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# Arizonas

## College and Career Ready Standards

Mathematics
Standards Mathematical Practices Explanations and Examples

StateBoardApprovedJune2010
October2013Publication

OperationsandAlgebraicThinking(OA)
Representandsolveproblemsinvolvingmultiplicationanddivision.

Understandpropertiesofmultiplicationandtherelationshipbetween
multiplicationanddivision.

Multiplyanddividewithin100.

Solveproblemsinvolvingthefouroperations,andidentifyandexplain
patternsinarithmetic.

NumberandOperationsinBaseTen(NBT)
Useplacevalueunderstandingandpropertiesofoperationstoperformmulti
digitarithmetic.
NumberandOperationsFractions(NF)
Developunderstandingoffractionsasnumbers.

MathematicalPractices(MP)
1.

Makesenseofproblemsandpersevereinsolvingthem.

2.

Reasonabstractlyandquantitatively.

3.

Constructviableargumentsandcritiquethereasoningofothers.

4.

Modelwithmathematics.

5.

Useappropriatetoolsstrategically.

6.

Attendtoprecision.

7.

Lookforandmakeuseofstructure.

8.

Lookforandexpressregularityinrepeatedreasoning.

MeasurementandData(MD)
Solveproblemsinvolvingmeasurementandestimationofintervalsoftime,
liquidvolumes,andmassesofobjects.

Representandinterpretdata.

Geometricmeasurement:understandconceptsofareaandrelateareato

Geometricmeasurement:recognizeperimeterasanattributeofplanefigures
anddistinguishbetweenlinearandareameasures.

Geometry(G)
Reasonwithshapesandtheirattributes.

## Third Grade: Mathematics Standards Mathematical Practices Explanations and Examples

100;(2)developingunderstandingoffractions,especiallyunitfractions(fractionswithnumerator1);(3)developingunderstandingofthestructureofrectangulararraysandof
area;and(4)describingandanalyzingtwodimensionalshapes.
(1)Studentsdevelopanunderstandingofthemeaningsofmultiplicationanddivisionofwholenumbersthroughactivitiesandproblemsinvolvingequalsizedgroups,arrays,and
areamodels;multiplicationisfindinganunknownproduct,anddivisionisfindinganunknownfactorinthesesituations.Forequalsizedgroupsituations,divisioncanrequire
findingtheunknownnumberofgroupsortheunknowngroupsize.Studentsusepropertiesofoperationstocalculateproductsofwholenumbers,usingincreasingly
sophisticatedstrategiesbasedonthesepropertiestosolvemultiplicationanddivisionproblemsinvolvingsingledigitfactors.Bycomparingavarietyofsolutionstrategies,
studentslearntherelationshipbetweenmultiplicationanddivision.
(2)Studentsdevelopanunderstandingoffractions,beginningwithunitfractions.Studentsviewfractionsingeneralasbeingbuiltoutofunitfractions,andtheyusefractions
alongwithvisualfractionmodelstorepresentpartsofawhole.Studentsunderstandthatthesizeofafractionalpartisrelativetothesizeofthewhole.Forexample,1/2ofthe
paintinasmallbucketcouldbelesspaintthan1/3ofthepaintinalargerbucket,but1/3ofaribbonislongerthan1/5ofthesameribbonbecausewhentheribbonisdivided
into3equalparts,thepartsarelongerthanwhentheribbonisdividedinto5equalparts.Studentsareabletousefractionstorepresentnumbersequalto,lessthan,andgreater
thanone.Theysolveproblemsthatinvolvecomparingfractionsbyusingvisualfractionmodelsandstrategiesbasedonnoticingequalnumeratorsordenominators.
(3)Studentsrecognizeareaasanattributeoftwodimensionalregions.Theymeasuretheareaofashapebyfindingthetotalnumberofsamesizeunitsofarearequiredtocover
theshapewithoutgapsoroverlaps,asquarewithsidesofunitlengthbeingthestandardunitformeasuringarea.Studentsunderstandthatrectangulararrayscanbe
decomposedintoidenticalrowsorintoidenticalcolumns.Bydecomposingrectanglesintorectangulararraysofsquares,studentsconnectareatomultiplication,andjustifyusing
multiplicationtodeterminetheareaofarectangle.
(4)Studentsdescribe,analyze,andcomparepropertiesoftwodimensionalshapes.Theycompareandclassifyshapesbytheirsidesandangles,andconnectthesewith
definitionsofshapes.Studentsalsorelatetheirfractionworktogeometrybyexpressingtheareaofpartofashapeasaunitfractionofthewhole.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA)
Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.OA.A.1.Interpretproductsof
wholenumbers,e.g.,interpret5
7asthetotalnumberof
objectsin5groupsof7objects
each.Forexample,describea
contextinwhichatotalnumber
ofobjectscanbeexpressedas5
7.

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.
3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.
3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.

Connections:3.0A.3;3.SL.1;
ET03S1C401
3.OA.A.2.Interpretwhole
numberquotientsofwhole
numbers,e.g.,interpret568
asthenumberofobjectsin
eachsharewhen56objectsare
partitionedequallyinto8
shares,orasanumberofshares
when56objectsarepartitioned
intoequalsharesof8objects
each.Forexample,describea
contextinwhichanumberof
sharesoranumberofgroups
canbeexpressedas568.

Studentsrecognizemultiplicationasameanstodeterminethetotalnumberofobjectswhenthereare
studentstothinkintermsofgroupsofthingsratherthanindividualthings.Studentslearnthatthe
multiplicationsymbolxmeansgroupsofandproblemssuchas5x7referto5groupsof7.
Tofurtherdevelopthisunderstanding,studentsinterpretaproblemsituationrequiringmultiplication
usingpictures,objects,words,numbers,andequations.Then,givenamultiplicationexpression(e.g.,5
x6)studentsinterprettheexpressionusingamultiplicationcontext.(SeeTable2)Theyshouldbeginto
usetheterms,factorandproduct,astheydescribemultiplication.
Studentsmayuseinteractivewhiteboardstocreatedigitalmodels.

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.
3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.
3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.

Studentsrecognizetheoperationofdivisionintwodifferenttypesofsituations.Onesituationrequires
determininghowmanygroupsandtheothersituationrequiressharing(determininghowmanyineach
group).Studentsshouldbeexposedtoappropriateterminology(quotient,dividend,divisor,and
factor).
Todevelopthisunderstanding,studentsinterpretaproblemsituationrequiringdivisionusingpictures,
theexpressionincontextsthatrequirebothinterpretationsofdivision.(SeeTable2)
Studentsmayuseinteractivewhiteboardstocreatedigitalmodels.

Connections:3.OA.3;3.SL.1;
ET03S1C401

Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA)
Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.OA.A.3.Usemultiplication
anddivisionwithin100tosolve
wordproblemsinsituations
involvingequalgroups,arrays,
andmeasurementquantities,
e.g.,byusingdrawingsand
equationswithasymbolforthe
unknownnumbertorepresent
theproblem.(SeeTable2.)
Connections:3.RI.7;
ET03S1C101

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.
3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.
3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.

Studentsuseavarietyofrepresentationsforcreatingandsolvingonestepwordproblems,i.e.,
numbers,words,pictures,physicalobjects,orequations.Theyusemultiplicationanddivisionofwhole
numbersupto10x10.Studentsexplaintheirthinking,showtheirworkbyusingatleastone
Wordproblemsmayberepresentedinmultipleways:
Equations:3x4=?,4x3=?,124=?and123=?

Array:

Equalgroups

Threeequaljumpsforwardfrom0onthenumberlineto12orthreeequaljumpsbackwards
from12to0

Examplesofdivisionproblems:

Determiningthenumberofobjectsineachshare(partitivedivision,wherethesizeofthe
groupsisunknown):
o

Thebaghas92hairclips,andLauraandherthreefriendswanttosharethemequally.

Continuedonnextpage

Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA)
Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division. continued
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.OA.A.3.continued

Determiningthenumberofshares(measurementdivision,wherethenumberofgroupsis
unknown)
o

Maxthemonkeylovesbananas.Molly,histrainer,has24bananas.IfshegivesMax4
bananaseachday,howmanydayswillthebananaslast?
Starting
24

Day1
244=
20

Day2
204=
16

Day3
164=
12

Day4
124=
8

Day5
84=
4

Day6
44=
0

Solution:Thebananaswilllastfor6days.
Studentsmayuseinteractivewhiteboardstoshowworkandjustifytheirthinking.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA)
Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.OA.A.4.Determinethe
unknownwholenumberina
multiplicationordivision
equationrelatingthreewhole
numbers.Forexample,
determinetheunknownnumber
thatmakestheequationtruein
eachoftheequations8?=48,
5= 3,66=?.

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.
3.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand
quantitatively.
3.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.

Thisstandardisstronglyconnectedto3.AO.3whenstudentssolveproblemsanddetermineunknowns
inequations.Studentsshouldalsoexperiencecreatingstoryproblemsforgivenequations.When
writeanappropriateequation.Studentsmayapproachthesamestoryproblemdifferentlyandwrite
eitheramultiplicationequationordivisionequation.
Studentsapplytheirunderstandingofthemeaningoftheequalsignasthesameastointerpretan
equationwithanunknown.

3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.

Connections:3.AO.3;3.RI.3;
3.SL.1;ET03S1C401

Whengiven4x?=40,theymightthink:
o

Iknowthat4groupsof10is40sotheunknownnumberis10

Themissingfactoris10because4times10equals40.

Equationsintheformofaxb=candc=axbshouldbeusedinterchangeably,withtheunknownin
differentpositions.
Examples:
Solvetheequationsbelow:

24=?x6

72 9

Rachelhas3bags.Thereare4marblesineachbag.HowmanymarblesdoesRachelhave
altogether?3x4=m

Studentsmayuseinteractivewhiteboardstocreatedigitalmodelstoexplainandjustifytheirthinking.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA)
Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division.
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.OA.B.5.Applypropertiesof
operationsasstrategiesto
multiplyanddivide.(Students
neednotuseformaltermsfor
theseproperties.)Examples:If6
4=24isknown,then46=
24isalsoknown.(Commutative
propertyofmultiplication.)35
2canbefoundby35=15,
then152=30,orby52=
10,then310=30.
(Associativepropertyof
multiplication.)Knowingthat8
5=40and82=16,onecan
find87as8(5+2)=(85)
+(82)=40+16=56.
(Distributivepropertyof
multiplication.)
Connections:3.OA.1;3.OA.3;
3.RI4;3.RI.7;3.W.2;
ET03S1C401

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.
3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.
3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.
3.MP.8.Lookforandexpress
regularityinrepeated
reasoning.

Studentsrepresentexpressionsusingvariousobjects,pictures,wordsandsymbolsinordertodevelop
theirunderstandingofproperties.Theymultiplyby1and0anddivideby1.Theychangetheorderof
theymultiplythenumberstodeterminethatchangingtheorderdoesnotchangetheproduct.They
alsodecomposenumberstobuildfluencywithmultiplication.
Modelshelpbuildunderstandingofthecommutativeproperty:
Example:3x6=6x3
Inthefollowingdiagramitmaynotbeobviousthat3groupsof6isthesameas6groupsof3.A
studentmayneedtocounttoverifythis.

isthesamequantityas

Example:4x3=3x4
Anarrayexplicitlydemonstratestheconceptofthecommutativeproperty.

4rowsof3or4x33rowsof4or3x4
usingproductstheyknowtosolveproductstheydontknow.
Example:
thenmultiply5x8and2x8toarriveat40+16or56.Studentsshouldlearnthattheycan
decomposeeitherofthefactors.Itisimportanttonotethatthestudentsmayrecordtheir
thinkingindifferentways.
Continuedonnextpage

Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA)
Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division. continued
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.OA.B.5.continued

5 x 8 = 40
2 x 8 = +16
56

7 x 4 = 28
7 x 4 = + 28
56

Tofurtherdevelopunderstandingofpropertiesrelatedtomultiplicationanddivision,studentsuse
differentrepresentationsandtheirunderstandingoftherelationshipbetweenmultiplicationand
divisiontodetermineifthefollowingtypesofequationsaretrueorfalse.

0x7=7x0=0(ZeroPropertyofMultiplication)

1x9=9x1=9(MultiplicativeIdentityPropertyof1)

3x6=6x3(CommutativeProperty)

82=28(Studentsareonlytodeterminethatthesearenotequal)

2x3x5=6x5

10x2<5x2x2

2x3x5=10x3

0x6>3x0x2

Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA)
Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division.
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.OA.B.6.Understanddivision
asanunknownfactorproblem.
Forexample,find328by
findingthenumberthatmakes
32whenmultipliedby8.
Connections:3.OA.4;3.RI.3

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.

Multiplicationanddivisionareinverseoperationsandthatunderstandingcanbeusedtofindthe
unknown.Factfamilytrianglesdemonstratetheinverseoperationsofmultiplicationanddivisionby
showingthetwofactorsandhowthosefactorsrelatetotheproductand/orquotient.

3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.

Examples:

3x5=155x3=15
153=5155=3

Studentsusetheirunderstandingofthemeaningoftheequalsignasthesameastointerpretan
equationwithanunknown.

Whengiven32
o

=4,studentsmaythink:

Iknowthat4groupsof8is32sotheunknownnumberis8

Themissingfactoris8because4times8is32.

Equationsintheformofab=candc=abneedtobeusedinterchangeably,withtheunknownin
differentpositions.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA)
Multiply and divide within 100.
Standards
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.OA.C.7.Fluentlymultiplyand
dividewithin100,using
strategiessuchasthe
relationshipbetween
multiplicationanddivision(e.g.,
knowingthat85=40,one
knows405=8)orproperties
ofoperations.Bytheendof
productsoftwoonedigit
numbers.
Connections:3.OA.3;3.OA.5

3.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand
quantitatively.
3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.
3.MP.8.Lookforandexpress
regularityinrepeated
reasoning.

ExplanationsandExamples
Bystudyingpatternsandrelationshipsinmultiplicationfactsandrelatingmultiplicationanddivision,
studentsbuildafoundationforfluencywithmultiplicationanddivisionfacts.Studentsdemonstrate
fluencywithmultiplicationfactsthrough10andtherelateddivisionfacts.Multiplyinganddividing
fluentlyreferstoknowledgeofprocedures,knowledgeofwhenandhowtousethemappropriately,
andskillinperformingthemflexibly,accurately,andefficiently.
Strategiesstudentsmayusetoattainfluencyinclude:
Multiplicationbyzerosandones

Doubles(2sfacts),Doublingtwice(4s),Doublingthreetimes(8s)

Tensfacts(relatingtoplacevalue,5x10is5tensor50)

Fivefacts(halfoftens)

Skipcounting(countinggroupsof__andknowinghowmanygroupshavebeencounted)

Squarenumbers(ex:3x3)

Nines(10groupslessonegroup,e.g.,9x3is10groupsof3minusonegroupof3)

Decomposingintoknownfacts(6x7is6x6plusonemoregroupof6)

Turnaroundfacts(CommutativeProperty)

Factfamilies(Ex:6x4=24;246=4;244=6;4x6=24)

Missingfactors

GeneralNote:Studentsshouldhaveexposuretomultiplicationanddivisionproblemspresentedin
bothverticalandhorizontalforms.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA)
Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.OA.D.8.Solvetwostepword
problemsusingthefour
operations.Representthese
problemsusingequationswitha
letterstandingfortheunknown
quantity.Assessthe
usingmentalcomputationand
estimationstrategiesincluding
rounding.(Thisstandardis
limitedtoproblemsposedwith
wholenumbersandhaving
studentsshouldknowhowto
performoperationsinthe
conventionalorderwhenthere
arenoparenthesestospecifya
particularorder(Orderof
Operations).
Connections:3.OA.4;3.OA.5;
3.OA.6;3.OA.7;3.RI.7

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.
3.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand
quantitatively.

Studentsshouldbeexposedtomultipleproblemsolvingstrategies(usinganycombinationofwords,
numbers,diagrams,physicalobjectsorsymbols)andbeabletochoosewhichonestouse.
Examples:
Jerryearned231pointsatschoollastweek.Thisweekheearned79points.Ifheuses60
pointstoearnfreetimeonacomputer,howmanypointswillhehaveleft?

3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.
3.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
strategically.

Astudentmayusethenumberlineabovetodescribehis/herthinking,
280,290,300,310(70more).NowIneedtocountback60.310,300(back10),290(back
20),280,270,260,250(back60).
o Astudentwritestheequation,231+7960=mandusesrounding
o (230+8060)toestimate.
o Astudentwritestheequation,231+7960=mandcalculates7960=19andthen
calculates231+19=m.
Thesoccerclubisgoingonatriptothewaterpark.Thecostofattendingthetripis\$63.
Includedinthatpriceis\$13forlunchandthecostof2wristbands,oneforthemorningand
onefortheafternoon.Writeanequationrepresentingthecostofthefieldtripanddetermine
thepriceofonewristband.
o
o

Theabovediagramhelpsthestudentwritetheequation,w+w+13=63.Usingthediagram,
astudentmightthink,Iknowthatthetwowristbandscost\$50(\$63\$13)soonewristband
costs\$25.Tocheckforreasonableness,astudentmightusefrontendestimationandsay60
10=50and502=25.
Continuedonnextpage

Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA)
Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic. continued
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.OA.D.8.continued

Whenstudentssolvewordproblems,theyusevariousestimationskillswhichincludeidentifyingwhen
estimationisappropriate,determiningthelevelofaccuracyneeded,selectingtheappropriatemethod
ofestimation,andverifyingsolutionsordeterminingthereasonablenessofsolutions.

Estimationstrategiesinclude,butarenotlimitedto:
o usingbenchmarknumbersthatareeasytocompute
o

amounts)

dependingonhowmuchtheroundingchangedtheoriginalvalues)

Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA)
Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic.
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.OA.D.9.Identifyarithmetic
patterns(includingpatternsin
multiplicationtable),and
explainthemusingpropertiesof
operations.Forexample,
observethat4timesanumberis
alwayseven,andexplainwhy4
timesanumbercanbe
decomposedintotwoequal
Connections:3.SL.1;
ET03S1.C3.01

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.
3.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand
quantitatively.
3.MP.3.Constructviable
argumentsandcritiquethe
reasoningofothers.
3.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.

Studentsneedampleopportunitiestoobserveandidentifyimportantnumericalpatternsrelatedto
whythesepatternsmakesensemathematically.
Examples:
Anysumoftwoevennumbersiseven.

Anysumoftwooddnumbersiseven.

Anysumofanevennumberandanoddnumberisodd.

Themultiplesof4,6,8,and10areallevenbecausetheycanallbedecomposedintotwo
equalgroups.

(multiplesof2)inamultiplicationtablefallonhorizontalandverticallines.

Themultiplesofanynumberfallonahorizontalandaverticallineduetothecommutative
property.

Allthemultiplesof5endina0or5whileallthemultiplesof10endwith0.Everyother
multipleof5isamultipleof10.

andorganizeallthedifferentpossiblesumsofanumberandexplainwhythepatternmakessense.

Number and Operations in Base Ten (NBT)
Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multidigit arithmetic. (A range of algorithms may be used)
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.NBT.A.1.Useplacevalue
understandingtoroundwhole
numberstothenearest10or
100.
Connections:3.OA.5;3.SL.1;
ET03S1C4.01

3.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
strategically.
3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.
3.MP.8.Lookforandexpress
regularityinrepeated
reasoning.

Theyalsounderstandthatbyconventionifanumberisexactlyatthehalfwaypointofthetwopossible
Example:

Round178tothenearest10.
Step 1: The answer is either 170 or 180.
Step 2: The halfway point is 175.
Step 3: 178 is between 175 and 180.
Step 4: Therefore, the rounded number
is 180.

Number and Operations in Base Ten (NBT)
Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multidigit arithmetic. (A range of algorithms may be used)
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
subtractwithin1000using
strategiesandalgorithmsbased
onplacevalue,propertiesof
operations,and/orthe
andsubtraction.
Connection:ET03S1C101

3.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand
quantitatively.
3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.
3.MP.8.Lookforandexpress
regularityinrepeated
reasoning.

Problemsshouldincludebothverticalandhorizontalforms,includingopportunitiesforstudentsto
ofprocedures,knowledgeofwhenandhowtousethemappropriately,andskillinperformingthem
flexibly,accurately,andefficiently.Studentsexplaintheirthinkingandshowtheirworkbyusing
documentcameramaybeusedtoshowandsharestudentthinking.
Example:
Examplesofothermethodsstudentsmayusearelistedbelow:
o 399+1=400,400+100=500,500+73=573,therefore1+100+73=174pages
o

400+100is500;500+73is573;100+73is173plus1(for399,to400)is174
(Compensatingstrategy)

Takeaway73from573togetto500,takeaway100togetto400,andtakeaway1toget
to399.Then73+100+1=174(Subtractingtocountdownstrategy)

399+1is400,500(thats100more).510,520,530,540,550,560,570,(thats70more),
hundredsstrategy)

Number and Operations in Base Ten (NBT)
Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multidigit arithmetic. (A range of algorithms may be used)
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.NBT.A.3.Multiplyonedigit
wholenumbersbymultiplesof
10intherange1090(e.g.,9
80,560)usingstrategies
basedonplacevalueand
propertiesofoperations.
Connections:3.NBT.1;3NBT.5
(commutativeproperty);3.SL.1;
ET03S1C101

3.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand
quantitatively.
3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.
3.MP.8.Lookforandexpress
regularityinrepeated
reasoning.

Studentsusebasetenblocks,diagrams,orhundredschartstomultiplyonedigitnumbersbymultiples
of10from1090.Theyapplytheirunderstandingofmultiplicationandthemeaningofthemultiplesof
10.
Example:
30is3tensand70is7tens.Theycaninterpret2x40as2groupsof4tensor8groupsoften.
Theyunderstandthat5x60is5groupsof6tensor30tensandknowthat30tensis300.
Afterdevelopingthisunderstandingtheybegintorecognizethepatternsinmultiplyingby
multiplesof10.
Studentsmayusemanipulatives,drawings,documentcamera,orinteractivewhiteboardto
demonstratetheirunderstanding.

Number and OperationsFractions (NF) (Grade 3 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8)
Develop understanding of fractions as numbers.
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.NF.A.1.Understandafraction
1/basthequantityformedby1
partwhenawholeispartitioned
intobequalparts;understanda
fractiona/basthequantity
formedbyapartsofsize1/b.
Connections:ET03S1C202;
ET03S1C402

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.

Someimportantconceptsrelatedtodevelopingunderstandingoffractionsinclude:
Understandfractionalpartsmustbeequalsized
Example:Nonexample:

3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics
3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.

Thesearethirds.TheseareNOTthirds.

Thenumberofequalpartstellhowmanymakeawhole
Asthenumberofequalpiecesinthewholeincreases,thesizeofthefractionalpieces
decreases

Thesizeofthefractionalpartisrelativetothewhole
o Thenumberofchildreninonehalfofaclassroomisdifferentthanthenumberofchildren
inonehalfofaschool.(thewholeineachsetisdifferentthereforethehalfineachset
willbedifferent)

Whenawholeiscutintoequalparts,thedenominatorrepresentsthenumberofequalparts

Thenumeratorofafractionisthecountofthenumberofequalparts
o meansthatthereare3onefourths
o

Studentscancountonefourth,twofourths,threefourths

Studentsexpressfractionsasfairsharing,partsofawhole,andpartsofaset.Theyusevarious
contexts(candybars,fruit,andcakes)andavarietyofmodels(circles,squares,rectangles,fraction
bars,andnumberlines)todevelopunderstandingoffractionsandrepresentfractions.Studentsneed
manyopportunitiestosolvewordproblemsthatrequirefairsharing.
Continuedonnextpage

Number and OperationsFractions (NF) (Grade 3 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8)
Develop understanding of fractions as numbers. continued
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.NF.A.1.continued

Todevelopunderstandingoffairshares,studentsfirstparticipateinsituations wherethenumberof
objectsisgreaterthanthenumberofchildrenandthenprogressintosituationswherethenumberof
objectsislessthanthenumberofchildren.
Examples:

Solution:

2
1
or

4
2

Whatfractionofthesetisblack?

Solution:

2
6

Solution:

Number and OperationsFractions (NF) (Grade 3 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8)
Develop understanding of fractions as numbers.
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.NF.A.2.Understandafraction
asanumberonthenumber
line;representfractionsona
numberlinediagram.
a. Representafraction1/bon
anumberlinediagramby
definingtheintervalfrom0
to1asthewholeand
partitioningitintobequal
parts.Recognizethateach
parthassize1/bandthat
theendpointofthepart
basedat0locatesthe
number1/bonthenumber
line.
b. Representafractiona/bon
anumberlinediagramby
markingoffalengths1/b
from0.Recognizethatthe
resultingintervalhassize
a/bandthatitsendpoint
locatesthenumbera/bon
thenumberline.

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.

Studentstransfertheirunderstandingofpartsofawholetopartitionanumberlineintoequalparts.
1.

3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics

Onanumberlinefrom0to1,studentscanpartition(divide)itintoequalpartsandrecognize
thateachsegmentedpartrepresentsthesamelength.

3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.

2.

Studentslabeleachfractionalpartbasedonhowfaritisfromzerototheendpoint.

Aninteractivewhiteboardmaybeusedtohelpstudentsdeveloptheseconcepts.

Connections:3.RI.7;3.SL.1;
ET03S1C401

Number and OperationsFractions (NF) (Grade 3 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8)
Develop understanding of fractions as numbers.
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.NF.A.3.Explainequivalenceof
fractionsinspecialcases,and
comparefractionsbyreasoning

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.
3.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand
quantitatively.

a. Understandtwofractionsas
equivalent(equal)iftheyare
3.MP.3.Constructviable
thesamesize,orthesame
argumentsandcritiquethe
pointonanumberline.
reasoningofothers.
b. Recognizeandgenerate
3.MP.4.Modelwith
simpleequivalentfractions,
mathematics.
e.g.,1/2=2/4,4/6=2/3).
Explainwhythefractionsare 3.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
equivalent,e.g.,byusinga
3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
visualfractionmodel.
ofstructure.
c. Expresswholenumbersas
3.MP.8.Lookforandexpress
fractions,andrecognize
regularityinrepeated
fractionsthatareequivalent
reasoning.
towholenumbers.
Examples:Express3inthe
form3=3/1;recognizethat
6/1=6;locate4/4and1at
thesamepointofanumber
linediagram.

Animportantconceptwhencomparingfractionsistolookatthesizeofthepartsandthenumberof
theparts.

1
1
8
Forexample, issmallerthan 2 becausewhen1wholeiscutinto8pieces,thepiecesare

muchsmallerthanwhen1wholeiscutinto2pieces.
Studentsrecognizewhenexaminingfractionswithcommondenominators,thewholeshavebeen
numberofequalparts.
2
6

< 6

3
8

< 4

Continuedonnextpage

Number and OperationsFractions (NF) (Grade 3 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8)
Develop understanding of fractions as numbers. continued
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.NF.A.3.continued

d. Comparetwofractionswith
samedenominatorby
Recognizethatcomparisons
arevalidonlywhenthetwo
fractionsrefertothesame
whole.Recordtheresultsof
comparisonswiththe
symbols>,=,or<,andjustify
theconclusions,e.g.,by
usingavisualfraction
model.
Connections:3.NF.1;3NF.2;
3.RI.3;3.SL.1;3.SL.3;
ET03S1C401

Measurement and Data (MD)
Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects.
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.MD.A.1.Tellandwritetimeto
thenearestminuteand
measuretimeintervalsin
minutes.Solvewordproblems
subtractionoftimeintervalsin
minutes,e.g.,byrepresenting
theproblemonanumberline
diagram.

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.

tellingtimeandmeasureelapsedtimebothinandoutofcontextusingclocksandnumberlines.
Studentsmayuseaninteractivewhiteboardtodemonstrateunderstandingandjustifytheirthinking.

3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.
3.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.

Connections:3.RI.3;3.RI.7;
ET03S1C401

Measurement and Data (MD)
Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects.
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.MD.A.2.Measureand
estimateliquidvolumesand
massesofobjectsusing
standardunitsofgrams(g),
kilograms(kg),andliters(l).
(Excludescompoundunitssuch
ascm3andfindingthe
geometricvolumeofa
multiply,ordividetosolveone
stepwordproblemsinvolving
massesorvolumesthatare
giveninthesameunits,e.g.,by
usingdrawings(suchasa
beakerwithameasurement
scale)torepresenttheproblem.
Excludesmultiplicative
comparisonproblems(problems
involvingnotionsoftimesas
much;seeTable2).

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.

Studentsneedmultipleopportunitiesweighingclassroomobjectsandfillingcontainerstohelpthem
developabasicunderstandingofthesizeandweightofaliter,agram,andakilogram.Millilitersmay
alsobeusedtoshowamountsthatarelessthanaliter.

3.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand
quantitatively,

Example:
andpictures.(Studentscanrepeatthisfor5gramsand10grams.)Thisactivityhelpsdevelop

3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.
3.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
strategically.
3.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.

Connections:SC03S1C204;
3.RI.3;3.RI.4;3.SL.3

Measurement and Data (MD)
Represent and interpret data.
Standards
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.MD.B.3.Drawascaledpicture
graphandascaledbargraphto
severalcategories.Solveone
andtwostephowmanymore
andhowmanylessproblems
usinginformationpresentedin
scaledbargraphs.Forexample,
drawabargraphinwhicheach
squareinthebargraphmight
represent5pets.

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.
3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.

ExplanationsandExamples
experiencedifferentintervalstofurtherdeveloptheirunderstandingofscalegraphsandnumberfacts.

3.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.

Pictographs:Scaledpictographsincludesymbolsthatrepresentmultipleunits.Belowisan
exampleofapictographwithsymbolsthatrepresentmultipleunits.Graphsshouldincludea
title,categories,categorylabel,key,anddata.

3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofpattern.

Connections:3.OA.1;3.SL.2;
ET03S1C301

SingleBarGraphs:Studentsusebothhorizontalandverticalbargraphs.Bargraphsincludea
title,scale,scalelabel,categories,categorylabel,anddata.

Measurement and Data (MD)
Represent and interpret data.
Standards
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.MD.B.4.Generate
measurementdataby
measuringlengthsusingrulers
markedwithhalvesandfourths
ofaninch.Showthedataby
makingalineplot,wherethe
horizontalscaleismarkedoffin
appropriateunitswhole
numbers,halves,orquarters.
Connections:3.NF.2;3.SL.2;
ET03S1C401

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.
3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.
3.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.

ExplanationsandExamples
lengthofvariousobjectsintheirenvironment.
Someimportantideasrelatedtomeasuringwitharulerare:
Thestartingpointofwhereoneplacesarulertobeginmeasuring

Measuringisapproximate.Itemsthatstudentsmeasurewillnotalwaysmeasureexactly,
oronewholeinch.Studentswillneedtodecideonanappropriateestimatelength.

Makingpaperrulersandfoldingtofindthehalfandquartermarkswillhelpstudentsdevelop
astrongerunderstandingofmeasuringlength

Studentsgeneratedatabymeasuringandcreatealineplottodisplaytheirfindings.Anexampleofa
lineplotisshownbelow:

Measurement and Data (MD)
Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition.
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.MD.C.5.Recognizeareaasan
attributeofplanefiguresand
understandconceptsofarea
measurement.
a. Asquarewithsidelength1
unit,calledaunitsquare,
issaidtohaveonesquare
unitofarea,andcanbe
usedtomeasurearea.

3.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand
quantitatively.
3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.
3.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
strategically.

Studentsdevelopunderstandingofusingsquareunitstomeasureareaby:

Usingdifferentsizedsquareunits

Fillinginanareawiththesamesizedsquareunitsandcountingthenumberofsquareunits

Aninteractivewhiteboardwouldallowstudentstoseethatsquareunitscanbeusedtocover
aplanefigure.

3.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.

b. Aplanefigurewhichcanbe
coveredwithoutgapsor
overlapsbynunitsquaresis
saidtohaveanareaofn
squareunits.

Connections:3.RI.4;3.RI.7;
ET03S1C101
3.MD.C.6.Measureareasby
countingunitsquares(square
cm,squarem,squarein,square
ft,andimprovisedunits).

3.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
strategically.
3.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.

Usingdifferentsizedgraphpaper,studentscanexploretheareasmeasuredinsquarecentimetersand
squareinches.Aninteractivewhiteboardmayalsobeusedtodisplayandcounttheunitsquares(area)
ofafigure.

Connections:ET03S1C101

Measurement and Data (MD)
Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition.
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.MD.C.7.Relateareatothe
operationsofmultiplicationand
a. Findtheareaofarectangle
withwholenumberside
lengthsbytilingit,andshow
thattheareaisthesameas
wouldbefoundby
multiplyingthesidelengths.
b. Multiplysidelengthstofind
areasofrectangleswith
wholenumbersidelengths
inthecontextofsolvingreal
worldandmathematical
problems,andrepresent
wholenumberproductsas
rectangularareasin
mathematicalreasoning.

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.
3.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand
quantitatively.
3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.
3.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
strategically.

Studentstileareasofrectangles,determinethearea,recordthelengthandwidthoftherectangle,
investigatethepatternsinthenumbers,anddiscoverthattheareaisthelengthtimesthewidth.
Examples:
Theyplacedtheirpostersonthewallsidebysidesothatthattherewasnospacebetween
them.Howmuchareawillthetwoposterscover?
Studentsusepictures,words,andnumberstoexplaintheirunderstandingofthedistributive
propertyinthiscontext.

3.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.

c. Usetilingtoshowina
concretecasethatthearea
ofarectanglewithwhole
numbersidelengthsaandb
+cisthesumofabanda
c.Useareamodelsto
representthedistributive
propertyinmathematical
reasoning.
Continuedonnextpage

Continuedonnextpage

Measurement and Data (MD)
Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition. continued
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.MD.C.7.continued
Findareasofrectilinear
figuresbydecomposing
themintononoverlapping
areasofthenonoverlapping
parts,applyingthis
techniquetosolvereal
worldproblems.
Connections:3.OA.5;3.OA.7;
3.RI.3;3.RI.4;3.RI.7;3.SL.1;
ET03S1C401

Studentscandecomposearectilinearfigureintodifferentrectangles.Theyfindtheareaofthe

Measurement and Data (MD)
Geometric measurement: recognize perimeter as an attribute of plane figures and distinguish between linear and area measures.
Standards
ExplanationsandExamples
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.MD.D.8.Solverealworldand
mathematicalproblems
involvingperimetersof
polygons,includingfindingthe
perimetergiventheside
lengths,findinganunknown
sidelength,andexhibiting
rectangleswiththesame
perimeteranddifferentareasor
withthesameareaand
differentperimeters.
Connections:3.RI.3;3.RI.4;
3.RI.7;ET03S1C301;
ET03S1C201;ET03S1C202

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.
3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.
3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.

Studentsdevelopanunderstandingoftheconceptofperimeterbywalkingaroundtheperimeterofa
room,usingrubberbandstorepresenttheperimeterofaplanefigureonageoboard,ortracing
perimeters;andrecognizethepatternsthatexistwhenfindingthesumofthelengthsandwidthsof
rectangles.
Studentsusegeoboards,tiles,andgraphpapertofindallthepossiblerectanglesthathaveagiven
perimeter(e.g.,findtherectangleswithaperimeterof14cm).Theyrecordallthepossibilitiesusing
dotorgraphpaper,compilethepossibilitiesintoanorganizedlistoratable,anddeterminewhether
theyhaveallthepossiblerectangles.
Givenaperimeterandalengthorwidth,studentsuseobjectsorpicturestofindthemissinglengthor
width.Theyjustifyandcommunicatetheirsolutionsusingwords,diagrams,pictures,numbers,andan
interactivewhiteboard.
Studentsusegeoboards,tiles,graphpaper,ortechnologytofindallthepossiblerectangleswitha
givenarea(e.g.,findtherectanglesthathaveanareaof12squareunits).Theyrecordallthe
possibilitiesusingdotorgraphpaper,compilethepossibilitiesintoanorganizedlistoratable,and
determinewhethertheyhaveallthepossiblerectangles.Studentstheninvestigatetheperimeterof
therectangleswithanareaof12.
Area
12sq.in.
12sq.in.
12sq.in
12sq.in
12sq.in
12sq.in

Length
1in.
2in.
3in.
4in.
6in.
12in.

Width
12in.
6in.
4in.
3in.
2in.
1in.

Perimeter
26in.
16in.
14in.
14in.
16in.
26in.

Thepatternsinthechartallowthestudentstoidentifythefactorsof12,connecttheresultstothe
commutativeproperty,anddiscussthedifferencesinperimeterwithinthesamearea.Thischartcan
alsobeusedtoinvestigaterectangleswiththesameperimeter.Itisimportanttoincludesquaresinthe
investigation.

Geometry (G)
Reason with shapes and their attributes.
Standards
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:
3.G.A.1.Understandthat
shapesindifferentcategories
(e.g.,rhombuses,rectangles,
andothers)mayshare
attributes(e.g.,havingfour
sides),andthattheshared
attributescandefinealarger
Recognizerhombuses,
rectangles,andsquaresas
thatdonotbelongtoanyof
thesesubcategories.

3.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
strategically.
3.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.

ExplanationsandExamples
withfourstraightsidesandbegintonoticecharacteristicsoftheanglesandtherelationshipbetween
oppositesides.Studentsshouldbeencouragedtoprovidedetailsandusepropervocabularywhen

Connections:3.RI.3;3.RI.4;
ET03S2C201
3.G.A.2.Partitionshapesinto
partswithequalareas.Express
theareaofeachpartasaunit
fractionofthewhole.For
example,partitionashapeinto
4partswithequalarea,and
describetheareaofeachpart
as1/4oftheareaoftheshape.

3.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand
quantitatively.
3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.

Givenashape,studentspartitionitintoequalparts,recognizingthatthesepartsallhavethesame
area.Theyidentifythefractionalnameofeachpartandareabletopartitionashapeintopartswith
equalareasinseveraldifferentways.

3.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
strategically.

Connections:3.MD.7;3.NF.1;
3.RI.7;ET03S1C101

Standards for Mathematical Practice (MP)
Standards
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:

ExplanationsandExamples

leveldocumentinthe2ndcolumn
toreflecttheneedtoconnectthe
mathematicalpracticesto
mathematicalcontentin
instruction.

3.MP.1.Makesenseof
problemsandperseverein
solvingthem.

solvedthem.Studentsexplaintothemselvesthemeaningofaproblemandlookforwaystosolveit.Third

3.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand
quantitatively.

writtensymbolsandcreatealogicalrepresentationoftheproblemathand,consideringboththe
appropriateunitsinvolvedandthemeaningofquantities.

3.MP.3.Constructviable
argumentsandcritiquethe
reasoningofothers.

drawings.Theyrefinetheirmathematicalcommunicationskillsastheyparticipateinmathematical
discussionsinvolvingquestionslikeHowdidyougetthat?andWhyisthattrue?Theyexplaintheir
thinkingtoothersandrespondtoothersthinking.

3.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.

Studentsexperimentwithrepresentingproblemsituationsinmultiplewaysincludingnumbers,words
(mathematicallanguage),drawingpictures,usingobjects,actingout,makingachart,list,orgraph,creating
equations,etc.Studentsneedopportunitiestoconnectthedifferentrepresentationsandexplainthe
evaluatetheirresultsinthecontextofthesituationandreflectonwhethertheresultsmakesense.

3.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
strategically.

rectanglesthathaveagivenperimeter.Theycompilethepossibilitiesintoanorganizedlistoratable,and
determinewhethertheyhaveallthepossiblerectangles.

Standards for Mathematical Practice (MP)
Standards
MathematicalPractices
Studentsareexpectedto:

ExplanationsandExamples

leveldocumentinthe2ndcolumn
toreflecttheneedtoconnectthe
mathematicalpracticesto
mathematicalcontentin
instruction.

3.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.

measureandstatethemeaningofthesymbolstheychoose.Forinstance,whenfiguringouttheareaofa

3.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.

ofoperationsasstrategiestomultiplyanddivide(commutativeanddistributiveproperties).

3.MP.8.Lookforandexpress
regularityinrepeated
reasoning.

Forexample,studentsmayusethedistributivepropertyasastrategyforusingproductstheyknowtosolve

Table2.Commonmultiplicationanddivisionsituations.7

EqualGroups

Arrays,4Area5

UnknownProduct

GroupSizeUnknown

NumberofGroupsUnknown

(Howmanyineachgroup?Division)

(Howmanygroups?Division)

3x6=?

3x?=18,and183=?

?x6=18,and186=?

Thereare3bagswith6plumsineachbag.
Howmanyplumsarethereinall?

If18plumsaresharedequallyinto3bags,then
howmanyplumswillbeineachbag?

If18plumsaretobepacked6toabag,then
howmanybagsareneeded?

Measurementexample.

Measurementexample.

Measurementexample.

Youneed3lengthsofstring,each6inches
long.Howmuchstringwillyouneed
altogether?

Youhave18inchesofstring,whichyouwillcut
into3equalpieces.Howlongwilleachpieceof
stringbe?

Youhave18inchesofstring,whichyouwillcut
intopiecesthatare6incheslong.Howmany
piecesofstringwillyouhave?

Thereare3rowsofappleswith6applesin
eachrow.Howmanyapplesarethere?

If18applesarearrangedinto3equal rows,
howmanyappleswillbeineachrow?

If18applesarearrangedintoequalrowsof6
apples,howmanyrowswilltherebe?

Areaexample.

Areaexample.

Whatistheareaofa3cmby6cm
rectangle?

Arectanglehasarea18squarecentimeters.If
onesideis3cmlong,howlongisasidenextto
it?

Areaexample.

Aredhatcosts\$18andthatis3timesasmuch
Abluehatcosts\$6.Aredhatcosts3times
asmuchasthebluehat.Howmuchdoesthe asabluehatcosts.Howmuchdoesabluehat
cost?
redhatcost?
Compare

Measurementexample.

Measurementexample.

Arectanglehasarea18squarecentimeters.If
onesideis6cmlong,howlongisasidenextto
it?
Aredhatcosts\$18andabluehatcosts\$6.How
manytimesasmuchdoestheredhatcostas
thebluehat?
Measurementexample.

Arubberbandisstretchedtobe18cmlongand Arubberbandwas6cmlongatfirst.Nowitis
Arubberbandis6cmlong.Howlongwill
thatis3timesaslongasitwasatfirst.How
stretchedtobe18cmlong.Howmanytimesas
therubberbandbewhenitisstretchedto
longwastherubberbandatfirst?
longistherubberbandnowasitwasatfirst?
be3timesaslong?
General
Generalax b=?
ax ?=p,andp a=?
?x b=p,andp b=?
7
Thefirstexamplesineachcellareexamplesofdiscretethings.Theseareeasierforstudentsandshouldbegivenbeforethemeasurementexamples.
4
Thelanguageinthearrayexamplesshowstheeasiestformofarrayproblems.Aharderformistousethetermsrowsandcolumns:Theapplesinthegrocerywindowarein3
rowsand6columns.Howmanyapplesareinthere?Bothformsarevaluable.
5
Areainvolvesarraysofsquaresthathavebeenpushedtogethersothattherearenogapsoroverlaps,soarrayproblemsincludetheseespeciallyimportantmeasurement
situations.