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Eksempler p indreproduktrom:

||a||=sqrt(a a)
a a=||a||2
Theorem 3.3
If a and b are any two vectors in either
R2 or R3, then a a=||a|| ||b||cos
The angle between vectors:
=cos-1 a b/(||a|| ||b||)
Prepostion 3.4
Let k by any scalar and a any vector.
1. ||ka|| = |k| ||a||.
2. A unit vector (i.e. a vector of length 1)
in the direction of a nonzero vector a is
given by a/||a||.
projaB=(a b/a a)a
Cross Product: aXb
Result is a vector perpendicular to both
a and b
Magnitude is ||axb||=||a|| ||b||sin, is the
angle between a and b
Magnitude is maximized when a b.
Zero if ab, a=0, or b=0
Anticommutative: aXb=-bXa
Not associative: In general, ax(b+c)
axb + axc and
If a b, then ||axb||=||a|| ||b||
Calculated by setting up a matrix of the
vectors. Think of determinants.
Right hand rules apply.
ixj=k , jxk=i , kxi=j
Definition 6.2
(Matrix addition) Let A and B be two mxn
matrices. then their matrix sum A+B is
the mxn matrix obtained by adding
corresponding entries. That is, the entry
in the ith row and the jth column of A+B
is aij+bij, where aij and bith are the ijth
entries of A and B, respectively.
Properties of matrix addition.
For all mxn matrices A,B, and C we
1. A+B=B+A (commutativity);
2. A+(B+C)=(A+B)+C (associativity);
3. An mxn matrix 0the zero matrix) with
the property that A+0=A for all mxn
matrices A.
Properties of Scalar multiplication.
If A and B are any mn matrices and k
and l are any scalars, then
1. (k+l)A=kA+lA (distributivity);
2. k(A+B)=kA+kB (distributiivity);
3. k(lA)=(kl)A=l(kA).
Properties of matrix multiplication:
Suppose A,B and C are matrices of
appropriate dimensions (meaning that
the expressions that follow are all
defined and that k is a scalar), Then
1. A(BC)=(AB)C;
2. k(AB)=(kA)B=A(kB)
3. A(B+C)=AB+AC;
4. (A+B)C=AC+BC.
The function f is called a potential
function for the vector field. We first
saw this definition in the first section of

this chapter. F dotdrvector is


independent of path if

Change Of Variables
Double integrals.The Jacobian of the
transformation x=g(u,v), y=h(u,v) is

Cylindrical to Cartesian:
Cartesian to cylindrical:
tan = y/x
r= sin
z= cos
x= sin cos
tan= (sqrt(x2+y2))/z
Differentiation in Several Variables:
f:XY, the function f maps the domain
of X to the Codomain Y.
Definition 1.1
The range of a function f:XY is the set
of those elements of Y that are actual
values of f. That is, the range of f
consists of those y in Y that y=f(x) for
some x in X.
Using set notation, we find that
Range f={yY|y=f(x) for some xX}.
Definition 1.2
A function f :XY is said to be onto(or
surjective) if every element of Y is the
image of some element of X, that is, if
range f =Y.
Definition 1.3
A function f :XY is called
one-one(orinjective) if no two distinct
elements of the domain have the same
image under f. That is, f is one-one if
whenever x1,x2X and x1 not equal to x2,
then f(x1) f(x2).
Level curves: f(x,y,z)=c. It traces out a
level(niv), can be used to visualize
functions. Imagine stepping onto a
surface and walking along a path with
constant elevation.
The path you walk on is known as the
contour curve, while the projection of
the path onto the xy-plane is known as
a level curve.
Suppose the function f has partial
derivatives fx and fy defined on an open
region containing (a, b), with fx and fy
continuous at (a, b). Then f is
differentiable at (a, b). This also implies
that it is continuous at (a, b).
Vector-valued functions
Path in Rn:
A continuous mapping of one variable
(i.e, functions x: I RRn, where I is an
Vector field:
A Mapping from subsets of Rn to itself
Propopsition 1.7
If x(t) has constant length (i.e., ||x(t)|| is
constant for all t), then x is
perpendicular to its derivative dx/dt.
Definition 2.2
The unit tangent vector T of the path x
is the normalization of the velocity
vector that is,
For any two paths C1 and C2 in D with
the same initial and final points.
A path C is called closed if its initial
and final points are the same point.
For example a circle is a closed path.
A path C is simple if it doesnt cross
itself. A circle is a simple curve while
a figure 8 type curve is not simple.
A region D is open if it doesnt contain
any of its boundary points.

Vector fields: An Introduction

Definition 3.1 A vector field on Rn is a
mapping F:XCRnRn.
A gradient field on Rn is a vector field
F:XcRnRn such that F is the gradient
of some(diffenrentiable) scalar-valued
function f:X->R. That is, F(x)=f(x) at all
x in X.
The function is called a (scalar)
potential function for the vector field F.
Definition 3.2
A flow line of a vector field F:XCRn->Rn
is a differentiable path x:I Rn such that
That is, the velocity vector of x at time t
is given by the value of the vector field F
at the point on x at time t.
Gradient, Divergence, Curl and the
Del operator.
Types of differentiation operations on
vector and scalar fields
1. the gradient, which turns a scalar field
into a vector field
2. The divergence, which turns a vector
field into a scalarfield.
3. the curl, which turns a vector field
into another vector field.(only defined in
The del operator , is both a differential
operator, and a vector.
=i( /x )+j( /y )+k( /z )
i( /x )+j( /y +)k( /z )f(x,y,z) =
i( f/x )+j( f/y )+k( f/z )
div F= F=
( F 1/x1 )+( F 2/x2 )+( F 3/x3 )
Fn are the component functions of F.
F: x F=
[R/y Q/z, P /z R/x, Q/x P /y]
Memory aid:
Curl and divergence identities:
The Curl of a gradient = 0
The Divergence of curl = 0
Intuitively, the value of the divergence of a
vector field at a particular point gives a
measure of the net mass flow or flux
density of the vector field in or out of that
point. To understand what such a
statement means, imagine that the vector
field F represents velocity of a fluid. If
dotF is zero at a point, then the rate at
which fluid is flowing into that point is
equal to the rate a which fluid is flowing
out. Positiv divergence at a point signifies
morefluid is flowing in than out, while
neagtive divergnece signifies the
opposite. We remark thbat a vector field F
such that F=0 everywhere is called
incompressible or solenoidal.
A vector field F is said to be irrotational if
x F = 0 everywhere.
Gradient fields are irrotational.

An inner product space is a vector space
together with an inner product on it. If the inner
product defines a complete metric, then the inner
product space is called a Hilbert space.
Historically, inner product spaces are sometimes
referred to as pre-Hilbert spaces.
A Hermitian inner product on a complex vector
space V is a complex-valued bilinear form on V
which is antilinear in the second slot, and is
positive definite. That is, it satisfies the following
properties, where Z(line over)denotes the
complex conjugate of Z..
, with equality only if
The basic example is the form

on CN, where

. Note

that by writing

, it is

possible to consider
, in
which case R[H] is the Euclidean inner product
and I[H]is a nondegenerate alternating bilinear
form, i.e., a symplectic form. Explicitly, in C2 , the
standard Hermitian form is expressed below.

A generic Hermitian inner product has its real

part symmetric positive definite, and its
imaginary part symplectic by properties 5 and 6.
A matrix H=(hij) defines an antilinear form,

satisfying 1-5, by
iff H
is a Hermitian matrix. It is positive definite
(satisfying 6) when R[H] is a positive definite
matrix. In matrix form,

and the canonical Hermitian inner product is

when H is the identity matrix.
In mathematics, a self-adjoint operator on a
complex vector space V with inner product
is an operator (a linear map A from V
to itself) that is its own adjoint:
. IfV is
finite-dimensional with a given orthonormal
basis, this is equivalent to the condition that the
matrix of A is Hermitian, i.e., equal to its
conjugate transpose A*. By the
finite-dimensionalspectral theorem, V has an
orthonormal basis such that the matrix of A

First suppose that F is a continuous

vector field in some domain D F is a
conservative vector field if there is a
function f such that F= f . Gradient fields
have no curl.
Multiple integration
Let R be the rectangle {x,y|axb,cyd}
and let f be continuous and nonnegative
on R. Then the volume V under the graph
of f over R is:



f(x, y)dydx = ca f(x, y)dxdy


Can also be done over abitrary, negative

Fubinis theorem:
Let f be bounded on R=[a,b]x[c,d] and
assume that the set S of discontinuities
of f on R has zero area. If every line
parallel to the coordinate axes meets S in
at most finitely many points, then


Preposition 2.7
(Properties of the integral)
Suppose that f and g are both integrable
on the closed rectangle R. the the
folowwing properties hold:
1. f+g is also integrable
2. cf is also integrable on R. Constant
can be moved outside of the integration.
1. and 2. are called the linearity property
of the integral. Changing the order f
integration can be done for Type 3
Definition 2.8
We say that D is an elementary region in
the plane if it can be described as a
subset of R2 of one of the following
Type 1
D={(x,y) | (x)y(x) axb},
where and are continuous on [a,b].
Type 2
D={(x,y) | (y)x(y) cyd},
where and are continuous on [c,d].
Type 3
D is of both Type 1 and Type 2.
Type 4 is then consisting of Type 1-3.

A formula for the double integral in terms

of polar coordinates.

Theorem 4.4
If f is bounded on B and the set of
discontinuities of f on B has zero volume,
then the triple integral exists.
Fubinis theorem also works in R3.




If we look just at the differentials in the

above formula we can also say that


fdA = acf(x, y)dydx = ca f(x, y)dxdy


Suppose that we want to integrate f(x,y)

oveer the region R. Under the
transformation x=g(u,v)y=h(u,v), the
region becomes S, and the integral

This applies to triple integrals as well.

Just expand!
Line Intergrals
Definition 1.1
The scalar line integral of f along the C1
path x is


We denote this integral

x:[a,b]->Rn, denoted

Conservative Vector Fields

Line integrals of a given vector field
depend only on the underlying curve
and its orientation, not on the
particular parametrization of the
Path independence
Definition 3.1
A continuous vector field F has
path-independent line integrals if



F ds = F ds

For any two simple piecewise C1,

oriented curves lying in the domain of
F and having the same initial and
terminal points.
F is a vector, and ds also.
F has path independent line integrals
if the closed line integral around the
curve is 0.



Definition 1.2
The vector line integral of F along

A region D is connected if we can

connect any two points in the region
with a path that lies completely in D.
A region D is simply-connected if it is
connected and it contains no holes.
We wont need this one until the next
section, but it fits in with all the other
definitions given here so this was a
natural place to put the definition.

F dsvector, is


F (x(t)) x(t)dt

be a vector
field on an open and
simply-connected region D. Then if P
and Q have continuous first order
partial derivatives in D and

F,x and x are vectors.

Distinction between ds and ds
In the vector line integral ds should be
though of as a vector quantity (namely,
the differential of position along the
path), whereas in the scalar line integral
the differential term ds is a scalar
quantity (namely, the differential of
Physical interpretation of vector line
Consider F to be a force field in space.

F dsvector, may be taken to


represent the work done by F on a

particle as the particle moves along the
path x.
Triple integral: Volume

the vector field F is conservative

Test to find the potential:
lets assume that the vector field is
conservative and so we know that a
potential function
, f(x,y)
exists. We can then say that,

General Theorems
Line -> Surface.
Let C be a positively oriented, piecewise
smooth, simple closed curve in a plane,
and let D be the region bounded by C. If L
and M are functions of (x, y) defined on an
open region containing D and have
continuous partial derivatives there, then

Theorem 3.2 (Stokess Theorem)

Let S be a bounded, piecewise smooth,
oriented surface in R3. Suppose that S
consists of a finitely many piecewise C1,
simple, closed curves each of which is
oriented consistenly with S. Let F be a
vector field of class C1 whose domain
includes S. Then

A vector field is conservative if xF=0

Theorem 3.5
Let F be a vector field of class C1
whose domain in a simply-connected
region R in either R2 or R3. then F= f
for some scalar valued function f of
class C2 on R if and only if xF=0 at all
points of R.

The weaker condition U*U = I defines an

isometry. The other condition, UU* = I, defines a
coisometry. Thus a unitary operator is a bounded
linear operator which is both an isometry and a

xF dSvector = F dsvector
The total(net)infinitesimal rotation, or
swirling, of a vector field F over a surface
S is equal to the circulation of F along just
the boundary of S.
Gausss Theorem
Also known as the divergence theorem,
Gausss theorem relates the vector
surface integral over a closed surface to a
triple integral over the solid region
enclosed by the surface. Like Stokess
theorem, Gausss theorem can assist with
computational issues, although the
significance of the result extends well
beyond matters of caluclation.
Theorem 3.3 (Gausss theorem)
Let D be a bounded solid region in R3
whose boundary D consists of finitely
many piecewise smooth, closed
orientable surfaes, each of which is
oriented by unit normals that point away
from D. Let F be a vector field of class C1
whose domain includes D. Then

F dSvector = F dV

Let F be a vector field whose components

have continuous first partial derivatives
in a connected and simply connected
region D enclosed by a smooth oriented
surface S.
dS can be written as ndS
By integrating each of these with
Definition 3.4
respect to the appropriate variable we A region R in R2 or R3 is simply-connected
can arrive at the following two
if it consists of a single connected piece.
All curves can be shrunk properly. Without
getting stuck.
Use right hand rule.
we differentiate with respect to x to
get the integrand. This means that the Thumb: direction of normal vector,
Fingers: the positive path.
constant of integration is going to
Closed surfaces. Outward normal n.
have to be a function of y since any
function consisting only of yand/or
constants will differentiate to zero
when taking the partial derivative with
respect to x.
Or by setting components equal we

relative to this basis is a diagonal matrix with

entries in the real numbers. In this article,
generalizations of this conceptare considered to
operators on Hilbert spaces of arbitrary
Unitr operator:
Definition 1. A bounded linear operator U : H H
on a Hilbert space H is called a unitary operator if
it satisfies U*U = UU* = I, where U* is the adjoint
of U, and I : H H is the identity operator.

Surface Integrals

(Parametric surfaces)
When we parameterize a curve we took values of
t from some interval [a,b]and plugged them into
and the resulting set of vectors will be the
position vectors for the points on the curve.
For a surface:
We define:

We can use this to calculate the surface integral