in marg. Text:

U^

4\
<^,^

^.^

^^

breaks

the remainder of the pag3

(j-a

has

The words

Several

*(_-

7=

folios

Cf^\

off,

are

^^

<ui\

Jo.

(f.

3a)

having

missing here. Fol. 3b begins with the

J^jf Jj W

in this edition.

^.^

<^lc

are obliterated in B.

*i*^

7>^J

which occur

() Suppl. in marg.

in

on

f.

16

V,.\

JU

iUi

VI

j.

0) This passage
in B.

down

Space

left

to the

blank in A.

should be read here, but \#M


0) The text of
(^)

words -C^Ji

begins here

is

(f.

j\\
CO

j\=>

Cr^jV,

(*)

distinctly written in the


3a).

Y
( )

V-

i$Ji\ 0-

A
( )

is

Perhaps
()

MS.

wanting

om.

^\^.
1

laic

\LaJ\ ti

Uc

<u

in

Jl\

^ Ji

A\\\

>\

.,

Ki

p^o jyi

*\U\

u-J

i r
.

i Y
.

i V
I

v->UxV\

01

11 Y
\

ti\

V.

if.

ir

irr

^\

ii

dlS j o\l\j

^p j

Ujx5\

J u^_ra^\

Jfc\

xvXX-^xj

11*-

^J dio

,$,

fAV

J^
TAA

\c*

uJu?^

(3

^ T

vr.

JU

4.S

r.

r.r

r.?

r.y

Til

rvi
j\

sv\
ryy

1 dilj

iri

j^
\

0.

<V:^^

J^ J

VI

V.

\AV

1V

(3

u-

\1\

j^

(3

*i^>

in

C-

ry

A\i\

^.

4\1\

c->)

JW ^l
JW

n
1A

JW

V.

JW

vr

Vi
<>

vv

Ai

Al

dili

AA

u
J
dil j

4\1\

v.

To

4.^

\>

TA

11
IV
M Aia ^_JU

0V

oy
1.

ir

-**

\Y

al-Sarraj, Abu Nasr


The Kitab al-luma

B?

189
S3

fi l-Ts.sawwuf
!

191-4

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