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English Notes 10th Class N.

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm
Najm-ul-Huda
School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

NAJM-UL-HUDA
HUDA SCHOOL SYSTEM
(Habib Abad)
0345-4521350

049--4500350

Lesson No. 1: Hazrat Muhammad( )an embodiment of justice


Q.1:
Ans.

Q.2:
Ans.
Q.3:
Ans.

Q.4:
Ans.

Q.5:
Ans.

Q.6:
Ans.

How can people achieve perfection in the moral, spiritual and


social areas of life?
People can achieve perfection in the moral, spiritual and social
areas of life by following the life and teaching of our beloved
Rasool ().
How did the Rasool (
)set high and noble ideals for all
mankind?
He ( ))set high and noble ideals through his practical example
for all mankind to follow in every field of life.
How were people of Makkah convinced of the Rasools (
)
justice even before his Prophet-hood?
Before his Prophet-hood, the Rasool ( ))resolved the issue of
setting the Black Stone justly and saved people from a tribal
conflict. Thus the people of Makkah were convinced of his Justice.
What standards of justice did the Rasool (
)practice as the
head of the state of Madinah?
As head of the state of Madinah, the Rasool ()
(
decided all
cases on merit with justice and equity irrespective of colour, creed
or race.
What made non-Muslims
Muslims bring their suits to the Rasool (
?)
The justice of the Rasool ( )made non-Muslims
Muslims bring their
suits to him and he decided the cases of the Jews in accordance
with the Jewish law.
How does the Quran describe the personality of the Rasool
(
?)

The Holy Quran describes the personality of the Rasool ( )as


thus: We have indeed,
deed, in the Messenger of God, a good example
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350

A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm
Najm-ul-Huda
School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

(of conduct) whose hope in God and the Final Day.


Q.7:
Ans.

Q.8:
Ans.
Q.9:
Ans.
Q.10:
Ans.

How did the Rasool (


)resolve the issue of Black Stone?
The Rasool ( )put the Black Stone in a piece of cloth. He asked
the representatives of different tribes to hold the four corners of this
piece of cloth and carry it near the Kabbah.
Why did Quraish think that the Rasool (
)would favour them?
Quraish made Hazrat Usama(

)ready to intercede on
their guilty womans behalf. Therefore they thought the Rasool
( )would favour them.
Why did the non-Muslims trust the Rasool (
?)
The non-Muslims trusted the Rasool ( )because they were
certain of his honesty, truthfulness and justice.
What advice did the Rasool (
)give to Hazrat Ali (R.A)?
The Rasool ( )advised Hazrat Ali (R.A): When two come to
you for judgement, never decide in favour of one without hearing
the arguments of the other; it is then most likely that you will know
the truth.

Lesson. No. 2: Chinese new year

Q.1:
Ans.
Q.2:
Ans.
Q.3:
Ans.

When does Chinese New Year start?


The Chinese New Year starts between January 21st and February
20th.
Why do Chinese families do thorough cleaning of their houses
before New Years Day?
They do so to clean out bad luck from the previous year and to
make the house ready to welcome good luck for the coming year.
Which colour is not allowed and which colour is encouraged on
Chinese New Year? Why?
The black colour is not allowed due to its association with death;
however, red colour is encouraged as it is associated with warding
off bad spirits.
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350

A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

Q.4:

What do celebrations on doors and windows symbolize?

Ans.

These decorations symbolise good luck and happiness.

Q.5:
Ans.

What is the significance of New Years Eve Dinner?


This dinner is of great significance as it is a source of visiting
relatives and it is also considered a source of getting prosperity and
long life.
What do the little red envelops filled with money symbolize?
The little red envelops filled with money symbolises wealth and
prosperity for the coming year.
What is the importance of Chinese New Year for the Chinese
families?
It has great importance. The Chinese families come together on the
Eve of New Year to revive their relationship with each other. They
welcome the new year with great festivities and merry making.
Why is Chinese New Year never on the same day each year?
Since the Chinese lunar calendar is based on the phases of the
moon which has a shorter cycle than the sun. So the Chinese New
Year is never on the same day each year.
What is Chinese belief about cleaning houses before new year
day?
Chinese believe that by cleaning houses before new year day, they
will get rid of bad luck and the new year will bring good luck for
them.
Why does the dinner consist of eight or nine dishes?
The dinner consist of eight or nine dishes because in Chinese
language the word eight mean prosperity and nine mean
long-lasting
Is Chinese belief about people having character traits of
animals a fact or an opinion?
It is an opinion not a fact. It is baseless belief and has nothing to do
with the people character.

Q.6:
Ans.
Q.7:
Ans.

Q.8:
Ans.

Q.9:
Ans.

Q.10:
Ans.

Q.11:
Ans.

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

Lesson. No. 3: try again (Poem)


Q.1:
Ans.

What is the lesson taught in the first stanza?


The first stanza teaches us that we should keep on trying patiently
and steadily without fear of failure. We shall definitely succeed in
the long run.

Q.2:
Ans.

What can we learn from failure?


We can come to know about our weaknesses from our failure.
After overcoming these hurdles we can get success.
How is failure not a disgrace?
Wise men learn from their failure. They try again and get success.
In this respect, failure is not a disgrace.
How many times should we try and why?
There is no limit for trying again. We should always keep on
trying till we achieve our goal.

Q.3:
Ans.
Q.4:
Ans.
Q.5:
Ans.

What should we do if we find our task hard?


If we find our task hard, we should keep on trying again and again
till we are able to fulfil our task.

Q.6:
Ans.

Give an example of struggle from your life.


In my childhood, firstly, I could not learn how to drive a bicycle. I
failed many times. I kept on trying and at last i learnt it.
If we strive, it is no disgrace, explain this sentence.
If we try hard and compete steadily and bravely for a good cause,
it is an honour and not a disgrace.

Q.7:
Ans.
Q.8:
Ans.

Why is the poet repeating the sentence try again?

He is repeating this sentence to give emphasis on the importance


of trying again and again.

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

Lesson No. 4: first aid


Q.1:

Q.6:

You should not keep checking if the bleeding has stopped?


Why?
We should not keep checking the wound if the bleeding has
stopped because this may damage or remove the clot that is
resuming the blood.
Why is it necessary to keep away soap from the wound?
The soap can irritate the wound, so it should be kept away from the
actual wound.
How is an antibiotic cream or ointment good in healing the
wound?
An antibiotic cream or ointment keep the surface moist and helps
bodys natural healing process work fast.
What should you do if you are allergic to adhesive material
used in most bandages?
I should use adhesive free dressing or sterile gauze held in place
with paper tape, gauze roll or a loosely applied elastic bandage.
When do you need to see a doctor?
We need to see the doctor if the wound is not healing or we notice
any redness, increasing pain, drainage, warmth or swelling.
What should your first aid kit consist of?

Ans.

The first aid kit should consist of the following things:

Ans.

Q.2:
Ans.
Q.3:
Ans.
Q.4:
Ans.
Q.5:
Ans.

1) First aid book.

2) Band-aid

3) Elastic Bandages

4) Gauze and Adhesive Tap

5) Antiseptic Wipes

6) Scissors

7) Latex Gloves

8) Analgesic Tablets.

Q.7:
Ans.

What is the importance of knowledge of First Aid in crisis


management?
It is a life saving knowledge so it is much important in this respect.

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

Lesson. No. 5: the rain (Poem)


Q.1:

What does the poet hear?

Ans.

It is raining and the poet hears the leaves drinking the rain drops.

Q.2:

What according to the poet is a sweet noise?


According to the poet, falling of rain on the leaves drop by drop is
sweet noise to hear.
What will happen after the rain stops?
After the rain stops a wonderful light will fill each dark, round
drop.

Ans.
Q.3:
Ans.
Q.4:
Ans.
Q.5:
Ans.
Q.6:
Ans.
Q.7:
Ans.
Q.8:
Ans.

How does the sun come out after the rain?


After the rain stops, the sun comes out of the clouds and fills every
dark place with its light.
How does the light fill the drop?
After the rain stops a wonderful light will fill each dark, round
drop.
What makes the scene lovely?
When the rain stops and the sun will shine brightly and makes the
scene lovely.
What do the rich and the poor leaves stand for?
The rich leaves stand for the rich people and the poor leaves stand
for the poor people.
Do you also like the sun coming out after rain? Why?
When the sun comes out after rain, the atmosphere looks more
beautiful. Thats why I like this natural sight.

Lesson. No. 6: television vs. Newspaper


Q.1:
Ans.

How is a newspaper more convenient medium of news?


We can study newspapers at any time at any place. So, it is a more
convenient medium of news.
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350

A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C


Q.2:
Ans.

Q.3:
Ans.

Q.4:
Ans.
Q.5:
Ans.
Q.6:
Ans.
Q.7:
Ans.
Q.8:
Ans.
Q.9:

How does a viewer get restricted while watching TV news?


Television requires its viewer to be at a certain place and at a
certain time. If a viewer has to leave his place, he gets restricted
watching TV news.
In what way viewing news on TV is easier than reading a
newspaper?
Much mastery of language is not necessary who views the news of
television. Therefore viewing news on TV is easier than reading a
newspaper.
How do newspapers give us more in-depth coverage?
Newspapers give us more in-depth coverage by providing us views
and analysis of experts.
Why do some people read more than one newspaper?
They read more than one newspaper to get different viewpoints
about news and check for its validity.
How can reader give feedback to the newspaper articles?
Reader can give feedback to the article by writing to the forum
pages.
Which medium do you prefer for news? Why?
I give equal importance and preference to newspapers and TV for
their good points.
What is one good thing about newspaper?
The one good thing about newspaper is that we have no restriction
of time and place to read it.

Q.10:

How does television make us lazy?


Television is making us lazy by making it very easy for us to view
news and programmes on T.V..
Have you ever given your views on any article?

Ans.

No, I have never given my views on any article.

Ans.

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C


Q.11:
Ans.

10

Which simile has the author used and why?


The author has used the simile of fast food for television and ten
course dinner for newspaper.

Lesson. No. 7: little by little one walks far!


Q.1:
Ans.
Q.2:
Ans.
Q.3:
Ans.
Q.4:
Ans.
Q.5:

Ans.
Q.6:
Ans.
Q.7:
Ans.
Q.8:
Ans.

What are some distinctions of the writer?


The writer is very wise, intelligent, ambitious and hardworking
person. He thinks and acts differently.
How has the writer spent his summer vacation?
He held different jobs in his summer vacation in order to gain an
understanding of independence and responsibility.
What has he gained from his summer jobs experiences?
This has helped him financially and made him understand the
importance of independence and responsibility.
How are these experiences helpful to him in future?
These experiences made him confident to face the challenges of
future eagerly.
What kind of student is the writer? Which of his qualities
impress you?
The writer is an intelligent, ambitious and hardworking. He thinks
and acts differently. All of his qualities have impressed me very
much.
What kind of person is the author?
He is an ambitious, hardworking and has a creative mind.
What does the author want to imply by mentioning his cocurricular activities?
The author wants to make us aware of the importance of cocurricular activities.
How has the job experiences made the author more mature?
The job experiences have prepared him mentally and financially to
face the challenges of future.
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350

A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C


Q.9:
Ans.

11

What has motivated the author to participate so actively?


These developing positive look has motivated him to participate so
actively.

Lesson. No. 8: peace (Poem)


Q.1:
Ans.
Q.2:
Ans.

How is wind described in the first stanza?


In the first stanza, wind is described in the form of storm that
destroys everything.
With what wind is compared in the first stanza?
It compared with a monster of destruction.

Q.3:

What is wind doing to all mans work?

Ans.

Wind is raking all mans work.

Q.4:
Ans.

How does the scene look like when wind is still?

Q.5:
Ans.
Q.6:
Ans.

When the wind stop there is silence and the bright blue sky.
What comparison is made in the second stanza?
In the second stanza, wind is compared with bright blue skies and
all we hear.
Explain Its center is in truth
It means truth is found in its center. Appearances are deceptive.
Truth lies far away these material things.

Lesson. No. 9: selecting the right career


Q.1:
Ans.
Q.2:
Ans.

What were some famous careers for the young people in the
past?
Becoming a doctor, a pilot or an engineer were famous careers for
the young people in the past.
Nowadays non-traditional careers are more appealing to young
minds? Why?
Non-traditional careers are more rewarding and so they are more
appealing to young minds.
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350

A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C


Q.3:
Ans.
Q.4:
Ans.

Q.5:
Ans.
Q.6:
Ans.

Q.7:
Ans.
Q.8:
Ans.

Q.9:
Ans.
Q.10:
Ans.

12

What is meant by the right profession?


Right profession means rewarding profession that provide
respect, money and mental satisfaction.
Why is it important to consider the scope of any field?
We not only earn money from our career but also get mental peace
and satisfaction. So, it is important to consider the scope of any
field before choosing a career.
Is there any need of proper career counselling department?
Why?
A proper career counselling department is need of every
educational institution. It can play a vital role in career building.
How can career counsellors help the young people?
Career counsellors can help the young people to select suitable
career after determining their personalities and observing and
analysing their interests.
Which career do you want to opt for? Give reasons.
I would like to become a teacher because teaching is the best
profession to serve the people.
In past, why did people want to become a doctor, an engineer
or a pilot?
In past, people wanted to become a doctor, an engineer or a pilot
because they thought that they could get respect and earn money
only adopting these careers.
How do career counsellors help you choose the right
profession?
Keeping in mind market trends, educational systems, the scope of
any particular discipline and our aptitude, career counsellors can
help us choose the right profession.
Which of the professions have interested you the most? Why?
I felt more interest in the field of IT because I have aptitude for this
subject and I can earn honour and money from this field.

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

13

Lesson. No. 10: a world without books?

Q.1:
Ans.

How does a book connect the reader and the writer?


A book reflects the ideas and thought of its writer. So a book as a
bridge connects the reader and writer.

Q.2:
Ans.

In what way books are better than radio, TV and Internet?


We can study books of our own choice at any time and place but
radio, TV and internet do not provide us this luxury of enjoying
them at our own eases.
Its a slow food in a world given over to fast food Explain.
It takes a long time to write a book. It is just preparing as slow
food. A reader studies it, comprehends it and enjoys it at a fast
speed; the author uses these terms to make this difference clear.
Why should people be given more opportunity to read books?
People should be given more opportunity to read books so that they
may get more and more knowledge and awareness to improve
themselves and their society.

Q.3:
Ans.

Q.4:
Ans.

Q.5:
Ans.

Q.6:
Ans.
Q.7:
Ans.

Which book has inspired you the most? Why?


The Holy Quran has inspired me the most because it is a perfect
book and it gives perfect guidance to become a perfect man in all
respects.
Can modern technology take the place of books?
Modern technology has not taken the place of the books as yet and
it also does not look happing in future.
What role does a library play to promote the habit of book
reading?
A library offers its readers books on different topics. In this way, it
motivates the readers to study books and promotes the habits of
book reading.

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

14

Lesson. No. 11: Great Expectation


Q.1:
Ans.

Who looked after Pip after the death of his parents?

Q.2:
Ans.

Who was Joe? How did he treat Pip?


Joe was his sisters husband. He treated him like a friend and a
father.
Why did Pip give food and drink to the prisoner?
Pip was a kind and gentle person so, he gave food and drink to the
prisoner.

Q.3:
Ans.

Pips sister looked after him after the death of his parents.

Q.4:

What happened to the prisoners?

Ans.

The prisoner was recaptured by soldiers and taken away.

Q.5:
Ans.

Why did the Prisoners support Pip?


When the prisoner was in trouble Pip gave him food and drink and
showed kindness to him. So, the prisoner supported him.

Q.6:

What happened to the prisoners wealth after his death?


By law, all his money belonged to the government. So, government
took hold of his wealth after his death.
Do you know a person who achieved success in life through his
hard work?
Yes, I know such a person. He is my uncle who became a
successful business man through his hard work.
What kind of boy was Pip?

Ans.
Q.7:
Ans.
Q.8:
Ans.

Pip was a lonely and helpless orphan.

Q.9:

What changed Pips life?

Ans.

Good education and good habits changed pips life.

Q.10:

How did Pip become a successful businessman?

Ans.

Pip became a successful business man after hard work.


Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350

A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

15

Lesson. No. 12: Population Growth and world food supplies

Q.1:
Ans.
Q.2:
Ans.

Q.3:
Ans.
Q.4:
Ans.

Q.5:
Ans.
Q.6:
Ans.

Q.7:
Ans.
Q.8:
Ans.

Which areas are most affected by incessant growth in


population?
Developing countries are most affected by incessant growth in
population.
Why are developing countries going to suffer more due to over
population?
The developing countries have not sufficient sources to solve
problems caused by over population. Therefore, they are going to
suffer more due to continuing growth in population.
What is the major cause of food shortage and malnutrition?
The major cause of food shortage and malnutrition if over
population.
How are water resources under great stress?
Water resources are under great stress as over populated cities,
states countries require and withdraw more water from rivers, lakes
and aquifers every year.
What is the effect of depletion of fossil energy?
As an effect of depletion of fossil energy, cost of fuel increases
everywhere.
What is the limitation of improved technology?
The improved technology cannot produce an unlimited flow of the
natural resources that are the raw material for sustained agricultural
production.
How can sufficient food supply be made possible for the future
generation?
We can make the sufficient food supply possible for the future
generation by curtailing human population simultaneously.
What strategies should be adopted for safe future?
For safe future, we should implement strategies effectively to
conserve and mange natural resources and control our population.
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350

A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C


Q.9:
Ans.
Q.10:
Ans.

16

Do you also face shortage of water in your locality? Why?


Due to over population, we are also facing shortage of water in our
locality.
How is fossil energy a finite source?
Massive amount of fossil energy is being used by developing
countries .according to this use, it looks a finite source.

Lesson. No. 13: Faithlessness


Q.1:
Ans.
Q.2:
Ans.
Q.3:
Ans.

Q.4:
Ans.
Q.5:
Ans.
Q.6:
Ans.

What case did the young man bring to Hazrat Umar Farooq
(

?)
The young men brought to Hazrat Umar Farooq the case of the
murder of their father.
Why did the old man hurl a stone at the camel?
The old man hurled a stone at the camel because it nipped a few
leaves off the hanging of his tree.
Why did the villager ask Hazrat Umar Farooq (

)to
delay the execution?

to delay
The villager asked Hazrat Umar Farooq
the execution because he wanted to hand over his brothers share of
gold to a trustee.
On what condition was the criminal allowed to leave?
The criminal was allowed to leave after presenting Hazrat Abuzar

)as a surety.
Ghaffari (
Why was Sahabas

worried?
Sahbas became worried about the fate of Hazrat Abuzar Ghaffari
(

)because the murderer did not seem to reach at the


fixed time.
Why did the accusers forgive the villager?
They were greatly impressed by the noble example set by Hazrat
Abuzar Ghaffari (

)and that villager. They took


mercy and forgive the villager.
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350

A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

17

NAJM-UL-HUDA SCHOOL SYSTEM (Habib


0345-4521350
049-4500350

Abad)

Direct & Indirect


Person

Subjective

Possessive

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Exercise No. 1
1.

She says, We have shifted to another house.


She says that they have shifted to another house.
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

18

2.

The teacher will say, You have done your work very well.
The teacher will say that I have done my work very well.
3. He says, She has written me a very encouraging letter.
He says that she has written him a very encouraging letter.
4. She says, We love and respect our neighbours very much.
She says that they love and respect their neighbours very
much.
5. She has said, She is ready to accompany us to Karachi.
She has said that she is ready to accompany them to Karachi.
6. He says, I have not heard the latest news about her.
He says that he has not heard the latest news about her.
7. The doctor says, The patient is still in a state of coma.
The doctor says that the patient is still in a state of coma.
8. The teacher says, She has always been a good student.
The teacher says that she has always been a good student.
9. She will say, He did not come up to my expectation.
She will say that he did not come up to her expectation.
10. She says, I hope I am not late.
She says that she hopes she is not late.
11. You will say, I am cranky.
You will say that you are cranky.

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Had been
Had + 3rd form of Verb

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C


-./d*+0TUEVe

19

a=XEY[ WE4bc/,+ _`Model Helping Verb ,+


H<=J

WE4f+4g=c/,+h L I0

Can
May
Will/Shall

Could
Might
Would

This
Today
Yesterday
Tomorrow
Tonight

H I0TUEV i j+k 26c/:+


That
That day
The previous day
The next day
That night

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Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U)


0345-4521350
(Principal)
NAJM-UL-HUDA SCHOOL SYSTEM (Habib Abad)

Exercise No: 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

She said, I like clouds in the sky.


She said that she liked clouds in the sky.
He said, I am unwell
He said that he was unwell.
He said to her, I live in this building.
He told her that he lived in that building.
They said, Our teacher is on leave.
They said that their teacher was on leave.
Arif and Ayesha said to their mother, We like mangoes.
Arif and Ayesha told their mother that they liked mangoes.
She said, I am helping my mother in the kitchen.
She said that she was helping her mother in the kitchen.
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C


7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

15.
16.
17.
18.

19.

20

He said, I am watering the plants in the garden.


He said that he was watering the plants in the garden.
Afshan said, I am sewing mothers shirt.
Afshan said that she was sewing mothers shirt.
He said, They are not doing their duty well.
He said that they were not doing their duty well.
He said to me, You are not running very fast.
He told me that I was not running very fast.
They said, We have done our duty.
They said that they had done their duty.
The teacher said to us, You have not completed your
drawing.
The teacher told us that we had not completed our drawing.
She said, They have not eaten their meals.
She said that they had not eaten their meals.
The teacher said, I have often told you not to play with
fire.
The teacher said that he had often told us not to play with
fire.
My brother said to me, you have missed the point
completely.
My brother told me that I had missed the point completely.
He said, I completed my drawing half an hour ago.
He said that he had completed his drawing half an hour ago.
She said, I did not go to school yesterday.
She said that she had not gone to school the previous day.
He said, She sang a beautiful ghazal at the concert last
night.
He said that she had sung a beautiful ghazal at the concert
last night.
She said, He rang me up at twelve midnight.
She said that he had rung her up at twelve midnight.
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350

A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

21

20. He said, The boys did not put up a good show last night.
He said that the boys had not put up a good show last night.

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Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U)


0345-4521350
(Principal)
NAJM-UL-HUDA SCHOOL SYSTEM (Habib Abad)

21. She said, I shall never do such a thing.


She said that she would never do such a thing.
22. Afshan said, They will wait for us for one hour only.
Afshan said that they would wait for them for one hour only.
They said, We shall never make a promise we cannot
23.
fulfill.
They said that they would never make a promise they could
not fulfill.
He said, I shall explain this to you only if you listen to me
24.
with patience.
He said that he would explain that to me only if I listen to
him with patience.
25. He said, I hope you will not repeat this mistake.
He said that he hoped I would not repeat that mistake.
26. She said to me, You are a lazy boy.
She told me that I was a lazy boy.

gIq4r Wh 2345E4+n+op5^f+4Helping Verb j+ _lI/


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i ZE^yO dz asked

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Exercise No. 3
1.
2.

She said, Is this your book?


She asked if that was my book.
He said, Do you have any share in this firm?
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

22

He asked if I had any share in that firm.


3. They said, Have you ever visited Murree Hills?
They asked if I had ever visited Murree Hills.
4. He said, Arent you ashamed of yourself?
He asked I was not ashamed of myself.
5. The teacher said, Did you do your home task yesterday?
The teacher asked if I had done my home task the previous
day.
6. The mother said, Didnt I ask you not to go there?
The mother asked if she had not asked me not to go there.
7. Rehana said, Will you stop interfering in my work?
Rehana asked if I would stop interfering in her work.
8. The mother said, Shall we invite the Qureshis also?
The mother asked if they would invite the Qureshis also.
Adnan said, Had you left Karachi before writing this
9.
letter?
Adnan asked if I had left Karachi before writing that letter.
10. The judge said, Have you anything more to say?
The judge asked if I had anything more to say.

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g%f+4wh

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U)


0345-4521350
(Principal)
NAJM-UL-HUDA SCHOOL SYSTEM (Habib Abad)

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i ZE^yO dz asked

Z345

said _

11. He said, What do you want me to do?


He asked what I wanted him to do.
12. The mother said, How did you fail in your examination?
The mother asked how I had failed in my examination.
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

23

13. Raza said, Where are you going?


Raza asked where I was going.
14. The teacher said, Whose is this book?
The teacher asked whose that book was.
15. The teacher said, Who is the author of this book?
The teacher asked who the author of that book was.
16. The stranger said, Which is the way to zoo?
The stranger asked which the way was to zoo.
The manager said, How do you propose to solve this
17.
problem?
The manager asked how I proposed to solve that problem.
18. The boy said to her, What do you want me to do?
The boy asked her what she wanted him to do.
19. The pupil said, Where have I eased?
The pupil asked where I had eased.
20. The teacher said, Who is the next on list?
The teacher asked who the next was on list.

Imperative Sentences
E4++E5

It

said ;It 7+
$%to

1.
2.

E4+

$ 0

,+ _lIq4r XEY[ WE4bm+6 Imperative


$ 0

requested

advised

said ;It +E57+

said ;It 7+

$ 0

ordered

Exercise No. 4
She said to her sister, Please say something.
She requested her sister to say something.
She said to her friend, Please have dinner with me
tomorrow at eight.
She requested her friend to have dinner with her the next day
at eight.
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C


3.
4.

5.

6.

7.
8.

24

The judge said, Call the next witness.


The judge ordered to call the next witness.
Farhan said to his uncle, Please help me in getting some
job.
Farhan requested his uncle to help him in getting some job.
The doctor said to the patient, Take complete rest and
follow my direction.
The doctor advised the patient to take complete rest and
follow his direction.
The teacher said to the pupil, Read the paragraph and
explain it in simple English.
The teacher ordered the pupil to read the paragraph and
explain it in simple English.
The mother said to her daughter, Please tidy up your
room.
The mother advised her daughter to tidy up her room.
She said to me, Do not waste time in idle talk.
_l 0

not to

Do not

She advised me not to waste time in idle talk.


9. The teacher said, Do not make a noise.
The teacher ordered not to make a noise.
The father said to his son, Do not leave this room without
10.
my permission.
The father advised his son not to leave that room without his
permission.
The father said to his son, Get up early in the morning and
11.
go for a walk.
The father advised his son to get up early in the morning and
go for a walk.
12. Afshan said, Let us go for a picnic on Friday.
$ 0

we should Let us

Afshan suggested that they should go for a picnic on Friday.


13. Roshana said, Let us finish our work first.
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

25

Roshana suggested that they should finish their work first.


She said to them, Let us not deceive ourselves.
She advised them that they should not deceive themselves.
He said to his friend, Please lend me your bike for a day.
He requested his friend to lend him his bike for a day.
He said to her, Please fetch me a glass of water.
He requested her to fetch him a glass of water.
The master said to the servant, Go and fetch me a glass of
milk.
The master ordered the servant to go and fetch him a glass of
milk.

14.
15.
16.
17.

18. He said to me, Please give me one rupee.


He requested me to give him one rupee.

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26

$ J0

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U)


0345-4521350
(Principal)
NAJM-UL-HUDA SCHOOL SYSTEM (Habib Abad)

XEY[ WE4+4ch $ 0
<G 0

might

may

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prayed

said

{5 p5^

Exercise No. 5
1.

She said to her father, May you live long.


She prayed for her father that he might live long.

2.
3.

4.

She said, May you prosper.


She prayed that I might prosper.
The mother said to her daughter, May God blesses you with
a son.
The mother prayed for her daughter that God might bless her
with a son.
were alive. She said, Would that my father
$ 0

9!

9"

26f+4+

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C


5.

26

She wished that her father had been alive.


The mother said to her son, May you return successful.
The mother prayed for her son that he might return
successful.

Exclamation Sentences
lIm+6f+4 +m+6f+45m+6f+4 ,+ lI/
exclaimed with joy said
f+4 +

$ 0

m+6f+4 _l 0

exclaimed with sorrow

m+6W+ i E4+

m+6Exclamation

$ 0

said

said
m+6f+45

exclaimed with wonder

:+ _

$ 0
said

m+6

H I :+p4_
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

She said, What a beautiful piece of art it is.


She exclaimed with wonder that it was a beautiful piece of
art.
He said, How well she sings.
He exclaimed with wonder that she sang well.
He said, Alas! We cannot defeat our enemies.
He exclaimed with sorrow that they could not defeat their
enemies.
She said, What a pity you missed that function.
She exclaimed with sorrow that I had missed that function.
He said, Hurrah! I have won the medal.
He exclaimed with joy that he had won the medal.

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

27

NAJM-UL-HUDA SCHOOL SYSTEM

(Habib Abad)

0345-4521350

049-4500350

Pairs of words (10th)


No
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Pair of
Words
Affect
Effect
Advise
Advice
Altar
Alter
Angles
Angels
Bail
Bale
Bear
Bare
Berth
Birth
Beside
Besides

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Break
Brake
Cool
Cold
Cloth
Clothe
Cell
Sell
Device
Devise

Meanin
g

Sentences

The disease affected his health.


My advice has no effect on him.
My father advised me to work hard.
Ali did not act upon my advice.
They brought the animal to the altar.
You should not alter your plan.
A triangle has three angles.
Hazrat Jabriel (A.S) is from famous angels.
The court released him on bail.
He sold fifty bales of cotton.

I saw a bear in the zoo.


He came in the Masjid bare-headed.
"
He reserved a berth in the train.
$ % What is your date of birth?
"
The child is sitting beside his
mother.
'&
Besides, Urdu, I can speak English
as well.

He did not break the glass.


( )) My bike has no brakes.

It is blowing a cool breeze.
- It is too cold to go out.
% /"
My father deals in cloth.
% 0 /"
I wear new clothes on the Eid day.

The criminal was kept in the cell.
You sell school books.
1
Computer is an electronic device.
3
I have devised rules for myself.
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350

A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C


14. Diary
Dairy
15. Dew
Due
16. Die
Dye
17. Dose
Doze
18. Elder
Older
19. Eligible
Illegible
20. Accept
Except
21. Feet
Feat
22. Floor
Flour
23. Fare
Fair
24. Foul
Fowl
25. Gait
Gate
26. Heal
Heel
27. Idol
Idle
28. Ice
Snow
29. Lose
Loose

" 5 6

7
9

'
0
6% 5
3" 5

28

I write my diary daily.


We get milk from the dairy farm.
Dew drops are lying on the grass.
He did not come to school due to
illness.
She died of cancer.
Please dye my shirt.
Ali took a dose of medicine.(6 6$)
He was dozing in the class.
My elder brother is a lawyer.
Each day we grow older.
He is eligible driver.
Your handwriting is illegible.

He accepted my gift.
$ "All except Ahmad were present in
the party.
%
His feet are bare.
The juggler performed many feats.

I live on the ground floor.


My uncle has a flour mill.

The bus fares have increased.


/
I like village fair.
&9

Good players do not play foul.


% We keep fowls.

Her gait is very graceful.


This is the main gate of college.
0 )
This wound will heal soon.
His heel was injured.

Muslims dont worship idol.


3
An idle student never succeeds.
(9")
She slipped on the ice and fell.
6 It is snowing heavily outside.

He lost his purse yesterday.


& He wore a loose shirt.
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350

A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C


30. Lessen
Lesson
31. Letter
Latter
32. Liar
Lawyer
33. Medal
Meddle
34. Meat
Meet
35. Metal
Mettle
36. Marry
Merry
37. Miner
Minor
38. Prophet
Profit
39. Principal
Principle
40. Peace
Piece
41. Pour
Pore
42. Pray
Prey
43. Quite
Quiet
44. Rain
Rein
45. Role
Roll


"
9
1 9

5

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/9

/

5

9

61 A
@ %
B
%" %

3
/
"
'
3
31
&

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29

We should try to lessen the pains of others.


I have learnt a good lesson from this story.

I wrote a letter.
He spent his latter life in Lahore.
He is a liar.
You are a lawyer.
He has won the gold medal.
Dont meddle with my affairs.
We eat meat.
He meets me daily.
Gold is an expensive metal.
He showed his mettle.
She was married last year.
They are making merry today.
He is a coal miner.
This problem is minor one.
Hazrat Muhammad ( )is the last
prophet of Allah.
This business will give you a lot of
profit.
The principal accepted my request.
He is a man of principles.
Let us pray for the world peace.
Give me a piece of advice.
He poured tea into the cup.
There are many pores in our body.
Please pray for my success.
The tiger is looking for his prey.
He is quite happy in this new house.
Please keep quiet for some time.
It is raining now.
Hold the rein of the horse.
A teacher plays an important role in
the society.
He is rolling the paper.

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

30

5
46. Root
"
Route
6 D
47. Story

Storey
&
6
48. Sail
9
Sale

49. Stationery
"
Stationary

50. Soul
&
5
Sole

51. Scene
3
Seen

52. Team
%
Teem
D
53. Urban
"$
Urbane
"
54. Vain

Vein
55. Vale
Veil
56. Vine
Wine
57. Waist
Waste
58. Write
Right
59. Way
Weigh
60. Weak
Week

The roots of this tree are very deep.


This is the shortest route to Multan.
This is an interesting story.
We live in a single-story house.
He sailed the boat in the river Ravi.
This house is for sale.
"
I have bought stationery for my
office.
" The sun is stationary.
May her soul rest in peace.
There is a hole in the sole of my shoe.
It is a very beautiful scene.
Had you seen her before marriage?
He is the best player of our team.
This lake teems with fish.
Urban life is very busy life.
He has urbane manners.
He tried hard to pass the exam but all
in vain.
Veins carry blood from body to heart.

Kashmir is a beautiful vale.


H She wears a veil.
6
The big vine is full of grapes.
Wine is the mother of all evils.

His waist is 32 inches.


B$
You waste much time.
31
He wrote a letter.
I
This is a right way.
"
This is the shortest way to our school.
This bale weigh about 20 K.G.

He is very weak in English.


J0 I shall visit you next week.

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

31

Try Again by William Edward Hickson


This poem has been written by William Edward Hickson. He teaches us
a golden principle of success and conveys us a universal message of
continuous struggle. He says that we should keep on trying again and
again till success. He says that we may fail once or twice. If we persist
and keep on trying, we would be successful. If we act upon this
principle, we would become hardworking, brave, courageous,
successful and respectable. He says if we find our task hard, we should
not give up our struggle. The road to success is dotted with many
tempting parking places. So we should keep up trying again and again
to cross this road and get brilliant success.

The Rain by W. H. Davies


This beautiful poem has been written by W. H. Davies. In this short
poem the poet describes a reality of life through the example of rain. He
says that he hears the leaves drinking rain. The upper leaves after
quenching their thirst pass on the drops to the lower leaves. Through
this poem he describes the social discriminations in the society. It
means that the rich people get the golden chance first and whatever
remains trickle down to the poor. The poet does not look hopeless. The
poet says that the sun will come out after raining and will brighten up
each rain drop. It will be a lovely sight. He expresses his hope for the
good days. The poet means to say that there would be equality in the
society just like the sunshine which spreads all over the world equally.

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

Peace

32

by Dr. Hartmann

This short poem has been written by Dr. Hartmann. In this poem the
poetess describes a reality of life. She presents the example of wind
before us. She says that wind has positive and negative impact. Wind in
the form of storm smashes everything and destroys trees, fields and
buildings. But when the wind is gentle and cool it gives lives to buds,
birds and humans. We have to experience storms to enjoy peace.It
means that we should face hardships of life with courage and patience.
Hardworking and bravely is key to the success. At the end we can say
that poetess explains the reality of life through the example of wind. We
can enjoy life after passing through hardships because life is the name
of continuous struggle.

Correct Use of the Verb


;G=?=/26Every day, Daily, every morning, 7+

(1

LM d+XEY[ WE4-./9(AB ?R 26
He early in the morning.
(get up, got up, is getting up, gets up)

G=

Ralways, often, never, usually, sometimes 267+

(2

LM d+XEY[ WE4-./9(AB ?R;


They always .. to school.
(go to, goes to, went to, is going to)

can/could, may/might, must, do/does, did, to

d?R;G=

26 7+

(3

R will/would, shall/should
LM d+XEY[ WE4/ +

He should .the poor.

(help, helps , helped )

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C


in 2003, ago(in any form), last(in any form), yesterday, this 7+

33

(4

d+XEYZ345 WE4 d?R;G= =/26morning


I.my F.A examination in 2003. LM
(pass, passed, had passed)

;I "9

1j+/267+
<="9

ZE4E

TmOj+

d 12345/26

/:+E4+<Ghas, have, had, will have, shall have

R7+

(5

R:+ HId+XEYZ\ WE4c/:+;Id+WE4c


Id+-+" " Q
He already the latter.
(has posted, posts, posted)

,+_lI<I2 ! " A ' _lI145/m+6


Z\]^/!"
7+

(6

1 /267+ L+d*+ed+/WE4

v+ M d+XEYZ345 WE4 d 12345Id+XEY

;Id+XEYZ\ WE4]^/ !" 9!" !"

1 /26

LM d+XEY[ WE4 12345/,+


He had eaten the bread when I .the there.
(reached, reach, reaches, am reaching)
at this moment, at present, at this time, now,

= / 26 7+

(7

_l + ]^/WE4]^/is, am, are;G=today


She ............... English now. (speak, spoke, is speaking, spoken)

?R;G= Is/am/are, was/were, will be/shall be

R7+

(8

_l + ]^/WE4
Where is he .from?
Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)
0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

34

(come, comes, came, coming)

j+ _lI? 45eE4+ _/
;IXEY[ WE4 f+4 7+

Conditional Sentences

(9

aI 9( "(9 j+E4+ "(9

H<=XEY[ WE4]^/will/shall

2345

If clause (Vi) ----------> will/ shall + Vi


(If he comes to me I shall help him.)

[ WE4]^/'(

2345;IXEYZ345 WE4 f+4 7+


H<=XEY

If clause (2nd form of verb) ----------> would + Vi


(If he came to me I would help him.)

H<='( !"

2345;I!"

f+4 7+

If clause (had + Viii) ----------> would have + Viii


If he had come to me I would have helped him.
in the morning, tomorrow, next (in any form), by April (in any 7+

(10

H<=XEY[ WE4]^/ 9!" ?R;<G= = form)


Shein this office next year.
(works, worked, will work, has been working)

?R;<G=9

'

=/267+ (11

<= has/have bee0n , Had been, will/shall have been + Ving


Shein this office for seven year.
(works, worked, will work, has been working)

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

35

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm-ul-Huda School System

English Notes 10th Class N.C

36

Muhammad Awais (M.A English P.U, M.Ed)


0345-4521350
A Palace of Knowledge

049-4500350
Najm
Najm-ul-Huda
School System