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Technical Features 2011

CALOTEST

CAT
Distributed by:
Kemet International Limited
Parkwood Trading Estate, Maidstone, Kent, ME15 9NJ, UK
Tel: +44(0) 1622 755287
Fax: +44(0) 1622 670915
Email: sales @kemet.co.uk

www.csm-instruments.com

CAT
Calotest
The Calotest provides quick, simple and inexpensive determination of coating thicknesses. A rotating sphere, with a
known diameter ( ball) is pressed onto the coating surface with a preselected load. Both the position of the sphere
relative to the sample and the contact load are constant. Upon adding abrasive slurry to the contact zone, a depression
with the shape of a spherical cap is abraded into both the coating and the substrate.
Optical inspection of the depression reveals the projected surfaces of the abraded coating and substrate sections. By
measuring the parameters X and Y, the thickness of the coating D can be calculated by a simple geometrical equation.

//// Features:
> Easy-to-use instrument
> Robust and reliable
> Different ball diameters for various applications from thin to thick coating
> Fast to operate
> Testing conforms to ISO EN 1071

X Y

Thickness =

x y
ball

//// Table of contents


General Information ...
> Complete Calotest system includes ...
> Compact Calotest (CATc) ...
> Industrial Calotest (CATi) ...

.. 3
... 3
... 3
... 3

Measurement Principle ...

... 4

Calotest Instrument ...

... 5

> Compact Calotest (CATc) ...


> Industrial Calotest (CATi) ...

... 5
.5

Electromechanical Data ...

.. 6

> Calotest specifications ...


> Range of use ...

.. 6
.6

Slurries Specifications ...

.. 6

Test Types ...

.7

> Example ...

.. 7

Accessories ...

.. 8

> Scope of supply ...


> Software ...
> Specifications ...

... 8
.. 8
... 8

Thickness calculation ...


> Ball/plane model ...
> Ball/cylinder model ...
> Ball/ball model ...

... 9
.. 9
.10
.11

//// General Information


The Calotest instrument measures the thickness of coatings in a very short time (1-2 minutes). It
represents the ideal instrument for a quick and precise determination of coating thickness.
The Calotest instrument is widely used for analyzing coatings with a thickness typically between 0.1 to
50 m. Typical examples include CVD, PVD, plasma spray coatings, anodic oxidation layers, surfaces
treated by ion sputtering or ion plating, chemical and galvanic deposits, polymers, paints, and
lacquers.

> Complete Calotest system includes


> Compact Calotest (CATc)

Universal working table on top of electronic module


Hydraulic arm
2 sets of balls 10, 15, 20, 25.4, 30 mm
Slurry high quality (diamond particles 0.5 - 1 um)
Slurry super fine (diamond particles < 0.2 um)
Size:
Total weight:

24 x 25 cm, 20 cm height
~ 12 kg (with box, accessories and consumables)

> Industrial Calotest (CATi)

Universal vice
Stand and hydraulic arm
Electronic module
2 sets of balls 10, 15, 20, 25.4, 30 mm
Slurry high quality (diamond particles 0.5 - 1 um)
Slurry super fine (diamond particles < 0.2 um)
Size:
Total weight:

32 x 25 cm, 30 cm height
~ 16 kg (with box, accessories and consumables)

//// CAT: Technical Features

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//// Measurement Principle

A rotating sphere of known diameter ( ball) is pressed on the coating surface with a
preselected load.

Both the position of the sphere relative to the sample and the contact load are constant.

Upon adding abrasive slurry to the contact zone, a depression with the shape of a spherical
cap is abraded into both the coating and the substrate.

Optical inspection of the depression reveals the projected surfaces of the abraded coating and
substrate sections. By measuring the parameters X and Y, the thickness of the coating = s
can be calculated by a simple geometrical equation:

Thickness =

x y
ball

s
x

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//// Calotest Instrument


> Compact Calotest (CATc)

Fig.1 The compact Calotest

> Industrial Calotest (CATi)


The industrial Calotest offers a larger sample holder that can adapt samples of various sizes and
shapes.
For particularly bulky samples which are too big to be mounted on a standard sample holder, the
complete arm and motor assembly can be removed and directly clamped to the side of the sample
using the magnetic foot provided.

Fig.2 The industrial Calotest together with its control unit

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//// Electromechanical Data


> Calotest specifications
Shaft speed:
Working table dimension:
Abrasion time ranges:
Force of the magnetic foot:
Standard ball diameter:
Power supply:
Motor power supply:
Power of motor:
Frequency of network:
Compatible with VDI 3198

10 to 2990 rpm
80 x 80 mm - 45 x 70 mm (Compact Calotest)
2 sec to 15 min
~ 700 N (Industrial Calotest)
10, 15, 20, 25.4, 30 mm
105 - 250 V
24 V
15 W
47 - 63 Hz

> Range of use


Thickness of coating:
Precision of the measurement:
Diameter of crater:

0.1 to 50 m
1 to 5 %
0.15 to 2 mm

The measurement precision depends on the following points:


The surface quality (roughness) of the surface and/or the coating
The contrast between the different surfaces
The accuracy of the optical measurement system
The measurement tolerance is 5%.

//// Slurry Specifications


Two type of diamond slurry are available:
-

Super fine:
High quality:

//// CAT: Technical Features

particles < 0.2 m


particles 0.5 - 1 m

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//// Test Types


Coating thickness analysis (mono and multi layers) is typically between 0.1 to 50 m.

> Example
Calotest measurement materials abraded in a TiN - TiCN multilayer stack.

123456

Total film thickness =

3.840 m

Details:
-

1=
Layer 2 =
Layer 3 =
Layer 4 =
Layer 5 =
Layer 6 =
Layer

920 nm
240 nm
750 nm
320 nm
750 nm
860 nm

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//// Accessories
For accurate measurement of the coating thickness, a standalone video microscope can be provided
with the Calotest instrument.

> Hardware

Stand alone microscope


Color video camera USB2.0
Image analyzing software
PC Dell with Win XP or 7
17 LCD display

> Software

Real-time video display


Crosshair, scales, measurement tools
Image capture
Automatic layer thickness measurement

> Specifications
Objective 5x for magnification around 200x
Video resolution: 1280 x 1024
Focal distance:
7 cm

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//// Thickness calculation


The Calotest can be used on flat, spherical or cylindrical samples. The different thickness calculation
methods for these samples are explained below and are based on the ISO EN 1071-2standard.

> Ball/plane model

If s is the thickness of the coating:

s=Tt

(1)

and T is the total depth of penetration:

T =R
4R 2 D 2
2

(2)

then t, the depth of penetration in the substrate equals:

t =R
4R 2 d 2
2

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(3)

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The equation (1) becomes:

s=

1
2

( 4R

d 2 4R 2 D 2

(4)

For thin films, the penetration depth is small in comparison to the radius R of the ball.
Therefore, the equation is simplified to:

D 2 d2
s=
8R
or, by substituting D = x + y and d = x y

s=

xy
2R

> Ball/cylinder model

For the equations, the model is the same as for the ball/plane model.
The only difference is that the measurement of the largest diameter should only be used to calculate
the thickness of the coating.

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> Ball/ball model

a2
b2

1
assuming the relationship: Ex 1 = R 1
2
2

R
R

(1)

b2

and also: Ex 2 = (Rb + s) 1

(Rb + s)2

(2)

a2

Rb 1

Rb 2

by approximation, if a<<R and b<<R the following simplification is used:

(1 x )n = 1 nx + n(n 1) x 2 n(n 1)(n 2) x 3 + ...


2!

3!

x << 1

equation (1) becomes:

Ex 1 =

b2 a2
2R

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(3)

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and equation (2) becomes:

b2
a2
+
Ex 2 = s
2(Rb + s ) 2Rb

(4)

assuming that s<<Rb equation (4) becomes:

Ex 2 = s
as

b2 a2
2Rb

(5)

Ex 1 = Ex 2 , we equal the forms (3) et (5):


b2 a2
b2 a2
=e
2R
2Rb
2
2
b a 1
1
e=
+

2 Rb R

defining:

x =b+a
y =ba

One can write the following relationship:

xy 1
1
+

2 Rb R

s=

If Rb is infinite for a flat surface (ball on plane), the equation becomes:

s=

xy
2R

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