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Neutrophils

According to the 'Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine," neutrophils are the most
abundant white blood cells, ranging between 2,000 and 7,500 per cubic mm of
blood. About 55 to 75 percent of the total WBC count in the blood is made up of
neutrophils. They play a crucial role in fighting infection. They have a "C" shaped,
segmented nucleus. Neutrophils have a tendency to stick to the blood vessel walls
and block any germs that attempt to enter the bloodstream through an infection or
a wound.
Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes produce antibodies as a part of the immune system response. The
antibodies are secreted into the blood plasma to act against harmful bacteria and
toxins. The antibodies induce the germs to join together in clusters, enabling the
phagocytes to consume them. The limitation of lymphocytes is that they are able to
identify only certain specific antigens in the bloodstream. The number of
lymphocytes ranges between 1,300 and 4,000 per cubic mm of blood, which makes
them the second most largely present cells after the neutrophils.
B lymphocytes are able to release antibodies which are Y shaped proteins that bind
to infected microbes or cells of the body that have become infected.
Antibodies can either neutralize the target microbe or can mark it out for attack by
T lymphocytes.
T lymphocytes
There are a number of different T lymphocytes:
Helper T cells release a protein called cytokines which help to further direct the
response of other white blood cells.
Cytotoxic T cells (also known as natural killer T cells) are able to release molecules
which kill viruses and other antigens.
Memory T cells will be present after the body has fought off an infection and help
the body to deal more easily with any future infection of the same type.
Regulatory T cells (also known as suppressor T cells) help to regulate other T cells to
prevent them targeting the body's own cells.
Monocytes
Monocytes are the biggest in size among the five types of white blood cells. Their
numbers in blood fall between 200 and 800 per cubic mm of blood, accounting for
about 5 to 8 percent of the total WBC count. Monocytes perform the role of tissue

macrophages that eliminate foreign particles and act against the multiplication of
germs that cannot be successfully combated by the neutrophils.

Basophils
As per the Department of Immunology, the Lerner Institute in Cleveland, the
functions of basophils are poorly understood. They are the least numbered white
blood cells, ranging between 0 and 100 per cubic mm of blood, and constitute less
than 1 percent of the total white blood count. Basophils secrete antibodies and
anticoagulants. This limits any hypersensitive reactions within the blood. Basophils
are commonly associated with immediate immune reaction against foreign particles
in the bloodstream.
Basophils are also involved in allergic reactions and are able to release histamine,
which helps to trigger inflammation, and heparin, which prevents blood from
clotting.
Average red blood cell size (MCV)
Hemoglobin amount per red blood cell (MCH)
The amount of hemoglobin relative to the size of the cell (hemoglobin
concentration) per red blood cell (MCHC)

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