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PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS

(CHE 604)
GROUP PROJECT:
SUCCINIC ACID PRODUCTION PLANT

GROUP NUMBER : GROUP 3


GROUP MEMBERS: MOHD ADIB BIN MOHD NOR

(2010438828)

MUHAMMAD BIN AJMI

(2010823606)

ABDUL FAIZ SAIFUL BIN ABD RAZAK

(2010427046)

NUR HAZLINA BINTI ABD GHANI

(2010481158)

NUR SUHADA BINTI MUSTAFAR

(2010221172)

NOR EKANADIRAH BINTI ABDUL RAHMAN

(2011817088)

NUR SUHAILI BINTI MUHAMAD PUJI

(2011270636)

NORAFIQAH BINTI AZMAN

(2010872226)

NURIILYANI BINTI MAT RADZI

(2010825384)

TABLE OF CONTENT

1.

CONTENT

PAGE

Introduction

Process Description

Equipment Design

15

Economic Analysis

48

Environmental Considerations

75

Plant Layout

95

Summary & Conclusion

98

References

99

Appendixes

100

INTRODUCTION
2

This plant has been designed to produce succinic acid and focused on all aspects that are
important for the production of succinic acid. The plant is located at Bukit Minyak Free Industrial
Zone, Penang and this report will explain thoroughly on the details about the variation of
methods, process selection, the reaction being generated and the description on the production
of succinic acid based on 1000 kg of raw material supplied. Basically, this project had chosen
the fermentation of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens as the method of operation. This
reaction will consume 100% pure carbon dioxide gas at 39 0C and absolute pressure of 1.013
bars. Product specification has been carried out and the result obtained at the end of the
process is purified succinic acid. The environmental impact assessment, ways to control the
pollution, the characteristics and the behaviour of the populace surrounding are also discussed
in this report. This plant considers full safety of overall plant operations starting from the
handling of raw materials until the recovery of final product. The product will be sold to local and
foreign markets and being used as a raw material for other manufacturing purposes.
1.1

Product Description

Succinic acid is a white, odorless solid which categorized under dicarbolxylic acid and diprotic
acid group. Succinic acid has a chemical formula of C 4H6O4 and molecular weight of 118.088
g/mol. Before this chemical is named as succinic acid, it is known as butanedioic acid. Succinic
acid is under organic acid family and has a melting point of 185-188C. This chemical is soluble
in water, ehanol and diethyl ether while it is insoluble in chloroform and methylene chloride.
Succinic acid could be applied in many different fields, such as chemical, food and medicine
industry. In chemical industry, succinic acid is used in the productions of spray paint, dyes, ion
exchange resin, pesticide and many more. In medicine industry, this chemical is used
in the synthesis of sedative, diuretic, vitamin, contraceptive and cancer drugs. It is also used in
foods as seasoning of wine, candy, feed, buffer, and a neutralizing agent.

Figure 1 Structure of succinic acid

1.2

Methods of Manufacturing Succinic Acid

Succinic acid can be manufactured by hydrogenation of maleic acid, maleic anhydride, or


fumaric acid. This process produces good yields of succinic acid. Chemical compound 1, 4Butanediol can be oxidized to succinic acid in several ways. One of the means is by oxidizing 1,
4-Butanediol with oxygen gas in an aqueous solution of an alkaline-earth hydroxide at 90-110
C in the presence of Pd-C component. The second way is by ozonolysis of 1, 4-Butanediol in
aqueous acetic acid or by applying the third way which is by reacting 1, 4-Butanediol with N 2O4
at low temperature.
Succinic acid can also be obtained by phase-transfer-catalyzed reaction of 2-haloacetates,
electrolytic dimerization of bromoacetic acid or ester, oxidation of 3-cyanopropanal, and
fermentation of n-alkanes. Besides, succinic acid can also be derived from the fermentation of
ammonium tartrate.
1.3

The Environmental and Exposure Effect of Succinic Acid

Succinic acid is a component of almost all plant and animal tissues as it is a normal secondary
metabolite and involves in Kreb's cycle. If this chemical released into the atmosphere, succinic
acid may exist in both the particle and vapor phases in the ambient atmosphere. Therefore,
vapor-phase succinic acid will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemicallyproduced hydroxyl radicals that has an estimated half-life of about 6 days. Particle phase
succinic acid will be physically removed from the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition. If
succinic acid is exposed to soil, the succinic acid is expected to have very high mobility in soil
while if released into water, succinic acid may not adsorb the suspended solids and sediments
present in the water. Besides, the potential for exposure of succinic acid into aquatic organisms
is low.
Therefore, hydrolysis will not result in crucial environmental effect since this compound lacks
functional group that hydrolyzes under environmental conditions. Occupational exposure to
succinic acid may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with this chemical at workplaces
where succinic acid is produced or applied. Based on data from Hazardous Substance Data
Bank (HSDB), the data indicates that the general population may be exposed to succinic acid
via inhalation of ambient air, ingestion of food and drinking water, and dermal contact with
products containing succinic acid.

1.4

Exposure Standard and Regulations

This information is obtained from HDSB where these regulations are set by United States Food
and Drug Administration (FDA).

Substance added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe


(GRAS).

Succinic acid used as a general purpose food additive in animal drugs, feeds, and
related products is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good
manufacturing or feeding practice.

Succinic acid is a food additive permitted for direct addition to food for human
consumption, as long as the quantity of the substance added to food does not exceed
the amount reasonably required to accomplish its intended physical, nutritive, or other
technical effect in food, and any substance intended for use in or on food is of
appropriate food grade and is prepared and handled as a food ingredient.

2.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

The process start with the medium containing dextrose and corn liquor is charge into the
reactor. Inside this reactor it is mix with the water and also nutrients. The solution is mix to make
sure that the media is homogenized. After that, it is transfer out from the reactor to the heat
sterilization to make sure that the media is no contaminated by other organisms. In this process
as shown from the process design, we can see that the fermentation broth A.
succiniciproducens is grown in a seed fermentor with a temperature of 39 oC and pressure 1 bar
together with a medium containing dextrose, corn liquor, tryptophan, sodium ions, sodium
carbonate and also carbon dioxide to produce succinate and also water. The byproduct and
unreacted material from this seed fermentation is pump to the waste treatment for further
treatment before dispose into the environment.

Figure 1: Diagram of Media Preparation and Inoculums Development


The succinate and also water then enter the fermentation reactor where in this reactor the
calcium oxide and carbon dioxide is charge in to produce calcium succinate. The calcium oxide
is used as to neutralize the product which allowing the calcium succinate to precipitate. The
stream 12 which contain calcium succinate, succinate and water enter the filtration process by

using microfiltration to removes the succinate. Inside the mircofiltration the filtrate is heated to
80oC to precipitate additional calcium succinate.

Figure 2: Diagram of Filtration Process


The desired succinic acid product is recovered from the precipitated calcium succinate by
acidification with sulfuric acid. In this process, gypsum or calcium sulfate is produce as the
byproduct. This accidification of the calcium succinate is accomplished by slurrying the calcium
succinate with water then with sulfuric acid to precipitate the calcium sulfate followed by a
careful neutralization of the acid with calcium hydroxide.

Figure 3: Diagram of Acidification Process, Slurry Tank and Cation Exchanger


After that, the process will enter the plate and frame filtration to removes the calcium sulfate
from the succinic acid. The filtrate will contain only succinic acid, calcium succinate and also
water. This filtrate product then enter the ion exchange for further purification which sodium

hydroxide and also hydrochloric acid is charge in the equipment to get the final product of
succinic acid.

2.1

PROCESS DETAILS
1. Feed Stream
Stream 1: 900 kg/batch fermentation broth
Stream 2, 18, and 27: 100 kg/batch water
Stream 3: 0.01 kg/batch nutrients
Stream 6: 100 kg/ batch microorganisms
Stream 7: 3018 kg/batch Carbon Dioxide
Stream 10: 10 kg/batch Calcium Oxide
Stream 21: 100 kg/ batch Sulfuric Acid
Stream 23: 148.5 kg/batch Calcium Hydroxide
Stream 31: 191.34 kg/batch Sodium Hydroxide
Stream 30: 99.47 kg/batch Hydrochloric Acid
Stream 33: 210.82 kg/batch Succinic Acid
2. Equipments
1. Seed Fermentation (SFR-101)
2. Fermentation (FR-101)

: Ferment the media to produce succinate


: Do the fermentation process to produce calcium

succinate
3. Microfiltration (MF-101)
4. Vessel Procedure (R-101)
(R-102)

: To filter the calcium succinate from succinate


: To slurrying the calcium succinate with water
: Slurrying and precipitate the calcium succinate

(R-103)
Neutralization (V-101)
P&F Filtration (PFF-101)
Ion Exchange (INX-101)
Heat Sterilization (ST-101)
Fluid Flow ( PP-102)
( PM-101,102,103)
10. Mixing (MX-101)
11. Gate Valve ( GTV- 101,102)
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

with sulfuric acid


: Media preparation
: Neutralize the acidic condition
: To remove gypsum/calcium sulfate
: To recover purified succinic acid
: To sterilize the media before inoculation
: Pump the fluid.
: Mix the by-product.
: To prevent backflow.

Figure 4: Process Flow Diagram of the Production of Succinic Acid

2.2

STREAM TABLE

10

11

12

13

14

3.

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

3.1

CHEMICAL DESIGN
In order to develop a commercially succinic acid by the batch fermentation, several

important fermentation and product purification criteria need to be accomplished. The


fermentation of succinic acid should be able to produce higher yield production concentration by
using inexpensive raw material and nutrients .The fermentation broth contains cells, proteins
and unwanted materials. The efficient recovery and purification need to be considered for the
production of higher concentration of succinic acid.
3.1.1

Material Balance
The material balance is fundamental to the control of processing, particularly in the

control yield of the products. It is an important part in the process design. The first material
balances are determined in the exploratory stages of a new process that improved during the
pilot plant experiments. During the succinic acid production A.succiniproducens, were
conducted in a low cost media that contain carbohydrates; dextrose (C 6H12O6), other nutrients,
such as corn steep liquor; trytophan (C11H12N2O2) and water are used as a raw material with
basis of raw material of succinic acid production is 1000 Kg/batch. The carbon dioxide is supply
to ensure that the process in the anaerobically fermentation process.
The law of conservation of mass leads to what is called a mass or a material balance:

Mass In = Mass Out + Mass Stored


Raw Materials = Products + Wastes + Stored Materials

Table 3.1.1 below provides a summary of the overall material balances and figure 3.1.1 is the
process flow diagram of our plant in producing succinic acid. Our final product will be the
succinic acid. From the table below, dextrose will represent the fermentable carbohydrates in
molasses. These quantities of these compounds depend on the chemistry of the recovery
process and cannot be reduced without changing the recovery technology. The large amount of
wastewater is worth noting.

15

COMPONENT
A.
succiniprodu

INITIAL

INPUT

OUTPUT

FINAL

0.00

100.00

1.00

0.00

Ca Hydroxide

0.00

148.50

49.50

0.00

0.00

0.00

6.98

0.00

6.98

0.00

10.00

10.00

0.00

Carb. Dioxide

0.00

6164.92

5921.86

1.06

CaSO4

0.00

0.00

214.31

0.00

Corn Liquor

0.00

585.00

35.00

0.00

Dextrose

0.00

315.00

216.00

0.00

0.00
242.000
214.31
550.000
99.000

0.00

99.47

99.47

0.00

0.00

0.00
6.24
1.89

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
2.78
0.85

0.00
3.46
1.05

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00

191.34

191.34

0.00

0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.01
0.00
0.00

0.01
4.40
214.31

0.00
0.00
0.00

Sulfuric Acid

0.00

100.00

1.00

0.00

Tryptophan
Water
TOTAL

0.00
0.00
8.13

0.00
1792.06
9506.29

0.00
2540.06
9508.85

0.00
0.00
5.57

0.00
4.40
214.31
99.000
0.00
748.00
0.00

Calcium
succina
CaOxide

Hydrochloric
ac
Na2CO3
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Sodium
Hydroxide
Sodium ions
Succinate
Succinic Acid

Table 3.1 Summary of the overall material balance

16

OUT-IN
99.000
99.000

3.1.2 Chemical Reaction

a) Seed Fermentaion P-2 / SFR-10


A chemical reaction occurs in the process fermentation is the inoculum development.For this
unit procedures, the fermentation process of this invention is carried out at a temperature
between about 25C and about 45C (Datta, Glassner et al. 1992). The optimum growth of the
A. succinicproducens organism is about 39C (Datta, Glassner et al. 1992).The fermentation of
this process is carried out under anaerobic conditions in a medium which has been strelized
before by heat.In this reaction A.succiniproducens will act as Reaction-Limiting Components
and we extent to achieved 99.00% from this reaction. The pH in this fermentor is adjusted to to
6.4 by adding 3M Na2CO3 (Datta, Glassner et al. 1992) .The overall stream seed fermentation
mass is shown below:
Table 3.2 The summary stream for the seed fermentation reactor.
Stream Table
Temperature (c)
Pressure (bar)
Vapor fraction
Mass flowrate (kg/batch)
Volumetric Flowrate (L/batch)
Corn liquor
dextrose
A.succinicproducen
Water
Sodium ion
Trytophan
Na2co3
Carbon Dioxide
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Succinate

6
7
INLET
25
25
25
10.116
1.013
1.013
0
3
3
1000.011
100
3081.723
1002.219 100.532 1713134
Component Flowrates (kg/batch)
585
315
100
100
0.0077
0.0011
0.0022
-

17

3081.723
-

8(a)
39
1.014
3
252
254.28

9
11(a)
OUTLET
20
39
1.013
0.579
19
3
2841.15
1090
1553493
1101.454

35
216
1
-

0.0077
0.0011

650
-

0.0022
2839.141
1.53269
0.46529
-

440

Mass Balance at SuperPro

18 A. Succiniproducens + 44 Carbon Dioxide + 100 Corn Liquor + 18 Dextrose 80 Succinate


+ 100 Water.

Calculated Mass Balance

Corn liquor+ Dextrose+ Biomass + Na+ + Trytophan + Na2CO3 + Co2 + water


Na+ +
Trytophan + Na2CO3 + CO2 + N2 + O2 + H2O+ Succinate + Corn liquor + Dextrose+ Biomass

585 kg/batch + 315 kg/batch + 100 kg/batch + 0.0077 kg/batch + 0.0011kg/batch+


0.0022g/batch+ 3081.723 kg/batch +100 kg/batch

0.0077 kg/batch + 0.0011 kg/batch +

0.0022 kg/batch + 2839.141 kg/batch + 1.53269 kg/batch + 0.46529kg/batch +650 kg/batch +


440 kg/batch+35 kg/batch +216 kg/batch + 1 kg/batch

Mass In = Mass Out

4181.734 kg/batch

4181.734 kg/batch

18

b) Fermentation P-1 / FR-10

A.succiniciproducens fermentations of carbohydrate (dextrose) were conducted in batch


fermentors.For this unit procedures, succinate will act as Reaction-Limiting Components and we
extent to achieved 99.00% from this reaction. In this process carbohydrate that containing
substrate is fermented with succinate.Table 3.1.2.1 shows the summary stream for the
fermentor reactor.

Table 3.3 The summary stream for the fermentation reactor.


Stream Table

11(b)

Temperature (c)
Pressure (bar)
Vapor fraction

39.01
1.529
3

13
INLET
25
1.013
3
3083.19
4

10
25
1.013
3

Mass flowrate (kg/batch)


1090
10
Volumetric Flowrate
1101.45
(L/batch)
8
1713952 3.448
Component Flowrates (kg/batch)
Water
650
Nitrogen
Oxygen
3083.19
Carbon Dioxide
4
Carbon Oxide
10
Calcium succinate
Succinate
440
-

12(a)
14
OUTLET
39
20
1.014
1.013
3
19
3094.34
1090
2
1101.45
4
1690594
650
435.6
4.4

Mass Balance at SuperPro

The fermentation mass stoichiometry (reaction) is as shown below:


56.00 Succinate 56.00 Calcium Succinate

19

1.24916
0.37922
3082.71
4
10
-

Calculated Mass Balance

Water + Succinate+ CO2 + CO

Water + Calcium Succinate+ Succinate+N2 + O2 + CO2 +


CO

650 kg/batch + 440 kg/batch + 3083.194 kg/batch + 10 kg/batch


650 kg/batch + 435.6 kg/batch + 4.4 kg/batch +1.24916 kg/batch + 0.37922 kg/batch
+ 3082.714 kg/batch +10 kg /batch

mass in = mass out

4182.94 kg/batch

4184.3438 kg/batch

* The mass balance is not equal maybe due to the presence of side reaction inside the
reactor

20

c) Vessel Procedure P-5 / R-102

The desired succinic acid product is recovered from the precipitated calcium succinate by the
acidification with the sulphuric acid followed by filtration to remove the calcium sulfate which
precipitate.The fermentation mass stoichiometry (reaction) is as shown below:
Table 3.4 The summary stream for the vessel reactor (acidification process).
Stream Table

20

21
INLET

Temperature (c)
37.81
25
Pressure (bar)
10.605
1.013
Vapor fraction
3
3
Mass flowrate (kg/batch)
1178.99
100
Volumetric Flowrate (L/batch)
1190.856
54.687
Component Flowrates (kg/batch)
succinic acid
Water
746.0422
CaSO4
Sulphuric acid
100
Calcium succinate
432.9477
-

22
OUTLET
37.45
4.319
3
1278.99
1046.394
214.3091
746.0422
214.3091
100
4.3294

Mass Balance at SuperPro


100.00 Calcium Succinate 50.00 CaSO4 Succinic Acid
For this unit procedures, calcium succinate will act as Reaction-Limiting Components and the
extent to achieve is 99.00% from this reaction.

21

Calculated Mass Balance

Water + Calcium succinate + Sulphuric acid Succinic acid + Water + CaSO4 + Calcium
succinate + Sulphuric acid

746.0422 kg/batch + 432.9477 kg/batch + 100 kg/batch 214.3091 kg/batch + 746.0422


kg/batch + 4.3294 kg/batch + 100 kg/batch + 214.3091 kg/batch

mass in = mass out

1278.9899 kg/batch

1278.9899 kg/batch

22

d) NEUTRALIZATION PROCESS P-7 / V-101

Adding excess of sulfuric acid in the (P-5/R-102) vessel procedure is followed by the
neutralization of the excess acid with 148.5 kg/batch calcium hydroxide. Thus ,the stream, than
goes to the filtration at (P-6/PFF-101) to filtrate any unwanted succinic acid at the filter cake with
the 100 kg/batch of hot water .The succinic acid aqueous also contain some cation and anions
,thus its use ion exchanger to stabilize the charge ions without removing the succinic acid .The
succinic acid production in the ion-exchange (P-9/INX) is 210.819 kg/batch with the volumetric
flow is 152.826 L/batch.The fermentation mass stoichiometry (reaction) in the neutralization
process is as shown below:
Table 3.5 The summary stream for the vessel reactor (Neutralization process)
Stream Table

22

23

24
25
OUTLET
35.68
25
1.013
1.013
3
0
1427.49
0
1212.55
4
0

INLET
Temperature (c)
37.45
25
Pressure (bar)
4.319
1.013
Vapor fraction
3
3
Mass flowrate (kg/batch)
1278.99
148.5
Volumetric Flowrate
1046.39
(L/batch)
4
63747
Component Flowrates (kg/batch)
214.309
214.309
succinic acid
1
1
746.042
944.042
Water
2
2
Calcium succinate
4.3294
4.32948
Succinate
Sulphuric acid
100
1
214.309
214.309
CaSO4
1
1
Calcium Hydroxide
148.95
49.5

Mass Balance at SuperPro


50.00 Calcium Hydoxide + 50.00 Sulfuric Acid 100.00 Water

23

Calculated Mass Balance


Succinic acid + water + Calcium Succinate + Sulphuric Acid + CaSO4 + Calcium Hydroxide
Succinic Acid + Water + Calcium Succinate + Sulphuric Acid + CaSO4 + Calcium Hydroxide

214.3091 kg/batch + 746.0422 kg/batch + 4.3294 kg/batch + 100 kg/batch + 214.3091 kg/batch
+ 148.95 214.3091 kg/batch + 944.0422 kg/batch + 4.32948 kg/batch + 1 kg/batch +
214.3091 kg/batch + 49.5 kg/batch

mass in = mass out

1427.9398 kg/batch

1427.9398 kg/batch

24

3.2

MECHANICAL DESIGN OF EQUIPMENTS

3.2.1

Introduction

This chapter covers the mechanical design of the succinic plant production. The purpose of this
chapter is to detail out the design information of major equipment used in the bioproduction of
succinic acid. The summary of the design information of the equipment are tabulated. They
include the parameter of equipment sizing and mechanical design of major equipment.
3.2.2

Mechanical Design of Fermentor

Sample Calculation
3.2.2.1 Design Pressure
The seed fermentor will designed based on maximum operating pressure. The design pressure
that will be used is in 5%-10% range above the maximum operating pressure. For safety
purpose, the design pressure 10% above the maximum operating pressure was used. The
process flow was designed using SuperPro Designer and equipment report stated that the
design pressure that was used for fermentor is 1.52 bar.
Pdesign = 1.52 bar X 0.1N/mm2 = 0.152 N/mm2
1 bar
3.2.2.2 Design Temperature
The design temperature of the equipment depends on the temperature of the material used in
the process. The design temperature is chosen 10% above the maximum operating temperature
to avoid spurious operation during minor process upsets and for safety reasons.
Operating temperature = 39C
Design temperature = 1.1 x 39C
= 42.9 C

25

3.2.2.3 Material Used


The material of construction of the fermentor was chosen to be Stainless Steel 316 (SS316).
The chemical composition of SS316 includes 16% chromium, 10% nickel and 2% molybdenum
(Anderson, 2012).The construction of fermentor should implemented the usage of materials that
is anti-corrosive as the metal part in fermentor will corrode due to the varying pH levels and
salinity of medium contained in the fermentor for long-term usage (Manjady, 2013). SS316 gives
better overall resistant corrosion in chloride environment compared to other stainless steel
material used for bioreactor construction (Atlas Steels Australia, 2013). In addition, SS316 also
a heat resistance material and it can withstand high temperature condition especially during
sterilization process.
3.2.2.4 Maximum Allowable Stress
Table

3.2:

Mechanical

properties

of

material

used

for

reactors

construction

(Sinnott&Towler,2009).
Design temperature =
42.9C X 9/5 + 32

= 109.22F

Based on Table 3.2,


using interpolation;
Maximum allowable stress at 109.22F = 19.80ksi X 6.8948 N/mm2 = 136.52 N/mm2
1ksi
At 42.9C, the maximum allowable stress is 136.52 N/mm2
3.2.2.5 Welded-Joint Efficiency
26

The joint efficiency that is chosen was 1.0. The type of welds used for this joint efficiency is
double-welded butt joints. This joint efficiency is selected because the strength of the joint will
be as strong as the virgin plate and the risks can be reduce as any possible defects are cutting
out and reconstructed (Sinnott&Towler, 2009).
3.2.2.6 Corrosion Allowance
Corrosion allowance is defined as the additional thickness of metal added to allow for material
lost by corrosion, erosion or scaling (Sinnott&Towler, 2009). The estimation of corrosion
allowances cannot be specified for all conditions as corrosion itself is a complex phenomenon.
Moreover, corrosion allowances may also be neglected if there is past experience regarding the
same design of reactor that proves or shown no corrosion that occurred.
For this fermentor, there is no corrosion allowance that will be used as Stainless Steel 316 has
superior corrosion resistance.
3.2.2.7 Minimum Wall Thickness
The determination of minimum wall thickness is essential as it will clarify whether the reactor
can withstand its own weight and the weight of additional loads. For a cylindrical shell, the
minimum wall thickness that is required to withstand the internal pressure during the production
of succinic acid can be calculated using the following equation:
From ASME BPV Code Sect. VIII D.I. Part UG-27;
tdesign =

Where;

Pi x Di
2 fJ1.2 Pi

t = Thickness (mm)
f = Maximum Allowable Stress (N/mm2)
J =Joint Efficiency
Di = Diameter (mm)

Pi = Internal Pressure (N/ mm2)

27

t=

t=

Pi x Di
2 fJ1.2 Pi

( 0.152 N /mm2 )( 840 mm)


N
0.152 N = 0.468 mm
2 136.52
(1.0)1.2(
)
mm 2
mm 2

Wall thickness = 0.468 mm~1mm


A much thicker wall is needed at the base of the vessel to enable the vessel to tolerate wind and
dead-weight loads. As a trial, the column is divided into five equal sections and the wall
thickness is increased by 1mm as the section further downwards as shown in Figure 3.2.

1.0mm
2.0mm
3.0mm
4.0mm
5.0mm

Figure 3.2: Cross sectional view of design vessel.


tavg = (1+2+3+4+5)mm = 3mm
5
3.2.2.8 Heads and Closures
The ends of cylindrical vessels are closed by heads as shown in Table 3.3. According to
Sinnott&Towler (2009), there are four principals types of heads used in industry. There are:

Flat plates and formed flat heads


Hemispherical heads
Ellipsoidal heads
Torispherical heads

The standard torispherical heads was chosen to be used as the head of the fermentor as it is
the most commonly used closure for equipment that operating at pressure less than 15bar. This

28

process only used operating pressure of 1.52bar. The minimum thickness of torispherical head
was calculated as follows:
Flat plates and Hemispherical

Ellipsoidal

formed

heads

flat heads

Torispherical heads

heads
Diagram

Uses

Covers for
manways
The channel

Head closure for high pressure


vessels

covers of heat
Shape

Strength

exchangers
Flange-only

Domed

heads

Optimum thickness Major and minor

Knuckle to crown

ratio = 7/17

radius

Require
plates

for

thick

The

high

shape
Capable

or

pressures
large

head, Domed head,

diameter

Domed head,

axis ratio = 2:1

0.06
of Capable

strongest Capable
withstand

withstand

of pressure
twice 15bar.

ratio
of

>
resisting

the pressure up to 15bar.


above

the pressure of a

reactor.

torispherical
head
Price

of

the

same thickness
Expensive

Cheapest

Cheaper

than Cheap yet the price will

hemispherical

increased

heads

increase

as
of

the

operating

pressure.
Minimum
thickness

t=De

CPi
fJ

t=

PiDi
4 f 1.2 Pi

29

t=

PiDi
2 fJ0.2 Pi

t=

PiRcCs
2 fJ+ Pi (Cs0.2)

Table 3.3: Comparison of head types (Sinnott&Towler, 2009)


Rc = Di = 840mm
Rk = 6% of Rc = 6/100 X 840mm = 50.4mm
Cs = (3 + (Rc/Rk)) = [ 3+ (840mm/50.4mm)] = 1.77

t=

PiRcCs
2 fJ+ Pi (Cs0.2)

0.152 N
)(840 mm)(1.77)
mm 2
t=
0.152 N
2( 136.52 N /mm 2)(1.0)+(
)( 1.770.2)
mm2
(

t=0.83 mm

*Flat plates and formed flat heads;C= a design constant, depends on the edge constraint; De=
nominal plate diameter (L); f= maximum allowable stress (ML -1T-2); J= joint efficiency;
Hemispherical Heads& Ellipsoidal Heads: Pi= internal pressure(ML-1T-2); Di= internal
diameter (L);Torispherical Heads; Rc= crown radius(L); Cs= stress concentration factor for
torispherical heads=1/4(3+Rc/Rk)
3.2.2.9 Total Height of Fermentor

Rk

Rcc

30

Figure 3.3: Torispherical heads (Types of Vessel Head, 2013).

The height of the dome is equal to the crown radius. Therefore,


Height of dome = 840mm
Total height of fermentor = Height of cylindrical vessel + 2(Height of dome)
= 2.51m + 2(0.84m)
= 4.19m
3.2.2.10

Weight loads

According to Sinnott&Towler (2009), there are five major sources of loads. They are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Pressure
Dead weight of vessel and contents
Wind
Earthquake
External loads due to piping and attached equipment

However, this process will neglect one source of loads that is earthquake. Earthquake loads can
be neglected as there is no earthquake ever occurs in Malaysia.
3.2.2.10.1

Dead weight of vessel

Vessel weight
According to Sinnott&Towler (2009), the approximate weight of cylindrical vessel with domed
heads for steel vessel can be calculated by using equation as stated below;
Wv = 240 CvDm(Hv + 0.8Dm)t
Where;

Wv = Total weight of shell, excluding internal fittings


Cv = A factor to account for the weight of nozzles, manways, internal supports,
etc; which can be taken as
= 1.08 for vessels with few internal fittings
= 1.15 for distillation columns, or similar vessels.
Dm = Mean diameter of the vessel = (Di + (t X 10-3)(m)
Hv = Length of cylindrical section (m)
t = Wall thickness(mm)
31

Dm = Di + (t X 10-3) = 840mm + 3mm = 843mm = 0.843m


Wv = 240 CvDm(Hv + 0.8Dm)t
= 240 (1.15)(0.843m)[2.51m + 0.8(0.843m)](3X10-3m)
= 2.22kN
Weight of insulation material
Insulation material = Mineral Wool
Density

= 130 kg/m3

Thickness

= 50mm (assume)

Volume of insulation material = X 0.84m X 2.51m X (50X10-3m) = 0.33m3


Load due to weight of insulation material = Vg
= (130kg/m3)(0.33m3)(9.81m/s2) = 0.42kN
1000
The total weight of insulation material needs to be double to cater for insulation fittings.
Total load due to weight of insulation material = 0.42kN X 2 = 0.84kN

Total dead weight of the vessel = Vessel weight + Total load due to weight of insulation material
= (2.22 + 0.84)kN
= 3.06kN
3.2.2.10.2

Wind load

The local wind speed at Bukit Minyak Industrial Zone, Penang is 15mph (24.14km/h).
Area of the vessel that projected to wind = 2 r h = 2 (0.42m)(2.51m) = 6.62m2
Wind pressure, Psf=( x air x v2wind x Cd)/A
= [ x 1.25kg/m3 x (6.706m/s)2 x 0.8]
13.25m2
32

= 1.70N/m2
Mean diameter of vessel = 0.84m + 2(0.003m + 0.05m) = 0.946m
Loading per linear meters, Fw = 1.70N/m2 x 0.946m
= 1.61 N/m
Bending moment at the bottom of the vessel;
Mx = Fw Hv2/2 = [1.61N/m x (2.51m)2]/2 = 5.07N.m

3.2.2.10.3

Analysis of stress

Circumferential stress

PDi (0.152 N / mm 2 )(840mm)

12.77 N / mm 2
2t
2(5mm)

Longitudinal stress

(0.152 N / mm 2 )(840mm)
6.38 N / mm 2
4(5mm)

PDi
L
4t
=

Dead weight stress

3.06 10 3 N
0.23 N / mm 2
(840mm 5mm)5mm

Wv
( Di t )t

w
=

wis a compressive stress and has a negative magnitude.

Bending stress
Do= 840 mm + 2(5mm) = 850mm

33

M Di
5070 Nmm 840mm

t
5mm 0.0018 N / mm 2

9
4
I 2
2
1.18 10 mm

I = /64 (Do4-Di4) =

/64 [8504-8404] mm4= 1.18x109mm4

L w b (6.38 (0.23) 0.0018) N / mm 2


6.1518 N / mm 2

Resultant longitudinal stress

Upwind stress

L w b (6.38 (0.23) 0.0018) N / mm 2


6.1482 N / mm 2
Downwind stress
12.77N/mm2

h=6.152
N/mm2

12.77N/mm2

h=6.152 h=6.148
N/mm2
N/mm2

Upwind stress = (12.77 6.152)N/mm2

h=6.148
N/mm2

Downwind stress = (12.77 6.148)N/mm2

= 6.618N/mm2

= 6.622N/mm2

12.77N/mm2

12.77N/mm2

Criteria 1
The maximum allowable design stress for SS316 at 42.9C is 136.52N/mm 2. Both upwind and
downwind stresses are below the maximum allowable stress for SS316 material. Therefore, it is
safe to specify the wall thickness to be 5mm for the bottom-most part of the vessel.
Criteria 2

34

t
Do

cbs 2 10 4

2 10 4

5mm
2
117.65 N / mm
850
mm

Critical bending stress, cbs

w b (0.23 0.0018) N / mm 2 0..2318 N / mm 2


Maximum compressive stress

Therefore, maximum compressive stress is less than the critical bending stress. The column will
NOT buckle under wind load and dead loads.
3.2.2.10.3

Vessel support

According to Sinnott &Towler (2009), the notable criteria that must be observe in order to
choose the method to support the vessel are size, shape and weight of the vessel; the design
temperature and pressure; the location and arrangement of the vessel and internal and external
fittings and the accessories of the vessel. Normally, saddle support is used for horizontal vessel
while skirt support is suitable to be used for vertical vessel. The design of the thickness of the
skirt must be sufficient to ensure that the skirt is able to withstand the dead-weight loads and
bending moment with the exclusion of vessel pressure that subjected to the vessel. For the
design of fermentor in this process, the material of construction of the skirt material is plain
carbon steel using straight skirt support for the vessel.
3.2.2.11

Properties of skirt support

Type: Straight skirt support (s = 90)


Material of construction: Plain carbon steel
Conditions: Ambient temperature and pressure
Maximum Allowable Design Stress (plain carbon steel) = 130 N/mm2
Modulus of elasticity, E = 200,000 N/mm2
Skirt support diameter, Ds = Di = 0.84 m

35

Refer to Figure 13.23(Sinnott&Towler, 2009), by interpolation;


Skirt support height = 0.60m
As a first trial, the skirt thickness was taken as the same as the bottom section of the vessel,
11mm.
Bending moment at the base of the skirt

1
1
Mx Wx 2 (1.62 N / m)( 2.51 0.60) 2 m 2 7.83 Nm
2
2

The maximum dead weight of vessel

(0.84m) 2 2.51m 1000kg / m 3 9.81m / s 2 13.65kN


4
Weight of water in vessel =
The maximum dead weight of vessel = (3.06+ 13.65)kN = 16.71kN

4M x
( Ds t sR )t sR Ds
Bending stress in the skirt, bs =

4(7.83 10 3 Nmm)
(840mm 5mm)(5mm)(840mm)
=
=

0.0028N/mm2

ws

Dead weight stress in skirt,

ws (test )

Wtotal
( Ds t sR )t SR

36

16.71 10 3 N
(840mm 5mm)5mm
= 1.26N/mm

ws (operating )

Wv
( Ds t sR )t SR

3.06 10 3 N

840mm 5mm 5mm


= 0.23N/mm
s(compression) = bs + ws(test) = 0.0028N/mm2+1.26N/mm2
= 1.2628N/mm2
s(tensile) = bs -ws(operating) = 0.0028N/mm2-0.23N/mm2
= -0.2272N/mm2
The skirt thickness should not exceed the following design criteria:
Assume J=1;
Criteria 1
s (tensile)

<

fJ sin s

0.2272N/mm2< 130 (1)( sin 90)


0.2272N/mm2< 130 N/mm2
Criteria 2
s (compression) < 0.125 E (tsR/ Ds) sin
1.2628N/mm2< 0.125(200,000N/mm2)(5mm/840mm)(sin 90)
1.2628N/mm2<148.81N/mm2

37

It is observed that both criteria are met. The design thickness of the skirt support is 5mm.

3.2.2.12

Agitator design

Agitation provides mixing of the phases in the reactor to keep the cells in perfect homogenous
condition for the microbes to grow and produced desired products (Sakshat Virtual Labs, 2013).
These conditions are met by providing bulk fluid and gas phase mixing, air dispersion, better
oxygen transfer and heat transfer as well as uniform environment inside the vessel (Design of
Fermenter and Kinetics, n.d.). The comparisons between different types of impeller are shown in
Table 3.4.

Table 3.4: Comparison between different types of impeller (Mirro&Voll, 2009)


Rushton Impellers

Pitch-blade Impeller

Gentle Marine-blade
Impellers

Blades

Flat and set vertically


along agitation shaft

Flat and set at 45

Leading face- flat/concave


Back sides- convex

Types of
flow

Unidirectional radial flow

Simultaneous axial and


radial flow

Axial

Impeller

Diagram

38

Oxygen
mass
transfer
rate
Cells
Example
of cells

Low

High

High but lower than pitchblade impeller

Not shear-sensitive

Shear-sensitive cells
Filamentous bacteria and
fungi

Shear-sensitive cells
Filamentous bacteria and
fungi

Yeast, bacteria, fungi

The type of impeller chosen to be used for this fermentor is pitch-blade impeller because it
create better mixing inside the vessel and the mixing process that occur will not damage the
cells.
On the other hand, baffles are essentials as they can prevent vortexing inside the vessel. The
existence of vortex inside the vessel may create unfavourable operating conditions as it may
change the center of gravity of the system thus increase the power consumption of the process
(Sakshat Virtual Labs, 2013). Baffle width is one-tenth the tank diameter. In addition, the
positions of the baffles are offset from the wall at a distance equal to one-sixth the baffle width
because of the presence of heat transfer jacket that is water jacket (Mixing and Agitation,
n.d.).Furthermore, the position baffles from the tangent line at the bottom of liquid level also
extended to one half of impeller diameter.

Dimensions of agitator

39

D/10

Figure 3.4:
The dimentions of vessel.
H=Height of liquid level, Dt= Tank diameter, d=Impeller diameter (Mixing
and Agitation, n.d.).

Dt 0.84m

0.28m
3
3

Impeller diameter

H 2.51m

0.42m
6
6

Impeller height above vessel floor

Dimpeller
4

0.28m
0.07 m
4

Length of impeller blade

Dimpeller
5

0.28m
0.056m
5

Width of impeller blade


Number of impellers = 3
40

Number of impeller blades = 4


Distance between 2 consecutive impellers = 0.28m

Dtan k 0.84m

0.084m
10
10
Width of baffle

Wbuffle
6

0.084m
0.0084m
10

Position of baffles from wall

Wbuffle
2

0.084m
0.042m
2

Position of baffles from tangent line of bottom floor

3.2.2.13

Cooling jacket design

Jacket provides the circulation of water of constant temperature to maintain the temperature
inside bioreactor. The maintaining of temperature is done through indirect contact method. The
effective maintaining of temperature inside bioreactor is achieved by providing adequate heat
transfer area at the contact area of jacket and the desired water temperature is constantly
circulated throughout the process (Sakshat Virtual Labs, 2013). There are three types of jackets
that are commonly used in industry. They are spiral baffle jacket, half pipe coil jacket and dimple
jacket. The comparison between these jackets is shown in Table 3.5.
Table 3.5: Comparison of jackets used in bioreactor (Reactor (CSTR) Design Steps and
Calculations, n.d.)
Types of
jackets

Spiral baffle jacket

Half pipe coil jacket

41

Dimple jacket

Diagram

Cost
Heat transfer
rate
Pressure

Less expensive

Expensive

Expensive but cheaper


than half coil jacket

High

High

Low

Up to 10 bar

Up to 70 bar

Up to 20 bar

The type of jacket that is used in this fermentor design is spiral baffle jacket because it is
cheaper compared to the other types of jackets and it gives low pressure drop. Furthermore, the
heat transfer rate using this jacket is high thus, the desired temperature inside the fermentor can
be controlled effectively.
MECHANICAL DESIGN SPECIFICATION SHEET
FERMENTOR
Identification:Fermentation process
Item No
: P1/FR-101
No. Required: 1

Function: To grow A.succiniproducens at its exponential phase by supplying adequate nutrients


and optimum conditions for the growth of the microorganisms inside the fermentor to harvest
desired products at the end of the batch process that is succinic acid.
Operating Condition
Temperature
= 39C
Pressure
= 1.52 bar
Volume
= 1381.11L
Specification
Types of Reactor
= Fermentor
Material construction
= Stainless Steel 316
Vessel diameter
= 0.84 m
42

Vessel length
Domed head

= 2.51 m
= Torispherical heads
Vessel Support
Type
= Skirt

Dimen
sions
(m)
V
0.60

mm
Y
0.15

C
0.74

E
0.31

J
0.245

G
0.095

43

t2
8.8

t1
5.4

Bolt
diam
20

Bolt
holes
25

Figure 3.5: Dimension for skirt support (Sinnott&Towler, 2009).

3.2.3 Heat Sterilization Specification


MECHANICAL DESIGN SPECIFICATION SHEET
HEAT STERILIZATION

Identification: Heat sterilization


Item No
: P-19/ST-101
No. Required: 1

Function:

To sterilize the media for fermentation process in fermentor.


Operating condition

Temperature
Throughput

140 C
334.07 L/h
Specification

Material of Construction
Tube length
Tube diameter

Stainless steel 316


18.66 m
0.98 cm

44

3.2.4 Seed Fermentor Specification


MECHANICAL DESIGN SPECIFICATION SHEET
SEED FERMENTOR

Identification: Inoculum development


Item No
: P-2/SFR-101
No. Required: 1

Function:
Operation:

To grow A.succiniproducensto the density near the end of their


exponential phase.
Batch
Mechanical Design

Material of Construction
Vessel Temperature
Vessel Pressure
Vessel Diameter
Total Height
Vessel Volume
Average wall thickness
Type of insulation
Domed head type
Thickness of head
Total height of fermentor
Dead weight of vessel:
Dead weight of Vessel
Weight of insulation
Total dead weight
Wind load:
Bending moment
Analysis of stress:
Cicumferential stress
Longitudinal stress
Dead weight stress
Bending stress
Vessel support:

Stainless Steel 316


39 0C
1.52 bar
0.90 m
2.69 m
1,694.67 L
3 mm
Mineral wool
Torispherical
0.89 mm
4.49 m
2.55kN
0.38kN
3.51kN
6.19N.m
13.68 N/mm2
6.84 N/mm2
0.179 N/mm2
0.0019 N/mm2

45

Type of skirt
Material of construction
Skirt thickness
Skirt height

Straight (s=90)
Plain carbon steel
5 mm
0.63 m

Agitator specifications
Types of impeller
Impeller diameter
Impeller height above vessel floor
Length of impeller blade
Width of impeller blade
Number of impellers
Number of impeller blades
Distance between 2 consecutive impellers
Width of baffles
Position of baffle from wall
Position of baffle from tangent line of
bottom floor

Pitch-blade impeller
0.30 m
0.45 m
0.075 m
0.06 m
3
4
0.30 m
0.09 m
0.015 m
0.045 m

3.2.4 Microfiltration Specification


MECHANICAL DESIGN SPECIFICATION SHEET
MICROFILTRATION
Identification: Microfiltration
Item No
: P-3/MF-101
No. Required: 1

Function:

To remove precipitated succinate from slurry.


Specification

Material of Construction
Size (Capacity)
Number of available cartridge slots

Stainless steel 316


13.63 m2
1.00 m

46

3.2.5

Vessel Procedure Specification


MECHANICAL DESIGN SPECIFICATION SHEET
VESSEL PROCEDURE

Identification: Vessel Procedure


Item No
: P-5/R-102
No. Required: 1

Function:
Operation:

To recover desired succinic acid product by acidification process by


addition of sulfuric acid.
Batch
Mechanical Design

Material of Construction
Vessel Temperature
Vessel Pressure
Vessel Diameter
Total Height
Vessel Volume
Average wall thickness
Type of insulation
Domed head type
Thickness of head
Total height of fermentor
Dead weight of vessel:
Dead weight of Vessel
Weight of insulation
Total dead weight
Wind load:
Bending moment
Analysis of stress:
Cicumferential stress
Longitudinal stress
Dead weight stress
Bending stress

Stainless Steel 316


39 0C
1.52 bar
0.89 m
2.22 m
1,384.15 L
3 mm
Mineral wool
Torispherical
0.876 mm
4.00 m
2.17kN
0.80 kN
2.97 kN
4.16N.m
13.53 N/mm2
6.76 N/mm2
0.218 N/mm2
0.0016 N/mm2
47

Vessel support:
Type of skirt
Material of construction
Skirt thickness
Skirt height

Straight (s=90)
Plain carbon steel
5 mm
0.625 m

Agitator specifications
Types of impeller
Impeller diameter
Impeller height above vessel floor
Length of impeller blade
Width of impeller blade
Number of impellers
Number of impeller blades
Distance between 2 consecutive impellers
Width of baffles
Position of baffle from wall
Position of baffle from tangent line of
bottom floor

3.2.6

Pitch-blade impeller
0.30 m
0.37 m
0.075 m
0.06 m
3
4
0.30 m
0.089 m
0.015 m
0.0445 m

Neutralizer Specification
MECHANICAL DESIGN SPECIFICATION SHEET
NEUTRALIZER

Identification: Neutralization
Item No
: P-7/V-101
No. Required: 1

Function:

To neutralize excess sulfuric acid.


Operating condition

Pressure
Temperature

1.52 bar
25 C
Specification

Material of Construction
Volume
Diameter
Height

Carbon steel
581.33 L
0.67 m
1.67 m

48

3.2.7

P&F Filtration Specification


MECHANICAL DESIGN SPECIFICATION SHEET
P&F FILTRATION

Identification: Plate and Frame Filtration


Item No
: P-6/PFF-101
No. Required: 1

Function:
Specification
Material of Construction
Filter area

3.2.8

Stainless steel 316


1.25 m2

Ion Exchange Specification


MECHANICAL DESIGN SPECIFICATION SHEET
ION EXCHANGE

Identification: Ion exchange


Item No
: P-9/INX-101
No. Required: 1

Function:

To stabilize charged ions without removing succinic acid product.


Specification

Bed height
Column height
Column diameter
Bed volume
Column volume

4.00 m
8.00 m
3.87 m
47, 146.35 L
94, 292.69 L

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
49

4.1

Introduction

Economic analysis is one parts of the production in order to estimate the economic feasibility.
Succinic acid has a wide range of applications in areas such as pharmaceutical, food and
agricultural and chemical industries. Presently a major share of succinic acid is derived from
petroleum feedstock. Based on the worldwide price index of succinic acid, refer to the demand
of world it has been mentioned that the global succinic acid market going to reach 144.7
thousand tons by 2015, according to New Report by global industry analysts. The objective is to
perform economic analysis to estimate whether that the cost of production is profitable or loss
regarding to world profit. [San Jose, CA (Vocus) August 18, 2010]
4.2

Estimation of Capital Cost

Capital cost is the cost associated with the construction of a new plant or modification to an
existing chemical manufacturing plant.
4.2.1

Module Costing Technique

Module costing technique is a common technique used to estimate the cost of a new chemical
plant and for making preliminary cost estimation. Deviation from these base conditions are
handled by using multiplying factors that depend on the following:

Specific equipment type


Specific system pressure
Specific materials of construction

Bare module cost is the sum of the direct and indirect costs:

C BM =C oP F BM
Where CBM = bare module equipment cost: direct and indirect
FBM = bare module cost factor

C oP

= purchased cost for base conditions

50

log
( 10 A )2
C p 0 =K 1+ K 2 log 10 A+ K 3
Where:

K1, K2, K3 can be obtained from appendix table A.1 of Analysis, Synthesis and Design

of Chemical Processes, Second Edition by Richard Turton, Richard C. Bailie,Wallace B.Whiting,


Joseph A.Shaeiwitz, pg 916
A is the capacity (kW or m3 or m2)
4.2.2

Pressure Factors for Process Vessels

( P+1 ) D
+ 0.00315
2 [8500.6 ( P+1 ) ]
F P , vessel=
0.0063
For vessel > 0.0063 m
If FP, vessel is less than 1 (corresponding to t

vessel

< 0.0063 m), then FP, vessel = 1. For pressure less

than -0.5 barg, FP, vessel = 1.25. This equation is strictly true for case when thickness of the vessel
wall is less than D, vessel in the range D= 0.3 to 0.4.
4.2.3

Pressure Factors for other Process Equipment


2

log 10 F P=C 1+C 2 log 10 P+C 3 (log 10 P)

Bare Module and Material Factors for Heat Exchangers, Process Vessels and Pumps
o

C BM =C P F BM =C P (B1 + B2 F M F P )
The value of the constants B1 and B2 are given in Table A.4. in Appendix A in Analysis,
Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Third Edition, Richard Turton. Table A.5 shows
the Equation for Bare Module Cost for Equipment Not covered by Table A.3 and A.4.
4.2.4

Effect of time on Purchased Equipment Cost

To relate the price of equipment from previous year to the current or present year can be
calculated as follows:
51

C2 =C1

I2
I1

Where:

C = Purchased cost

I = cost index
n

= 1.18

C BM ,i

K1

K2

K3

4.1052

-0.4680

-0.0005

CTM

i=1

Sample calculation:Reactor
Diameter

= 0.88 m

Height

= 2.19 m

Material

= Stainless steel (SS316)

Pressure

= 1.0 bar = 0.0 barg

Purchased Equipment Cost, C0p


From Table A.1,
Equipment

Equipment

Type

Description

Reactor

Volume

Jacketed
agitated

= ( /4) D2 H
= ( /4) x (0.88)2 x (2.19)
= 1.33 m3
= 1.4 m3

log10 Cp0

= K1 + K2 log10 A + K3 (log10 A)2


= 4.1052 - 0.4680 (log10 1.4) - 0.0005 (log10 1.4)2
= 4.14

Cp0

= $13733.21
52

Capacity,

Min

Max

Units

Size

Size

0.1

35

Volume,
m3

= $13800

From Table A.3


Equipment type

Equipment Description

Bare Module factor, FM

Reactor

Jacketed agitator

3.1

Bare Module Cost, CBM


CBM = C0p FBM = $13800 (7.892)
= $108382.5462
C1 = CBM = $108400
C2

= C1 (I2/I1)
= $108400 (575.4/394)
= $158282.5307

C2

=$158300

Fixed capital investment, CTM


n

C BM ,i

CTM

= 1.18

CTM

=1.18 ($2072648.713)

i=1

= $2445725.481
CTM

= $2446000

Equipment

Capacit
y

Cp ($)

Fp

FM
53

FBM

FBM

CBM ($)

CBM ($)

CE
(2

Pump/Valve

(kW)

PM-101

0.01

PM-102

0.01

PM-103

0.01

Reactor/Ves
sel

(m3)

SFR-101

1.7

FR-101

1.4

R-101

1.4

R-102

1.4

R-103

1.2

ST-101

1.5

V-101

0.6

Tower

(m3)

INX-101

100

Filter

(m2)

MF-101

14

PFF-101

1.5

7892.2348
48
7892.2348
48
7892.2348
48
13733.216
7
12385.953
3
12385.953
3
12385.953
3
11410.936
49
40864.187
3
7891.3600
12
66680.676
92
59269.161
75
21867.448
07

2.3

4.995

2.3

4.995

2.3

4.995

3.1

7.892

3.1

7.892

3.1

7.892

3.1

7.892

3.1

7.892

1.2

3.1

9.0204

4.07

4.07

4.07

4.07

1.65

1.8

75.055
4

8.14

TOTAL

Table 1: Estimation of Capital Cost

54

39421.713
07
39421.713
07
39421.713
07

*
*
*

3
3942

3942

3942

108382.54
62
97749.943
46
97749.943
46
97749.943
46
90055.110
75
368611.31
52
32117.835
25

32117.835
25

3211

271390.35
51

271390.35
51

2713

97794.116
89
39361.406
52
1419227.6
55

*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
303508.19
04

1083

9774

9774

9774

9005

3686

9779

3936

1419

4.3

ESTIMATION OF MANUFACTURING COSTS

In order to estimate the manufacturing cost, the information that provided on the PFD, an
estimate of the fixed capital investment and an estimate the number of operator required to
operate the plant. There are many factors that will influence the cost manufacturing chemicals.
4.3.1

Factors Affecting the Manufacturing Cost


1. Direct manufacturing costs
- It is represent the operating expenses that vary the production rate. The manufacturing
cost related to the demand of the product.
2. Fixed manufacturing costs
- Do not effect by the level of the production. It depends of the changes in production
rate such as property taxes, insurance and depreciation.
3. General Expenses
- The cost related the management level and administrative activities. It not directly
related to the manufacturing process
Direct Cost
-raw material

Fixed Cost
-property taxes

General Expenses
-administration cost

- waste treatment

-insurance

-financing

-utilities

-depreciation

-research

-operating labor

-Plant overhead cost

-operating supplies
Table 2: Factors Affecting the Manufacturing Cost
Cost of Manufacturing
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Fixed capital investment(FCI)


Cost of operating labor(COL)
Cost of utilities( CUT)
Cost of waste treatment(CWT)
Cost of materials(CRM)

Cost of Manufacture (COM): Direct Manufacturing


55 Costs (DMC) + Fixed Manufacturing Costs (FMC)
+ General Expenses (GE)

With depreciation:

COM = 0.280FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CUT


+ CWT + CRM)

Without depreciation:

COM

= 0.180FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CUT +

Fixed Cost Investment


Based on the calculation of the fixed cost investment,
Fixed investment cost, FCI @ CTM = 2446000
n

CTM =1.18

CBM , i
i=1

CTM = 1.18(2073000)
CTM= $ 2446000
Stream Factor
In order to calculate the yearly cost of raw materials or utilities, the fraction time that the plant is
operating in a year must be known. This fraction known as the stream factor where,

Stream factor, f =

number of day operate


365

*The value of factor in range of 0.96 to 0.90.


Based on the number of day operate = 330 days

330
Stream Factors, f = 365

56

= 0.9041
4.3.2

Cost Operating Labor, COL

In order to estimate the cost operating labor, the average hourly wage of an operator is required.
The cost of labor is broken into direct and indirect costs. Direct costs include wages for the
employees physically making a product, like workers on an assembly line. Indirect costs are
associated with support labor, such as employees that maintain factory equipment but don't
operate the machines themselves. When manufacturers set the price of a good they take the
cost of labor into account. This is because they need to charge more than that good's total cost
of production. If demand for a good drops or the price consumers are willing to pay for the good
falls, companies must adjust their cost of labor to remain profitable. They can reduce the
number of employees, cut back on production, require higher levels of productivity, reduce
indirect labor costs or reduce other factors in the cost of production. The technique used to
estimate operating labor requirements is based on data obtained from five chemical companies
and correlated by Alkayat andGerrard.
Based on the Alkahayat and Gerrard method:

COL = f NOL annual salary

NOL = (6.29 + 31.7P2 + 0.23Nnp) 0.5


*When refer to the equation:
NOL = Number of operator shifts
P = Number of processing steps involving particulate solids
Nnp = Number of non-particulate processing steps

Based on the Alkahayat and Gerrard method:


*Estimation of operating labor requirements for the succinic acid process using the equipment
module approach:
57

Equipment Type
Vessels

Number of Equipment
1

Nnp
-

Reactors

Pumps

Filter

Valve

Mixing

Heater
1
1
*Pumps, valves and vessels are not counted in evaluating Nnp
Table 3: Estimation of Operating Labor Requirement for Succinic Acid Process
Therefore, the total Nnp= 5 + 3 + 1 + 1
= 10
Number of operator needed for one equipment
Salary Per Month
Operator

= $1500

Manager

= $4500

Assistant Manager

= $3000

Engineer
= $4000
Table 4: Total Salary/Month

Assumptions to estimate the cost operating:


Working day for 1 operator

= 4 shift per operator per days

Plant operates

= 3 Shift per day

Plant running

Operation hour

24 hours per day

= 330 days per year 24 hour = 7920 hours per year

1 year

= 47 weeks per year

1 year

= 330 days per year

Maintenance
Table 5: Assumptions to Estimate The Cost Operating

= 5 weeks per year

58

Therefore, the number of operators per shift, NOL


NOL = (6.29 + 31.7P2 + 0.23Nnp) 0.5
NOL = (6.29 + 31.7(1)2 + 0.23 (10))0.5
NOL= 6.34 operator per shift
For number of plant operating
330 days/year3 shift/days = 990 shift/year
For single worker
330 days/ year 1 weeks/day=47 week/year
Thus,
47 weeks/year 4 shift operator per week =188 shift per operator per year
Thus,

FOL=

990 shift
year

operater
188 shift

=5.27 per operator


Hence operating labor
= FOL Number of operator per shift
= 5.81 6.34
=36.8~ 37
Cost of operating labor, COL = FOLLabor salary
= 37 13000
= $ 48100

59

4.3.3

Cost of utilities, CUT

Basically, the costs of utilities are directly influenced by cost of a fuel. The cost also related to
the direct impact of fuel gas, oil, coal, electric power, steam, cooling water, process water, boiler
feed water, instrument air, inert gas and refrigeration costs. To determine the utility cost can be
quite complicated and the true cost of such streams is often difficult to estimate in a large
facility. For the approach, assume the capital investment is required to build a facility to supply
the utility. Therefore,the method used to estimate operating labor requirements is based on data
obtained from five chemical companies and correlated by Alkayat andGerrard.
By using Alkahayat and Gerrard method:
Pump utility cost
Electric power=(Output Power)/Efficiency

Once the electrical power is being calculated the yearly cost is being calculated.
Incremental Economic analysis
The calculated overall utilities cost is then must be adjusted to corresponding total operating
cost for the assumed of the life of the plant which in our case is 10 years. This is done through
the incremental economic analysis. This is due to the fact that the utility cost of each year
remains constant even though inflation continues to rise over time. Assume that the discount
rate is 7%. The analysis can be evaluated from:

P/A= ([(1+i)]n-1) / (i [(1+i)]n )


Where:

I = discount rate
n = no. of years

The calculated value is then multiplied by the yearly cost to obtain the accumulated cost over
the 10 years period of time.

60

Pump
Shaft work = 0.01 kW
Utility

Description

Cost $/GJ

Cost $/ Common Unit

Electrical substation Electric distribution


110 V
220 V
440 V 16.8 $0.06 kWh
Table 6: Data of Pump Utility
Assume that the efficiency of 90%,

Electrical power =

output power
efficiency

Electrical power

= 0.01/ 0.9
= 0.011

Therefore, yearly cost for electrical substation = 0.0110.06243650.9041


= $ 5.227

61

Slurry Tank
Utility DescriptionCost $/GJ

Cost $/ Common Unit

Other Water High purity water


a. Process use
b. Boiler feed water(available at 115C)
c. Potable (drinking)
d. Deionized water
Table 7: Data of Slurry Tank Utility
Based on the equation,

Ca
Cb

Aa
Ab

Thus,

Cb =

649
100

0.067

Cb = $0.043/1000kg
Hence, the yearly cost for other water =0.043 24 365 0.9041
= $340.56

62

$0.067/1000kg
$2.45/1000kg
$0.26/1000kg
$1.00/1000kg

Mixing
Utility

Description

Cost $/GJ

Waste water

a. primary(filtration) $41/1000m3

treament

b. Secondary (filtration + activated

Cost $/ Common Unit

$43/1000m 3

sludge
$56/1000m 3

c. Tertiary ( Filtration, activated sludge


and chemical processing)
Table 8: Data of Mixing Utility
Thus,

Cb =

293.010
1000

56

Cb = $16.41/1000kg
Hence, the yearly cost for other water =16.41 24 365 0.9041
= $ 129965.82
Therefore, total utility cost, CUT = $ 5.227 + $340.56 + $ 129965.82
= $130311.61
Discount rate for the 10 years period with assumption of 7% discount rate

(1+i)n1
= i(1+i)n

P/A

(1+0.07)101
0.07(1+0.07)10
= 7.0235

63

Thus, yearly cost accumulated cost over 10 year period,


CUT = $130311.61 7.0235
CUT = $915243.6
4.3.4

Waste treatment cost, CWT

When dealing with chemical it related to treat the waste and by-product being produced from the
process. As environmental regulations continue to tighten, the problems and costs associated
with the treatment of waste chemical streams will increase. In recent years there has been a
trend to try to reduce or eliminate the volume of these streams through waste minimization
strategies. Nowadays, it has be create a strategies involve utilizing alternative process
technology or using additional recovery steps in order to reduce or eliminate waste streams.
Although waste minimization will become increasingly important in the future, the need to treat
waste streams will continue. The calculation of this cost should be done with extreme caution

Production of waste = 1,602,583 kg/year

Utility Description

Cost $/GJ

Waste Solid Waste Gaseous

Cost $/ Common Unit

$200-2000/tonne

Table 9: Cost of Waste Treatment Utility


Waste treatment cost, CWT = 1,602,583 kg/year 200 /1000
= $ 320,516.6

64

4.3.5

Raw material cost, CRW

It is important to estimate the raw material cost according to the current price in industry. Raw
material cost is a cost of material or substance used in the primary production or manufacturing
of a good. The assessment of raw material cost and the estimation of the potential market size
clearly indicate that thecurrent petroleum-based succinic acid process will be replaced by the
fermentative succinic acid production system in the foreseeable future. The raw materials cost
can be calculated by multiplying the amount produce per year with the cost per unit
weight.Succinic acid could well become an important raw material for the plastics industry if it is
possible to produce the acid biotechnologically and cost-effectively.Succinic acid, an
intermediate product in the metabolism of many organisms, could become an interesting
alternative for the petrol-based production of 1, 4-butanediol. New biotechnological methods
could considerably increase the appeal of this biomolecule if they turn out to be more
economical than traditional methods. Therefore, it is important to determine the cost material to
know the currently price that profitable to the process.
Material

Mass flow rate tonne/year

Unit Cost($)

A. Succiniproducens

2.7

259

Calcium Hydroxide

40.1

40

Calcium Oxide

2.7

0.9

Carbon Dioxide

1664.53

12.01(20L-40L)

Corn Liquor

157.95

0.00093

Dextrose

85.05

Hydrochloric acid

26.857

0.095

Na2CO3

0.00059

180

51.66

18.36

0.00210

Sodium Hydroxide
Sodium ions(intermediate)
Sulfuric Acid

27

0.090

Tryptophan

0.0003

Water

483.86

25 per month
65

Table 10: Cost of Raw Materials and Chemicals

A.succiniproducens: CRW

= 2.7259 0.9041
= $ 632.24 per year

Calcium Hydroxide:

CRW

= 40.1 40 0.9041
= $ 1450.18 per year

Calcium Oxide:

CRW

= 2.7 0.9 0.9041


= $ 2.20 per year

Carbon Dioxide:

CRW

= 1664.53 12.01 0.9041


= $ 18073.87per year

Corn Liquor:

CRW

= 157.95 0.00093 0.9041


= $ 0.133 per year

Dextrose:

CRW

= 85.05 2 0.9041
= $ 153.79 per year

Hydrochloric acid:

CRW

= 26.86 0.095 0.9041


= $ 2.306 per year

Na2CO3:

CRW

= 0.00059 180 0.9041


= $ 0.096 per year

Sodium Hydroxide:

CRW

= 51.66 18.36 0.9041


= $ 857.52 per year

Sodium ions:

CRW

= 0 per year (because form intermediate)

66

Sulfuric Acid:

CRW

= 27 0.090 0.9041
= $ 2.196per year

Tryptophan:

CRW

= 0.0003 1 0.9041
= $ 0.00027 per year

Water:

CRW

= 483.86 2.083 0.9041


= $ 911.216 per year

Therefore, total material cost, CRWt

= $ 632.24 per year + $ 1450.18per year + $ 2.20 per year


+ $18073.87 per year + $ 0.133 per year + $153.79 per
year + $ 2.306 per year + $ 0.096 per year + $ 857.52 per
year + $ 2.196 per year + $ 0.00027per year + $ 911.216
per year
= $ 22085.75per year

67

4.3.6

Cost of Manufacturing, COM

*With depreciation

COM = 0.280FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23 (CUT +CWT + CRM)

COM

=0.280($ 2446000)+2.73($48100)+1.23($130311.61+ $320,516.6+ $ 22085.75)


=$ 1397877

*Without depreciation

COMd =0.180FCl + 2.73COL+ 1.23(CUT+CWT+ CRM)


COMd = 0.180($ 2446000)+2.73($48100)+ 1.23($130311.61+$320,516.6+$ 22085.75)
=$ 1153277

68

4.4

BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS

Break even analysis must be determined to get the minimum production of succinic acid that
required to cover back our production cost. Break even analysis is done by calculating fixed
cost, unit selling, price and variable cost with particular reference to the break-even point, to
show the effect on break-even point changes. This requires an estimation of fixed costs (FC),
variable cost (VC) and total revenues (TR).
[Sources: Chemical Engineering Design, Fourth Edition by R.K. Sinnott]

Breakeven Point = Fixed Operating Costs/ (Unit Selling Price - Variable Costs)

4.4.1

Fixed cost (FC)

Fixed cost (FC) is the costs that do not vary with the production rate. This type of cost is actually
all the bills that need to be paid throughout the entire plant operation. Such examples are:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Maintenance
Operating labor
Supervision
Laboratory cost
Plant overheads
Capital changes
Rates (and any other taxes)
Insurance
License fees & royalty payments

Fixed cost (FC) can be calculated by this formula

Fixed cost, FC= QT f


Where:

QT = Total plant operating per year


69

f = Fixed cost per tonne

Total plant operating per year, QT =

7 operator

shift

1029 shift
year

QT = 7203 operator per year

Total mass flow rate = 2.7 + 40.1+ 2.7 + 1664.53 + 157.95 + 85.05 + 26.857 + 0.00059 + 51.66
+ 0.002 + 1 + 27 + 0.0003 + 483.86
= 2543.41 kg per year
= 2 .5434 tonne per year

Fixed cost per tonne, f =

year
$ 22085.75

2.5434 tonne
year

f = $ 8683.55 per year


Hence,

Fixed cost, FC =

7203 operator
$ 8683.55

year
year

FC = $ 62547610

70

4.4.2

Variable cost (VC)

Variable cost (VC) is the costs that are dependent on the amount of product produced.
Examples of variable cost are:
1
2
3
4

Raw materials cost


Miscellaneous operating materials costs
Utilities cost
Shipping and packaging

Variable (VC) can be calculated as below:

Variable Cost, VC=Raw material cost+ Labor cost +Utility cost

Variable Cost, VC = $ 22085.75 per year + $ 9333.33 + $130311.61


VC = $ 161730.69

71

4.4.3

Total revenue (TR)

Total revenue (TR) is the amount of money generated from the sale of output. The total revenue
can be calculated as follows:

Total Revenue , TR=P Q


Where:

P = Price per unit succinic acid


Q = Quantities (tonnes)

The objective of break-even analysis is mainly to determine, the quantity at which the product at
an assumed price, will generate enough revenue to start earning profit during the plant starts its
operation. Break- even point is to estimate the volume or capacity for the company to reach the
total cost equal to the total revenue and no profit was earned yet. So, it can be defined as:

Breakeven point , BEP=

FC
PVC

Where P= unit selling price

Total Revenue , TR=P Q

Where

Q=210.82 kg /batch

P=$ 100/kg
Total Revenue , TR=P Q

TR=( 210.82 kg /batch )

$ 50
270 batch/ year
kg

$ 2846070/ year
72

$ 2850000/ year

BEP=

$ 62547610
50(0.65+ 0.7)

BEP=1285665.16 kg/ yr

BEP=1290000 kg / yr

4.5

CASH FLOW AND PROFITABLE ANALYSIS

4.5.1

Profitability Criteria for Project Evaluation

The profitability is evaluated based on:


i. Time
ii. Cash
iii. Interest Rate
4.5.2

Non-discounted Profitability Criteria

There are three criterion of non-discounted profitability which are time criterion, cash criterion
and interest rate criterion.
The term used in time criterion is the payback period (PBP), also known as the payout period,
payoff period and cash recovery period. From the book of Engineering Analysis of Chemical
Processes by Richard Turton/Richard C.Bailie/Wallace B.Whiting/Joseph A.Shaeiwitz, the
definition of payback period is defined as follows:
PBP= time required, after start-up, to recover the fixed capital investment, FCI L, for the
project
As for the cash criterion, there are two types of it which is cumulative cash position (CCP) and
cumulative cash ratio (CCR). CCP is the value of the project at the end of its life.

73

CCR=

of All Cash Flows


of All Negative Cash Flows

Finally for the interest rate criterion, the term used is rate of return on investment (ROROI).

ROROI=

Average Annual Net Profit


Capital Investment ( FCI L )

End of
Year

Investme
nt

dk

FCI - total
of dk

COMd

(R-COM-dk)*(1t)+dk

-5280000

2446000

-528000

-1446000

2446000

-144600

-1366900

2446000

-136690

489200

1956800

526276

1406462

140646

782700

1174100

526276

1553212

155321

704468

526276

1396678

139667

526276

1302751.6

1302751

526276

1302751.6

1302751

469632
281779.
2
281779.
2
140909.
6

526276

1232316.8

1232316

526276

1161862

116186

10

526276

1161862

116186

11

526276

1161862

116186

12

5646900

285000
0
285000
0
285000
0
285000
0
285000
0
285000
0
285000
0
285000
0
285000
0
813000
0

526276

3801862

944876

422688.8
140909.6
0

Table 11: Nondiscounted After-Tax Cash Flow


Data description:-

74

Cash Fl

Cost of land, L =176000ft2 x $30/1ft2 = $5280000

Working

Capital

$1366900
Total Fixed Capital, FCIL =$2446000

COMd =$526276

Plant start-up at end of year 2

Taxation rate, t = 10%

Depreciation used 5 years MACRS

Assume a project life

of 10 years

75

Calculation:PBP

= 3 + (-3736548+5646900) / (-3736548+2433796.4)
= 1.53 Years

CCR

= 21128520/ 8092900
= 2.61

ROROI

= [15481620/ (10*2446000) -1/10] x 100%


= 45.04%

4.5.2

Discounted Profitability Criteria

End of
Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Non-discounted
Cash Flow
-5280000
-1446000
-1366900
1406462
1553212
1396678
1302751.6
1302751.6
1232316.8
1161862
1161862
1161862
3801862

Discounted cash
flow
-5280000
-1314545.45
-1129669.42
1056695.72
1060864.69
867227.15
735369.32
668517.55
574880.25
492742.9
4479480.09
407225.54
1211390.39

Cumulative discounted
Cash Flow
-5280000
-6594545.45
-7724214.87
-6667519.15
-5606654.46
-4739427.31
-4004057.99
-3335540.44
-2760660.19
-2267917.29
2211562.8
2618788.34
3830178.73

Calculation:DPBP

= 5 + (-3335540.44+5583000) / (-3335540.44+2760660.19)
= 4.63 Years

NPV

= $ 3830178.73

PVR

= [11554393.6 / 7724214.87]
= 1.50

5.

ENVIROMENTAL AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

Environmental and safety analysis are crucial aspect to be considered in process and plant
design. The aim of the analysis is to prevent any undesirable scenaria to occur which can be
problem to the process, human and environment.
5.1

Environment Consideration

5.1.1

Physical and Chemical Properties


Physical and chemical properties are important because it is used to identify how
hazardous and risk of the substance itself.

5.1.1.1 Raw Materials


Important pyhsical properties of succinic acid can be summarizing in table 4.1 below:
Table 5.1. Physical Properties of Succinic Acid
Succinic Acid
Chemical type: Substance
Substance name: Succinic acid
Trade name: Succinic acid
CAS No: 110-15-6
EC number: 203-740-4
Formula: C4H6O4
Synonyms: Butanedioic acid,
1,2-Ethannedicarboxylic acid,
Amber acid
Property
Physical state
solid
Appearance
crystalline solid
Molecular mass
118.09g/mol
Colour
white to yellow
Odour
odourless
pH
2.4 to 2.8 (1% aqueous solution)
Boiling point at atmospheric pressure
2350C
Melting point/freezing point
185 to 1870C
Flash point
1600C
Density (at 200C) 1.57 g/cm3
Vapour pressure (at 250C )
0.000025 Pa / 0.00000019 mmHg
Solubility (at 1000C)
water: 121g/ml
Solubilty in water (at 250C)
83g/L
Self-ignition temperature
6300C
Flammability (solid,gas)
non-flammable

5.1.1.2 Byproducts

By products of this plant are calcium succinate (CS) and diethyl succinate (DES). The
waste treatment is shown in the appendix section. Properties of these materials are
shown in table 4.2 below:
Table 5.2. Properties of CS and DES.
Properties
Formula
Molecular weight (g/mol)
Boiling point (oC)
Melting point
Density
Flash point
Specific gravity
Vapor pressure
Vapor density

5.1.2

CS
C4H4O4Ca.3H2O
210.15
Decomposes
-

DES
C4H14O4
174.19
2170C
-200C
1.04 g/ml at 250C
910C
1.047 (water=1)
72.8 hPa
6 (air-1)

Environment Impact Assessments (EIA)


A well thought out environmental plan will be an essential in a succesful plant. The
effects of operation of the cheical plant upon both the environment and the population
must be considered during both feasibilities study and design stages.

Environmental impact assessment has two related parts which are:


1. The treatment of unwanted chemical and the concentrations of liquids discharges and
gas emissions during normal operation and during startup and shutdown.
2. The handling of a major chemical spil, including all chemicals within the plant and any
subsequent reaction products, their containment and cleanup.

5.1.2.1 Waste Identifications

This plant produced succinic acid with excess calcium succinate as waste. The wastesthat
had been produced from this plant were water, succinate, dextrose, corn liquor, calcium
succinate and last but not least were Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens bacteria.
Wastewater that produced can be recycled back and reuse in the plant by undergoes some
modern day water treatment. While for chemical waste such as calcium succinate and
succinate that may be hazardous, the appropriate route of disposal were determine by
chemical treatment such as neutralization, followed by disposal to the sanitary sewer
system. For the non- hazardous wastes including dextrose and corn liquor that can be
disposed in the sanitary sewer or it can be sold to other company as raw materials.
For A.succiniciproducens bacteria waste that was known to infect humans and is
associated with diarrhea, the proper method of disposal this waste is required. This
infectious waste are sterilized and autoclaving at 121oC for 30 minutes before discarding.

5.2

Process Safety Consideration


Safety consideration is the protection of people and property from episoidic and
catastrophic incidents. A plant has to use systematic approach to identify process risk and
implements proactive measure to reduce and manage risk.

5.2.1 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)


MSDS is an information sheet that lists the hazards, safety and emergency measure
which related to the specific products. The list of the sheets that been used for this plant
can be seen in Appendix 1.

5.2.2 Hazards Identifications


One of the important aspects in plant is the safe work environments. Safety will not be
successfully carried out unless it is given fully consideration by either management or
workers at the plant. All production processes are faced with hazardous, but in producing
chemical product, there are additional hazards associated with the chemical used.
Therefore, the organization has obligation to safe-conduct the welfare of its employees

and the public. As shown in Table 4.4, the most common accident that happened in
chemical plant is fire, followed by explosions and toxic release.
Table 5.3. Three types of chemical plant accidents.
Type of accident

Probability of

Potential for fatalities

Potential for

Fire
Explosion
Toxic release

occurrence
High
Intermediate
Low

Low
Intermediate
High

economic loss
Intermediate
High
Low

5.2.3 Hazards of succinic acid

a)

Flammability
Succinic acid is flammable and has a flash point of 160 0C. It is flammable in air.
There is no upper flammable limit as normally conceived in that exothermic
decomposition replaces combustion at the higher ranges up to 100% succinic acid.
Succinic acid has a boiling point of 2350C which is considered as high. Any leaks of
succinic acid for example from flanges must be avoided because of the high risk of
ignition. The auto-ignition temperature (AIT) of succinic acid in air atmospheric pressure
is 6300C.

b)

Reactivity
Succinic acid reacts exothermically to neutralize bases, both organic and inorganic. It
can also react with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and metal salt. Such
reactions are slow in the dry but systems may absorb water from the air to allow
corrosion of iron, steel and aluminum parts and containers. Succinic acid reacts slowly
with cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen cyanide. If it reacts with solutions of
cyanides, it can cause the release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide.
It can also generate flammable toxic gases and heat with diazo compounds,
dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides and sulfides. It may reacts with
sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates to give out H2S and SO3 and dithionites (SO2) to generate
flammable or toxic gases heat. It can also be oxidized exothermically by strong oxidizing
agents and reduced by strong reducing agents. It may also initiate polymerization
reactions.

c)

Thermal Decompositions
Thermal stability and thermal decomposition of succinic acid and its compounds
were investigated employing simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal
analysis (TG-DTA) in nitrogen and carbon dioxide atmospheres and (TG-FTIR) in
nitrogen atmosphere. On heating, both atmospheres the succinic acid melts and
evaporates. For the transition metal succinate the final residue up to 1180 oC in N,
atmosphere was a mixture of metal and metal oxide in no simple stoichiometry relation.

5.2.4 Hazards of Succinic Acid


Succinic acid is slightly combustible components. Succinic acid is incompatible with
materials that are strong oxidizing and reducing agents and also strong bases. It will
decompose hazardous products which are carbon oxides (CO and CO2). Under OSHA
Regulatory Status, this material is classified as hazardous.

5.2.5 Health Effects


Table 5.4: Health Hazard Data of Succinic Acid Plant
Chemical
Succinic acid

Routes of Entry
1.
2.
3.
4.

Inhalation
Skin Contact
Eye Contact
Ingestion

Effects of Exposure to

First Aid Measures

Products
Inhalation:

Inhalation:

May be harmful if inhaled Removes victim to


Causes respiratory tract
fresh air.
If a cough or other
irritation.
respiratory
Skin contact:

symptoms develop,

Causes skin irritation


May be harmful if

consults medical
personnel

absorbed through the skin


Skin contact:
Eye contact:
Severely irritating to the
eyes.

Wash skin
immediately with
plenty of soap and
water for at least 15

Ingestion:
May be harmful if
swallowed

minutes.
If redness, itching or
a burning sensation
develops, get
medical attention.
Wash contaminated
clothing and
decontaminates
footwear before
reuse.
Eye contact:
Immediately flush
with plenty of water
for at least 15
minutes.
If redness, itching or
a burning sensation
develops, have
eyes examined and
treated by medical
personnel.
Ingestion:
Do not induce
vomiting.
Give one or two

glasses of water to
drink and refer to
medical personnel
or take direction
from either a
physician or a
poison control
center.
Never give anything
by mouth to an
unconscious
person.

Chemical
Diethyl
succinate

Routes of Entry
1.
2.
3.
4.

Eye Contact
Skin Contact
Ingestion
Inhalation

Effects of Exposure to

First Aid Measures

Products
Eye contact:

Eye contact:

Severely irritating to the


eyes.

Immediately flush
with plenty of water
for at least 15

Skin contact:
Causes skin irritation
May be harmful if
absorbed through the skin

minutes.
Occasionally lifting
the upper and lower
eyelids
Get medical aid.

Ingestion:
May be harmful if

Skin contact:

swallowed

Wash skin
immediately with

Inhalation:
May be harmful if inhaled
Causes respiratory tract
irritation.

plenty of soap and


water for at least 15
minutes.
Wash contaminated
clothing and
decontaminates
footwear before
reuse.
Ingestion:
Do not induce
vomiting.
Never give anything
by mouth to an
unconscious
person.
Get medical aid

If conscious and
alert, rinse mouth
and drink 2-4 cupful
of milk or water.
Inhalation:
Removes victim to
fresh air.
If not breathing, give
artificial respiration.
If breathing is
difficult, give oxygen
Get medical aid.

Chemical
Calcium
succinate

Routes of Entry
1.
2.
3.
4.

Eye Contact
Skin Contact
Ingestion
Inhalation

Effects of Exposure to

First Aid Measures

Products
Eye contact:

Eye contact:

Severely irritating to the

Immediately flush

eyes.
Symptoms may include

with plenty of water


for at least 15

stinging, tearing, redness,


and swelling of eyes.

minutes.
Occasionally
holding eyelids

Skin contact:

apart
Get medical

Causes skin irritation


May be harmful if

attention.

absorbed through the skin


Skin contact:
Ingestion:

First aid is not

Swallowing this material is


not likely to be harmful

normally required.
If symptoms
develop, seek

Inhalation:

medical attention.

This material is a dust or


may produce dust
Breathing small amounts
of these materials is not
likely to be harmful.

Ingestion:
First aid is not
normally required.
If symptoms
develop, seek
medical attention.
Inhalation:
Removes victim to
fresh air.
If breathing is
difficult, call a
physician.

5.2.5 Incidents in Chemical Plant


Leakage and burning of hydrogen from a mounting flange of a safety valve in a reactor at
a Succinic Acid manufacturing plant.
This incident happened on 8 of June 1998 at Kawasaki, Kanagawa in Japan. During
usual operation at succinic acid plant, hydrogen leaked from a mounting joint of a safety valve at
the upper part of a reactor, and a flame was generated. For inspection at a turnaround
shutdown, the safety valve was detached and reattached. A gasket smaller than the correct
gasket was used at the joint, the tightening force of bolts was imperfect. Therefore, a gap was
generated as time goes by and un-reacted hydrogen leaked. This incident happened when a
hydrogenation reaction of Maleic anhydride for manufacturing succinic acid was finished. While
an operator went to the site for confirmation, he found a flame jetting from a flange that joint a
safety valve to reactor.
This accident happened cause by a smaller than the correct gasket was used at the joint
of safety valve at the time of a turnaround shutdown. Moreover, the tightness of bolts was
imperfect. Due to the small size of a gasket and looseness of bolts, the weight of the piping was
applied locally to the joint and the joint inclined gradually. The un-reacted hydrogen blew out

from a gap due to the inclination and thus, ignited by static electricity sparks. The response
taken due to this accident were the operation of the plant was stopped besides, water was used
to sprayed using faucet and the nitrogen gas was introduced to the reaction system.
There were some countermeasures taken after this incident happened included the bolts
should be tightened equally and fully besides, a new support for distributing the weight of piping
is installed and the thorough control of the parts at construction is required. In addition,
thoroughness of checks after construction also required.
In the case of many leak tests after construction, a leak is checked by a soap test after
pressurizing piping and facilities for the test. As a gasket and bolt torque are specified according
to physical properties of a flowing liquid, temperature, long-term use and others. Passing of a
leak test is not guaranteed for long-term use. Moreover, regarding a check of tightness of bolts,
checks in many cases conducted by striking a bolt lightly with a smaller hammer which called as
hammering test. Measurement of torque has been carried out. It is difficult to find a defect from
a general examination after completion of construction. Soap test is one of the leak tests.
Soapsuds are poured at the place to be checked mainly a joint part after pressurizing where if
bubbles are found, that is the evidence of a leak
5.2.6

Relevant OSH Legislation and Regulation


The government of Malaysia has outlined many act and regulations to ensure that all
employees and employers take seriously of safety and health issues in working are.
Some of regulations that have been outlined in Malaysia are Factory and Machinery Act
(FMA) 1967 and Control of Industrial major Accident Hazards (CIMAH) 1996
Regulations, under OSHA 1994. Generally, the objective of these act are to control the
plant or factor operation with respect to the safety, health and welfare of the person.
Other regulation that made under OSHA 1994 are Employers Safety and Health
General Policy Statement 1995, control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards 1996,
Safety and Health Committee 1996, Classification, Packaging and Labeling of
Hazardous Chemicals 1997, Safety and Health Officer 1997 and Use and Standards of
Exposure of Chemicals Hazardous to Health 2000. Employer and employees have their
own responsibility and duty to implement safety and health act. Occupational Safety and
Health Act OSHA 1994 have already summarized the duties of the employer and
employees as the following below:

Duties of Employer:
1. Provide and maintain safe plant and system of work
2. Make arrangement for safe use operation, handling, storage and transportation of
plant and substances.
3. Provide instruction, information, training and supervision.
4. Provide and maintain safe pace of work and means of access to and egress from
any place of work.
5. Provide and maintain safe and healthy working environment and adequate welfare
facilities.

Duties of Employees:
1. Reasonable care for safety and health of himself and others
2. Co-operate with employers and others
3. Wear and use PPE
5.3

Safety analysis

5.3.1 Chemical Storage and Handling


Succinic acid is considered not a hazardous substance but can become hazardous if
this materials is distributed wrongly.
Thus some guidelines on how to hansled succinic acid has been develop in order
to reduce the risk of hazards. The guideline are shown as below:
I.

Succinic Acid
a) Handling

Additional hazards when processed


use only with adequate ventilation
avoid creating or spreading dust

Precautions for safe handling


reduce/avoid exposure and/or contact

Hygiene measures
wash hands and other exposed areas with mild soap and water before
eat, drink, smoke and when leaving work.

b) Storage

II.

Storage conditions
Keep containers tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place

Incompatible materials
Strong oxidizing and reducing agents, strong bases

Storage area
Keep container tightly closed and dry
Keep it cool, well-ventilated place away from acids

CalciumSuccinate
a) Handling
Always keep it away from heat or any souces of ignition. If an empty containers
pose a fire risk, evaporate the residue under a fume hood. It is advisable to
ground all equipment containing material and do not breathe dust
b) Storage
Always keep the containers dry and kept in a cool place. The container must be

tightly closed and keep in a cool, well-ventilated place.


Combustible materials should be stored away from extreme heat and away from
strong oxidizing agents.

III.

Diethyl Succinate
a) Handling
Put on appropriate personal protection equipment. Eating, drinking and smoking
should be prohibited in areas where this material is handled, stored and
processed. Workers should wash hands and face before eating, drinking and
smoking. Do not ingest. Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Avoid
breathing vapor or mist. Use only with adequate ventilation. Wear appropriate

respirator when ventilation is inadequate. Do not enter storage areas and


confined spaces unless adequately ventilated. Keep in the original container or
an approved alternative made from a compatible material, kept tightly closed
when not in use. Store and use away from heat, sparks, open flame or any other
ignition source. Use explosion-proof electrical (ventilating, lighting and material
handling) equipment. Use non-sparking tools. Take precautionary measures
against electrostatic discharges. To avoid fire or explosion, dissipate static
electricity during transfer by grounding and bonding containers and equipment
before transferring material. Empty containers retain product residue and can be
hazardous. Do not reuse container.
b) Storage
Store in accordance with local regulations. Store in a segregated and approved
area. Store in original container protected from direct sunlight in a dry, cool and
well-ventilated area, away from incompatible materials (see section 10) and food
and drink. Eliminate all ignition sources. Separate from oxidizing materials. Keep
container tightly closed and sealed until ready for use. Containers that have been
opened must be carefully resealed and kept upright to prevent leakage. Do not
store

in

unlabeled

containers.

Use

appropriate

containment

to

avoid

environmental contamination.

5.3.2

Firefighting Measures
The purpose of the Fire Fighting Measures section is to describe any fire hazards
associated with the material. This information, combined with information from the
Handling and Storage and the Stability and Reactivity Data sections, can be used in
determining where a certain material should be stored (e.g. flammable liquids should be
stored in specially designed facilities away from incompatible chemicals).
Information in this section can also be used to plan the appropriate type and
placement of fire extinguishers as well as to plan the best response to a fire for a
particular work site. Much of the information is intended for firefighters and emergency
response personnel.

1. Extinguishing media
The suitable extinguishing media were dry chemical powder, alcoholresistant foam, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water spray.
2. Protection for firefighters
During firefighting, wear self-contained breathing apparatus with full face
piece and full protective clothing. If contact occurs with material or its
solutions, immediately flush with water and remove contaminated
clothing.
Dust can form explosive mixtures with air. Irritating and highly toxic gases
may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion in a fire.

5.3.3

Accidental Release Measure


This section covers personal and environmental precautions in case of spills or
accidental losses.
It should describe the dangers related to the substance or product Special attention
should be paid to facts which are not obvious at first sight, like danger of slipping, ignition
of combustible air gas mixtures which spread on the floor etc.
Instructions for cleaning up or picking up spilt product should be provided. Below are
some guidelines:

1. Personal precautions
Wear self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece and full
protective clothing. If contact occurs with material or its solutions,
immediately flush with water and remove contaminated clothing.
Use proper personal protective equipment during clean up. Ventilate area
and avoid creating dusty conditions.
2. Environmental precautions
Sweep up dry powder and dispose properly.
Do not let the products get into the drains.
3. Spills or leakage
Clean up spills immediately, observing precautions in the Protective
Equipment section.

Sweep up, then place into a suitable container for disposal. Avoid
generating dusty conditions. Provide ventilation.
4. Methods for containment and clean up
Gather the disposed material without creating dust.
Store in closed containers that are appropriate for disposal.

5.3.4

Exposure Controls/ Personal Protection


The main objective of PPE is to ensure the proper selection, use, and care of PPE
through work area hazard assessments and appropriate employee training. The primary
methods for preventing employee exposure to hazardous materials are engineering and
administrative controls. Where these control methods are not appropriate or sufficient to
control the hazard, personal protective equipment (PPE) is required.
A work area assessment is required to determine the potential hazards and select
the appropriate PPE for adequate protection. Employees must receive training which
includes the proper PPE for their job, when this PPE must be worn, how to wear, adjust,
maintain, and discard this equipment, and the limitations of the PPE. All training must be
documented.
1. Engineering control
Provide adequate

ventilation

to

minimize

dust

and/or

vapour

concentrations.
2. Personal protective equipment (PPE)
Personal protective equipment
Dust protection, it is better to wear dust mask with filter type P3,

N100
In case of dust production, use dustproof clothing and protective
goggles

Hand protection
Use protective gloves to cover your hands from hazardous

chemicals and to prevent spilage on your skin.


Eye protection
In case of dust production, it is better to use protective goggles.

Skin and body protection


Use chemically protective clothing for best result.

5.3.5

Disposal Considerations
For waste treatment method, first collect all waste in suitable and labelled containers and
dispose according to local legislation. It is recommended the materials and its container
must be disposed of in a safe way and as per local legislation. The waste is not
considered hazardous under US RCRA regulations.

5.3.6

Emergency Response Plan (ERP)


Emergency Response Plan (ERP) comprehends planning and activities that are
necessary to prepare people and organization to respond to emergencies and disaster.
These activities seek to facilitate the response to save lives, minimize damage to
property in the event of emergency. Emergency Action Plan describes the initial
responsibilities and actions to be taken to protect all employees until the appropriate
responders take over.
ERP should outline the basic of the preparation steps needed in order to handle the
emergencies at plant. Emergency plan are not meant to be comprehensive but they
should provide appropriate guidance on what to do in an emergency. For example, a
sound disaster response plan should include:

Clear written policies that designate a chain of command, listing names and job titles
of the people (or departments) that are responsible for making decisions, monitoring

response actions and recovering back to normal operations.


Names of those who are responsible for assessing the degree of risk to life and

property and who should be notified for various types of emergencies.


Specific instructions for shutting down equipment and production processes and

stopping business activities.


Facility evacuation procedures, including a designated meeting site outside the facility

and a process to account for all employees after an evacuation.


Procedures for employees who are responsible for shutting down critical operations

before they evacuate facility.


Specific training and practice schedules and equipment requirements for emploryees
who are responsible rescue operations, medical duties, hazardous responses, fire

fighting and other responses specific to your work site.


The prefferred means of reporting fires and other emergencies.

ERPs are also the law. The Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)
requires facilities with over 10 employees to have written emergency plan: in smaller

facilities, the plan can be communicated orally. But whatever the size or type of the
organization, top management support and the involvement of all employees are
essential.
5.4

Environmental impact assessment


For the environmental performance of the refinery the full production system is assed.
The following impact categories are taken into account for environmental analysis. This
environmental impact assessment ais performed to obtain a first idea of the benefits of
biorefineries in that area.

5.4.1

Abiotic resource depletion potential (ADP)


Global warming potential (GWP)
Ozone layer depletion potential (ODP)
Photochemical oxidation potential (POCP)
Human toxity potential (HTP)
Eco-toxity potential (ETP)
Acidation potential (AP)
Eutrophication potential (EP)

Comparison of eco-efficiency
The lower eco-efficiency values represent better performance of th system. In the

biorefinery, a large faction of the carbon dioxide (CO 2) emitted by the ethanol fermentation
process is fixed by acid fermentation thus give better performance in global warming potential
(GWP) compared with gasoline refinery. This shows that the combined production of ethanol
and succinic acid is indeed a more promising option. The reason why the eco-efficiency of the
ethanol palnt is significantly worse than that of the gasoline refinery is the contribution of
agriculture realted emissions to the total, which is significantand does not occur in the gasoline
refinery.
The eco-efficiencies of the biorefinery and ethanol plant are better than one of gasoline
refinery in the abiotic resource depletion potential (ADP) and ozone layer depletion potential
(ODP). This is obviously due to the replacement of fossil resources by renewables where crude
oil, natural gas and coal are the main contributors to abiotics resource depletion, while ozone
layer depletion potentiallevel is mainly contributed by emissions from the crude oil production
onshore.

In the rest of the impact categories, biorefining performs worse than gasoline refinery. In
the biorefinery and ethanol plant, although emissions causing photochemical oxidation potential
(POCP) from natural gas production and oil exploitation decreses, the ones from ethanol
production contribute even more photochemical oxidation potential (POCP) level.
In most of the impact categories the biorefinery has a better eco-efficiency than ethanol
plant, which is attributed to the high-value of the succinicacid derived from such a refinery.
The biorefinery designed in this study has clear advantages over the ethanol plant in
terms of eco-efficiency. However, when comparing biorefining to gasoline refinery, the overall
evaluation of the eco-efficiency depends on the importance attached to each impact category.

6.

PLANT LAYOUT

In the production of Succinic Acid, there are many equipment involve in the production process. It can be seen on the PFD diagram
clearly from the beginning of the process until the end of the process. From the PFD, the equipment involves is reactor, filtration,
cation exchanger and etc. in order to make a plant layout several factor must be considered such as economic considerations
(construction and operating costs), process requirements, convenience of the operation and maintenance, safety, future expansion,
and modular construction.(Ray Sinnott, 2009).

Figure 6.1: Plant Layout of Succinic Acid Plant

SITE LAYOUT
The process units and ancillary building should be laid out to give the most economical flow of materials and personnel around the
site. (Ray Sinnott, 2009) In this production, the site layout was constructed based on a few factors include cost and the layout
construct as seen below:

Figure 6.2: Site Layout of Succinic Acid Plant

Based on the layout above we can see that the administration building is far from the plant area
because the plant produce a dangerous and hazardous substances . So, we want to make sure
that the worker are safe to do their work in the administration building because most of the them
are working in that building. Furthermore, from the layout there are two area of car park situated
near the administration building and the plant area. This is done to minimize the time spent by a
worker to travel between the buildings. The administration building is also contain a rest room
and also the canteen.
The assembly area was also provided in case of fire or any other emergency on plant site or
buildings. In this plant aslo provided with fire station in case of anything accident such as fire
occur in that plant can be control quickly to prevent further damaged. Other than that is, the
warehouse and maintenance room is located near the processing plant which allowing the
repair and services of the equipment can be done in that place. The processing plant also has
an expansion area in case of the high demands of the product will require more equipment to be
used.Therefore more space is needed to palce the new equipment.
The laboratory and control room are situated near the plant area because the operation can be
handled easily. The product storage located near the plant processing allowing the product from
the plant processing can be sent to the product storage easily and low cost of transportation.
Raw material storage located near to entrance 2 which is easier for the truck that carry the raw
material to transfer the raw material.
There are three entrance routes in these sites because it is easier to move in and out of the
sites. And these routes situated on three different sides. As you can see on the layout, the
above routes are construct to ensure the travelling distance to transport the waste product are
shorter.

7.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION


Succinic acids are widely used in industry. Succinic acids could be applied in many

different fields such as chemical, food, and medicine industry. In designing the plant for the
production of succinic acids, several factors have been taken into considerations. The most
important factor is absolutely economic factors. This is because the plant is designed to make
benefit for the investor and the return of investment should be quick. To know this factor, things
such as the price of the raw materials, price of chemicals used, price of equipment used, and
cost of wastewater treatment should be known. All the raw materials and equipment selected
are relatively cheap so that profit can be maximized. To do that, the process should be outlined
and drafted first. After that, process flow diagram (PFD) is constructed using Superpro Designer
software. From there, the most suitable process that should be used is known. Calculations on
mechanical and chemical design are also done to ensure that the equipment used are to know
the maximum temperature used, maximum wind load, maximum pressure, maximum allowable
stress, and tensile strength.
For the site selection, the most suitable site for the plant is in Bukit Minyak Industrial
Area, Penang. This site is selected because of several factors that are not only economically
profitable, but strategic. The plant layout and site layout are also outlined according to the
conduciveness of the workplace and safety issues. Safety issues also should be made as
priority. As one of the industry that involved with majority of potential hazards, it is bound to have
accidents or disaster occurred if the safety issues did not properly considered. The way of
handling the hazardous in this plant which is calcium succinate and diethyl succinate have been
taken as a great deal in order to ensure the safety of employers and employees.
In designing chemical plant, safety issues have to be taken as number priority. As one of
the industry that involved with majorly potential hazards, it is bound to have accidents or
disaster occurred if the safety issues did not properly considered. The way of handling the
hazardous in this plant which is calcium succinate and diethyl succinate have been taken as a
great deal in order to ensure the safety of employers and employees. A safer and healthier
workplace environment are desirable not only because the welfare of the workers but also
minimize the cost and improves the plant productivity. In other words, this succinic acid plant
has the safe working environment and healthier working area.

8.

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9.

APPENDIX