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210406


2010

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49.33.29

621.394/.395/.39688 (075)

32.883
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ISBN 9785977504744
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NGN (Next Generation Network).

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ISBN 9785977504744

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B. Goldstein, N. Sokolov, G.Yanovsky. Telecommunication Networks
The textbook for high schools. BHV, St. Petersburg, 2010.
This textbook covers the modern telecommunication networks. Generally it is intended
for students, and might be useful for the Ph. D students. The engineers and managers
working in the field of telecommunications can also find valuable information. Three
networks created for fixed telephony, mobile communications, and data transmission
are considered in the textbook. For the each network, the similar main principles are
described. The main goal of these networks evolution is stated as transition towards NGN
(Next Generation Network).
The keywords are placed after every lecture in order to make search for information
easier. Questions for selftesting, tasks, and short list of the additional sources will also help
to improve education.

Educational edition

2Seti_sviz.indd 2

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...............................................................................13
0. ......................................................................15
0.1.
0.2.
0.3.
0.4.
0.5.

............................................................................... 15
............................................................. 18
.................................. 19
........................................................ 20
........................................................................... 22

1. 25
1. ..................................26
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.

...................................................................... 26
................................................. 27
................................................................... 30
.................. 36
.................................................... 37
....................................................................... 38
.............................................................. 38
............................................................... 38
1 .............................................................. 38

2.
..............................................................39
2.1.
2.2.

.......................................................... 39
....................................................... 41
2.2.1. .............................................. 41
2.2.2. ............................................... 45
2.3. ....................................................... 46
2.4. ................ 48
....................................................................... 52
.............................................................. 52
............................................................... 52
2 .............................................................. 52

3. .................................................53
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.

2Seti_sviz.indd 3

......................... 53
.......................................... 54
........................................................................ 56
.............................................. 57
............................ 58

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3.6.

............................. 65
....................................................................... 67
.............................................................. 67
............................................................... 68
3 .............................................................. 68

4. .................................69
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.

..................................... 69
............................................... 70
...................................................... 75
................................................................... 78
....................................................................... 80
.............................................................. 80
............................................................... 80
4 .............................................................. 80

5. .....................................81
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.

.......................................................... 81
.................................... 83
......... 87
........................... 89
....................................................................... 91
.............................................................. 91
............................................................... 92
5 .............................................................. 92

6. ......................................93
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.

.................................. 93
........................................... 97
......................................... 99
..................................................................... 101
............................................................ 101
............................................................. 101
6 ............................................................ 101

7. , .......................... 102
7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
7.4.

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, ....................... 102
..................................... 105
............................. 110
............................... 111
..................................................................... 112
............................................................ 112
............................................................. 112
7 ............................................................ 112

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8. ......................... 113
8.1.
8.2.
8.3.

.................................................................. 113
............................................ 117
................................................... 120
..................................................................... 124
............................................................ 124
............................................................. 124
8 ............................................................ 124

9. ........ 125
9.1.
9.2.
9.3.
9.4.

.............. 125
........ 128
........................ 130
.... 132
..................................................................... 135
............................................................ 136
............................................................. 136
9 ............................................................ 136

10. ............................ 137


10.1.
10.2.
10.3.
10.4.

....................................... 137
.................... 139
........................ 140
: NGN ....... 142
..................................................................... 147
............................................................ 147
............................................................. 148
10 .......................................................... 148

2. .......................... 149
11. ............................ 150
11.1. ........ 150
11.2. .............................................................. 151
11.2.1. ............................... 151
11.2.2. ................................................. 151
11.2.3. .................................................. 151
11.2.4. ................................ 152
11.2.5. ......................................................... 152
11.2.6. ................................................. 153
11.3. ............................................... 153
11.4. ................................................. 154
11.5. .......................................................... 158

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11.6. .......................... 159


11.6.1. ITUT ............................................................ 159
11.6.2. ETSI ......................................... 159
11.6.3. 3- ............................... 160
11.6.4. 2 3- ............................ 161
11.6.5. .............................................. 161
..................................................................... 161
............................................................ 162
............................................................. 162
11 .......................................................... 162

12. ........................ 163


12.1.
12.2.
12.3.
12.4.
12.5.
12.6.
12.7.
12.8.

1G ............................................................ 163
NMT450................................................................................. 165
AMPS ....................................................................... 165
DAMPS...................................... 166
CDMA ...................................................................... 166
2,5G ......................................................................... 168
3G................................ 168
4G ............................ 170
..................................................................... 171
............................................................ 171
............................................................. 171
12 .......................................................... 171

13. GSM ................................ 172


13.1. GSM ..................................................................... 172
13.2. GSM ............................................................... 175
13.3. SIM ............................................................................... 175
13.4. ................................................. 176
13.5. HLR AuC.............................. 176
13.6. VLR ............................................................. 178
13.7. MSC.......................................................... 179
13.8. IWF................................................. 180
13.9. EIR............................. 180
13.10. SMS- ........................................................................... 181
..................................................................... 182
............................................................ 182
............................................................. 182
13 .......................................................... 182

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14. ............................... 183


14.1.
14.2.
14.3.
14.4.

...................... 183
.......................................................... 184
, , bis ............................................................ 186

MAP ........................................................................ 188
14.5. ............................................. 191
14.6. ........................................... 193
..................................................................... 194
............................................................ 194
............................................................. 194
14 .......................................................... 194

15. .................................... 195


15.1. .............................. 195
15.2. GSM................................................................... 196
15.2.1. IMSI ...................................................... 196
15.2.2. MSI ..................................................... 198
15.2.3. MSISDN............................................................... 198
15.2.4. MSRN.................................................................. 199
15.2.5. IMEI ...................................................... 199
15.3. .............................. 200
15.4. ............................................................. 202
15.5. ........................ 203
..................................................................... 204
............................................................ 204
............................................................. 204
15 .......................................................... 204

16. UMTS ...................... 205


16.1.
16.2.
16.3.
16.4.
16.5.
16.6.
16.7.

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3G .................................................. 205
UMTS ............................................................................. 207
UMTS ....................................................................... 208
3GPP 99 .................................................... 209
3GPP 4 ...................................................... 211
AllIP 3GPP 5 ......................................... 212
UMTS Rel6, Rel7 Rel8 ....................................... 213
..................................................................... 214
............................................................ 214
............................................................. 214
16 .......................................................... 214

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17. , .......................... 215


17.1.
17.2.
17.3.
17.4.
17.5.
17.6.
17.7.
17.8.
17.9.

3G ..................................................................... 215
2.5G EDGE..................................... 218
GPRS ............................................................... 219
HSCSD ......................... 221
WAP ............................................................................. 222
SMS............................................................................. 222
VHE ......................................... 223
CAMEL CAP ........................................................... 223
Pushtotalk.................................................................. 224
..................................................................... 225
............................................................ 225
............................................................. 225
17 .......................................................... 225

18. .......................... 226


18.1.
18.2.
18.3.
18.4.
18.5.
18.6.

................................................................ 226
..................... 227
................................ 229
............................. 229
..... 231
QoS ......................... 233
..................................................................... 234
............................................................ 234
............................................................. 234
18 .......................................................... 234

19. .......................................... 235


19.1.
19.2.
19.3.
19.4.

........................................... 235
................................. 236
................................... 239
GPRS . 240
..................................................................... 243
............................................................ 243
............................................................. 244
19 .......................................................... 244

20. .............................. 245


20.1.
20.2.
20.3.
20.4.
20.5.

2Seti_sviz.indd 8

..................................... 245
..................................................... 247
4G ........................................................................ 248
IMS ...................................................................... 249
IMS ..................................................................... 251

29.09.2009, 13:10:54

20.6. IMS ..................................................... 253


20.7. () ............................................... 257
..................................................................... 258
............................................................ 258
............................................................. 258
20 .......................................................... 258

3. .. 259
21. ................... 260
21.1.
21.2.
21.3.
21.4.

.............................................. 260
................................. 264
................................... 266
.......................................... 269
..................................................................... 270
............................................................ 270
............................................................. 270
21 .......................................................... 270

22. ........... 271


22.1. .25................................................... 271
22.2. Frame Relay ...................................... 275
22.3. ................................................................................ 277
22.3.1. ....................................................................... 277
22.3.2. .................................................... 277
22.3.3. ............................... 279
22.3.4. AAL ............................. 280
22.3.5.
................................................. 281
..................................................................... 283
............................................................ 283
............................................................. 284
22 .......................................................... 284

23. /IP ...................... 285


23.1.
23.2.
23.3.
23.4.
23.5.
23.6.

2Seti_sviz.indd 9

........................................................................ 285
........................ 286
TCP/IP ......................................................... 287
................................... 288
IPv4 IPv6 ............................................ 289
TCP UDP ............................................ 294
..................................................................... 297
............................................................ 297
............................................................. 207
23 .......................................................... 297

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10

24. VoIP .............................. 298


24.1. SIP ..................................................... 298
24.2. SDP ....................................................................... 299
24.3. .................................................. 300
24.4. H.323...................................................................... 302
24.5. 7 IP ............................................... 303
24.5.1. SCTP ............................ 304
24.5.2. M2UA, M2PA M3UA.................... 304
24.5.3. SUA IUA ..................................................... 306
..................................................................... 308
........................................................... 308
............................................................. 308
24 ......................................................... 308

25. 309
25.1.
25.2.
25.3.
25.4.
25.5.
25.6.

......................................................... 309
IP ............................................ 310
........................... 315
IP ................... 316
................................................... 317
ENUM................................................................... 320
..................................................................... 321
........................................................... 321
............................................................. 322
25 ......................................................... 322

26.
.................................................. 323
26.1. IP ........................................................ 323
26.2. VoIP .................................................................... 324
26.3. , VoIP ........................ 325
26.4. VoIP ........................................................... 327
26.5. ................................................... 327
26.6. .................................................................................... 328
26.7. IP ............ 329
26.8. RTP ........................................................................ 330
26.9. IPTV ................................ 331
26.10. IPTV ................................................................... 332
..................................................................... 334
........................................................... 334
............................................................. 334
26 ......................................................... 334

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11

27. ........... 335


27.1. ............................................................................... 335
27.2. FTP........................................... 336
27.3. HTTP341
............................................................. 337
27.4. SMTP ....................................... 339
..................................................................... 340
........................................................... 340
............................................................. 340
27 ......................................................... 340

28. ....................... 341


28.1. IP ......... 341
28.2. ITUT
IP- .............................................................................. 343
28.2.1. ITU-T Y.1540 ............................................ 343
28.2.2. ITU-T Y.1541 ............................................ 345
28.3. QoS IP- ................................ 346
28.3.1. QoS ....................... 346
28.3.2. QoS .............................. 346
28.3.3. QoS .................... 348
28.4.
IP ............................................................................... 349
28.4.1. (IntServ) 349
28.4.2. ... 350
28.4.3.
(MPLS)............................................................................ 352
28.5. VoIP ..................... 352
28.5.1.
................................................................ 352
28.5.2. ,
..................................... 353
..................................................................... 357
............................................................ 357
............................................................. 358
28 .......................................................... 358

29. ........................................ 359


29.1.
29.2.
29.3.
29.4.
29.5.
29.6.

2Seti_sviz.indd 11

....................... 359
.... 360
.......... 363
IP ... 366
IP ............ 367
,
...... 368

29.09.2009, 13:10:54

12

..................................................................... 370
............................................................ 370
............................................................. 370
29 .......................................................... 370

30. ............................... 371


30.1. ............................... 371
30.2. IPv6....................................................... 373
30.3. IP,
.......... 374
30.4. Internet2 ( )....... 377
30.5. .......... 378
..................................................................... 380
........................................................... 380
............................................................. 380
30 ......................................................... 380

31. .................................................. 381


31.1.
31.2.
31.3.
31.4.
31.5.

........................................................................ 381
....................................................... 382
- ............ 386
....................... 388
.............................................................. 389
31 ......................................................... 389

..........................................390
.........................................................392
....................................................396
..........................................................399

2Seti_sviz.indd 12

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29.09.2009, 13:10:55

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29.09.2009, 13:10:59

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29.09.2009, 13:11:00


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29.09.2009, 13:11:00

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29.09.2009, 13:11:00

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29.09.2009, 13:11:02

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29.09.2009, 13:11:02

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, ,
.
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), .
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, ,
.
(Integrated
Services Digital Network) ,
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, , , , .

, .

2Seti_sviz.indd 35

29.09.2009, 13:11:03

36

1.

(Subscriber) , .
User.
(Operator) , .
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.

1.4.



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2Seti_sviz.indd 36

29.09.2009, 13:11:03

1.

37

1.5.
, . , , . , ,
(http://www.minsvyaz.ru) (http://www.gks.ru).

. 2008
() 45 . 75%
.
31,8
100 . 88% .
75%.
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) .
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.

: ,
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2Seti_sviz.indd 37

29.09.2009, 13:11:03

38

1.

4.
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?


1.
100 .

,
100 .

1
1.1. .., .., .. .
.: , 1977.
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2Seti_sviz.indd 38

29.09.2009, 13:11:04



Ea maxime conducunt, quae sunt rectissima.
( , )

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.
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2Seti_sviz.indd 39

29.09.2009, 13:11:04

40

2.

.

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2Seti_sviz.indd 40

29.09.2009, 13:11:04

1.

41


. . ().
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2Seti_sviz.indd 41

29.09.2009, 13:11:04

42

2.

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2Seti_sviz.indd 42

29.09.2009, 13:11:05

1.

43

,
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2Seti_sviz.indd 43

29.09.2009, 13:11:05

44

2.

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2Seti_sviz.indd 44

29.09.2009, 13:11:06

1.

45

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2Seti_sviz.indd 45

29.09.2009, 13:11:06

46

2.

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2Seti_sviz.indd 46

29.09.2009, 13:11:07

1.

47

/
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2Seti_sviz.indd 47

. 2.9.

29.09.2009, 13:11:07

48

2.

1 2
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2Seti_sviz.indd 48

29.09.2009, 13:11:07

1.

49

. ,
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2Seti_sviz.indd 49

29.09.2009, 13:11:07

50

2.

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2Seti_sviz.indd 50

29.09.2009, 13:11:08

1.

51

. 2.12.

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ITUT E.171
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2Seti_sviz.indd 51

29.09.2009, 13:11:08

52

2.

: , , ,
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.: , 1981.
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2004 (http://nicksokolov.narod/ru/lib/html).

2Seti_sviz.indd 52

29.09.2009, 13:11:09

3

Faciant meliora potents.
(, , )

3.1.


, .
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. .
.
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. ,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 53

29.09.2009, 13:11:09

54

3.

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.
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. : As is ( ).

2Seti_sviz.indd 54

29.09.2009, 13:11:09

1.

55

, XX
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2Seti_sviz.indd 55

29.09.2009, 13:11:09

56

3.

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2Seti_sviz.indd 56

29.09.2009, 13:11:10

1.

57

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2Seti_sviz.indd 57

29.09.2009, 13:11:10

58

3.

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2Seti_sviz.indd 58

29.09.2009, 13:11:10

1.

59

1

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2Seti_sviz.indd 59

29.09.2009, 13:11:12

60

3.

54

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2Seti_sviz.indd 60

29.09.2009, 13:11:12

1.

61

. 3.5 , . 4.
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2Seti_sviz.indd 61

29.09.2009, 13:11:13

62

3.

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2Seti_sviz.indd 62

29.09.2009, 13:11:13

1.

63

12

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2Seti_sviz.indd 63

TC2

29.09.2009, 13:11:13

64

3.

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2Seti_sviz.indd 64

29.09.2009, 13:11:13

1.

65


21
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2Seti_sviz.indd 65

29.09.2009, 13:11:13

66

3.

. 3.12 . .
,
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PATC1

10

01
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2Seti_sviz.indd 66

29.09.2009, 13:11:14

1.

67

.
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2Seti_sviz.indd 67

29.09.2009, 13:11:14

68

3.

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3
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// . .. , .. . .: , 2001.
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, 1994 (http://nicksokolov.narod.ru/lib.html).

2Seti_sviz.indd 68

29.09.2009, 13:11:14


Imperare sibi maximum imperium.
( )

4.1.
ITU. (
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: . .
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2Seti_sviz.indd 69

29.09.2009, 13:11:14

70

4.

,
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,
POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service);

2Seti_sviz.indd 70

29.09.2009, 13:11:15

1.

71

;
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.

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).

2Seti_sviz.indd 71

29.09.2009, 13:11:15

72

4.

. 4.2.

Channel Associated Signaling (CAS).



. , 30/32
, , .

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, .
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C62 =

2Seti_sviz.indd 72

6!
= 15.
2 ! (6 2)!

(4.1)

29.09.2009, 13:11:15

1.

73



: f0=700 , f1=900 , f2=1100 , f4=1300 , f7=1500
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2Seti_sviz.indd 73

29.09.2009, 13:11:15

74

4.

. ,
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R, : R1.5.
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2Seti_sviz.indd 74

29.09.2009, 13:11:16

1.

75

, ITUT .
().
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2Seti_sviz.indd 75

29.09.2009, 13:11:16

76

4.


,
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. 4.3. , N .
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.
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, . ,
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MAP
DUP

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TUP

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3

3:
2

1:

1:

. 4.4.

2Seti_sviz.indd 76

29.09.2009, 13:11:16

1.

77


MTP (Message Transfer Part). MTP

:
DUP (Data User Part);
HUP (Handover User Part);
TUP (Telephone User Part).
DUP TUP . ,
. HUP MUP,
NMT450.
.
SCCP
(Signalling connection control part) 3
3 OSI
:
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Part).
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capabilities application part). TCAP, ,
:
GSM MAP (Mobile Application Part);
OMAP (Operations, Maintenance
and Administration Part);
INAP (Intelligent Network Application
Protocol);
CAMEL CAP (CAMEL Application Protocol).

.
().
, . . 4.5.

2Seti_sviz.indd 77

29.09.2009, 13:11:16

78

4.

CK

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8n, n> 2

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LI

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.

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.
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2Seti_sviz.indd 78

29.09.2009, 13:11:17

1.

79

, ,

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2Seti_sviz.indd 79

29.09.2009, 13:11:17

80

4.

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.: , 2008.

2Seti_sviz.indd 80

29.09.2009, 13:11:17


In aedificiis lapis male positus non est removendus.
(, , )

5.1.
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, .

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2Seti_sviz.indd 81

29.09.2009, 13:11:17

82

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2Seti_sviz.indd 82

29.09.2009, 13:11:18

1.

83

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2Seti_sviz.indd 83

ABC,
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29.09.2009, 13:11:18

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2Seti_sviz.indd 84

()

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29.09.2009, 13:11:18

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2Seti_sviz.indd 85

29.09.2009, 13:11:18

86

5.

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2Seti_sviz.indd 86

29.09.2009, 13:11:19

1.

87


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2Seti_sviz.indd 87

29.09.2009, 13:11:19

88

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2Seti_sviz.indd 88

29.09.2009, 13:11:19

1.

89

5.4.


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2Seti_sviz.indd 89

EMUM 25.

29.09.2009, 13:11:19

90

5.

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2Seti_sviz.indd 90

29.09.2009, 13:11:20

1.

91

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2Seti_sviz.indd 91

29.09.2009, 13:11:20

92

5.

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5.2. .. . .: ,
2004 (http://nicksokolov.narod/ru/lib/html).

2Seti_sviz.indd 92

29.09.2009, 13:11:20


Sine pennis volare haud.
( )

6.1.
,
, :

, ,
;
,
( )
;

,
,
.
80 XX ISDN . ,
, ISDN
. .
ISDN , ,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 93

29.09.2009, 13:11:20

94

6.


, . , ,
ISDN, .
, ISDN xDSL. ,
(Digital Subscriber Line).
x. , ISDN .
, . . ISDN
,
. ,
 .
: TUP, ,
ISUP, .
, ISDN,
. D, , , , .
. D :
16 / 64 /.
B H, .
B 64 /.
B. : N64 /.
2N30. H :
H0 384 / ( B);
H10 1472 / (
B);
H11 1536 / (
B);
H12 1920 / (
B).

2Seti_sviz.indd 94

29.09.2009, 13:11:20

1.

95

H10
ANSI. ISDN, ITUT. H11 .
ISDN ,

.
. 6.1.
ISDN.
S
T

1
NT2

R
2

U
NT1

V
LT

ET

) ISDN



, NT12


ISDN
LT ET

RS232

) ISDN
. 6.1.

ISDN

TE1 (Terminal Equipment)


, ISDN. S.
ISDN TE2,
, ISDN.
R.
, ,
TA (Terminal Adapter).
S.
NT2 (Network Termination).
, ,
/ . NT2 T. NT2
. S/T.

2Seti_sviz.indd 95

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96

6.

NT1
. .

.
,
, U. NT2 NT1 NT12.
LT (Line Termination). LT NT1 .
LT ET (Exchange Termination) V.
ISDN
. . 6.1
ISDN.
NT12 TA. R RS232, , . ISDN
, LT ET.
ISDN
.
ISDN T S/T.
ITUT ( ETSI) ISDN
. ITUT Basic Rate Interface (BRI).
: ISDN.
.
: 2B+D. , B
D.
D 16 /.
ITUT Primary Rate
Interface (PRI).
ISDN .
: 30B+D. D 64 /.
, ISDN, .

2Seti_sviz.indd 96

29.09.2009, 13:11:21

1.

97

6.2.

( IN,
) , . Freephone.
800.
,
DEF 800.
, DEF, . , ,
.

. ISDN,
.

.
.
, ,
. . 6.2.

SMP

SCEP

SCP


(INAP)

SSP

SSP


(ISUP)

. 6.2.

7.

2Seti_sviz.indd 97

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98

6.

SSP (Service Switching


Point) .
SSP. .
 SSP ,
, . SSP

IN. SSP , IN, ,
SCP (Service Control Point) .
SCP ,
. SCP
SSP,
, IN.
SSP SCP ,
(SSCP). SCP SSP. SSP
SCP, . , SCP , (,
), SCP
,
.
SCEP (Service Creation Environment
Point) ,
IN. , ,
. , SMP (Service Management Point), .
,
, ,
IN.
, . ,
, . .

, , ,

2Seti_sviz.indd 98

29.09.2009, 13:11:22

1.

99

. , (, ,
) . ,
.
.

6.3.

I (omputer
Telephone Integration). ITUT, , Service Node (SN)
.
,
, .
,
.
.

. , , ,
. . 6.3

,
.
1
()

TCM-I

ACD

IS

1
()

TCM-I

ACD

IS

. 6.3.

2Seti_sviz.indd 99

29.09.2009, 13:11:22

100

6.

TCMI
IP. E1,
. TCMI,
, .
, Ethernet. ,
TCMI
IP. ACD ( )
,
.
.
, .
IS :
, , , .
, , .

. .
,
. , ,
, .
.
,
.
. .
,
, , . ,
, ,
.
( )
, .

.

2Seti_sviz.indd 100

29.09.2009, 13:11:22

1.

101

: , ISDN,
, B, D, ,
, .


1. ,
.
2. ISDN ?
3. ,
?
4. , ,
 ?
5.
?
6.
(ACD)?
7. ?


1.
(, 02 ).

.
2. ,
.
, , ,
.

6
6.1. ., ., ., . ISDN
. .: , 1999.
6.2. .., .., .. .
.: , 2000.
6.3. .., .. Call
. .: BHV, 2002.

2Seti_sviz.indd 101

29.09.2009, 13:11:23

7
,

Post malum segetem serendum est.


(  )

7.1. ,

. () ,
, .
,
. ,
 . .
,
.
, ( ). , .
: ?.
: .
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 102

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1.

103


, ,
,
. ITU
(service)
(telecommunication service). ITUT
, , .
, : ( , ),
,
. .

 ,
.
. , 
. ,
.
.
.

.
.
(Call Waiting). . IP .
.
,
. , ,
: .
. ,
, .

2Seti_sviz.indd 103

29.09.2009, 13:11:23

104

7. ,

, ,
.
().

, .
.
:
,
, .


/ . Call Waiting .
, , ,
.
. , .
.
. 7.1 , . , .
, , .

,

. 7.1.

2Seti_sviz.indd 104

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1.

105

, , .
, .
. 7.2 ,
.
, . ,
. , ,
,
, .
,

. 7.2.

xDSL

service , ,
: .

. .
. . ,
( , , , , )
.
.
(,
).
, (
, , , ).

2Seti_sviz.indd 105

29.09.2009, 13:11:23

106

7. ,

7.2.
. 7.2 , . 
.
,
, :
( , , ,
)
);
 ;
.


,
. ,
:
1. (Call Waiting). ()
.
. , .
2. (Call
Forwarding).
, .

.
3.
(ThreeWay Calling). . , .
4.
(Speed Calling). ,
, .
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 106

29.09.2009, 13:11:24

1.

107

, , :

( Call Forwarding);
(
),
;
( ,
, );
.
. . 7.3 
, .
-

. 7.3.

IN

ISDN



 . ,

, . , CENTREX,

.

, .
.

 -

2Seti_sviz.indd 107

29.09.2009, 13:11:24

108

7. ,

.
, . 
. 0. ,
,
1.
IN ( ),  ISDN (
)
.
 ( ), 

.
,
. 7.1.
.

(oneswitch intelligent network).
ISDN , . ,
ISDN .

 , :
1. (Freephone).
(
800) . , ,
(,
).  SSP SCP,
,
, ( ), . ( , )
,
.
2.
(Premium Rate).
, .

2Seti_sviz.indd 108

29.09.2009, 13:11:24

1.

109

. 900.

900.
3. (Virtual private network). ,
/ CENTREX.
4. (Televoting). .
.
,
.
,

, .

.
Freephone, , , , .

. .
, , , ,
. , , :
1. (prepaid)
.
2. .
3. .
ISDN ,
.
:
1. 7 , .
B.
2. .

2Seti_sviz.indd 109

29.09.2009, 13:11:24

110

7. ,

, , .
;
. .

.

7.3.

, , , . .
. ,
(rural) .
(remote) .
.
, , , , .
, .
,
.

.
. ,
, , .
. 7.4.
. , . E1,
.

.
.
,
. , ,
, .

2Seti_sviz.indd 110

29.09.2009, 13:11:25

1.

111

. 7.4.

. . ( )
,
.

.
, .

7.4.
, ,
.
,
.
, .
, . ,
,
SMS (Short Message Service).
, .
, .

.
( ) (cordless) ,
. , ,
(seamless)

2Seti_sviz.indd 111

29.09.2009, 13:11:25

112

7. ,

.

. .

. NGN. , NGN, ,
. :
NGN?
,
.

: , ,
, ,
, , , .


1. ?
2.
?
3.
?
4. ,
.
5.
?
6. .
7.
DECT.


1. ,
, .
2. ,
, .

7
7.1. . : , ,
. .: , 2003.
7.2. .. . , , 2003.
7.3. .. . .: ,
2004.

2Seti_sviz.indd 112

29.09.2009, 13:11:26


Dilatio est queadum negatio.
( )

8.1.
. Quality of Service (QoS).

. ITUT , , E.800. QoS
. . 8.1, ITUT
E.800, ,
. . .
.
.
. 8.1 . ,
, .

8.

2Seti_sviz.indd 113

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114

8.

18 28 .

. 8.1.

ITUT,

(service support);
(service operability);
(serveability);
(service security).
(
) .

.
, , :
(service accessibility);
(service retainability);
(service integrity).

( )

2Seti_sviz.indd 114

29.09.2009, 13:11:27

1.

115


.

.
, , ,
.
: , ,
, ,
, .

, . . 8.1
.
(charging performance) E.800 ,
.
,
, .
(trafficability performance)
. .

. , (planning performance), (provisioning performance)
(administration performance) .

(dependability). (), . :
(availability) (
, );
(reliability)

;
(maintainability)

2Seti_sviz.indd 115

29.09.2009, 13:11:27

116

8.

,
,
;
(maintenance support)
, .
(transmission performance).
, , .
ITUT E.800
(propagation performance).

.
,
, ,
. , , ITUT, ,
.
, ,
, ,

.
. , ITU ETSI.
. .
, . 8.1
.
. , , .
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 116

29.09.2009, 13:11:28

1.

117

8.2.

:
.
,
, .
,
.
. 8.2
, .
. , , . , ,
.
. 8.2. ( ). , N ,
( )
.

MCA

TC1

TCN

Qj=1-Pj

Pj

Tk(1)

MC

(1)

P0 ,T0 ,...

. 8.2.

, .
0.
. 8.2 : P0
T0(1) .

().
, A, .
Pj A . , Qj=1Pj .
, P0 :

2Seti_sviz.indd 117

29.09.2009, 13:11:28

118

8.

P0 = 1 (1 Pj ) .

(8.1)

{J }


(1)
A Tk .
(1)
T0
:

T0(1) = Tk(1) .

(8.2)

{K }

. ,
.
, . ,
. ,
.
, , P0
A . ,
:
2,0% 1;
0,1%;

0,1%;

3,0%;
7,0%.
, , . , .

,
.
Tk, Tk(1),
. ,
, Tx. ,
0,95 .
1

( pro mille ).
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 118

29.09.2009, 13:11:28

1.

119
(1)

: Tk

< Tx.

.
T0c . ITUT , A
:
T0c 400 ;
95% T0c
600 .

. (8.2) .
(8.2) .
.
(
). .
Tc
:
Tc 2,5 ;
95% Tc
4,0 .
(
)
. , .
, .
Tk(1), {K},
k,
.
. Tk(1) (8.2) .
(8.2) T(1).
95%
( 4,0 )
. .

2Seti_sviz.indd 119

29.09.2009, 13:11:29

120

8.


.
. ,
. .
, ,
. ,
.
( ) , SLA (Service
Level Agreement).
, ,
(
. 8.1). ,
SLA 0,99999.
. T
T T. ,
T
, .
, TF.
:

A=

TA
.
TA + TF

(8.3)

A=0,99999,
TF .
5,3 . .
, ,
,
, .

8.3.
, , .

2Seti_sviz.indd 120

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1.

121


( ).
. .

. ITUT , MOS
(Mean Opinion Score). .
ETSI R. MOS . MOS ( 2,5 4,4)
: MOS=R/20.
R>70. R . 8.1.
8.1.

90 100

(best)

80 90

(high)

70 80

(medium)

60 70

(low)

50 60

(poor)

LSQ (Listener Speech Quality)


. LSQ, R,
. , . .
, ,
.
,
.
, .
, . 8.1,
. ,
.
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 121

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122

8.

. 8.3 . ,
, , N ,

. , ,
0.
.

Aj

Bk
A0,B0 ,...

. 8.3.



A0. 1020 ,
.
( )
.
( , ) .

, . , , .
. . 8.2 .
8.2.

,
1923
1933
1950
1985

14
25

8,3
11,7

3,5
5,0

2,0
2,0

0,6
0,6

, A0 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 122

29.09.2009, 13:11:29

1.

123


, . ( ) 7 .
, .
(. 8.4) .

A (7,0 )

A (6,0 )

A (6,0 )
A0 (19,0 )
. 8.4.

( A0, A
A) ,
. , ( 4,5 ) xDSL. ,
.
.

BER
(Bit Error Rate).
.

. E1,
,
, 106.

.

.
, ,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 123

29.09.2009, 13:11:30

124

8.

: ,
, , , , ,
, , , ,
.


1. ?
2. ITU-T
?
3.
?
4.
?
5. ?
6.
?


1. (8.3) TF
A=0,9999. ,
1 ?
2. t

F (t ) = 1 et / t

(1 )

(1)

, ( t

),

95% .

8
8.1. .. . .: ,
1985.
8.2. . IP. .:
, 2003.
8.3. .. . .: , 2004.

2Seti_sviz.indd 124

29.09.2009, 13:11:30

Plus usus sine doctrina, quam citra usum doctrina valet.


( , )

9.1.

, . ,
,
. . 9.1 , ,
. , .
,
.
:
;
;
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 125

29.09.2009, 13:11:31

126

9.

. 9.1.

, , , ,
, , .
.
,
, ,
.
,
.

.
. 9.1 :
;
;
.

,
( ).
.
. , -

2Seti_sviz.indd 126

29.09.2009, 13:11:31

1.

127

, ,
.
.
.

(, ), ( , ).

.
,
.
.. . , , .
, ,

. , , .
.

.

.
,
.
, . ,
,
.
, ( )
, .
,
, .

. . 8.2,
, .

.

.

2Seti_sviz.indd 127

29.09.2009, 13:11:31

128

9.

9.2.

, ,
,
. , XIX .
. ,
, XX .
.
(Y. Rapp) ,

.
,
, . , , .
,
. ,
 . ,
, , .
, . . ,
, .
, , Nopt.
. 9.2 fj(N),
N.
.
F(N) :
F(N)=f1(N)+f2(N)+f3(N).

2Seti_sviz.indd 128

(9.1)

29.09.2009, 13:11:31

1.

129

F (N)

f1 (N)

f2 (N)

f3 (N)

N
N opt

. 9.2.

F(N)
. F(N). fj(N),
, F(N).
, fj(N) ,
.

, Nopt .

9.

2Seti_sviz.indd 129

29.09.2009, 13:11:31

130

9.

9.3.


. , , ,
. 1917
..
, . ,
.
V , Y. . 9.3 ( ).
.
,
.
1

2
.
.
.

.
.
.

1
2

A (t)

B(t)

D (t)
1-

P (t)

. 9.3.


. , N, .
.
V . , .

.
,
.
. .

2Seti_sviz.indd 130

29.09.2009, 13:11:32

1.

131


A(t).
B(t).  . ,
1 .
P(t) D(t) .
.. , , A(t) B(t) :

A(t ) = 1 et , B(t ) = 1 et .

(9.2)

. , . ( )
(
A(1) tA )
:

A(1) = tA =

1 .

(9.3)

1 .

(9.4)

. ,
.
(B(1) tB ) :

B (1) = tB =


C N. Y
:
Y=NCB(1).

(9.5)


( ). , . 9.3, .. 1917 :

YV
= VV ! i
Y

i =0 i !

(9.6)

B
. -

2Seti_sviz.indd 131

29.09.2009, 13:11:32

132

9.

B Ev(Y). .. , , .. ,
.

A(t) B(t), .
.
( ),
. ,
, .

9.4.


, . ,

,
, .
,
. , , ,

.
. 9.4 ,
,
.
(). .
1

2
Q1 =1-P1

P1

T3(1)
P0 ,T0(1), R0{tq > t 0 },...

. 9.4.

2Seti_sviz.indd 132

29.09.2009, 13:11:32

1.

133

,
, . , ,
( )
. . 9.4 :
P0, T0(1) R0{tq,t0}, :

,
tq t0.
, ,
(8.1) (8.2),
P0 T0(1) . : P0 T0(1)
. , ,
. 9.4, k Tk(1).
, , (8.2)
:
4

T0(1) = Tk(1) .

(9.7)

k =1

Tk(1) ,
.
Tk(1) :

Tk(1) =

T0(1)
.
4

(9.8)

. , ,
, Tk(1).
,
T0(1).

R0{tq,t0}.
t0
.
S0(t).
.
, . ,
-

2Seti_sviz.indd 133

29.09.2009, 13:11:33

134

9.

.
j Sj(t),
:

S0 (t ) = S1 (t )  S2 (t )  S3 (t )  S4 (t ) .

(9.9)

. , Sj(t) ,
S0(t).
, . ,
,
A(t) B(t) (9.2),  S0(t), S*0(s),
:

S0* ( s ) =

(1 1 )(2 2 )(3 3 )(4 4 )


.
[ s + (1 1 )][ s + (2 2 )][ s + (3 3 )][ s + (4 4 )]
(9.10)

j j
j .
( ), j j .
(9.10) :

S0* ( s ) =

( ) 4
.
[ s + ( )]4

(9.11)


S0(t). , :
4

S0 (t ) = 1 e( )t
i=1

[( )t ]i1 .
(i 1)!

(9.12)

. 9.5 .
Sj(t) . S0(t) (9.12). =1, =0,5. ,
S0(t) 0,95, t0.
, R0{tq,t0}=0,05.

2Seti_sviz.indd 134

29.09.2009, 13:11:33

1.

135

1,0

0,95

Sj (t)
0,8
S 0 (t)
0,6
( )
( )
0,4

0,2
t0

tj
0
5

10

15

20

. 9.5.

Sj(t) tj, 0,95, . tj


Sj(t)=0,95 t. , S0(t) (,

).

: , , , , , ,
, .

2Seti_sviz.indd 135

29.09.2009, 13:11:33

136

9.


1.
?
2.
?
3. ?
4. .. ,
?
5.
,
?
6. :
0,01,
0,98?
7. ?


1. ,
0,99.
2. (9.12), ,
=1 c1
=0,5 c1.

9
9.1. : / ..,
.., .. .; . .. .
.: , 1981.
9.2. . . .: , 1979.
9.3. .. . .: , 2003.

2Seti_sviz.indd 136

29.09.2009, 13:11:34

10


Futura sunt in manibus deorum.
( )

10.1.
. ,
, , ,
. .  .
. ,
, , :
. 10.1. .
, ,
, .
.
, ,  .

2Seti_sviz.indd 137

29.09.2009, 13:11:34

138

10.


NGN

. 10.1.

: , ,
.

. .
, , . ,
,
. ,
. . ,
,
. , NGN,

2Seti_sviz.indd 138

29.09.2009, 13:11:34

1.

139

( . 10.1 ). ,
, ,
. ,
, XIX XXI .

10.2.

,
. ,
 . . .

(), .
,
.

, . ,
.
, .
.
, ,
, .
1 .
, .
,
,  .
,
(
)  ().

2Seti_sviz.indd 139

29.09.2009, 13:11:35

140

10.

. . ,
. ,
.

10.3.


NGN .
, , , .
,
.
.
( ),
. , .
, ,
, ,
. 1984
60%.
.
,
. 100% . .
, ,
, .

, .
, ( ITUT)

. -

2Seti_sviz.indd 140

29.09.2009, 13:11:35

1.

141

.
.
, XXI ,
, .
. ,
?

.
.
. 20 30% .
: , ,
( 0,1 ,
). ,
. 25% .

. , .

,
,
. XX ,

. xDSL.
, . 10.1 , . .
Universal Service, ITU
,
.
, ,
.
,
. , ,

2Seti_sviz.indd 141

29.09.2009, 13:11:35

142

10.


.
.

, .

, , . ,
,
. .
ITU.
.

10.4. :
NGN
. 10.1 .
. .
90 XX .
, ,
,
,
.
.
, . ,
, , . .
,
, ,
. , , .

2Seti_sviz.indd 142

29.09.2009, 13:11:35

1.

143


,
. ,
.

,
. ,
SLA,
.
, , , , . ,
NGN. SLA
( )
( ) .
NGN
, . , ,
. , , ,
.

 , .

.
.
ISDN.
.
ISDN . ,
ISDN . ,
,
ISDN.
. ,
NGN
. , NGN
. 10.2 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 143

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144

10.

, , , ,
, NGN (
).
, NGN ,
. tripleplay
services, NGN , :
(), .

NGN: triple-play
services

. 10.2.

NGN

NGN
.
, ,
.
.
.
, . . 10.1
. , GSM.

2Seti_sviz.indd 144

29.09.2009, 13:11:36

1.

145

10.1.


:
56 /
56 /
ISDN

I
II
)
)

I
II

)
)
)

) )
) )
)
)

10.1:
)

;
I , ISDN;
)
II ISDN;
)
II GPRS;
)

;
)
, EDGE WiFi;
)
;
)
;
)
.
, . 10.1,
: . ,
.
, , .
,
.

.
)

.
.
10.

2Seti_sviz.indd 145

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146

10.

. ,
.
, .
.
NGN.
.
,
, . ,
.
. 10.3.

.
.
.
.

T1

NGN

T2

T3

T1

NGN

T4

T5

T6

T7

. 10.3.

2Seti_sviz.indd 146

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1.

147


T6 NGN T4
, .
. NGN
T4 T6 .
: T5 , NGN?
( )
. ,
.
. , NGN
( T7) .
.

T=T5 T4. , T5 T6 , NGN . , ,

.
, ,
,
. , .

: , , ,
, ,
, , .


1. ,
.
2.
?

2Seti_sviz.indd 147

29.09.2009, 13:11:36

148

10.

3. ?
4.
?
5. ,
, ?
6. ?
7.
, ?


1. , . 10.1,
,
.
2. ,
.

10
10.1. ., .. // .:
, 2001.
10.2. .. . .: ,
2004.
10.3. .. NGN: . .: -,
2008.

2Seti_sviz.indd 148

29.09.2009, 13:11:37

2Seti_sviz.indd 149

29.09.2009, 13:11:37

11

11.1.

. ,
() , , , , .
,
 (, ,
, ), ,
.

,

(FixedMobile Convergence, FMC),
. 0.2.
,
FMS (FixedMobile Substitution) . ,
1 ,
2.

2Seti_sviz.indd 150

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2.

151


.


1. .

,
.

11.2.
11.2.1.
80
, . .
ETSI DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications),
2
(Cordless Telephony2).
DECT ETSI 1992 .,
1997 . DECT, 18801900 .
11.2.2.
(paging) , , ,
.
 .
11.2.3.

, , , , ..

; .

2Seti_sviz.indd 151

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152

11.

60 , 80 20 .

1327,
, ALOHA (Dynamic Framelength
Slotted ALOHA).
TETRA (Trans European
Trunked Radio) ETSI 90 . , ,
, ,
,
. TETRA , ,
, ,
.
11.2.4.
, WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networks) . ,
, Bluetooth, , X .
Bluetooth 2.45
,
,  , .
11.2.5.
1947  , ,

, .
:
, .
, ,
, ,
,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 152

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2.

153

,
50
.
, .
240 ,
.
11.2.6.
,


, , 2.

11.3.
, 1888 ( ,
),
, , .
.
20
(AM), (FM).

1940 .
, 1950

.
,
, , .

,
,
. .

2Seti_sviz.indd 153

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154

11.


.
,
, .
(
,
). ,
:
, ;
(
, 1)
;
,
;


.

11.4.
2
, .
, , , .
, ,
,
, , .

[18] ,
, .
(cellular) ,
, , . 11.1.
, .
BS (Base Station),
,
.
1
. ,
, ,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 154

29.09.2009, 13:11:38

2.

. 11.1.

155

,
,
, , .
, ,
,
MS (Mobile Station)2, 600 800,
.
100 . , . 11.1.
,
, , ,
. ,
,
a 2 .
. ,
, , ,
.
,

, , 2

,
Mobile Station (MS). ,
, , ,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 155

29.09.2009, 13:11:38

156

11.

,
.
3 ,
.
BSC (Base Station Controller),
. BSC MSC (Mobile Switching Center),
. MSC , 1
, . , MSC
,
.

, , (, ). (handover handoff).
, handoff
AMPS DAMPS, 12,
handover 13 GSM, .
. 11.2. ,
,
 ,
.
, /
, ,
. , , ,
, ,
, , .

2Seti_sviz.indd 156

29.09.2009, 13:11:43

2.

157

t:

t + t:

. 11.2.

MAHO (Mobile Assisted Handover),



,
, , .
, .

,
BSC, MSC, , ( )
.
, ,
,
, .
, ,
. .
, , MSC.
. MSC
HLR, , -

2Seti_sviz.indd 157

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158

11.

HLR, ,
MSC . HLR
MSC,
( ), MSC.
MAP
(Mobile Application Part), 14.

11.5.
, MSC . FDMA (Frequency
Division Multiple Access).
, , 30 . , ,
, .

TDM,
, . .
CDMA, , ,
, . ,
.
CDMA
Qualcomm , , 1989 ,
.

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
. , ,
.
,
. , .

2Seti_sviz.indd 158

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2.

159

11.6.

11.6.1. ITUT
1
, ,
, . , 1 ,
,
.
ITUT, IETF, ETSI ,
, ,
, ,
,
,  ,
. , , ITU,
( ) . , ,
ITU 7,
/ISDN 4,
14.
ITU
FPLMTS,
IMT2000.
3G.
11.6.2. ETSI
1985

RACE,
, GSM UMTS, 16.

2Seti_sviz.indd 159

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160

11.

11.6.3. 3

3G
,
.
3GPP
(Third Generation Partnership Project).
3GPP ,
GSM, GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) EDGE (Enhanced Data
rates for GSM Evolution).
GSM ETSI 3GPP,
2.5G.
3GPP . 3GPP
PCG (Project Coordination Group) TSG (Technical Specifications Group),
3GPP.
3GPP , . 11.3.
, , , , ,
. . 11.3 .
.bbb aa.bb

3GPP TS 23.040 V5.1.0



TS:
TR:
. 11.3.

Vxxyyz
x:
y:
z:

3GPP

3GPP,
, 3GPP, , ,
TS (Technical Specifications)
TR (Technical Reports) . ,
: aa.bbb aa.bb.

2Seti_sviz.indd 160

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2.

161

.
Vx.y.z. , z
.
3GPP
, ,
.
1999 3GPP , ,
1999 ,
, , 5 4,
99.
11.6.4. 2 3
3GPP2
CDMA2000 , 3GPP WCDMA.
3G , CDMA (IS95
TIAEIA95). 3GPP 3GPP2 , ,
(
), . 3GPP2 .
11.6.5.
ITUT,
ETSI, 3GPP,
GSM 
(), , . 14.

: , FMC, FMS,
, DECT, , , , AM, FM, , ,
CDMA, TDMA, DAMPS, BS, MS, BSC, MSC, ,
HLR, 3GPP, 3GPP2.

11.

2Seti_sviz.indd 161

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162

11.


1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.

7.

8.

?
?
?

?
?
? ?
, :
a) ,
b) ,
c) ,
d) .

:
a) ,
b) ,
c) ,
d) , .
GSM :
a) ITUT,
b) 3GPP,
c) ETSI,
d) IETF.


1.
.
.

11
11.1. .. .
.: , 2000. 239 .
11.2. .., .., ..
. .: , 2002. 304 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 162

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12



, ,
-, ?!

12.1. 1G
. ,
2,5G 3G, 1G 2G ,
. , ,
, , , .
, ,
70- . 1978 AMPS (Advanced
Mobile Phone Service) 800 .
,
AMPS, ,
1983 . ,

AMPS.

1979 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 163

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164

12.

, , ,
1981 NMT-450 (Nordic Mobile
Telephone System), 450 . 1985 ,
TACS (Total Access Communications System), 900 , ,
AMPS.
TACS
BT, Cellnet Vodafone.
,

. 1980-
1G
: ,
, . o
1G
.
, .
, , 1G
NMT AMPS. .

.
, ,
. ,
,
.
, 1G ,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 164

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2.

165

12.2. NMT-450
, FDMA
(, , ) 450 ,
900 , NMT-900. NMT
(Mobile Telephone Exchange),
BS .

, .

.
NMT-450 . 1991
-. $2000 5 .
1995 NMT-450 . NMT
GSM CDMA, CDMA-450.

12.3. AMPS
,
AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) FDMA, 70- XX ,
, 1982-1983 ,
. ( ),
. 1992
200 , 1994 . AMPS , , ,
, ,
TACS.
C-Netz,
, , .
D-AMPS, 2G.
1G
; 1G AMPS -

2Seti_sviz.indd 165

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166

12.

10 20 ,
2G. ,
,
( )
.
BS, , .

/, .
, .
MSC (Mobile Switching Center),
MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching
Office). , , 1.

12.4. D-AMPS

. ,
, . .
GSM, D-AMPS, CDMA.
GSM
, .
D-AMPS FDMA IS-136
IS-54. , AMPS. , D-AMPS 30,
AMPS, .
1995 DAMPS. $6000.
D-AMPS , , .
GSM CDMA. 2000
2010 AMPS/D-AMPS .
800
GSM 1800.

2Seti_sviz.indd 166

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2.

167

12.5. CDMA
D-AMPS GSM ,

, .
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access),
.
,
Qualcomm, CDMA
2G; Sprint ( D-AMPS
AT&T Wireless), .
IS-95
, cdmaOne. ,
CDMA 3G,
. NMT, AMPS, D-AMPS GSM,
CDMA

.

. [44]
CDMA .
.
,
. , ,
, .
CDMA ,
,
. ,
.

CDMA.
.
CDMA m , (chips). ,
64 128 .
m- , . 1 ,
. 0,
( , ). -

2Seti_sviz.indd 167

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168

12.

. ,
m=8 8-
00011011, 1
00011011 ( ), 0 11100100 ( ). ,
v /, mv .

12.6. 2,5G

.
, 2,5G, 2,1G, 2,75G.
2,5G 17,
. EDGE
(Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution),
GSM
1 ,
2,5G, . GPRS (General Packet
Radio Service), GSM, D-AMPS,
IP- ,
.
17 , GPRS 2G,
,
, 3G.

12.7. 3G
3G : 1992 3G
IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications).
2000 : -, ,
; -,
; -,

/. .

2Seti_sviz.indd 168

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2.

169

2000 . ITU 2000 (2 ) ,


.
, , 2 /,
: 2 / ,
, 384 / , , 144 / , .
,
IMT-2000: ,
, (e-mail, , SMS, ),
, ,
( ), (, , , ). 3G
17.
IMT-2000 ;
ITU
.
1999 ITU- ( ): Wideband CDMA (WCDMA),
CDMA2000 ( IS-95 CDMA), TD-SCDMA (time divisionsynchronous CDMA), UWC-136 ( IS-136) DECT.
.
. 12.1 ,
IMT-2000.
IMT-2000

IMT-DS
Direct Spread
W-CDMA
(UMTS)

CDMA

. 12.1.

2Seti_sviz.indd 169

IMT-MC
Multicarrier
CDMA2000 1X 3X

IMT-TDD
ULTRA TDD
TD-SCDMA

IMT-SC
Single Carrier
TDMA
EDGE/IS-136

TDMA

IMT-FT
FDMA/TDMA
DEC

FDMA

IMT-2000

29.09.2009, 13:11:46

170

12.

3G
, , ,
4G ( ).
, W-CDMA (Wideband CDMA),
Ericsson,
5 . GSM, W-CDMA GSM.

UMTS (Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System)
16.
CDMA2000 Qualcomm
5 , GSM,
GSM, D-AMPS,
. CDMA2000 W-CDMA
,
, . .

Ericsson Qualcomm,
, , , . , CDMA
5 . , , .
, GSM; , IS-95.
, Ericsson
, Qualcomm . Ericsson
Qualcomm,
3G, , , , , .
3G 16.

12.8.
4G
, 3G
,

2Seti_sviz.indd 170

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2.

171

,
,
IP-,
. ,

802.11, - Wi-Fi WiMAX ..
3G
, , ,
UMTS 16.
4G 20
.

: 1G, , AMPS, NMT-450, 2G, D-AMPS, GSM,


BS, CDMA-450, 3G, IMT-2000, -, WiMAX, 4G.


1. G 2G?
2. .
, -, ?
3. 1G ?
4. ?
5. .
, -, ?
6. 2G ?
7. , , GSM?
8. , , c 3G?
9.
3G?
10. .
11. .


1. 1G 3G.
,
.

12
12.1. .. / . .. .
.: , 2000. 248 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 171

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13

GSM
.

13.1. GSM
:
2G Global
System for Mobile Communications (GSM) , . , GSM , , .
1982 GSM,
Groupe Speciale Mobile
CEPT (Conference des administrations Europnnes des Postes et
Telecommunications).
900 . ( 1989 ) CEPT
ETSI, GSM , 1991 GSM
.
GSM ,
Global System for
Mobile Communications. GSM
2000 ETSI 3GPP.

2Seti_sviz.indd 172

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2.

173

GSM 1 1991 , . , , .
1992 GSM,
. GSM
1990 , ,

Groupe Speciale Mobile. GSM900
1994 () - (- GSM, ). 2002
500 GSM, 172
.
GSM
(. 13.1): (BTS),
(BSC), (TRAU), (MSC),
(HLR), (VLR)
(EIR), (AuC).
BTS BSC, BSC, ,
MSC.
GSM, ,
GSM ,
2,5G
17 GPRS, 16
UMTS. ,
GSM.
, GSM
.
200 ,
13 /
8 ,
.

16 . GSM
(frequency hopping),
, ,
TDMA, , .

2Seti_sviz.indd 173

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174

13. GSM

AuC

SMSC
HLR


(. )

MSC/GMSC
MS BTS
BSC

TRAU
MSC/VLR

MS BTS
IWF
BSC

EIR

MS
BTS

MS
BTS
MS BTS

. 13.1.

GSM 2G

GSM900,
GSM , 1800
GSM1800 1900 PSC1900
(Personal Communication Services), ,
. GSM1800
GSM900 BS
MS .

450 ETSI GSM
450 480 GSM400,

2Seti_sviz.indd 174

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2.

175

850 (GSM850), , ,
. ,
, .

13.2. GSM
. 13.1 GSM,
MS BTS. MS , (Mobile Equipment), SIM
(Subscriber Identity Module)
, ,
, .
,
SIM .
BTS
BSC, ,
RR (radio resource),
MM (mobility management)
BTS,
. BTS BSC
BSS (Base Station Subsystem).
BSS , ,
GSM, ,
.

13.3. SIM
, GSM
ME
, SIM. GSM ,
SIM
.
. 13.2 SIM,
ISO 7816 85,5x54x0,76 ,
GSM,
,

2Seti_sviz.indd 175

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176

13. GSM

SIM.

. 13.2.

SIM

, SIM GSM,
GSM.
SIM .
SIM
IMSI (International
Mobile Subscriber Identity), , 15,
.

13.4.
BSS :
BTS
BSC. BTS,
, ,
.
, ,
BTS.
. 13.1 TRAU (Transcoding and Rate
Adaptation Unit),
64 /, .
, GSM
13 / ( , FR, Full Rate), 12,2 / ( , EFR, Enhanced FR).
, 5,6 /,
. ,

2Seti_sviz.indd 176

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2.

177

64 /,
10 . , TRAU , ..
64 /, . TRAU
BSC MSC, MSC BSC
, BSC MSC
.

13.5. HLR AuC


. 13.1
HLR, . , ,
HLR .
, HLR .
, , HLR, .
HLR,
, VLR,
.
, ,
Gateway MSC (GMSC). GMSC
HLR . GMSC MSC, . HLR
, Ki,
.
HLR SIM.
HLR AuC (Authentication Center) HLR, ,
Ki. GSM
AuC HLR, ( H),
, AuC .
, AuC
SIM HLR MSC, SIM
Ki
. SIM
AuC, ,
.
12.

2Seti_sviz.indd 177

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178

13. GSM

13.6. VLR
VLR, HLR, , . HLR ,
, , VLR . 11 .
.
.

,
,
. . :
,

MSC. :
MSC ;
MSC,
, , ;

,
.
. MSC/VLR
, VLR ( VLR) VLR
( VLR) . , VLR HLR
. , HLR GSM ,
.
,
HLR, VLR ,
HLR VLR: VLR ,
HLR , . HLR
GSM.

2Seti_sviz.indd 178

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2.

179

MSC , BSS,
MSC. MSC
VLR, VLR. , VLR
MSC, MSC VLR.
VLR MSC.

13.7. MSC
MSC
,
. GSM, /ISDN,
MSC. DX200, Siemens EWSD,
Alcatel S12, AXE .
MSC
, , BSS, MSC, . IWF
,
, .
MSC . , BTS.
BSC

MSC . MSC
IMSI , , HLR
. , HLR VLR.
MSC , IMSI ,
HLR,
VLR. , HLR, MSC
EIR
,
, 13.9.

2Seti_sviz.indd 179

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180

13. GSM

13.8. IWF
Interworking Function (IWF) ,
, . ,
0,3 3,4 . GSM ,
,
,
, . ,
. ,
, MS IWF,
IWF . IWF
.
.
GSM
9,6 /.

13.9.
EIR
GSM EIR (Equipment Identity Register),
. , ,
SIM.
. , ,
( )
. ,
,
, , . 15, ,
, 15
IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) 16 IMEISV
(International Mobile Equipment Identity and Software Version Number).
IMEI, IMEISV , Type
Approval Code (TAC) Final Assembly Code (FAC).
TAC FAC ,
. IMEI IMEISV ME. IMEI IMEISV
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 180

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2.

181

EIR , .
TAC FAC,
IMEI IMEISV. TAC, TAC/FAC IMEI ,
. , ,
.
, .
TAC , . , EIR , EIR.

13.10. SMS
. 13.1 SMSC (Short Message Service Center), ,
.
160 ,
SMS 7. , SMS
1120 ,
1120/7=160.
, Unicode
. 1120/16=70.
, ,
.
SMSC :
Service Center (SC), , ;
SMSGateway MSC (SMSGMSC),
; GMSC SMSGMSC HLR ,
MSC,
;
SMSInterworking MSC,
MSC, ,
, SC,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 181

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182

13. GSM

SC, SMSGMSC SMSIWMSC


,
SC. SMSGMSC GMSC,
SMSIWMSC MSC/VLR. SMS
17 .

: SIM, MS, MSC, HLR,


VLR, AuC, EIR,
BS, BSC, SMS.


1. GSM?
2. GSM? .
3. ?
4. GSM :
a) ITUT,
b) 3GPP,
c) ETSI,
d) IETF.
5. GSM ?
6. GSM
?
7. ?


1. GSM
, .

13
13.1. .., .., .. GSM.
, .
.: , 2004. 264 .
13.2. C.., .., .., ..
. GSM.
.: , 2006. 256 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 182

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14


 ,
.


14.1.

,
7 70 ,
.
,
GSM, UMTS,
. XII ,
.
.
7 .
, ITU
 81.

1 7 R1 R2,
4.

8 ITU , 2048 /,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 183

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184

14.

MAP (Mobile
Application Part),
1988 .
CAP (CAMEL Application Part) 7, 17, .

ANSI41,
MAP 7,
. 4.4. MAP ANSI41
MTP1, MTP2, MTP3, SCCP TCAP, 4.
MAP
, MSC, BTS, BSC, HLR, VLR,
EIR, MS, SGSN/GGSN GPRS (General Packet Radio Service).
GSM MAP
(MAPMSC, MAPVLR, MAPHLR,
EIR, MAPAuC) BSSAP (BSS Application Part)
BSC.
MAP GSM, GPRS
3G, 17 16 .
MAP ,
GSM
, , ,
SMS, .

14.2.

, (. 14.1), () , ,

. . 14.1
, 1 .
, .
, . 14.1. 1
, ,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 184

29.09.2009, 13:11:51

2.

185

,
,
.

2.

MAP, ISUP

ISU

ISU

. 14.1.


,

, ,
/ .
. 14.1 GSM 12 NMT450. NMT450
: VLR
HLR.
, VLR ,

.
. VLR
,
, ,
.
2

2Seti_sviz.indd 185

5, .
15.

29.09.2009, 13:11:51

186

14.

, VLR
MSC,
SCP, 6.
, 6, ,
,
,
, IN.
HLR ,
, , .
HLR GSM (
HLR ).
VLR MSC.
. 13.1 , HLR VLR
: EIR, , SMS,
MSC MAP ( . 13.1).

14.3. bis, ,
. 13.1 (, SMS .) ,
.
. 13.1,
MS ,
.
7 LAPD ISDN.
(. 14.2).
BTS BSC Abis.
,
, BTS,  BTS BSC
.
BSC
MSC,
, .  , MSC
1 , , , .

2Seti_sviz.indd 186

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2.

187

MSC

(SSP)
INAP
TCAP

I
S
U
P

T
U
P

CAP MAP
TCAP

MTP 3 -

D
T
A
P

I
S
U
P

SCCP

MTP 2 -

MTP 3 -

MTP 1 -

SCCP

B
S
S
M
A
P

MTP 2 -

MTP 1 -

STP

SCCP

MAP

HLR

TCAP
SCCP

MTP 3 -
MTP 2-
MTP 1 -

MTP 3 -
MTP 2 -
MTP 1-

. 14.2.

MSC VLR,
B, ,
, , VLR:
, MSC VLR, ,
.
BSC MSC
A 7, SCCP, 4.
BSSAP , MSC MS.
MS BSC MSC , BSSAP : BSSMAP (BSS Management
Application Part),

BSS, DTAP
(Direct Transfer Application Part).
DTAP ,
BSS MSC MS . . 14.2, ,
, . 4.4 4.
.13.1, . 14.2 ,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 187

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188

14.

. 14.2 : . 4.4
GSM . 13.1.

14.4.
MAP
, MAP
HLR VLR,
,

( ),
.

(Location Update) ( ).
, HLR

MSC/VLR, ,
VLR , BTS.
, VLR , ,
(Location Area), HLR
,
, .. VLR.
, :
MS ;
MS VLR,
;
MS ( VLR);
.
,

, , BTS,

( , ).
,
, . 14.3.

2Seti_sviz.indd 188

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2.

189

.14.3
. BSS.
MS. BSS SDCCH (Standalone
Dedicated Control Channel)
, Immediate Assignment.

SDCCH
. ,
, , .

International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI),
Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI),
, .

BSS

HLR /AuC

MSC/VLR

MSC/VLR /

MS
Channel Request
Immediate Assigment
Location Updating Request
Complete L3 Info (Location
Updating Request)

Send Authentification Info


Send Authentification
Info RR

Authentification Request
Authentification Response
Update Location

Cancel Location
Cancel Location RR

Insert Subscriber Data


Insert Subscriber Data RR
Update Location RR
Location Updating Accept
Clear Command
Clear Complete
Channel Release

. 14.3.

2Seti_sviz.indd 189


GSM

29.09.2009, 13:11:53

190

14.

BSS MSC
Complete Layer 3 Info,
SCCP Connection Request SCCP. TMSI, TMSI
MSC/VLR, MSC/VLR
IMSI3. , MSC/VLR
IMEI .
MSC/VLR
. MSC/VLR , HLR, Send
Authentication Info MAP.
HLR/AuC Return Result (RR) MAP ,
GSM .
(RAND), Signed Response (SRES). MSC Authentication
Request, RAND.
,
HLR/AuC, Authentication Response,
SRES. , MSC/VLR
SRES, , SRES, HLR/AuC. , MS .
MSC/VLR, VLR
, Update
Location MAP, HLR
.
HLR IMSI Global Title Address
(GTA) MSC/VLR. HLR VLR, ( VLR ),
Cancel Location ( )
MAP. VLR ,
, HLR Return Result.
HLR Insert Subscriber Data MAP , VLR
,
.
, VLR .
HLR Return Result,
MSC/VLR
DTAP Location Updating Accept.
3

.14.3 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 190

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2.

191

SCCP BSS.
BSS SDCCH Channel Release. , 1 ,
.

14.5.
(. 14.4)
MSISDN
(Mobile Station ISDN Number),
. . 14.4
.
GMSC IAM ISUP, 4.
MSISDN, GMSC HLR SRI (Send
Routing Information) MAP HLR,
.
SRI MSISDN
IMSI.
HLR MSC/VLR, , MSC/VLR
PRN (Provide Roaming Number) MAP,
IMSI . MSC/VLR MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number) HLR. , HLR
MSRN4 GMSC. MSRN
() .
GMSC MSC/VLR,
GMSC. MSC/VLR
IAM MSRN . IAM , MSC/VLR
MSRN, IMSI, MSRN,
MSRN
. MSC/VLR Paging Request
BSS, , .

Channel Request,
BSS Immediate Assignment SDCCH.

2Seti_sviz.indd 191

MSRN, MSISDN IMSI 15.

29.09.2009, 13:11:54

192

14.

BSS

MS

MSC/VLR

HLR

GMSC
IAM
SRI (MSISDN)

PRN (IMSI)
PRN RR (MSRN)
SRI RR (MSRN)
IAM (MSRN)
Paging

Paging Request
Channel Request
Immediate
Assignment
Paging Response

Complete Layer 3 Info


(Paging response)
Cipher Mode
Command

Ciphering Mode
Command
Ciphering Mode
Complete

Cipher Mode
Complete

Setup
Call Confirmed

Assignment Request
Assignment Command
Assignment Complete
Assignment Complete
Alerting

ACM

ACM

Connect
ANM
ANM
Connect Acknowledge

. 14.4.

SDCCH , . BSS
MSC/VLR. MSC ,

. Setup MSC Call Confirmed, ,

.

2Seti_sviz.indd 192

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2.

193

Call Confirmed MSC . MSC , MSC BSS


BSS MS ( SDCCH).
, MSC Alerting.

ACM GMSC.
, MSC Connect. MSC ANM
. , , Connect Acknowledgement, .

14.6.
, , .
, BSS SDCCH,
MSC/VLR CM Service Request5, ,
( ,
, , SMS).
. 14.4 , Answer Message (ANM).
MSC , MSC
Connect.
Connect Connect Acknowledge,
,
.

CM Connection Management.

13.

2Seti_sviz.indd 193

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194

14.

: 7, MAP,
, HLR, VLR, , , bis, BSSAP, BSSMAP, DTAP,
,
.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

?
?
. 4.4 14.2.
. 13.1 14.2.
. 14.4.


1. , , . 14.4,
,
14.6.
2. , ,

.

14
14.1. .. . 1. 4 .
.: , 2005. 448 .
14.2. .. 7: , , .
.: , 2008. 320 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 194

29.09.2009, 13:11:55

15


,
.

15.1.
,
,
. , , ,
,

, 5
DEF. ,
( 25 ),
. ,
,
, . :
(, 92 , 905 ..);

( );

2Seti_sviz.indd 195

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196

15.

(IMEI) , , SIM;
,
.
. , ,
.
,
( ).
, . ,
, .

,
, ,
. , , , (
), (
) (,
).

. 5 . 5.3,
.
. ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.

15.2. GSM
15.2.1. IMSI
,
IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity).

2Seti_sviz.indd 196

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2.

197


GSM SIM. SIM
,
, 13.
, ,
, .
IMSI ITU
.212, GSM 03.03 3GPP TS 23.003.
. 15.1.
IMSI 15
NMSI

( )
. 15.1.

MCC

MNC

MSIN

2 3

10 .

IMSI

(Mobile Country Code) ,


. MNC (Mobile Network Code)
. MSIN (Mobile Station Identification Number) . MNC+MSIN
NMSI (National Mobile Station Identity).
.
, , ,
HLR. , Mobile Country Code Mobile
Network Code , IMSI .
MNC , ,
,
MSIN MNC, . MCC MNC.

2Seti_sviz.indd 197

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198

15.

15.2.2. MSI
TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) 3GPP TS 23.003 ,
VLR ( SGSN
GPRS) .
, VLR . TMSI
VLR IMSI, IMSI
, IMSI GSM. TMSI
, VLR SGSN
TMSI IMSI , .
VLR TMSI
MSC, , . TMSI
( VLR),
. /,
TMSI .
15.2.3. MSISDN
MSISDN ,
, . , . GSM 03.02.
ISDN, ITUT E.213.
SIM MSISDN. MSISDN
MSISDN . . 15.2 MSISDN.

. 15.2.

2Seti_sviz.indd 198

CC

SN

ND

SN

ND

SN

MSISDN
ITUT E.164

29.09.2009, 13:11:56

2.

199

NDC (National Destination Code)


/ . (Country Code) . SN (Subscriber Number)
.
15.2.4. MSRN
MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number)
GSM 03.03 . ,
MSC MSC/VLR, MSC/VLR,
. VLR
MSRN, HLR . , MSRN
VLR.
15.2.5. IMEI
13,
ME , IMEI (International Mobile
Equipment Identity), , ,
. IMEI
, ,
.
IMEI GSM 03.03
3GPP TS 23.003. IMEI ,
/ ,
/ . IMEI ,
,
.
. 15.3 IMEI, TAC
(Type Approval Code) ( TAC)
. FAC (Final
Assembly Code) , .


. 15.3.

2Seti_sviz.indd 199

TAC

FAC

SNR

IMEI

29.09.2009, 13:11:56

200

15.

SNR (Serial Number) , ( TAC FAC).


FAC ,
, 07 40 Motorola, 10 20 Nokia, 30
Ericsson, 40, 41 44 Siemens, 60 Alcatel, 80 Philips,
85 Panasonic. 3GPP IMEI ,
16,7 TAC+FAC.
IMEI , *#06# .
, .

15.3.
MSC .
,
. ,
MSC
ab. , , de.
,
, :
abxxx dexxx ;
abxxxx dexxxx ;
abxxxxx dexxxxx .
d 9.
(ABC)
.
, .
, ,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 200

29.09.2009, 13:11:57

2.

201

XXI . ,

, .
,
. ,
SIM, .

, .
DEF, ABC.
,
, DEF. , .
, 8.
,
, ,
+7(DEF)dexxxxx. +
( ), 7 .
+7(DEF)dexxxxx
MSC , .
,
dexxxxx,
.
, abxxxxx = dexxxxx.
.
,
ABCabxxxxx.
, , , ,
abxxxxx.


.
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 201

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202

15.

GSM ( )
DEF:
: 903, 905, 906, 909, 960 969, 970 979;
: 920 929, 930 939;
: 910 919; 980 989.


50 70%.
.

.
.
, , de
DEF. 100%, ,
.

15.4.
, .
, .
, 112 .
MSC 112 . , ,
.
,
, . , .
,
, * #. ,
:

2Seti_sviz.indd 202

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2.

203

*100# ( ,
6). .
.
SMS MMS , , . ,

, . , , ,
.

15.5.



3G. 3G
.
, 3G, . ,
.
,
 , , .

(4G) (5G) .
NGN.
, ,
NGN. ,
, .
25.
, , ,
()
.
,
25
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 203

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204

15.

: ABC,
DEF, , SIM, IMEI, TAC,
FAC, SNR, IMSI, ,
MNC, MSIN, NMSI, , MSISDN, MSRN, , 112.


1. IMEI.
2.
?
3. IMSI.
4. .
5. TMSI
?
6. MSRN ?
7. 4G.


1.
()
.
, , PAD,
, .
.
2.
.
.
.

15
15.1. ..
. .: , 2004. 232 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 204

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16

UMTS
: ;
, , , .

16.1. 3G

,
. , IP 2G,
GSM, .
SMS, 3G
,

. 3G
144 / ,
384 / , 2 / .

1G, 2G 2.5G . 16.1. 3G, . 16.1,
: TDMA,
CDMA, FDD (Frequency Division Duplex)

2Seti_sviz.indd 205

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206

16. UMTS

TDD (Time Division Duplex). ETSI


WCDMA FDD.
WCDMA TDD,
FDD. CDMA
: , CDMA , CDMA2000,
IS95. ,
, .
11 3GPP,
UMTS, 3GPP2, CDMA2000.

UMTS.

TACS

GSM (900)
GPRS

W-CDMA

GSM (1800)

GSM (1900)
GPRS
IS-136
(1900)

IS-95
(J-STD-008)
(1900)

IS-136
TDMA
(800)
AMPS

IS-95
CDMA
(800)

CDMA2000
1

CDMA2000

IDEN (800)

SMR

1G

2G

. 16.1.

2Seti_sviz.indd 206

EDGE

2.5G

3G

UMTS

29.09.2009, 13:11:58

2.

207

UMTS . 2008 UMTS


NokiaSiemens Huawei,
Ericsson Huawei,
Ericsson NokiaSiemens.

16.2. UMTS
UMTS 13 GSM
3G. , 16, UMTS , ,
,
. , , RAN (Radio Access Network)
GSM, GPRS EDGE
(Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution).
UMTS UTRA (Universal Terrestrial Radio
Access). W-CDMA
FDD, TDD. RAN UMTS UTRAN.
,
GSM
UMTS GSM.
UMTS (3GPP Release 1999)
,
GSM, . ,
UMTS, GSM (
, UTRAN BSS GSM). ,
BSS GSM: , EDGE.
GSM
GSM UMTS GSM 3GPP, ETSI
GSM, UMTS. 3GPP ETSI
GSM ( 1996, 1997, 1998),
, 3GPP,
1999. UTRAN,
GSM ( , EDGE), ,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 207

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208

16. UMTS

3GPP 2000 (3GPP Rel00) . , , 3GPP


Rel00 : 3GPP Rel4 3GPP Rel5,
.
4
UMTS ( ,
). 4
MGW, MSC SGW,
MSC.
UTRAN,
.
5 ,
, HLR /
HSS , UTRAN, IP UMTS,
LCS. 5
IP IMS, 20 2.
UMTS,
.

16.3. UMTS
UMTS
UMTS.

.
,
. ,
, ,

.

/; , ,
. , .

2Seti_sviz.indd 208

29.09.2009, 13:11:59

2.

209

, ,
, . , , ,
.
.

. , ,
SMS.

16.4. 3GPP 99
3G ,
, ( ) .
99 GSM. 3G 3GPP
UMTS . 16.2.

CS-
MSC/VLR
MS

GMSC

BTS

Gb
BSC

C
D

F
MS

Gs

BTS

EIR

Gf

UE

Node B

IuPS

UE

Gr

Gc

Gn

IuCS

RNC

HLR

AuC

PS-

Gi

IP-

GGSN
SGSN

Node B

. 16.2.

3GPP Rel99

14.

2Seti_sviz.indd 209

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210

16. UMTS

99 UMTS
WCDMA
GSM : Rel99 GSM,

.
13 GSM
UMTS
MS, UE (User Equipment), ,
GSM, ME
(Mobile Equipment) USIM (UMTS Subscriber
Identity Module) , , SIM GSM.
UMTS
Uu UE UMTS, W-CDMA. GSM
, UTRAN Iu.
3GPP UMTS
B (Node B), . Node B
RNC (Radio Network Controller).
RNC B
( ) BSC
GSM. Node B RNC Iub.
Abis GSM
Iub , RNC .
UTRAN Iu.
. UTRAN

IuCS, RNC MSC/VLR. UTRAN
, .. RNC
SGSN, IuPS.
UTRAN 3GPP 99 ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), 3
99. , ,
GSM/GPRS. ,

, ,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 210

29.09.2009, 13:12:00

2.

211

UTRAN, MSC UTRAN RNC, GSM BSC. , UMTS UMTS


GSM . , UMTS ,
UMTS , , UMTS
GSM .
SGSN
Iu PS RNC Gb BSC.

16.5. 3GPP 4
.16.3 3GPP Rel4. Rel99
Rel4 , . MSC
, , .
CS-
Nb

MGW

MGW

Mc

Mc

MSC-/VLR
MS

GMSC-

BTS

Nc

PSTN

SGW

Gb
BSC

MS

BTS

EIR

HLR

AuC

Gs
Gf

Gc

PS-

Gr

UE

IuCS

Node B

Gn

IuPS

IP-

RNC
SGSN

UE

GGSN

Node B

. 16.3. 3GPP Rel4

2Seti_sviz.indd 211

29.09.2009, 13:12:00

212

16. UMTS

MSC MSC, , MSC, , MGW, MSC


MSC.
RNC MSC,
RNC MGW. MGW
RNC
.
RTP (RealTime Transport Protocol)
IP, 26 .
. 16.3, RNC
SGSN GGSN IP.
MSC ( )
SGW (Signalling Gateway). ,
, , ,
MGW,
GMSC (Gateway MSC server) M.
MSC
GMSC MGW MEGACO/H.248,
3.

16.6. AllIP 3GPP 5


UMTS ,
.
13 GSM HLR
5 HSS (Home Subscriber Server).

HLR HSS. HSS IMS. HLR/HSS
7 SGW (SS7 gateway), 7,
7 IP
Sigtran. 5 .
Iu ,
SGSN,
. , Rel5
( 14 /)
HSPA (High Speed Packet Access).

2Seti_sviz.indd 212

29.09.2009, 13:12:01

2.

213

5
: Call State Control Function (CSCF), Multimedia Resource
Function (MRF), Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF), Transport
Signaling Gateway (TSGW) Roaming Signaling Gateway (RSGW),
20.
MGW MGCF
MEGACO/H.248, 4. MGCF CSCF SIP. TSGW Sigtran 7 , RSGW
, 7. SGSN GGSN
, GPRS UMTS 99
4, , ,
,
. 5
UE, SIP. , CSCF
3  SIP
,
UE . IPMultimedia (IM) IP , UE UE c
PS.

16.7. UMTS Rel6, Rel7 Rel8


3GPP 6 , ,
IP IMS,
20, UMTS, 
MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service / ), UMTS .
Rel7 MIMO
(MultipleInput MultipleOutput) /
. MMTel
(Multimedia Telephony Service) , IMS
.
Rel7 Rel8 VCC
(Virtual Call Continuity), (WLAN, 3G,
LTE), 20.

2Seti_sviz.indd 213

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214

16. UMTS

: UMTS, UMTS,
, 3GPP, USIM, HSS
, SS7 GW, ,
IP IMS, ,  , IMT2000, MIMO, MMTel, HSPA.

1.
2.
3.
4.

HSS .
3G 2G?
UMTS.
UMTS
, , ,
, , ?


1. HSS . 16.5. ,
.

MSC

GMSC

Gr

SGSN

Gc

GGSN

Sn

SIP-

Si

IM-SSF

Sx

CSCF
CSCF

HSS

CAMEL

. 16.4.

HSS

16
16.1. .., .., .. UMTS.
. .: , 2008. 224 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 214

29.09.2009, 13:12:02

17
,

, .

17.1. 3G

, .


3G,
16. 3G 3G
.
3G ,
, MMS, , , , , ,
, , .
3G
:
,
,

2Seti_sviz.indd 215

29.09.2009, 13:12:02

216

17. ,

,
,
.
. ,
: , , , , , QoS,
.
,
: .
, , ,
SMS, MMS
. , , ,

3G, .
, ,
,
. :
( ), Web
Java PDA;
/ ( ). , ,
, .
. ,
, ,
;
/ ( ).
 ,
;
( ), , .
, , , , ,
, , . ,
, , .

2Seti_sviz.indd 216

29.09.2009, 13:12:02

2.

217


, . Web ( ),
.
,
( ).
, . ,
. ,
,
. ,
,

, .
, , , ,
, ,
.
, ,
. , ,
,
( ), ,
,
PIN,
.
, , ,
,
, .
, ,
IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) 3G.
IMS ,
20, 2.

, 2G 3G 2.5G.

2Seti_sviz.indd 217

29.09.2009, 13:12:03

218

17. ,

17.2. 2.5G EDGE


2.5G GPRS/
WAP, SMS MMS,
, ,
SMS: , .
, , 2.5G , 2.1G, 2.75G 2.9G.
9,6 /, GSM, 57,6 /
HSCSD.
, EDGE,
Enhanced Data rates for GSM
Evolution, ,
GSM, Enhanced Data for Global Evolution.
GSM
1 ,
200 TDMA , 13. , , GMSK
(Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying),
GSM, 8 8PSK (8 Phase Shift
Keying).
, EDGE 384 /, ,
GPRS, 3G,
. ,
EDGE ,
2.5G GPRS,
GSM
IP .
GPRS ,
, GPRS
GSM ( DAMPS,
), , ..

3G, GPRS .

2Seti_sviz.indd 218

29.09.2009, 13:12:03

2.

219

17.3. GPRS
GSM 2G
9,6 /. , ,
.
GSM.

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service).
GPRS (. 17.1)
( PS), GSM,
, GPRS
(Gateway GPRS Support Node GGSN) GPRS
(Serving GPRS Support Node SGSN).
SGSN , ,
,
, . , SGSN
MSC/VLR
.
SGSN RA (Routing
Areas),
.
RA , ,
.

, GPRS
PDP (Packet Data Protocol).
.
SGSN BSC Gb
BSS GPRS protocol (BSSGP)
,
SGSN . , SGSN Gr HLR MAP,
GPRS, 14. Gr SGSN HLR
GPRS GPRS
,
SGSN.

2Seti_sviz.indd 219

29.09.2009, 13:12:03

220

17. ,

NSS

CS-
MSC/VLR

BSS

GMSC

Abis

EIR

Gs
MS

BTS

F
HLR

AuC

Gf

BSC/PCU
Gb

Gr

Gc
PS-

Gn

RAN

SGSN

Gi

IP-

GGSN

IuPS

UE Node B

RNC

. 17.1.

GPRS

SGSN
MSC Gs BSSAP
SCCP 7 ( 4),
Base Station Subsystem Application Part
(BSSAP), MSC BSC .
Gs
MSC/VHR SGSN ,
, MSC/VLR (
, ), ,
SGSN.
SGSN SMSC Gd (
. 17.1. ), GPRS
GPRS. Gd MAP 14.
SGSN GGSN Gn. GTP (GPRS Tunneling Protocol)
IP . SGSN
SGSN .

2Seti_sviz.indd 220

29.09.2009, 13:12:03

2.

221

SGSN Gn GTP.
SGSN SGSN, PDP. ,
SGSN
, SGSN GGSN PDP ,
SGSN . ,
MSC .
GGSN , IP, . GCSN
HLR G.
14 MAP.
, GCSN SGSN, , , MSC (GMSC) HLR .
, , , ,
GGSN , SGSN ,
GGSN
SGSN.
GGSN HLR
,
. ,
, , .

17.4.
HSCSD
GPRS
HSCSD (HighSpeed Circuit
Switch Data) , HSCSD
,
.
9,6 /, ,
, dialup , .. 56 /c.

2Seti_sviz.indd 221

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222

17. ,

17.5. WAP
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)


PDA
. , WAP ,
2.5G .

17.6. SMS
, SMS (Short Message Service).

killer application ,
2G. 13 SMS.
, , ,
SMS . SMSC
SMSGMSC (Short Message
Service Gateway Mobile Switching Center),
SMSC
SMSIWMSC (Short Message Service Interworking Mobile Switching
Center); 13.
SMS, , [10]. ,
14 , , SMS,
, .
SMS
, ,
,
. .
, SMS
SMSC,
, ,
SMSGMSC
, . SMSGMSC HLR

2Seti_sviz.indd 222

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2.

223

MSC,
MS,
MSC, SMSGMSC
MSC. , MSC MS VLR,
SMS .
SMS
,
HLR , , SMS, SMSC, ,
, SMS.

17.7. VHE
3GPP
VHE (Virtual Home
Environment), ,
.
, ,
. ,
, CAMEL.

17.8. CAMEL CAP


3GPP GSM UMTS 2.5G.

GPRS
CAMEL (Customized Applications for Mobile Networks
Enhanced Logic). , CAMEL GSM
,
. CAMEL
IN .
IN .

2Seti_sviz.indd 223

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224

17. ,


(, 0525).
, .
CAMEL, ,
CAMEL, CAMEL CSE (CAMEL Service Environment).
14
CAP (CAMEL Application Part) 7.
, , ,
CAMEL SCI (CAMEL
Subscription Information), .. CAMEL, .

17.9. Pushtotalk
Pushtotalk over Cellular ()
,
, . , Push.
, Pushtotalk
, , .
, pushtotalk
: Online, Away, Occupied .. ,
,
, ,
.
PoC MMS,
. ,
Pushtotalk: ,
, , ,
. Pushtotalk
,
, .
Push
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 224

29.09.2009, 13:12:05

2.

225

: MMS,
SMS, GPRS, EDGE, HSCSD, /, , , , , , Pushtotalk, , , WAP,
VHE,
, CAMEL CAP.


1. 3G.
2. 3G, 17.1, ?
3.
.
?
4. GPRS . 17.2.
5. GSM
?
6. SMS.
7. WAP. .
8. .
CAMEL?
9. Pushtotalk .
3G?


1. 2,1G 2,9G
. GPRS, EDGE, HSCSD.

3G.
2. SMS
,
, .

17
17.1. .., .., ..
GSM UMTS. M.: , 2005. 144 .

15.

2Seti_sviz.indd 225

29.09.2009, 13:12:05

18


.
. , .

18.1.
,
, , . , ,
.
( , 8
), ,

. ,
.
. , ,
.
,
.
, () 
,

2Seti_sviz.indd 226

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2.

227

, 2 20 . 20 40 ,


, .. 0,99999,
5,3 .
. 18.1.
18.1.


0.9
( )
0.99
( )
0.999
( )
0.9999
( )
0.99999 ( )


36
89
9
53
5,3

. 18.1
, , ,
, , :
, ;
, ,
(, , )
2 3 ;

, ,
ITU, ,
.
, , , ,
,

, .

(QoS) .

18.2.

8
QoS, ITUT E.800.

2Seti_sviz.indd 227

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228

18.

QoS ,
. QoS,

,
.
.800, QoS
.860 , ITUT .430
, ITUT Y.1514
, ITUT Y.1540
IP,
ITUT Y.1541
IP, 28.
QoS ETSI,
ETR 003,
, ETR 138, QoS
( , , , , ,
, , ,
). ,
.
 ,
. 28.
, 3GPP QoS,
3GPP TS 23.107 QoS UMTS,
3GPP TS 29.208
UMTS.
.
1 2002 .
:
( 5%), , ( 5%), 10 ( 5%).

2Seti_sviz.indd 228

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2.

229

18.3.
,
, , SMS MMS. NA (Network Accessibility) .800,
8.
,

.
:
, , ;
,
,
;
, ,  ;
, .

18.4.
, . , , ,
. , , . , , , ,

.
. 18.1 , . .18.1
.
MSC
, .
/ .

2Seti_sviz.indd 229

29.09.2009, 13:12:06

230

18.


. ,
. , .



MSC

. 18.1.

( )
. ,
, . . 18.2 18.3,
.
18.2.

18.3. SMS

SMS

2Seti_sviz.indd 230


SMS-

SMS

SMS

29.09.2009, 13:12:06

2.

231

,
. ,
.
.

18.5.

,
:
, .
Ys
. , Ys
() . , , . 18.2,
. L , .
YS

YS = f(L)

. 18.2.

Ys

Ys =f(L) N. ,
, L,
Ys. .
, (.. ) Ys = f(L).
, (
) ( ) .
, (
, ,

2Seti_sviz.indd 231

29.09.2009, 13:12:06

232

18.

)
,
. , , ,
.

. ,
,
.
(
), . , ,
 .
,
.
, ,
. ,

. ,
, .
,
,
, , .
, , .

. ,
.

, .

, , .

.

18.6.
QoS

.

2Seti_sviz.indd 232

29.09.2009, 13:12:07

2.

233

. , , . (,
, , ..)
. ,
.
,
,
.
QoS,
, SNTlite, BTS,
BSC MSC,
 .
, [17].

. , .
; ,
, ; ,  .

, ,
BTS, BSC MSC.
,
.
,
. ,
.
,
QoS
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 233

29.09.2009, 13:12:07

234

18.

: , QoS, , , ,
, , , .800, .860, .430, Y.1514, Y.1540, Y.1541, NA, , , ,
ETR 003, ETR 138, QoS, , 3GPP
TS 23.107, 3GPP TS 29.208, SNTlite,
, , QoS,
, , .


1. , . 18.1.
, .
2. , , ?
3. ITUT .
4. QoS ETSI 3GPP?
5. , ,
.
6. SMS?
7. ?
8. QoS ?


1. Ys
. 18.2.
.
.

18
18.1. .., .. ..
. , . . ...
.: , 2005. 160 .
18.2. .., .. .
. .: , ,
2005. 240 .
18.3. .., ..
: . . .. .
.: , 2004. 312 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 234

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19

, .

19.1.
, ,
, , 9, , ,
.
,
.
, , ( MS BTS), . ,
,
( 
)
(
, , , , ,
).
,

: (, GSM
) (, GPRS
).

2Seti_sviz.indd 235

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236

19.

, .
,
,
GPRS.

19.2.
, ,

.
,
()
, .
,
, .
BTS
 ,
BTS,
.
 ,
, .
.
, (
). ,
. . 19.1
, 3 .
,
: (, , ).
, ,
9.

2Seti_sviz.indd 236

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2.

237

, = 3
.

( )
.
, ,
. ,


. ,
,
, , ,
, .

A
B

C
A

. 19.1.

B
B
C

B
C

C
A

= 3


,
3 ,
120.
3/9 (
9 ,
), . 19.2.
, 3/9, 4/12
7/21.

2Seti_sviz.indd 237

29.09.2009, 13:12:08

238

19.

, , D,

. ,
D :

D = R 3

(19.1)

R , -

D
R

A1
A3

B1
A2

B3

C1
B2

B3

B2

C3

A2

B3

. 19.2.

C3

B3

A2

B2

C3

C2

A1
C2

B2

C1

C1
B2

B1

B1

B1
B3

A3

C2

A1
A3

C2

A1

C1

B1

C3

A3

B1
A2

B3

B2

3/9

BTS N
, Fk.
F, , :

F = NFk .

(19.2)

,
,
:

N=

2Seti_sviz.indd 238

F
.
Fk

(19.3)

29.09.2009, 13:12:09

2.

239

19.3.
A, :
Ploss (
);
N;
M .
GSM ,

B , 9.
Ploss GSM 0,01
0,05.

.
1. ,
B
Yc ,
Ploss.
2. Yi

.

0, 015 .
3. ,
, :

a=

Yc
Yi

(19.4)

4. A,
M ( ) :

A = aM

2Seti_sviz.indd 239

(19.5)

29.09.2009, 13:12:10

240

19.

19.4.
GPRS
GPRS
( PS)
, , .
GPRS, ,
(),
,
. GPRS
,
.

29,

,
.

GPRS
GPRS,
GPRS M/G/1 (
, , ,
, ).


,
29.2:

tq =

1 + Cs2 ,
q
= ts 1 +

2(1 )

(19.6)

q (
);
=

M/G/1, ,

<1 ;

,
, ;

ts

2Seti_sviz.indd 240

29.09.2009, 13:12:11

2.

Cs2 =

241

D (ts )

(t s ) 2

, .

B GPRS,

l , .
l
B

, ,
(19.3) .
, GPRS
,
,
( M/M/1).
,
, . 19.1, (19.6)
:


t q = t s 1 +
, < 1 .
1

(19.7)

(19.6)

GPRS :

B > l .

(19.8)

GPRS ,

M/D/1. (19.6) :


, <1 .
t q = t s 1 +

2(1 )

(19.9)

(19.9)
GPRS:

B>

l .
2

(19.10)

16.

2Seti_sviz.indd 241

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242

19.

(19.6),
(
) ( ),
Cs2
, .
. 19.1
, (
ETSI GPRS).
19.1.

, ,
SDU
128

, ,
SDU
1024

< 0,5

<2

<5

< 15

< 50

< 75

. 19.1 3
.
1,
2, 3. 4,
.
4 ,
best effort (
).

.
, ,
GPRS,
/ /
.
19.2. SONET/SDH

2Seti_sviz.indd 242

, /

2,048
8,448
34,368
155,52
622,08
2488,2

PDH E1
PDH E2
PDH E3
SDH STM1
SDH STM4
SDH STM16

29.09.2009, 13:12:11

2.

243

. 19.2 ,
GPRS
.
GPRS (SGSN)
1
2,048 /, GGSN,

, STM
.

: , QoS,
 , , , , ,
D, Ploss,  ,
, .


1.
?
2. 
.
3. .
4.
?
5.
.
6. ,
?
7.
GPRS?
8. , M/M/1
,
M/D/1.

2Seti_sviz.indd 243

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244

19.


1. :
, , 25 ;
200 ;
.
2. ,
.
3. :
Ploss = 0,02;
0,02 ; 8;
100.
4. GPRS
.

19
19.1. C.., .., .., ..
. GSM.
.: , 2006.
19.2. .. GSM. .: , 2005.

2Seti_sviz.indd 244

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2.

245

20


,
,

.
.

20.1.
, 3G.

 . ,


, DoCoMo
2003 .
. 20.1.
, ,
.
,
, . ,

2Seti_sviz.indd 245

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246

20.

, ,
,
.
20.1.



, .
STB

130 .
100 .
60 .
50 .
20 .
10 .
90 .
30 .
20 .
40 .
30 .
580 .

,
.
,
.

, ,
 . ,
,
. , 3.
,
, .
( 1) ,
, ,
( 3), , Web
,  ,
 .
( 2),

-

2Seti_sviz.indd 246

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2.

247

FMC,
. 0.2.
C
FMC
WiFi
WiMAX,
. .

20.2.
,
( ,
2),
. 20.1.

4G
LTE>100 /

100 000

3G HSPA/MIMO 40 /
3G HSPA 14 /

10 000

3G UMTS 2048 /
EDGE 384 /

1000

GPRS 170 /
100

GSM 9.6 /

10

1991

. 20.1.

2001

2011


, . ,
GSM 2020 ,
UMTS,
GSM/UMTS WiFi WiMAX.

2Seti_sviz.indd 247

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248

20.

2011 LTE (LongTerm Evolution),


100 300 /.

20.3. 4G
.
4G . 20.1 / MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple
Output) , . ,
OFDM
(Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access),
, ,
, . 4G 
SDR (SoftwareDefined Radio), , ,
,
. , 3GPP LTE 4 .
, LTE 2
. UMTS 2, 760870 .
[19], ,
.
, ,
,
:
, ( , ), ,
. , , ,
.
, 1G, 2G, 3G
4G 
. , -

2Seti_sviz.indd 248

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2.

249

4G
OFDM SDR WiFi WiMAX . ,
WiMAX -
.
3,
,
4G 3G: 4G
,
3G
.


, 17.

20.4. IMS
,

,
IMS. (, , )
,
.
1G, 2G, 3G
,
1 (ISDN), (IN), ISDN (BISDN) Softswitch.
IP IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem),
,
,


.
16, 3GPP
3G, IP
AllIP, , ,
Rel4 Rel5. 16.5 4
IMS,

2Seti_sviz.indd 249

29.09.2009, 13:12:13

250

20.

. , Rel4
MSC , MGW,
,
MSC Server. 16 .16.3.
5 MSC : Call Session Control Function (CSCF)
,
, Media Gateway Control Functions (MGCF)
, .
IMS.

IP

3G WiFi WiMAX,
IMS.
3G IMS
() , .
IMS
, , .. 5 IMS
:
6. , Rel5 IP IMS,
,
.
Rel6 Rel5
. 3GPP Rel6 ( 2003 .) IMS ;
( ,
).
Rel7 IMS TISPAN (Telecommunications and Internet converged Services
and Protocols for Advanced Networking), ETSI,
, ..
. TISPAN 2003 SPAN (Services and Protocols for Advanced
Networking) TIPHON.

2Seti_sviz.indd 250

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2.

251

Rel7 ,
:
Network Attachment,

, SIM-
;
Resource Admission,
.

20.5. IMS
, IMS , SIP
3G. IMS
(. 20.2) :
,
( ), ;
, - ;
(, , )
;

(, );
(,
Presence Instant Messaging);


.
(subsystem) IMS (
IP- )
,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 251

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252

20.

IMS

OSA
SCS

IM
SSF

SIP
AS

ICS

Mm

Sh

HSS

Mb

Mb
BGF

Gi

Mg

S-CSCF
I-CSCF

MGF

Mn

P-CSCF
SGW
Mr
MRFC

Mp

MRF

Mb

IMS-MGW

GSN


GERAN /UTRAN

. 20.2.

IMS

. 20.2 , , , .
, IMS. IMS, ( ),
.
IMS IMS
. , 3GPP IMS
Rel4
Softswitch.

2Seti_sviz.indd 252

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2.

253

IMS
, , ,
IMS .
, IMS ,
, .
, , ,

.

20.6. IMS
IMS (Call Session Control Function,
CSCF). CSCF
IMS-. CSCF,
SIP, , IP.
CSCF
( ,
)
. CSCF
(. 20.2):
Serving CSCF (S-CSCF)
Proxy CSCF (P-CSCF)
Interrogating CSCF (I-CSCF)
S-CSCF IP,
,
HSS ( ), , ,
(, , ) .
P-CSCF
IMS IMS . P-CSCF
IMS. P-CSCF
. P-CSCF ,
, .

2Seti_sviz.indd 253

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254

20.

P-CSCF Policy Decision


Function (PDF) , ,
,
..
I-CSCF
IMS
,
. I-CSCF , .
IMS HSS
(Home Subscriber Server). , HSS
HLR AuC,
. HSS ,

: , ( ), , S-CSCF
.
HSS IMS . 20.3. IMS
, .

, , .
HSS IMS .
IMS.
HSS , ,
HSS. , HSS,
SLF (Subscriber Location Function), ,
HSS .
, SLF , HSS,
. HSS, SLF IMS Diameter.

2Seti_sviz.indd 254

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2.

255



.

MSFP (Multimedia Resource Function Processor)
, ,
, (, ), , .
, , MSFC (Media Resource
Function Controller) , AS S-CSCF, ,
, MSFP.
HSS

Wx

Gr

Gc

gsmSCF
GMSC

MSC/VLR

GGSN

Si

Sh

Cx

SIP
CSCF

CS

. 20.3.

3GPP
AAA

SGSN
PS

OSA - SCS

IM
IMS

HSS
IMS

BGCF (Breakout Gateway Control Function)


( ) IMS.
(CS),
IMS ( BGCF) GSM.
CS.

2Seti_sviz.indd 255

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256

20.

MGCF (Media Gateway Control Function) , ISUP


IMS.
, IMS, CS
PS.
IBCF (Interconnect Border Control Function) . IPv4 IPv6, ,
, IWF,
, RACS.
IWF (Inter-Working Function) SIP IMS IP-
, H.323 SIP.
I-BGF (Interconnect Border Gateway Function)
3 4 . ,
,
. I-BGF : QoS,

, QoS.
MRF (Media Resource Function), , , ,
. MRF :
MRFC Media Resource Function Controller
MRFP Media Resource Function Processor
MRFC S-CSCF SIP. , MRFC
MEGACO/H.248 MRFP, , . MRF .

2Seti_sviz.indd 256

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2.

257

20.7. ()
IMS
, , , IMS.
IP-,
SIP, , .
- SCIM
(Service Capability Interaction Manager), IMS.
, IMS :
SIP AS (SIP Application Server) , SIP;
OSA-SCS (Open Service Access Service Capability Server) OSA S-CSCF
OSA OSA API ;
IM-SSF (IP Multimedia Service Switching Function) IMS CAMEL, GSM,
gsmSCF (GSM Service
Control Function) IMS-. S-CSCF
IM-SSF , SSF (Service Switching Function), gsmSCF CAP, 17.
SIP- IMS,
HSS, SIP AS OSA-SCS HSS Diameter
HSS,
IM SSF HSS MAP,
14.
,
, , HSS
.

17.

2Seti_sviz.indd 257

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258

20.

: , 
-, FMC, LTE, MIMO, OFDM,
SDR, IMS, Presence, Instant
Messaging, TISPAN, CSCF, HSS,
MSFP, MSFC, BGCF, ,
- SCIM.


1. :
a) 3G, 4G, 5G,
b) ,
c) IMS,
d) .
2. , . 20.1?
3. IMS? IMS?
4. IMS.
5. IMS?
6. BGCF?
7. IMS.


1. HSS.
HSS HLR.

20
20.1. .., .. SOFTSWITCH.
.: , 2006.

2Seti_sviz.indd 258

29.09.2009, 13:12:16

2Seti_sviz.indd 259

29.09.2009, 13:12:17

21



, .

21.1.
.
( 60- ) 25

. 90-
,
,
.
, , ,
(, ,
) (),
. ,
.
,
,
,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 260

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3.

261

, ,
.
:
, , ,
64 /;
, ,
/ /.
(, ,
) .
,
, .
,
, .
, ,
, . ,
, .

. , 70-
, (, )
. ( ).
, .

,
. , ,
. ,
,

. N ,
, , ,
N .
,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 261

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262

21.




.
,
, ,
, . , ,
, ,
,
. . , ,
,
.
FIFO ( , ),
, .
. 21.1 .
, , ,
-
.
, ,
.
, , ,
. , , .
(, - - ).

.

,
.
, .
, ;
 ,
. ,
,

2Seti_sviz.indd 262

29.09.2009, 13:12:17

3.

263

,
.
,
3

1
3

,

1

3
2
1

. 21.1.

, ,
,
.
 , , .
,
(Local Area Network, LAN)
(Metropolitan Area Network, MAN) (Wide Area Networks, WAN).
, ,
.


.25, Frame Relay, IP. .

2Seti_sviz.indd 263

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264

21.

21.2.
, 1958
.

, ,
ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency). 60

(NPL) . ARPA NPL

:
,
.
, , . (ARPA) . (NPL). , ARPA
NPL ()
(). ( )
,  ,
, .
, ,
. , ,
(ITU) 1976 .25
ITU .
.25 , ,
(), , .
,
, ,

.
.
IP (Internet
Protocol) ARPANET
, ,
.
2 1969 ,
ARPA;

2Seti_sviz.indd 264

29.09.2009, 13:12:18

3.

265

,
. 1969

56 /.
1974 . . ,
(Transmission Control Protocol, TCP), Internet.
. .
TCP/IP. ,
TCP/IP; ARPANET .
ARPANET, 70
80 , .
.

, .25.
90 ,
,
, Mosaic, World
Wide Web (WWW), HTML.
,
/.
1995 Windows 95 TCP/IP,
.

, TCP/IP. 90 ,
.
2008 1,2 , ,
120 . ,
,
.
,

, .

2Seti_sviz.indd 265

29.09.2009, 13:12:18

266

21.

21.3.
,
,
,
,
. 80
ISO (International Standardization Organization) ITU
,
(),
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI).
OSI,
OSI,
,
. OSI 1982 , ,
.
, OSI
ITU.
OSI
, ISO
. . 21.2.
,
.
.
(, ) ,
,
.
, , , .
, .
,
( , ,
) .
,
, ( ,
).

2Seti_sviz.indd 266

29.09.2009, 13:12:18

3.

267


( )


( )

. 21.2.

OSI


OSI.
( 1) ()
, . 1 ITUT,
: 1, 1, SDH,
, , xDSL WDM.
( 2)
, . ,
. ,

2Seti_sviz.indd 267

29.09.2009, 13:12:18

268

21.

2 , .
,
.
, .
2 , , , Frame
Relay, Ethernet, (Token bus, Token ring) ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode).
( 3) ( )
( ). .
( ),
.
, .
,
. 3 X.25 IP.

.
, 7 4.
( 7) ,
.
Web .
HTTP (Hypertext File
Transfer Protocol) SMTP
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
, ,
. 7
,
(, .500 ITUT), , .
( 6) ,
,
7 ( ), ,
5 ( ).
6 ASCII (American Standard Code for
Information Exchange). . ,

2Seti_sviz.indd 268

29.09.2009, 13:12:19

3.

269

, .
, , JPEG (Joint
Photographic Expert Group) MPEG (Moving Pictures Expert Group).
( 5) ,
.
,
, .
, (Web, ,
).
( 4)
, . 4
(WAN, LAN, ), . 5
,
.

21.4.
, ITU, . , TCP/IP,
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force).
IETF 1986
. 90 XX IETF
, , Internet
Society (ISOC) , . ISOC
100 ( ,
, , )
20 180 .
, IETF, RFC (Request for Comments ) . RFC, ,
1969 ARPANET.
RFC ,
1969 RFC .

2Seti_sviz.indd 269

29.09.2009, 13:12:19

270

21.

RFC
6 . RFC
www.ietf.org. RFC RFC,
IP (RFC 791), TCP
(RFC 793) UDP (RFC 791), (RFC 822), MPLS (RFC 3031). ,
, .
, RFC. , RFC, , RFC 1149 IP .

: , , , , , , , , , ITU, OSI, IETF, RFC.



1.
?
2. , ,
.
3. OSI?
4. ?
5. OSI.
6. IETF.
7. RFC?


1. .
.
2. 2001
,
1 /. ,
2010 , ,
50%.

21
21.1. . . 4 . .: , 2005. 992 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 270

29.09.2009, 13:12:19

22

, .

22.1. .25

, , ,
. ,
.25.
() .25
1970-

.

(). .25, ITU-T,
,
() . .25,
,
. 22.1.

2Seti_sviz.indd 271

29.09.2009, 13:12:19

272

22.


.25

.28

.25


.25

.25

.28

.25

. 22.1.

.25

.25
()
, .25 ,
.
,

,

,
.
(Switched Virtual Circuit, SVC),
, (Permanent Virtual Circuit, PVC),
.
.25
,
,
.
(),
,
, , : (1),
(2) (3).
, (1)
(2), (link access procedure,
LAP).
HDLC (High-level Data Link Protocol)
, .

2Seti_sviz.indd 272

29.09.2009, 13:12:20

3.

273

,
128 256 . ,
,
. . 22.2
,
.

.
.
.

. 22.2.

.25

.
,
. ,
( ) .
.
: (
) , ;
( ),
; (/),
.
(2 )
.

. ,
.

, . .25
20 ,
, .

. . 22.3
.

,
18.

2Seti_sviz.indd 273

29.09.2009, 13:12:20

274

22.

(), 15, (),


255. ,
4095 .


.

1
2

P(R)

P(S)

- ;
- ;
- ;
(R), P(S) - ;
-
. 22.3.


. ( ) ,
1.
,
,
. ,

.25.
, /
, (Packet Assembler/Disassembler, PAD).
,
.25 / ( . 22.1).
.28 . ,
,
.29.

2Seti_sviz.indd 274

29.09.2009, 13:12:21

3.

275

.25 .25 .75.


.25


/.

.
,
.
.25 .
-, .25 , ,
, ,
.
-, ,
, ,
, .
, ,
.25, ( )
( 103 104 ),
.
Frame Relay,
.25.

22.2. Frame Relay


.25 70-
,
,
.
1980-
. ,

.
Frame Relay (/ ),
90- ,


( 106).

2Seti_sviz.indd 275

29.09.2009, 13:12:21

276

22.

Frame Relay ,

,
.
.25, Frame Relay
. Frame Relay
,
. Frame
Relay ,
4096 256
.25.


Frame Relay , ,

, , ,
,
.25.
Frame Relay
( .25), ,
.
, ,
.
Frame Relay ( 56 / 34 /).
Frame Relay
( .25),
(Committed
Information Rate, CIR).

(Excess
Information Rate, EIR),
CIR EIR.
, ,
Frame Relay

.
Frame Relay .25,
,
Frame Relay

.

2Seti_sviz.indd 276

29.09.2009, 13:12:21

3.

277

22.3.
22.3.1.
ATM
( ,
.25, Frame Relay). ATM
,
QoS
,
.
Frame Relay, ATM 2.
Frame Relay ATM
, .
ATM

( B-ISDN), ITU 80-
.

.
ATM,

(TDM),

. ATM
( .25 Frame Relay).
ATM ,
.
:
(Permanent Virtual
Connection, PVC); PVC (
, ).
(Switched Virtual
Connection, SVC); SVC ,

, .
22.3.2.

, .25 Frame Relay,
.
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 277

29.09.2009, 13:12:21

278

22.

. 22.4.
, ITU,
53 .
, , 5 48 . ,

.

;
.

48

. 22.4.

, :
(General Flow Control, GFC),
4 ;
-.
,
, ,
.
() (Virtual Path
Identifier, VPI), 8 ; , , (Virtual
Path, VP)
(Virtual Channel, VC).
VP 12
GFC. 212
1=4095 .
(Virtual Channel
Identifier, VCI), 16 ;
,
.
(Payload Type Identifier, PTI),
3 ; . 8
( 000 111)
. , 000
011
( );
100 101 , , ,
.
( RES).

2Seti_sviz.indd 278

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3.

279

(Cell Loss Priority, CLP), 1


; CLP ,
(CLP = 1)
(CLP= 0) .
(Header Error Control, HEC),
8 ;
,

.
.
22.3.3.

( 1) ( 2).
. :
( 2) , . / (,
, ), ( ) (, ).
( 2) :
(Segmentation
And Reassembly, SAR);
( ) 48- ( )
, ,
(
);
(Convergence Sublayer, CS);
,
, D;
.
( 2) 5 :

;
;
( , );
(
);

GFC.

2Seti_sviz.indd 279

29.09.2009, 13:12:22

280

22.

( 1) , , ( ), , /
, / .
,

, .

AAL; AAL 48-
;

; .
,
,

.
22.3.4. AAL
, AAL,
,
, A, , D
ITU-T.
( . 22.1):
;
;
.

.
(, AAL1, AAL2, AAL3/4 AAL5),
:
AAL1:
/
(Constant Bit Rate, CBR).
AAL1 ,
.
AAL2:
/ (Variable
Bit Rate, VBR).

.
AAL3/4: ( )
D ( ) -

2Seti_sviz.indd 280

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3.

281


65,5 .
AAL5: D
.
D AAL3/4
,
. AAL5 .
. 22.1
, ,
.25 Frame Relay IP D.
22.1. (ITU-T)


(AAL-1)


(AAL- 2)


(AAL -3/4,
AAL-5)

D
(AAL-3/4,
AAL-5)

/
CBR

/
VBR

/
VBR, .25,
Frame Relay

IP

CBR Constant Bit Rate, ;


VBR Variable Bit Rate, .
22.3.5.


AAL ITU-T.
,
(
).
,
,
(Real Time, RT)
(Non-Real Time, NRT).

2Seti_sviz.indd 281

29.09.2009, 13:12:22

282

22.

. 22.2
RT NRT, c
(QoS).
:
1. (CBR)
:
(Peak Cell Rate, PCR)
(Cell-Delay Variation Tolerance, CDVT);
, .

2.
(VBR-RT): CBR, PCR CDVT,


(Sustained Cell Rate, SR)
(Maximum Bursts Size, MBS);
.
3.
(VBR-NRT): , ;

, .
4. (Unspecified
Bit Rate, UBR): , ,
; ,

.
5. (Available Bit Rate, ABR)
ABR): , 4,
(Minimum Cell Rate, MCR);

;

(best effort); ,
,
.

,
(Cell Delay Variation, CDV),
(Maximum and Mean Cell Transfer Delay,
max-CTD, mean-CTD) (Cell Loss Ratio,
CLR).
. 22.2 ,
, .

2Seti_sviz.indd 282

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3.

283

22.2. QoS (ATM Forum)

RT/NRT

CBR

RT

PCR, CDVT

VBRRT

RT

PCR, CDVT,
SCR, MBS

VBRNRT

NRT

PCR, CDVT,
SCR, MBS

UBR

NRT

PCR, CDVT

ABR

NRT

PCR, CDVT,
MCR

: , .25,
, ,
, ,
, / , Frame Relay,
, ,
, , AAL,
.


1. .
2.
?
3. .25.
4. .25
Frame Relay
5. .25
Frame Relay?

2Seti_sviz.indd 283

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284

22.

6. ?
7. .
8.
ITU-T.
9.
.


1.
.25.
2. .25
4096?
3. , -
?

22
22.1. . . 4- . .: , 2005. 992 .
22.2. : . / .. ,
.. , .. . .: , 2001. 373 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 284

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23


TCP/IP
,
.  ,  ,
, . ,
,
.

23.1.
21, 1969
ARPANET.
ARPANET
, .
ARPANET
IP (Internet Protocol) TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) . IP- ,
.
. IP , . IP
, .
IP- -

2Seti_sviz.indd 285

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286

23. TCP/IP

, .
, TCP/IP
.
.
.
IP , ARPANET, ,
. ,
, .
.
. ,
, ,
. IP
, .
90-
,
, .
, , , ()

,
.

23.2.


, . ,
IP TCP. TCP IP, , TCP/IP.
TCP/IP IP, .

, TCP/IP, .

2Seti_sviz.indd 286

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3.

287

, TCP/IP .
. 23.1 TCP/IP, IETF. , ,
IETF ( , OSI).
OSI.
5

FTP HTTP SMTP SNMP Telnet

FTP HTTP SMTP SNMP Telnet

TCP
3

UDP

RTP

RTCP

TCP

OSPF

IP


IP

ARP RARP

RIP

RTP

RTCP

ICMP IGMP
1-2

UDP

ARP RARP

RIP

OSPF

ICMP IGMP

. 23.1.

TCP/IP

IP IETF,
OSI.
() IP, ,
, .25 (
65,5 ),
. ( .25) (
), (. ).
TCP IETF,
OSI. TCP
. ,
.
( ) OSI.

IETF.

2Seti_sviz.indd 287

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288

23. TCP/IP

23.3. TCP/IP
IETF
.
IP . ,
21, IETF
RFC (Request for Comments) ,
(ITU, ETSI .).
. 23.1 ,
:
, . IP, TCP
UDP. .
() IP (Internet Protocol) :
(. );

(, .25, , Frame Relay, Ethernet);
.
() TCP (Transmission
Control Protocol ) :
(, , /,
);
;
.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol ) , TCP. TCP UDP
TCP UDP.

23.4.
, IETF,
. 23.1 ,
OSI.
.
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 288

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3.

289

IP, IP.
(LAN), (MAN),
(WAN). , , . , () . ,
. , ,
. ,
. . 23.2
, .
1

1
IP-

2

IP-
3

IP-


1
2

. 23.2.

23.5. IPv4 IPv6


IPv4. IP,
,
. . 23.3 IP, 4. 4
1980 , .
, , 20
4 , .
, 4 . 5 6.

19.

2Seti_sviz.indd 289

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290

23. TCP/IP

.
, 4 , IP,
, IPv4. (20 24 ). (Type of Service,
ToS) 8 . 3 (000 , 111 ).
,
(
). . , 1990 ToS .

15

20

31

18

IP-
IP-
IP- ( )

. 23.3.

IP ( IPv4)

, 16 , , ,
. 16 ,
2161=65535 . , ()
,
.
,
.
, 16 , .
, 3 , . ,
(0 ),
, , (1
, 0 ).

2Seti_sviz.indd 290

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3.

291

. ,
13 ,
. , .
, 8 , ,
.
, , (
), .
, .
, .
TCP UDP , ICMP .
, 16 ,
( ,
!) .
.

. IP
, .. A.B.C.D.
IP IP
.
. ,
, , . , IP ,
, , .
, 4 ,
.
32 . , IP (
, ToS ) ,
,
.
, , , 
,
. ,
IP

2Seti_sviz.indd 291

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292

23. TCP/IP

, .
,
,
. ,
, (, ).
IP
, , ( IP, , ..), ,
.
,
IPv6.
IPv6 (. 23.4).
IPv4 1980 .
, 2000 , , 75%
. 90 ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
. ,
,
IP, IPv6. ,
,
.

11

15

23

31

(128 )

(128 )

. 23.4.

2Seti_sviz.indd 292

IPv6

29.09.2009, 13:12:25

3.

293

IPv6,
, :
,
IP
;
, ;

.
. 23.4, IPv6 40 ,
, v4. (8 ) ,
,
IPv4.
, 4 , ,
IPv6.
, 8 , , 20 ,

.

, , .
, Integrated Services (
) Differentiated Services ( ). , 28.
, 2 , , . , , 16
2161=65535 .
, 8 , ,
IPv6.
, , IP TCP UDP. ,
, , ,
.
, 8 , , .
16
(128 ), .

2Seti_sviz.indd 293

29.09.2009, 13:12:25

294

23. TCP/IP

IPv6
212813,41038. ,

. , IPv6
IPv6; (
) (nodes).
,
IPv6, 10 , ,  IP
IP .
,
IPv6.
IETF
6Bone, , (
),
IP.
6Bone
IP, ,
IPv4 IPv6
.
2004 6Bone
Internet2,
, IPv6 (. 30).
, IPv6, , .
, .

23.6. TCP UDP


TCP (Transmission Control Protocol).
IP 1974
TCP, . TCP . .
. 23.5 TCP, , 4 .
. IP
, TCP , , .

2Seti_sviz.indd 294

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3.

295

31

15


IP-

( )

. 23.5.

TCP


(2 ). IP
TCP . TCP, IP, TCP IP
TCP, .
, 4 , , TCP .

. .
, 4 , TCP.

.
, 6 , 6 .
, 1,
( , ,
, , ,
,
).
, 2 , ,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 295

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296

23. TCP/IP

, 2 , ,
IPv4.
, 2 ,
, .

.
32 .
, TCP .
TCP
, , ( ) (,
), . 
, / , .
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
. ,
, UDP ,
.
UDP, ,
UDP. UDP
,
.
,
UDP .
, UDP
, .
, , ,
(, )
.
UDP . IP (Voice over IP, VoIP) 26.

2Seti_sviz.indd 296

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3.

297

: TCP/IP, IP, TCP, UDP, , , IP, , IPv4, IPv6,


.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

.
OSI IETF?
.
IP TCP?
?
IPv6.
.
?
TCP UDP?


1. ,
IPv4.
2.
IPv4?

23
23.1. .. , .. . : , ,
. 3 . .: , 2008. 960 .
23.2. . . . .: ,
2001. 1100 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 297

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24

VoIP

.
.

24.1. SIP
VoIP IETF draftietfmmusic
sip00, Session Invitation Protocol, SIP/1.0.
,
,
MMUSIC , , Multiparty
Multimedia Session Control.
,
, SIP
(Session Initiation Protocol), 1996 IETF : Simple Conference Invitation Protocol (SCIP).
, 23 UDP, SDP,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 298

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3.

299

, SCIP,
, TCP (. 23)
Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) Simple
Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP), SDP
.
Session
Initiation Protocol, .
Session Invitation Protocol UDP SDP,
SCIP TCP SMTP HTTP. SIP/2.0,
SIP/1.0.
SIP/2.0
RFC 2543,
SIP.
RFC 2543
;
SIP . SIP RFC 3261. SIP
:
, ,

, ,
;
, ;
,
.
SIP [14].

24.2. SDP
SIP
. , ,
, . SDP (Session Description
Protocol).

2Seti_sviz.indd 299

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300

24. VoIP

SDP
. , , ,
,
. ,
, , ,
. SDP , ,
(, ), , (,
).
SIP SDP . 24.1.
User1@niits.ru, area1.niits.ru, User2@niits.ru,
area2.niits.ru.
SIP INVITE,
.
, , URI
(uniform resource indicator) .
User2*.
Via . From
To .
. 24.1
.

24.3.

IP .
, , IETF Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP).
SGCP
(Simple Gateway Control
Protocol),
IP IDCP (IP Device Control Protocol).
MEGACO IETF MEGACO.

*
User1 User2 -,
, URI .

2Seti_sviz.indd 300

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3.

301


16 (ITUT),
.323.

User2@niits.ru

User1@niits.ru

INVITE sip: User2@niits.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/UDP area 1.niits.ru
From: sip:User1@niits.ru
To:sip:User2@niits.ru
Call-ID:123456@area1.niits.ru
CSeq:1 INVATE
Content-Length:168
Content-Type: application/sdp
v=0
o=User1 123456001 IN IP 4 area 1.niits.ru
s=vacation
c=IN IP 4 area 1.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 4444 RTP/AVP 98
a=rtpmap 98 AMR/8000

SIP/2.0 180 Ringing


Via: SIP/2.0/UDP area 1.niits.ru
From: sip:User1@niits.ru
To:sip:User2@niits.ru
Call-ID:123456@area1.niits.ru
CSeq:1 INVATE
Content-Length:0

SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP area 1.niits.ru
From: sip:User1@niits.ru
To:sip:User2@niits.ru
Call-ID:123456@area1.niits.ru
CSeq:1 INVATE
Content-Length:167
Content-Type: application/sdp
v=0
o=User2 45678001 IN IP 4 area 2.niits.ru
s=vacation
c=IN IP 4 area 2.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 6666 RTP/AVP 98
a=rtpmap 98 AMR/8000

ACK sip: User2@niits.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/UDP area 1.niits.ru
From: sip:User1@niits.ru
To:sip:User2@niits.ru
Call-ID:123456@area1.niits.ru
CSeq:1 ACK
Content-Length:0

. 24.1.

2Seti_sviz.indd 301

SIP

29.09.2009, 13:12:27

302

24. VoIP


MEGACO .323, .248.1. ,
IETF ITU , MEGACO/H.248.
MEGACO/H.248
UDP TCP, SCTP,
.
MEGACO/H.248 ,
. IETF ,
SDP.
, ITUT ASN.1,

TLV (Taglengthvalue).
MEGACO/H.248 [3].

24.4. H.323
IP H.323. ITU , ISDN, IP. ,
IP .323
Q.931
ISDN.
.323 , ,
.

, ,
.323
IP. .323 , .
.323 :
RAS (Registration, Admission and Status)
, H.225 .245.
, IP, TCP, UDP, RTP
RTCP, Q.931, . 24.2.
, TCP
H.225 H.245,
RAS

2Seti_sviz.indd 302

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3.

303

UDP, RTP/RTCP, TCP/IP.




UDP

.225
.245

(Q.931)

RAS

RTCP

TCP

RTP

UDP
IP

. 24.2.

.323

24.5. 7 IP
7,
4, 14, ,
TCP/IP.
7 IP
Sigtran, IETF.
Sigtran 7
IP (. 24.3) SCTP (Stream
Control Transmission Protocol),
IP.

M2UA, M3UA, M2PA, SUA, IUA
SCTP
IP

. 24.3.

2Seti_sviz.indd 303

Sigtran

29.09.2009, 13:12:28

304

24. VoIP

24.5.1. SCTP
(IP
SCTP). SCTP

, ,
SCTP, , ..
24.5.2. M2UA, M2PA M3UA
4 MTP IP Sigtran M2UA, M2PA M3UA.
,
ITU MTP , IP:
3 MTP 500 1200 ;

107;
 109.
M2UA
2 MTP (MTP Level2 User Adaptation Layer)
, , 2 MTP
3 MTP 7.
VoIP. 7 1 2 MTP
.
7 2 MTP 3 MTP IP,
M2UA SCTP/IP.
M2PA MTP2 (MTP2 User PeertoPeer Adaptation Layer),
M2UA,
3 MTP,
7, IP.
IP
7, TCP/IP.

2Seti_sviz.indd 304

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3.

305


IP 7. M2PA ,
2 MTP 3 MTP.

, IP,
IP.
M2PA 3 MTP
IP 2 MTP 7.
M2PA 7 IP ,
IP IP, 7. , , M2PA IP
7.
M2PA M2UA :
M2PA 7 , M2UA
7 ;
M2PA
IP 7,
M2UA
7;
M2PA
7, , SCCP,
M2UA
7, 3 MTP;
M2PA

3 MTP, M2UA
;
M2PA IP 3 MTP 2 MTP, M2UA

3 MTP 2 MTP 2 MTP
.

20.

2Seti_sviz.indd 305

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306

24. VoIP

M3UA
3 MTP (MTP Level3 UserAdaptation Layer)
IP SCTP
 3 MTP (, ISUP, SCCP).
SCCP (TCAP INAP) M3UA,
Sigtran SUA, .
M3UA
IP. 3 MTP
, IP.
24.5.3. SUA IUA
SUA SCCP IP ( SCTP) SCCP, , TCAP INAP,
. 4.4
. 14.2.
SUA . 24.4, SUA
IP. SUA SCCP , ,
,
(
SCCP 0 3).
SCCP SUA .
7 SCCP
. 7

SCCP, SCCP IP.
ISDN (IUA) IP Q.931. IUA

MTP
SCTP.
, Sigtran
IETF,
IP.
PINT (PSTN and Internet Interworking)
SPIRITS (Service in
the PSTN/IN Requesting Internet Service).

2Seti_sviz.indd 306

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3.

307

(STP)

SUA

SUA

SCTP

IP

IP-

IP

. 24.4.

SCCP
3

SCCP

SCTP

IP

SUA

PINT
IP, SIP . .
SPIRITS IP
. SPIRITS ,
, IP.
IPTEL TRIP (Telephony
Routing over IP) IP.

. TRIP
, IP.
ENUM IETF, E.164 IP,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 307

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308

24. VoIP

: SIP, TCP/IP,
, , SDP, , .248, .323, ,
, RAS, .225,
.245, Sigtran, SCTP, M2UA, M2PA
M3UA, SUA IUA, PINT, SPIRITS, TRIP.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

SIP/1.0 SCIP SIP?


TCP/IP SIP?
MEGACO/H.248.
?
.323.
.323.
IP Sigtran?
Sigtran.


1. SIP,
. 24.1, User1@niits.ru,
area1.niits.ru, User2@niits.ru, area2.niits.ru,
SDP.

24
24.1. .., .. SOFTSWITCH. .: 2007

2Seti_sviz.indd 308

29.09.2009, 13:12:30

25




:
, , ,
 ,
.
.

25.1.
IP, , ,
,
5 15. , ,
, . ,
. ,
.
, , . , -

2Seti_sviz.indd 309

29.09.2009, 13:12:30

310

25.

( ) ,
,
.
, .

. , .
, ,
, . ,
,
(, )
.
,
,
.

.

25.2. IP
23 IP
4 (IPv4), IP.
,
; 4
32 .
IP (
, netid) ( , hostid). IP
, . , ,
IP : (
) , ( ) . ,
136.104.53.11
,

136.104.0.0 (netid) 0.0.53.11 (hostid)


.
IP
( ):
10001000 01101000 00110101 00001011

2Seti_sviz.indd 310

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3.

311

, .
A, B, C, D ,
.
.
, 0. 7 ,
27 2 = 126 ;
24 , [224 2]
. 2
, ,
, .
, ,
IBM (9.0.0.0), ARPANET (10.0.0.0) AT&T (12.0.0.0.).
,
10. 14 ,
([214 2] ). 16 ([216 2] ).
,
110. 21 8
, 254 .
D , 1110. (4 )
14 ,
([216 2] ). D
(multicasting, ).
, , ( ) .
, ,
11110. .
, (126)
(16,8 ) (,
) (
2 ), 254 , .

2Seti_sviz.indd 311

29.09.2009, 13:12:31

312

25.

, ,
4 .
:
2000 110 , 2001
200 , 2008
1,2 . , ,
, , , ,
, .

.
IP
, . ,
(, , , D),
.
. ,
, , ,
, ,
17 . ,
, ( 254 ) .
90 XX ,
,
,
(). .
, IP
(netid). ,
IP ,
( ). , IP :
IP: 11000000 10101000 00000001 00000010 (192.168.1.2)

: 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000 (255.255.225.0)


: 11000000 10101000 00000001 00000000 (192.168.1.0)
:
11111111 00000000 00000000 00000000 (255.0.0.0);

2Seti_sviz.indd 312

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3.

313

11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000 (255.255.0.0);


11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000 (255.255.255.0).
. ,
, ,
.
(Classless Inter-Domain Routing, CIDR).
CIDR .
, , ,
info@mail.ru. , ,
,
, .
,
(, ,
)? .
, ,
,
. ,
.
,
. ,
, , .
, ,
, .
.
IP. ,
,
.
.

IAN (Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority), .

2Seti_sviz.indd 313

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314

25.


,
Regional Internet Registries, RIR.
2008 5 RIR :
; , ; ; ; .
,
.
, :
10.0.0.0 (,
ARPANET);
16 172.16.0.0 172.31.0.0
256 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.0.

,
( ,
). ,
, . ,

, ,

. (Network
Address Translation, NAT*).
, (),
IP, ,
, , , .
, IP .
IETF, ,
1998 , , ,
IP, IPv6.
IPv6 128 .
,
1038.
: (IPv4 IPv6),
( ,

).
*

NAT
).

2Seti_sviz.indd 314

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3.

315

25.3.

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol , RFC 826) IP (A.B.C.D) () ,


,
. (Media
Access Control).
ARP IP Ethernet.
, IP
.

IPv4

32 , Ethernet 48 . ARP IP ATM.


ARP
IEEE 802.11.
,  ARP.  ARP IP
.
ARP .
IP, ,
(),
ARP ,
IP . ARP
 ARP , ,
. IP
, ARP
. , . ,
IP, .
(Ethernet, FDDI, .)
, ARP
.
RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol, RFC 903)
, ARP , , () ,

2Seti_sviz.indd 315

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316

25.

IP . , ,
. RARP
ARP.

25.4.
IP
,
. , .
.

,
. ,
, (),
.
:
(, );
,

, .
,
.
( ) , , ,
( ).
( ,
)
.

. , PPP ( )
Ethernet (
) 1500 ( 256
.25).

2Seti_sviz.indd 316

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3.

317

. 25.1 .
D B B.
, , ,
( , D1 D2).

, B.
, .

B1

D
B2

D 11

12

D1

B3
M
B4

C
C1
C2

C3

. 25.1.

25.5.
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) ,
. RIP
( ) 30 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 317

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318

25.

, RIP,
( )
. , , ,
.
,  . (a, I) IP (a = A.B.C.D)
I, , .
, (
).
, RIP
, , , 16 . 30 , .

16 ,
, .
 OSPF
(Open ShortestPath First)
,
.
OSPF, ,
,
,
.
RIP, , OSPF
, .
30 , . , RIP,
, OSPF
*,
, , ,
.
,
.
OSPF , . *

2Seti_sviz.indd 318

29.09.2009, 13:12:32

3.

319


.
,
, .
IGMP (Internet Group
Management Protocol, RFC 3376) .

 (). 25.2 , IP multicasting ( IP)
D.
, .
,
IGMP, , .

, .
(, 60 ).  ,
; .
, IGMP
IP .
, ,
, .
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol, RFC 792)
,
,
 .
ICMP IP. , ICMP, , ,
(
 ), , ,
IP.

2Seti_sviz.indd 319

29.09.2009, 13:12:33

320

25.

ICMP ,  . 
 , ping.

25.6. ENUM
ENUM (tElephone NUmber Mapping) ,

, . () .
, , ,
,
(paging), .
( ), , .
, ITUT,

. ,
.
,
ITUT E.164, .
, IP
,
.
IP. ,
( ), DNS IP.
ENUM ,
Web (
Internet) , URL ( ), IP
.
, ,
. ENUM
IETF ITUT.

.
, +7 (812) 3154873 ( .. )
IP: 3.7.8.4.5.1.3.2.1.8.7.e164.arpa.

2Seti_sviz.indd 320

29.09.2009, 13:12:33

3.

321

. .
( )
IP .
,
7, ru,
URL ,
IP. e164.arpa . e164
ITUT, .
arpa , (. 23).
ENUM .
,
.

: , , ,
, , , , , , , , , ,
ENUM.


1.
2.
3.
4.

?
?
?

?
5.  ?
6. RIP OSPF?

21.

2Seti_sviz.indd 321

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322

25.

7. RIP
OSPF?
8. , ?
9. ENUM?


1. IP 234.32.115.10. .
, .
2. , .
3. , .

25
25.1. .. , .. . : , ,
. 3 . .: , 2008 958 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 322

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26



, .

26.1. IP
100 .
, ,
, , .25 ,
.

15
IP, Voice
over IP (VoIP) IP. ,

, ( 26.2 26.8).
IP,
,
, , , .

IP .
IP. IP, , ,
IP
. VoIP,
20%

2Seti_sviz.indd 323

29.09.2009, 13:12:33

324

26.


.
IPTV,
,
, , ,

. IPTV
( 26.9 26.10).
IP.

26.2. VoIP
IP
10 ,

. IP ,

,
IP .

,
. IP
( ,
, ),
90
.


(, )
IP
.
,
, .
,
,

, .

, VoIP
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 324

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3.

325

26.3. ,
VoIP

IP, ,
VoIP. , VoIP
,
. :


, (
IP); ,
IP;
IP
( , ,
) ;

.
. 26.1
IP.
,
IP, ,
.


"1" "0"

ITU-T

IP

. 26.1.


VoIP

, . ( ).

2Seti_sviz.indd 325

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326

26.

, , , , .

ITUT, .
, G.711, .

,
.
(70 )
DSP . DSP

. IP


IP.
. IP (
), VoIP
, IP.
. 26.1
, ITUT.

,
(, , ), ,
.
IP
28.
26.1. ITUT

, /

G.711
G.726
G.729
G.723m

64
32
8
6,3

,
174,4
110.4
62,4
43,73

G.723a

5,3

41,6

,
1
1
25
67,5
67,5


(, ).
VoIP
.
,

2Seti_sviz.indd 326

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3.

327

,
, .
VoIP IP
.
VoIP 24.
,
.
.
, ,
VoIP IP, ,
. VoIP
IP.

26.4. VoIP
VoIP ,
, VoIP
, . ,
,
IP.
VoIP


,
IP
. ,
, VoIP,
: , , ,
Softswitch.
.

VoIP . .
IP

. VoIP,
, IP
.

26.5.
VoIP
,
. /

. ,
, -

2Seti_sviz.indd 327

29.09.2009, 13:12:35

328

26.

VoIP. ,
,

UDP/RTP ( UDP 23, RTP
).

, IP,
, E.164 ITUT,
.

IP,
. . 26.2
.


SIP

H.323
(H.225, H.245)

MEGACO/H.248

. 26.2.

RTP, RTCP
(
)

SCTP


VoIP

26.6.
, VoIP
VoIP
IP.
IP,
UDP/RTP. ,

, :
 , ,
.

. . 26.3
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 328

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3.

329

VoIP
MEGACO/H.248

SIP

H.323

SCTP

RTP/RTCP

G.3

. 26.3.

G.4

, ,
:
() , VoIP;
, ,
;
,
VoIP.

26.7. IP

IP
, IP VoIP.
.
IP , .
VoIP , .
,

. IP ,
.
, ,
,
. -

2Seti_sviz.indd 329

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330

26.

(VoIP), , .

26.8. RTP
RTP (Real-time
Transport Protocol), RFC 1889 RFC 1890, , , . RTP
,
, . :

;
;
;
;
.
VoIP RTP. VoIP RTP UDP , . ,
,
. RTP , ,
(, TCP).
RTP RTCP
(RTP Control Protocol), RTP. RTCP
VoIP.
,
,
RTP. RTCP
, . ,
, QoS
VoIP. QoS
.
. 26.4 VoIP.
,

() .
,
, -

2Seti_sviz.indd 330

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3.

331

.
RTP IP.
RTP, .

(H.323, ITU-T), (MEGACO/H.248, IETF, ITU-T) - (SIP,
IETF RFC 3261).

IP

RTP

. 26.4.

VoIP

26.9. IPTV
IPTV (IP Television)
(, /, , ,
) IP . IPTV
.
. IPTV
/
: , , , .
. IPTV
,
(, VoD (Video on Demand) ).
(Time Shifting). IPTV IPTV
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 331

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332

26.

IPTV
. IPTV . IPTV
.

26.10. IPTV
IPTV
. 26.5. :
.
IPTV,
( , , ..).

VoD.
IPTV. , . IP.
. ,
,
,
.
(),
IPTV . IPTV
- ,

.
. IPTV , .
, . ,
IPTV ,
IPTV.
- (set-top box). -
,
, .

2Seti_sviz.indd 332

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3.

333

VoD


IPTV


IPTV

. 26.5.

IPTV

IPTV , ,
ITU-T, ETSI, IETF, MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) . - ( MPEG)
.

DVB, ATSC ISDB. ,
IPTV, : UDP, RTP RTCP,
SIP, H.323, RIP, OSPF, IGMP.
, ,
MPLS; , ,
, , - .
IPTV ,
IPTV Triple Play,
, . IPTV
Quadruple Play.

2Seti_sviz.indd 333

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334

26.

: IP-, IP-, VoIP, ,


, , , ,
, RTP, RTCP, IPTV,
, VoD, , , ,
, -, , ,
, .


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

ITUT?
VoIP.
VoIP.
.
RTP ?
?
IPTV.


1. I VoIP 20 . :
1 ?
:
G.711; G.729?
?
2. IPv4 = 20 ; UDP = 8 ;
RTP = 12 . Frame
Relay (6 ), ,
. 26.1.

26
26.1. .., .., .. IP. 3 .
.: , 2006. 336 .
26.2. .. . .:
, 2008. 320 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 334

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27


, , ;
, , .


27.1.
, , 7
17 ,
. , 26
, , VoIP IPTV. , .
,

, .
World Wide Web, WWW ( ),
, ( chat rooms), ,
. WWW
, ,
,
.
, , WWW,
. ,

2Seti_sviz.indd 335

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336

27.

. .
(Video on Demand).

, ,
TCP/IP,
. ,
.

27.2. FTP
, ,
.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) . FTP,
( 70 ),
TCP.
FTP
( ) , ( FTP), / .
, , , . FTP
().
FTP
(, , ..). FTP ( incoming,
upload . .),
.
.
FTP ,
. .
.
,
. ,
.
90 FTP . -

2Seti_sviz.indd 336

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3.

337


,
, (. ).

27.3.
HTTP
1989 ,
(CERN) , , (World Wide
Web). , ,
CERN.
.  ,

URI, HTTP HTML. . 
Web
Web, World Wide Web. 1991
1993  , IETF . 1989 .
( )
URI (Uniform Resource Identifier).

URL (Uniform Resource Locator). URL
, .
,
,
, URL ( ). URL
.

,
.
WWW , , HTTP (Hypertext Transfer
Protocol). , HTML (Hypertext Markup Language).
HTTP HTML , , ,
.

22.

2Seti_sviz.indd 337

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338

27.

Web , . Web
, HTTP .

,
HTTP.
, Web,

, Web.
Web .
Web. Web Internet Explorer,
Microsoft Windows, Mozilla
Firefox Safari.
, , URL,
Web. URL ; :
http://www.seti.sut.ru
, HTML ,
Web.
Web. Web Web.
Web-
( ).
HTTP FTP ,
, HTML,
,
. , Web-,
, , ,
. () ,
.
Web- HTTP TCP.
HTTP: , ,
. HTTP
(1.0) . ,

2Seti_sviz.indd 338

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3.

339

.
HTTP (1.1) (persistent connection),
/ .
, ,
,
.

27.4. SMTP
IP.
. ,
, SMTP (Simple
Mail Transfer Protocol ). RFC 822 . 7-
ASCII.
<username@domain> ( @).
SMTP.
( ) SMTP, . , , ,
. ,
, IP- SMTP
TCP
. , .
-
, .

.
. SMTP
,
. 1993 .
RFC 822 , , , Word .
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extension ). MIME

2Seti_sviz.indd 339

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340

27.

, , , ASCII,
, . MIME
.
,
,
FTP . , ,

(,
, ).

: , , URL, , World Wide Web (WWW), HyperText Transfer


Protocol (), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Web, Web,
Web, Web, , ,
SMTP, MIME.


1.
2.
3.
4.

HTTP HTML?
Web Web?
?
HTTP 1.0 1.1?
1.0 ?
5. MIME?
6. ?


1. 1.0 1.1.

27
27.1. .. . .: ,
2001.1100 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 340

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28


.
, - !
( : )

28.1.
IP
8 18, , ,
QoS (Quality of Service)

.
QoS,
, . IP-
QoS,
NGN.
, 22
1 2,
, IP
, , .
. IP best effort. best effort ,
,

2Seti_sviz.indd 341

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342

28.

,
,

. , ,
,
.
best effort ,
(, ). ,
IP , ( (/) Web-).
,
,

. , IP- . , (
, ),
IP . ,
IP ITU, ETSI, IETF
.
28.1.


Telnet



( . 02 )
, IP- NGN -

2Seti_sviz.indd 342

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3.

343

,
, .
( .
28.1 28.2)
.

28.2. ITU-T QoS


IP-
2002 13- ITU-T , IP . ITU-T
Y.1540
IP. ITU-T Y.1541 , Y.1540.
28.2.1. ITU-T Y.1540
ITU-T Y.1540 (
):

;
/ ;
;
();
.
( )
,
. ITU-T Y.1540 ;
, , , , ITU-T
Y.1221.
/ , ,
.
1, 100%- .
18 . 18.1.

2Seti_sviz.indd 343

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344

28.

IP. , ,
. ITU-T Y.1540 IP.
IP,
. ITU-T Y.1540
IP-.
IPTD (IP packet transfer delay) t2t1
t1
t2, t2 > t1 t2 t1 Tmax.
, IPTD .
IP
.

, , .
, ,
, , , , .
Tmax, .
(, IP-, )
.
k IP- IPDV (IP packet delay
variation)
xk
k, d1,2
IP : k = xk d1,2 . IP, , ,
. IP- , ,
, , , .
IP- IPLR (IP packet loss ratio)
. ,

. VoIP , , Tmax, , .

2Seti_sviz.indd 344

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3.

345

IP- IPER (IP packet error ratio)


,
, , .
28.2.2. ITU-T Y.1541
ITU-T Y.1540 , IP
.
QoS,
, . . 28.2 .
28.2. IP



IP, IPTD

IP, IPDV

IP, IPLR

IP, IPER

QoS
2
3
100
400

0
100

1
400

4
1

50

50

110-3

110-3

110-3

110-3

110-3

110-4

110-4

110-4

110-4

110-4

:
, . 28.2,
, , ,
, . Y.1541
:
0 ,

(VoIP, );
1 ,
, (VoIP, );
2 , (, );
3 , ;
4 , ( , , );
5 IP.

2Seti_sviz.indd 345

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346

28.

28.3. QoS IP-



, ITU-T
IP- . , . ,
,
, IP-
.
,
, ( ) .
28.3.1. QoS
QoS ,
.
(Call Admission Control,
). , ,
.
QoS- (QoS routing). ,
. , QoS-
, , , ( , ,
..).
(Resource reservation). IP-
, RSVP,
.
28.3.2. QoS
.
(Buffer management).
( ) , .

2Seti_sviz.indd 346

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3.

347

,
.
;
RED
(Random Early Detection). RED .
.
(Congestion avoidance).
. ,
. ,
.

TCP.
(Packet marking). .
, (Type of Service IP DS-
DiffServ, . ) .
(Queuing and scheduling).
. ( ) .
,
. , ,
.
WFQ (Weighted Fair Queuing),

()
.

CBQ (Class-Based Queuing).
.
, .
(Traffic classification).
( ) , ,

2Seti_sviz.indd 347

29.09.2009, 13:12:41

348

28.

.
(
Traffic Conditioning).
, ,
(Service Level Agreement,
SLA), . , .
(Traffic shaping).
, .
, . Leaky
Bucket ( ) Token Bucket ( ).
Leaky Bucket ,
. ,
. () ,
.
, Token Bucket .
, ,
() .
.
.
, . ,
,
.
28.3.3. QoS
QoS, ,
.
(Metering). ,
SLA .

, ,
Leaky Bucket Token Bucket.
SLA (Service Level
Agreement). SLA, , . SLA

2Seti_sviz.indd 348

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3.

349

() ,
, QoS, .

28.4.
IP
28.4.1.
90- .
, ,

QoS. IETF

.
(Integrated Services
Working Group) (IntServ), . IntServ
,
. IntServ , * .
IntServ
RSVP (Resource ReSerVation Protocol),
IETF 1997 .
RSVP. RSVP
. , RSVP ,

.
IP .
( , )
, IP.
,
( )
.
RSVP .


, *

2Seti_sviz.indd 349

QoS .

29.09.2009, 13:12:42

350

28.

, , , .
IntServ, , IntServ (
, ),
QoS. 90- .
IETF
.
28.4.2.
(Differentiated Services,
DiffServ) Differentiated Services Working Group
IETF. DiffServ 1999 . DiffServ

, . , DiffServ,
IntServ, .
IntServ,
,
QoS
IP. DiffServ , SLA, QoS . DiffServ

. ( ) ( Traffic classification),
( Traffic conditioning).

( Traffic shaping). , ,
QoS.

Type of Service (ToS) IPv4
Traffic Class () IPv6. , DiffServ
DS-. DS-
.
,

.
(r- Behavior, PHB)

2Seti_sviz.indd 350

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3.

351

. , DS 32 .
1999 . DiffServ.
RFC 2598 (Expedited
Forwarding, EF), (Premium Service)
,
.
, (Assured Forwarding, AF), RFC 2597.
,
, , best
effort. QoS AF
. ,
AF 12
.

,
.
(Priority Queuing), (Weighted Fair Queuing)
PHB (Class-Based Queuing).
, DiffServ QoS,
, (, ISDN). , ,
, ,
, QoS
.
28.4.3.
(MPLS)


(Multi-Protocol Label Switching, MPLS). MPLS
Tag Switching ( ), Cisco
90- . Tag
Switching .

2Seti_sviz.indd 351

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352

28.

IP ,
(, OSPF).
()
(label), .
, ,
(Label Switched Path, LSP). ,
ATM Frame Relay .25.
.
1996-97 - IP
, . IETF 1997
MPLS.
MPLS 1999 . MPLS IP- .
, ,
QoS
.
MPLS .

(Forwarding Equivalence Class, FEC).
, LSP, . ,
32 , LSP
MPLS, LSP . MPLS
LSR (Label Switching Router, LSR),
. LSR
IP (160 ) (32 ),
.

28.5.
VoIP
28.5.1.
IP ,

, ,
. ,

2Seti_sviz.indd 352

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3.

353

,
. , VoIP ,
, .
, , IP,
, :
;
;

;


, ,
, , VoIP.
,
,
, . ( 8, MOS).
1998 ITU -, ,
.
R-, , , (, ,
..).
, R- MOS
VoIP.
28.5.2. ,

.
( ) . ,
.
( . 28.3).
ITU-T, .
, G.711,

23.

2Seti_sviz.indd 353

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354

28.

.

, .
(70- )
. DSP .
,
.
, ,
.
. 28.3 , . 28.4
R- MOS ITU-T.
28.3.

,
/

MOS

G.711

64

20

174,4

2 ,
40

4,40

G.726-32

32

20

110.4

2 ,
40

4,22

G.729

20

25

62,4

2 ,
40

4,07

G.723m

6,3

30

67,5

43,7

2 ,
60

3,87

G.723a

5,3

30

67,5

41,6

2 ,
60

3,69

28.4. (
R- MOS)

,
/

R-

MOS

G.711

64

93,2

4,4

G.729

82,2

4,1

G.723.m

6,3

78,2

3,9

G.723.a

5,3

74,2

3,7

2Seti_sviz.indd 354

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3.

355

. IP
.
, , .
( ITU-T), . ,
.
?
60-
,
, 150 , , 250 . ,
ITU
.
ITU-T G.114,
150 . 150 , ,
. 300
,
.
,
. D
:
D=DP+D+D+D,
:
DP :
, .
3,3 /,
4 /,
5 /.
, , 40 . ,
270 ; 40 ,
- 50 ;
D : ,
.
, ( . 28.3);

2Seti_sviz.indd 355

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356

28.

D : , , , , ,

..;
D .
.
. . 28.3
, D 20 30 .
, ,
,
,
.
, ,
150 - , ,
.
. 28.1 , R- .
.
, ,
,
,
.

,
,
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2Seti_sviz.indd 356

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3.

357

R-

OS

100

90

80

70

60

50
0

100

. 28.1.

200

300

400
,


R

: , ,
, , best effort, IntServ DiffServ, MPLS, -, R-, , G.


1. . 28.1 28.2, ,
IP.
2. ?
3. IntServ?
4. DiffServ?

2Seti_sviz.indd 357

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358

28.

5. , MPLS
QoS.
6. best effort IP?
7. ?
8. QoS,
MOS R-.


1. VoIP,
.
2. , ITU VoIP
?
3. (), R- MOS
GSM 13 /.
4.
:
;
- ;
.

28
28.1. ., ..., ., .
IP. .: ,
2007. 400 c.
28.2. .., .. MPLS. .:
, 2005. 304 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 358

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29

, ,
.
.

29.1.

, 9, .
,
, ,

, .
,
, ,
.

, , ,
, , , , ,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 359

29.09.2009, 13:12:44

360

29.

(QoS)

( , ).
,
, IP,
.

29.2.


.
(
), ( .25,
Frame Relay, ), ( IP).

()
(/
).

G/G/1 G/G/n (
,
( ),
. (,

, G/G/1).
M/G/1 (
,
)
:

q = + 2

1 + Cs2
, <1,
2(1 )

(29.1)


),

Cs2 =

D (ts )
(t s ) 2

2Seti_sviz.indd 360

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3.

361

D(ts) .

t s
(, , , ) .

M/G/1 ,
19:

q = t q
:

q
1 + Cs2
t q = = t s [1 +
]

2(1 )

(29.2)



( )
(
). . 29.1

,
.

;
,
. . 29.1
,
.
S, (1S).
,

pi
1pi
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 361

29.09.2009, 13:12:44

362

29.

29.1.

C2

(M)

C2 = 1

C2 =

(H)

1 2S + 2S 2
1
,0 < S
2
2 S (1 S )

1
( k )
k

(S
)

C 2 = pi , 0 < p i < 1

(Geom)

(p )
i
(D)

C2 = 0

G/G/1

, .
,
.
G/G/1,
:

(Ca2 + Cs2 )
];
2(1 )

(29.3)

1 C 2 + Cs2
q 2 = [ + a
];
2
2(1 )

(29.4)

q1 = [1 +

q3 =

Ca2 + Cs2 ,
2(1 )

(29.5)

Ca2 Cs
,
.
() ,
(1p),
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 362

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3.

363

p
() (. . 29.2
).
,
.
(29.3) ,
M/G/1.

,
,
[24].

29.3.

QoS
. ,
.

, ,

.
,
.
.

,

G/G/1/N.

,
.
M/M/1/N.
:

Ploss =

1 N

1 N +1

(29.6)

,  1 M/M/1/N
:
N

Ploss N

2Seti_sviz.indd 363

(29.7)

29.09.2009, 13:12:45

364

29.

1. +00

P
loss

1. -02

1. -04

1. -06

1. -08
= 0.5

0.7

0.8

0.9

1. -10

N
. 29.1.

. 29.1 Ploss N,
(, , ),
.
(29.7). ,

.

,
,
(. 28).
(29.7)
, .
N
:

2Seti_sviz.indd 364

ln( Ploss )
ln( )

(29.8)

29.09.2009, 13:12:45

3.

365

G/G/1/N.

,
, .
,
,

.
,
,
70 .. ..
:

Ploss

1
2

Ca2 +Cs2

N +1

2
N
Ca2 +Cs2

(29.9)


, ,
,
. , ,
,
,
, , ns2.


.
. ,
,
, .
,
 , .
.
, , K ,
:
K

Plossnet = 1 (1 Plossk )

(29.10)

k =1

2Seti_sviz.indd 365

Plossnet ,
Plossk .

29.09.2009, 13:12:46

366

29.

29.4.
IP

,
TCP, ,
UDP.
TCP UDP
57 . 90%
TCP. ,
TCP, , ,
Web (peertoper)
.
UDP
, VoIP, IPTV .
UDP 9%, .
IP ,

.
,
(1 1,5%) .


,
: ,
. ,

, ,

.
.
,
 .
, ,

, ,
, ,
.

.
IP .
,
UDP.

2Seti_sviz.indd 366

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3.

367

IP , best effort. IP, ,


,
best effort , .

29.5.
IP

(). IP
, , ,
.
, , ,
.


. ,
, (.. ).
,
, .

,
.
. 29.2
IP ;
,
.
. 29.2 , ( SMTP)
,
IP
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 367

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368

29.

29.2.
IP

IETF

W LN

HTTP/TCP

LN P

IP

Ethernet

VoIP/UDP

FTP/TCP
SMTP/TCP

: ;
;
W ;
LN .

29.6.
,

()


,
.

,
G/G/1, (29.3) (29.9) ,
. 29.2 29.3.


.
. ,
.
(1) .

.
, //1


.

2Seti_sviz.indd 368

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3.

369

tdelay 25
-7

10
P/LN
20

P/P
P/W
M/M

15

10

0
0.1

0.2

. 29.2.

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Ploss
0.4

0.35

P/LN/1
P/P/1

0.3
P/W/1
M/M/1

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05
0
0.1

0.2

. 29.3.

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

24.

2Seti_sviz.indd 369

29.09.2009, 13:12:47

370

29.

:  ,
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
, .


1. ?
2.
?
3. .
4. G/G/1/N?
5.
.
6. IP?
7.
?
8.
?


1.
//1, /2/1, /D/1.
2. M/M/1/N
Ploss 50
.
3. , . 29.1.
4.
//1, /2/1, /D/1.
5. ,
/D/1.

29
29.1. .., ..
. .: , 1975.
29.2. .., .., ..
. .: , 1982.
29.3. ..
. .: , 2003. 512 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 370

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30


,
.

30.1.
3, ( ),
.
10 20
,

, TCP/IP.
10
, 20
IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)
IP.


IP,
? ,
IP.
, ,
. 60

 ,

2Seti_sviz.indd 371

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372

30.

, ,
, , ,
,
.

. 10 ( 1998
2008 ) ,
, 50
1,2 . 3
20% ,
1,8 .
( ),
(., ,
. 20.1 20).
IPv4
IPv6.

,
,
.

, ,
Web,
.
Cisco
20 30% .
, 2000
(
) 25 , 2007

29 .
,
, .

 ,

, .

10 /
/, .
, ,
 (, YouTube), ,

.

2Seti_sviz.indd 372

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3.

373

VoIP, 10 ,
20% .
,
, , ,
..
,
.

30.2. IPv6
23 IPv4 IPv6.
, IPv4

,
90
,
.
IETF, 2006 , ,
, IANA (Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority*), 2011 , ,
(RIR),
2012 . IPv4
IPv6 .
32 4 128
6 4109 3,41038.
, 6
192 (IPv4)
320 .


.
4
,
. IPv6
,
,
. :
,
, , ;
(
) ( );
*

IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority)


, , IP- .

2Seti_sviz.indd 373

29.09.2009, 13:12:50

374

30.

(Source
Routing), 
,

.
IP
,
IPSec (IP Security),
Encryption. IPSec
/
, ,
.
, IPv6,

: ,

. , ,
, Skype iChat,

,
(best effort).

30.3. IP,


80 90 , ,
2000
(, ) 10:1.

, 2000 ,
,
IP . IP
.
,
, ,
50 60%
. , ,
,
IP, ,
2008
8 100 .
Cisco*,
*

Cisco IP over DWDM Solution: Transport for the Approaching Zettabyte Era. White Paper.
Cisco Systems. 2008.

2Seti_sviz.indd 374

29.09.2009, 13:12:50

3.

375

.
Cisco 2012 IP
44 528 ,
, (
.
). ,
,
.

:
Web, , (
);
(PeertoPeer, P2P)
(Freenet, Gnutella, Morpheus, Kazaa .)
, , YouTube, IPTV,
;
,

(loud omputing*);
, ;
, (telepresence)
, .
, 2015
20 50 2007 .

.
IP ,

.
,
,
,
, ,
.

IPoDWDM, IP
(Dense Wave Division Multiplexing, DWDM)
.
DWDM
, SDH (,
STM16/64),
*

IEEE (2008 .), Cloud Computing ,



, , , ,
, ..

2Seti_sviz.indd 375

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376

30.

.
DWDM
IP
,
.
2008
IP, ,
20 /, 2000
1 .
DWDM,
,
.
. 10
(
28 / , , 56 /).

,
1 4 / ( xDSL
) 
/ ( 
, Ethernet,
).

DSL Forum (.
www.broadbandforum.org) 2008
xDSL 400 ,
20% ,
.


(), 2000 DVD.
4,5 . GSM
( 9,6 /),
43 , .
34 /
12 . ADSL 4 / 2,5 ,
30 /
(, , ) 20 .

2Seti_sviz.indd 376

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3.

377

30.4. Internet2
( )
90 IETF

.
IPv6,
IPng (next generation).

IP, ,
.

1995 vBNS (veryhighperformance
Backbone Network Service).
()
MCI .
.
,

. ,

,
IP,
() .
(1996 )
, vBNS
(1999 ).
( 200 ),
, Internet2,

, .

(Cisco, Nortel, Juniper, IBM, Microsoft)


(Level 3 Quest).
1999
Abilene,
.

IPv6
(multicast), QoS
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 377

29.09.2009, 13:12:51

378

30.

10 /,
100 /.
100 / gigapops
(Point of Presence, PoP).
IP IPv4 IPv6,
,

. Internet2
, :
IP ( Juniper);
(
Ciena);
(
Infinera).

30.5.

Internet2 ,
,
(,
Nemertes Research, 2008 ).
,
, .
, ,
, ,
IPv4
IPv6.
, 2003 ,


IPv6. ,
,
IPv4 IPv6.
,
,

.
IPv6
,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 378

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3.

379

,
IPv4 IPv6.
,
, ,
, . ,
, .

,
,
,
.

.
,
.
. ,
.
, .
,
, ,
.
1,9
.
6 .
,
, .

2Seti_sviz.indd 379

29.09.2009, 13:12:51

380

30.

: IPv4 IPv6, ,
IP, P2P, , Cloud Computing, DWDM, ,
/, Internet2, Abilene.


1.
?
2. IPv4 IPv6?
3. ?
4. ?
5. IPv6?
6. .
7. , .
8. Internet2.
9. , Abilene.


1. , IPv6
.
2. DVD
ADSL, Metro Ethernet Abilene.

30
30.1. V. Cerf. A Decade of Internet Evolution. The Internet Protocol Journal,
Volume 11, No. 2, 2008. http://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac123/ac147/
archived_issues/ipj_112/112_evolution.html.

2Seti_sviz.indd 380

29.09.2009, 13:12:51

31


, .

31.1.
,
, .
. ,
, .
,
,  .
, , ,
. :
( );
( );
( ).

, .
, ITU, .
, ,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 381

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382

31.

Customer Premises
Network

. 31.1.

Access Network

Core Network

Service Nodes

,
ITUT


.
,
,
. , ,
. ,

. , .
,

.
ITU. ,
, , .

,
NGN.

31.2.
,
, . , . . 31.2
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 382

29.09.2009, 13:12:51

31.

383



( )

FTTx

BWA


( )

DSL

NGN

. 31.2.

.
.
. : ,
. . ,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 383

29.09.2009, 13:12:52

384

31.


. ,
, . , NGN.
. .
, . .
,
, .
XX ,
. , , Tripleplay services,

: , . .
.
.

,
:
xDSL ,
;
FTTx ,
x,
;
BWA , .

. ,
, .
:
;
;

2Seti_sviz.indd 384

29.09.2009, 13:12:52

31.

385

, tripleplay services;
, .
, Technology Future Inc.
. , . 31.3,

.
XXI .
, %
100
100 /

80

60

24 /
40
6 /

1,5 /

20

1995

2000

. 31.3.

2005

2010

2015

2020

2025

, , :
,
;

.
, 100 / (
)
25.

2Seti_sviz.indd 385

29.09.2009, 13:12:52

386

31.

.

, ,
1 /.

31.3. 


, .


management system. , ,
.


, .

.
:
1
;
, .
 . .
,
. ITU ,
. , ITU
M ,
( ) , .
. 31.4 ,
, .

,
.

2Seti_sviz.indd 386

29.09.2009, 13:12:53

31.

387

, ITUT M,
(
) .



. 31.4.


,
 .
.

, , OSS/BSS (Operation Support
System/Business Support System).
. OSS/BSS .

OSS/BSS NGOSS (New Generation Operation System
and Software). C NGOSS
OSS/BSS,
NGN.
NGOSS
TMF (TeleManagement Forum). NGOSS , .

2Seti_sviz.indd 387

29.09.2009, 13:12:53

388

31.

31.4.

, .
 . .
.
1994 
 . , .
ITUT ( Y).
: , / , ( ) . , ITUT
Y, . 31.5.

. 31.5.


,
, .

2Seti_sviz.indd 388

29.09.2009, 13:12:53

31.

389

,  ,
. NGN
.

31.5.
,
. ITU ,
.
, XXI .
. ,
,
.
 , , .
, . , , ,
: , ,
! 2.

31
31.1. ., .. . :
. 2001.
31.2. .. . 2 . .: , 2004.
31.3. .. . .: ,
2004.

. ,
. , : ,
...

2Seti_sviz.indd 389

29.09.2009, 13:12:54

390


1. .., .., .., .. . .: , 1971.
2. .. . .: , 1969.
3. .A. , .. , .. . MEGACO/H.248.
// .: , 2009.
4. .., .., ..
. , . . ...
.: , 2005.
5. .. NGN: .
.: , 2008.
6. .., .., .. . .: , 1968. 246.
7. . : . . / . .. ,
.. . .: , 2004.
8. .., ..
. .: , 2004.
9. .., .., .., .., .. . .: , 1995.
10. . /. . .. . .. . .: , 2006.
11. ..
. .: , 2003.
12. .. . :
. .: , 2005.
13. .., .., .. .
.: , 2005.
14. .., .., .. SIP.
// .: , 2005.
15. .. . 1. 4 . .
. .: , 2006.
16. .. . 2 ., , 2004.
17. .., .
: 7. . , 2003.
18. .. . . . 2007,
2.
19. .. .
. 2008, 4.
20. .., .., .. . .: ,
1977.
21. .., .. .
.: , 1972.
22. .., .., .. GSM.
, .
.: , 2004
23. .., .., .. .
, . .: , 1993.
24. .., .., ..
. .: , 1984.
25. .., .., .. .
.: , 2002.
26. . . .: ,
1979.

2Seti_sviz.indd 390

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27. .., .., .. .


.: , 1996.
28. ., .. . :
, 2001.
29. .., .., .. . . .: , 2008.
30. .. . .:
, 2005.
31. .., .., .. . .: , 1979.
32. .. : ,
. .: , 2007.
33. .. . .: , 2006.
34. .. 3 //
. .: , 2000.
35. .. . .:
, 1983.
36. .., .. : , ,
. 3 . .: , 2008.
37. .. GSM. .: , 2005.
38. . : , ,
. , , 2003.
39. .. / . .. . .:
, 2000.
40. (). I, II. .: ,
1988.
41. .. : . :
, 1999.
42. .. . .: ,
2004.
43. . . .; .; : .
, 2003.
44. . . 4 . .: , 2005.
45. .., .
GPRS/UMTS. .: , 2007.
46. . . . . .1, .2.
. . . .. . .: , 1992.
47. . . ,
2002.
48. .. . ( ). .: , 1979.
49. . . .: ,
2003.
50. Freeman R.L. Telecommunication System Engineering: 2nd Ed. New York:
WileyIntersience, 1989.
51. G.Heine. GSM Networks: Protocols, Terminology and Implementation. Artech
House, Boston, London, 1999.
52. Manterfield R.J. CommonChannel Signaling. Peter Peregrinus Ltd., London,
1991.
53. Robertson D.S. The information revolution. Communication Pres., N.Y., Vol.
17, N2, 1990.
54. Smith Clint, Collins Daniel. 3G Wireless Network. McGrawHill, 2002.
55. UMTS Networks: Architecture, Mobility and Service / Heikki Kaaranen, Ari
Ahtiainen, Lauri Laitenen, Siamak Naghian, Valtteri Nienu (Second Edition).
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2005.

2Seti_sviz.indd 391

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392


2G
2,5G
2
3G
3GPP
4G

A
Abis
ADSL
AMPS
API
ARPU
ATM
AuC

2Seti_sviz.indd 392

, GSM


3
Third Generation Partnership Project
3G



.





 ()




7
























MSC BSS
BSC BTS
Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line
Advanced Mobile Phone Service
( , )
Application Programming Interface

Average Revenue per User


Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Authentication Center

29.09.2009, 13:12:54

BSC
BSS
BTS

CAMEL
CDMA
CDR
2
DAMPS
DECT
DNS
DSLAM
DTAP
DTMF
E1
EDGE
ENUM
ETSI
EVDO
FDMA
FIB
FISU
FSN
FMC
FMS
FTTx
GII
GGSN
GMSC
GPRS
GPS
GSM

2Seti_sviz.indd 393

393

Base Station Controller


Base Station System
Base Transceiver Station
Country Code ,

Customized Applications Mobile Enhanced Logic
Code Division Multiple Access
Call Detail Record ( )
Cordless Telephony2
Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service . AMPS .
Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications.
Domain Naming Server .
IP
Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer
Direct Transfer Application Part
Dualtone multifrequency 2 n

2048 /
Enhanced Data Global Evolution
. , GSM
384 /
tElephone NUmber Mapping

European Telecommunication Standardization Institute



Evolution, Data Only
Frequency Division Multiple Access
Forward indicator bit 7
Fillin signal unit 7
Forward sequence number
7
FixedMobile Convergence

FixedMobile Substitution

Fiber To The x x;

Gateway GPRS Support Node GPRS, ,

Gateway Mobile Switching Center

General Packet Radio Service .


GSM,

Global Positioning System
Global System for Mobile communication
. , 900, 1800 1900 TDMA

29.09.2009, 13:12:55

394

HLR

m Location Register , , ,
HLR (, .)
HyperText Markup Language
HyperText Transport Protocol
Initial address message 7
Internet Engineering Task Force
International Mobile Equipment Identity
International Mobile Subscriber Identity
International Mobile Telecommunications2000
ITU 3G
Intelligent Network . ,

Intelligent network application protocol


International Standardization Organization
Internet Protocol ( ) ; IPv4, IPv6
Integrated Services Digital Network
ISDN user part ,
,
ISDN
International Telecommunications Union Telecommunication Standardization
Sector.

Local area network
Medium Access Control, Um GPRS,

Mobile Application Part  GSM
Mobile Equipment
Mobile Country Code ,

Mobile Network Code

Mean Opinion Score

Mobile Station
Mobile Switching Center
Mobile Station Roaming Number
Mobile Station International ISDN Number ISDN
Message Signal Unit 7
Message Transfer Part 7
Mobile Virtual Network Operator

Next Generation Network


Nordic Mobile Telephone .
450 900
Nordic Mobile Telephone System ,
450

HTML
HTTP
IAM
IETF
IMEI
IMSI
IMT2000
IN

INAP
ISO
IP
ISDN
ISUP

ITUT

LAN
MAC

MAP

MNC
MOS
MS
MSC
MSRN
MSISDN
MSU
MTP
MVNO
NGN
NMT
NMT450

2Seti_sviz.indd 394

29.09.2009, 13:12:55

OMAP
OSI
PICS
PIXIT
QoS
RAN
SCCP
SCP
SDH
SGSN
SLA
SMS
SHDSL
SIM

SNT
SMSC
SP
SSP
STP
TACS
TCAP
TDM
TDMA
TETRA
TUP
TRAU
UMTS

URL
VAD
VDSL
VLR

VoIP
WAP
WCDMA
DSL

2Seti_sviz.indd 395

395

Operations, Maintenance and Administration Part 7


Open systems interconnection
Protocol implementation conformance statement

Protocol implementation extra information for testing



Quality of Service
Radio Access Network
Signalling Connection Control Part
7
Service control point
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
Serving GPRS Support Node GPRS
Service Level Agreements
Short Message Service
Singlepair Highspeed DSL

Subscriber Identity Module ,


,

Signaling network testing
Short Message Service Center
Signalling point 7
Service switching point
Signalling transfer point 7
Total Access Communications System ,
900
Transaction capabilities application part
7
Time Division Multiplexing
Time Division Multiple Access
Trans European Trunked Radio.
Telephone user part ,
Transcoding and Rate Adaptation Unit
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System . .
Uniform Resource Locator

Value Added Services


Very Highspeed Digital Subscriber Line
Visitor Location Register ,
. ,
, MSC
Voice over IP IP
Wireless Application Protocol
Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

eXtended Digital Subscriber Line

29.09.2009, 13:12:55

396

2G, 22, 163, 165, 167, 168,


171, 172, 174, 205, 214,
217, 219, 222, 248, 249,
392
2,5G, 6, 22, 163, 168, 173,
205, 392

DAMPS, 165168, 170, 171


DECT, 112, 151, 161, 169,
393
DiffServ, 347, 350, 351, 357
DWDM, 374376, 380

3G, 68, 22, 159161, 163,


167171, 184, 203, 205,
207, 209, 213218, 225,
245, 248251, 258, 391,
392, 394
3GPP, 7, 22, 160162, 172,
182, 197200, 206214,
223, 228, 234, 248250,
252, 392

EDGE, 8, 145, 160, 168, 207,


218, 225, 395
ENUM, 10, 89, 307, 320, 321,
393
ETSI, 6, 20, 22, 30, 96, 116,
121, 151, 152, 159162,
172, 174, 182, 206, 207,
228, 234, 242, 250, 288,
333, 342, 393

4G, 6, 8, 169171, 203, 204,


248, 249, 258, 392

FDMA, 158, 393


FMC 150, 161, 247, 258, 393
FMS 150, 161, 393
Frame Relay, 9, 263, 268,
275277, 281, 283, 288,
352, 360

IETF, 20, 22, 159, 162, 182,


269, 270, 287, 288, 294,
297, 298, 300, 302, 303,
306, 307, 314, 320, 331,
333, 337, 342, 349, 350,
352, 368, 373, 377, 394
IMEI, 7, 180, 181, 190, 196,
199, 200, 204, 394
IMS, 8, 9, 179, 208, 212214,
217, 249258, 371
IMSI, 7, 176, 179, 189191,
196198, 204, 394
IMT2000, 159
Instant Messaging, 251, 258
IntServ, 11, 349, 350, 357
IPTV, 10, 23, 324, 331335,
366, 375
ITUT, 6, 11, 15, 16, 1922,
26, 30, 51, 69, 73, 75,
82, 83, 91, 95, 96, 99,
103, 113, 114, 116,
119, 121, 124, 140142,
159, 161, 162, 169,
197, 198, 227, 228, 234,
264, 266, 268271, 277,
278, 280, 281, 284, 301,
302, 304, 320, 321, 326,
328, 331334, 342346,
353355, 358, 381, 382,
386389, 394

A
AMPS, 6, 156, 163167, 171,
394, 398
ATM, 9, 212, 263, 271,
277281, 283, 284, 287,
288, 360

B
B , 243
Best effort, 242, 282, 341,
342, 351, 357, 358, 367,
374
BGCF, 255, 258,
Bluetooth, 152
BS, 154, 161, 165, 171, 174,
182
BSC, 156, 157, 161, 173,
175177, 179, 182, 184,
186, 187, 210, 211, 219,
220, 233, 392, 393
BSSAP, 184, 187, 194, 220
BSSMAP, 187, 194

C
CDMA, 6, 158, 161, 165167,
169171, 205, 207, 394
CDMA450, 165, 171

2Seti_sviz.indd 396

G
GPRS, 8, 145, 160, 168,
173, 184, 198, 207, 210,
213, 218220, 222, 225,
235, 236, 240244, 392,
393395
GSM, 6, 7, 23, 77, 144, 156,
159162, 165184, 186,
188190, 196199, 202,
205, 207, 209212, 218,
219, 223, 225, 235, 239,
244, 247, 255, 257, 358,
376, 390394

H
H.248, 212, 213, 256, 302,
308, 331, 390
HLR, 6, 157, 158, 161, 173,
177179, 181, 182,
184186, 188, 190, 191,
194, 197, 199, 208, 212,
219, 221223, 254, 258,
394
HSS, 212, 214, 253255, 257,
258
HTTP, 11, 20, 24, 37, 52, 68,
92, 268, 299,337-340,
368, 380, 394

L
LTE, 213, 248, 258

M
MEGACO, 212, 213, 256, 300,
302, 308, 331, 390
MMS, 203, 215, 216, 218,
224, 225, 229
MPLS, 11, 270, 333, 351,
352, 357, 358
MS, 155, 161, 174, 175, 180,
182, 184, 186190, 193,
210, 223, 235
MSC, 6, 88, 156158, 161,
166, 173, 177179, 181,
182, 184, 186, 187,
190193, 198200, 208,
210212, 219221, 223,
229, 233, 250, 392, 394,
395
MSFC, 255, 258
MSFP, 255, 258

29.09.2009, 13:12:56

397

NGN, 5, 14, 21, 51, 112, 138,


140, 142144, 146148,
203, 341, 342, 382, 384,
387, 389, 390
NMT450, 6, 77, 164, 165,
171, 185, 395

Presence, 251, 258, 378


Pushtotalk, 8, 224, 225

VHE, 8, 223, 225


VLR, 6, 173, 177179, 182,
184188, 190194, 198,
199, 210, 219, 220, 223,
395
VoD, 331, 332, 334
VoIP, 10, 11, 23, 296, 298,
304, 323332, 334, 335,
344, 345, 352, 353, 358,
366, 368, 373, 398

, 10, 262-264,
270, 285, 287292, 294,
296, 297, 311, 316321,
326, 327, 341, 342, 354,
356, 361
, 208, 209, 293, 330,
342-346, 351, 354-357
, 213, 219, 240, 250,
255, 256, 321, 337, 373

E-, 353, 357

QoS, 8, 11, 23, 113, 216, 227,


228, 233, 234, 243,256,
277, 282, 283, 330, 341,
343, 345, 346, 348352,
358, 360, 363, 377, 395

WAP, 8, 218, 222, 225, 398,


W-CDMA, 161, 169, 170, 206,
207, 210, 398
Web, 216, 217, 320,
337, 338, 340
Web , 268, 269, 338,
340, 372
Web , 337, 338, 340
WiMAX, 170, 171, 247, 249,
250
WLAN, 152, 213
WWW, 265, 335, 337, 340

R
R-, 353, 354,
356-358

S
Sigtran, 212, 213, 303, 304,
306, 308
SIM, 6, 175177, 180,
182, 196198, 201, 204,
210, 251
SIP, 10, 213, 251, 253, 256,
257, 298300, 307, 308,
331, 333, 390
SLA, 120, 143, 348350, 395
SMS, 8, 111, 169, 181, 182,
184, 186, 193, 203, 205,
216, 218, 222, 223, 225,
229, 230, 234, 395
SNTlite, 233, 234

T
TDMA, 158, 161, 173, 205,
218, 395, 398
TISPAN, 250, 258
TRAU, 173, 176, 177, 395

U
UDP, 9, 270, 288, 291, 293,
294, 296299, 302, 303,
328, 330, 333, 334, 366,
368
UMTS, 7, 23, 159, 170, 173,
183, 205214, 223, 225,
228, 247, 248, 391, 395
URL, 320, 321, 337, 338, 340,
395

2Seti_sviz.indd 397

, 155, 176
, 151,
152, 223

QoS, 234, 348


, , bis, 7,
96, 186, 187, 194, 210,
392

, 10, 309, 310, 321


, 52, 96,
97, 123, 141, 376, 395

112, 87, 202, 204


, 256, 325, 326, 334,
353-358
ABC, 40, 8386, 91, 92,
200, 201, 204
DEF, 86, 88, 91, 92, 97,
195, 201, 202, 204, 248
, 5,
28, 31, 35, 42, 43, 57, 59,
78, 96, 98, 106, 118, 125,
128, 129, 140, 179

, 165, 202,
204, 207

, 217, 225
, 169,
217, 225
,
27, 145, 164, 195, 229,
231, 234, 385
,
216, 225
OSI, 76, 77, 266,
267, 270, 287, 288, 297
, 15, 203, 357

X
X.25, 9, 263265, 268,
271277, 281, 283284,
287, 288, 316, 323, 352,
360

, 11,
50, 117, 118, 130, 133,
136, 236, 243, 244, 282,
304, 342, 357, 363365,
368370
, 169,
208, 215, 225, 245, 299,
300, 342, 344, 345, 366,
373, 374

, 106, 117,
119, 133-135, 228, 230,
234

, 58, 59, 61,


62, 64, 65, 67, 68, 123
MSIN, 197, 204
MSISDN, 7, 191, 198,
204

29.09.2009, 13:12:56

398

, 5, 151, 161
, 173
, 4, 7, 46,
81-91, 139, 184, 195,
196, 199-204, 309, 310,
321
/,
216, 225, 342
, 209,
214, 216, 366, 367, 370
, 302, 308, 327,
331, 334
, 8,
12, 55, 93, 94, 96, 126,
127, 135, 153, 168, 170,
213, 232, 235, 236, 240,
243, 254, 261, 262, 265,
270, 276, 290, 293, 316,
318, 326, 332, 334, 343,
347, 354, 356, 359, 372,
374380, 393
H.323, 10, 256,
302, 331, 333
IPv4, 9, 256, 289,
290, 292294, 296, 297,
310, 314, 315, 334, 350,
372, 373, 378-380, 394

R
IPv6, 9, 256, 289,
292294, 296, 297, 314,
350, 372, 373, 374,
377380,
, 8, 77, 159,
184, 222, 224, 225,

2Seti_sviz.indd 398

MAP, 7, 158, 159,


184, 186, 190, 191, 194,
219221, 257, 394
RTP, 10, 21, 302,
328, 330, 331, 333, 334
RTCP, 302, 330,
333, 334
SMTP, 11, 268,
299, 339, 340, 367, 368
SCTP, 10, 302304,
306, 308
TCP, 9, 265, 270,
285288, 291, 293297,
299, 302, 330, 336, 339,
347, 366
, 120, 226, 227,
234

, 156, 162, 168, 175,


178, 182184, 188, 195,
197, 232, 248

, 40, 42, 43, 52,


54, 92, 94, 105, 123, 138,
140, 141, 210, 332, 382,
384-386, 393
, 154-157, 161, 162,
164-166, 169171, 174,
176, 188, 196, 236239,
243, 244
, 32,
33, 37, 71, 111, 165, 391
, 233, 234, 393
7, 159, 183, 184,
186, 194, 212, 220

TCP/IP, 9, 23, 265, 269,


286288, 303, 304, 308,
336, 371

, 26, 30, 55, 57, 105, 141

, 3, 3941, 46, 51, 52, 55, 75,


125,132, 140, 379

- WiFi, 145, 170,


171, 247, 249, 250
, 77, 156, 157, 160,
162, 164, 171, 178, 179,
182-184, 211, 221, 233,
248

, 55, 56, 72, 393, 395,


392395
, 3, 4, 30, 32,
37, 43, 51, 56, 58-68, 91,
122, 138, 140, 141, 143,
146, 147, 158

SS7 GW, 212, 214

, 366,
367, 370

29.09.2009, 13:12:56

399

.., 368
-
, 183

.., 234, 388


.., 149, 388
, 27
., 39, 388
.., 38, 388
- , 345
, 369
.., 234, 388
, 18

( ), 285
..., 356
., 264

.., 68
., 124
., 371, 372
.., 124
. ., 163,
368, 388
.., 214, 225
.., 234

, 153
, 29
.., 14
.., 258,
307, 356
.., 162, 172,
225, 389,
., 245
.., 368

.., 38, 389


., 101
., 356
.., 248
., 264
, 271

.., 101, 388

.., 184, 389

, 226

2Seti_sviz.indd 399

., 356
., 265
, 235
., 321
.., 162, 389
, 152
., 136, 363, 389
.., 369
, 150
.., 3, 18, 30
., 148, 387, 389
.., 13
., 308

-, 333
.., 134
, 15
, 27
.., 363, 368
, 260

C.., 182, 244


.., 92, 204, 389
, 153
, 339
., 356

.., 182, 389


, 18
. ., 284
, 172

.., 296, 320, 389


.., 296, 320, 389
.., 136

., 365, 376
.., 182, 244
.., 332
., 101
.., 234, 388
., 153, 325, 394
.., 244, 390
.., 234
..,182, 244
., 101

. ., 284
., 112, 390
(Y. Rapp), 128
.., 172, 390
.., 68
.., 101, 388

.., 38, 52
.., 80, 96
.., 213, 225

., 357
.., 132
.., 225
, 102
.., 162, 389
.., 296, 338
, 215
., 265
.., 182, 214, 225
. ., 284, 388
, 152
.., 134
.., 332

., 270, 284, 390


, 244
, 153
., 101
.., 234, 390
.., 38, 389
.., 333

, 18
.., 234, 388

.., 182, 388


.., 162, 389
.., 101
, 195

.., 52
, 339
-, 240, 243,
358, 361, 368

.., 38, 388

.., 225
., 297
, 18
.., 52, 136, 388
.., 234

.., 127, 239, 243

.., 363, 368

29.09.2009, 13:12:56

3004

065953 15.08.98

20.10.2009
70100/16
.
. .
25 . .
2000 .
, 190005, -, ., . 29



199034, -, 9 ,12

2Seti_sviz.indd 400

29.09.2009, 13:12:57

, ,
. . . . ( - ,
).

..
..
..

: www.niits.ru
Email: nio1@niits.ru