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PROF ED

PART 1: KOUNIN'S MGT MODEL(1970)


stimulus boundedness - teacher's attention interrupted by
extratenerous stimulus
thrust - techer interrupts students engaged in activities w/o
considering whether the student is ready or not.
dangels - techer interrupts activity of student and return to it
again.
truncations - techer does not return to current act. after being
interrupted
overdwelling - teacher focuses on a certain topic that will lead to
too much time consumption, the lesson will slow down.
fragmentation - chunks of lesson for students to understand
his/her lesson effectively or breaking down of act. to cause too
much time
flip flop - teacher changes its activity from current activity to new
one and vice versa whenever he/she changes his/her mind.
PART 2: THEORIES AND THEIR PROPONENTS
Wilhelm Woundt - german psycologist "founder of modern
technology"
Titchener - structuralism psycohology
William James, G. Stanley Hall, James M. Cattell - these three
promote "functionalism psychology
Charles Darwin - theories to mental characteristics as human
think, feel and behave ('evolutionary psychology')
Herman Ebbinghaus - associationism psychology
Edwin Guthrie - (stimulus and response); temporal conguity
Edward Lee Thorndike - "satisfaction" the law of effect
Ivan Pavlov - involuntary behavior
Max Wertheimer - gestalt psychology
Otto Loewi - discovered 'acetylcholine' responsible in stimulation
of muscles
Ulf Von Euler - discovered 'norepinephrine' bringing our nervous
system into "high alert"
Arvid Carlsson - discovered "dopamine" the reward mechanism
in the brain
Jean Piaget - cognitive dev't, info processing, dynamic
interrelation
Sigmund Freud - psychosexual, psychoanalytic
Erik Erickson - psychosocial
Lawrence Kohlberg - moral dev't
Burrhus Frederic Skinner - operant cond.
Ivan Pavlov - classical cond.

Edward Lee Thorndike - connectionism


Albert Bandura - social learning, neo - behaviorism
Robert Gagne - sequence of instruction
Abraham Maslow - hierarch of needs, motivation theory
William Kohler - insight learning
Robert Havighurst - dev't task theory
Benjamin Bloom - bloom's cognitive taxonomy
Simpsons/Anita Harrow - psychomotor domain
David Krathwohl - affective domain
Jerome Bruner - constructivist, spiral curr, instrumental
conceptualism
Lev Vygotsky - socio-cultural theory of cognitive dev't, linguistic
theory, Scaffolding
Edgar Dale - cone of exp. (20% remember)
kohler, koffka, weirtheimer - gestalt psychology
John Locke - tabularasa, empiricism
Howard Gardner - multiple int.
Noam Chomsky - language acquisition theory, fr. of linguistics,
nativism
David Ausubel - meaningful learning, graphic organizer,
assumption
Charles Cooley - looking glass self theory
John Flavel - metacognition
Sandra Bem - gender schema theory
Elliot Turriel - social domain theory
Robert Sternberg - triachic theory of int.
John Watson - behavioral theory
Maria Montessory - transfer of learning, kinder garten
preparation of children
Edward Tolman - purposive behaviorism and goal oriented
Edward Torrance - creative problem solving
Bernard Weiner - attribution theory
Daniel Goleman/coleman? - emotional intelligence
Wolfgang Ratke - used vernacular for approaching the class
mencius - idealistic wing of confucianism
hzun tzu - realistic wing of confusianism
taoism - Lao Tzu
Herbart Spencer - moral devt
Pestallozi - symmetrical and harmonius devt of child
John Jacques Rosseau - nature of child
Arnold Gesell - maturation theory
John Dewey - learning by doing
David Froebel - father of kinder garten

John Bowly - attainment theory


Edward Boro - six thinking hats theory
Auguste Comte - father of sociology
Carlos Linnaeus - father of modern taxonomy
John Amos Comencius - Fr. of modern education
Erasmus Desiderius - Fr. of humanism/social humanism
William Kilpatrick - project method

PART 3:
IDEALISM - Plato
REALISM - Aristotle
EMPIRICISM - Locke
PRAGMATISM - Dewey
EXISTENTIALISM - Hegel
PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS - Moore
ESSENTIALISM - Bagley
PERENNIALISM - Hutchins
PROGRESSIVISM - Dewey
RECONSTRUCTIONALISM - Brameld
BEHAVIORISM - Skinner or Watson
STRUCTURALISM - Helmholts or Wundt?
FUNCTIONALISM James, Nugell, or Carr?
PURPOSIVISM Hormic
PART 4: ISM
NATURALISM only nature exist, nature is better than
civilization (NATURALESA ng isang bagay)
IDEALISM spiritual, values, moral, socratic method
REALISM natural world, values are natural and absolute,
reality exist undercieved
PRAGMATISM/EXPERIMENTALISM practical, problem solving
research, knowledge is what works, values are related, truth is
warranted assertion
ESSENTIALISM 3rs (4rs ngayon), achievement test, certain
knowledge & skills are essential for rational being
PROGRESSIVISM process of devt, higher level of knowledge,
the childs need and interest are relevant to curriculum
EXISTENTIALISM knowledge is subjective, man shapes his
being as he lives, we are what we do, deciding precedes knowing

PERENNIALISM education that last for century, universalist,


knowledge is eternally valid
SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIVISM for better society, community
based learning
RECONSTRUCTUONALISM the school should help rebuild the
social order thus social change
BEHAVIORISM learning is change in behavior, S-R relationship
EMPIRICISM knowledge comes thru senses, 5 senses
(observatory learning)
STRUCTURALISM complex mental exp. such as image, feeling
and sensation
FUNCTIONALISM focus to motivation, thinking & learning
PURPOSIVISM individual hormones are responsible for the
motive to strive towards fulfillment of his/her objective
PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS reality is what verifiable, truth
corresponds to reality, usage determines meaning

PART 5: REPUBLIC ACTS


9155 Governance of basic educ. act of 2001
6728 GASTPE
7722 creating CHED
7784 of center of excellence
7796 creating TESDA
6655 free republic secondary act of 1988
4090 creating a style scholarship council to integrate,
systematize, administer and implement all program scholarships
and appropriating funds
5447 creation of a special educ. fund act enacted in 1968
organization and extension of classes
adding classroom to remote areas, barrios and
provincial schools
6139 regulate the secretarian schools/private school in
charging higher tuition fee
7687 science and technology scholarship act of 1994
7743 establishment of city and municipal libraries
8292 higher education modernization act of 1997
6850 an act to grant Civil Service eligibility under certain
conditions to Gov. employees appointed under provision or
temporary status who rendered 7 years of efficient service
8545 amending RA 7628 Expanded GASTPE Act
8525 adopt a school program
8491 flag and heraldic code of the Philippines
7797 lengthen the school program to 200 days and not more
than 220 days

8190 act of granting priority to residents of the brgy. where


school is located in the appointment and assignment of school
6972 act of establishing DAY CARE CENTER FOR EVERY
BARANGAY
7624 integrating of drug prevention and control in the
intermediate & secondary curricular and indigenous learning
system
7743 act providing libraries and reading centers throughout the
Phil.
7877 anti-sexual harassment act of 1995
9163 NSTP of 2001
6193 regulation of tuition fees of private education institution
10627 anti-bullying act of 2003
10533 enhance basic educ. act of 2013 (K-12 PROGRAM)
9485 anti-red tape act
Executive Order (E.O.) 66 rule of cancellation of classes due to
typhoon, flooding and other calamities

PART 6: PHILOSOPHERS RELATED TO LEARNERS DEVELOPMENT


SIGMUND FREUD the mind is like an iceberg, it floats with oneseventh of its bulk above water
COMPONENTS OF PERSONALITY
ID pleasure center
EGO reality center
SUPER EGO conscience/judgment center
PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVT
ORAL thumb sucking, biting
ANAL toilet training, control of their bowel
PHALLIC sexual urges & interest were temporary
GENITAL - adult sexual interest and activities come to dominate
ODIPUS COMPLEX son vs father towards mother/wife feelings
(excessive attachment)(Phallic stage)
ELECTRA COMPLEX daughter vs mother towards father/husband
feelings (excessive attachment)(Phallic stage)
Personality Dynamics
LIFE INSTINCT
DEATH INSTINCT

ERIK ERICKSON healthy children will not fear in their elders


have integrity enough to fear of death
PSYCHOLOGICAL STAGES OF DEVT
CRISIS - a person goes through
MALADAPTATION result from failure to effectivity resolve the
problem
MALIGNACY
VIRTUE emerges when balance & resolution of crisis attained
PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY STAGES
STAGE: Early Childhood (2 to 3 years)
BASIC CONFLICT: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
IMPORTANT EVENTS: Toilet Training
OUTCOME: Children need to develop a sense of independence.
Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of
shame and doubt.
STAGE: Preschool (3 to 5 years)
BASIC CONFLICT: Initiative vs. Guilt
IMPORTANT EVENTS: Exploration
OUTCOME: Children need to begin asserting control and power
over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of
purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience
disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
STAGE: School Age (6 to 11 years)
BASIC CONFLICT: Industry vs. Inferiority
IMPORTANT EVENTS: School
OUTCOME: Children need to cope with new social and academic
demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure
results in feelings of inferiority.
STAGE: Adolescence (12 to 18 years)
BASIC CONFLICT: Identity vs. Role Confusion
IMPORTANT EVENTS: Social Relationships
OUTCOME: Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal
identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while
failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
STAGE: Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years)
BASIC CONFLICT: Intimacy vs. Isolation
IMPORTANT EVENTS: Relationships
OUTCOME: Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships
with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while
failure results in loneliness and isolation.

STAGE: Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)


BASIC CONFLICT: Generativity vs. Stagnation
IMPORTANT EVENTS: Work and Parenthood
OUTCOME: Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast
them, often by having children or creating a positive change that

benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and


accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the
world.
STAGE: Maturity (65 to death)
BASIC CONFLICT: Ego Integrity vs. Despair
IMPORTANT EVENTS: Reflection on life
OUTCOME: Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense
of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom,
while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
LEV VYGOTSKY the teacher must orient his work not on
yesterdays devt in the child but on tomorrows.
SCAFFOLDING is the systematic manner of providing assistance
of the learners to affectively acquire skills.
MKO (MORE KNOWLEDGE OTHERS) higher level of performance
JEAN PIAGET the school should be creating men and women
who are capable of doing new things not simply repeating what
other generation have donw.
STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT.
SENSORY MOTOR (2-7 y/o) infants knowledge
PRE-OPERATIONAL (2-7 y/o) pretend to play but still struggle with
logic, mental symbols interest.
CONCRETE OPERATIONAL (7-11) think logically, hypothetically and
concepts, solve problems
FORMAL OPERATIONAL (11 UP) deductive reasoning and
understanding of abstract ideas, think symbolically

LAWRENCE KOHLBERG right action tends to be defined in


terms of general individual rights and standards that have been
critically examined and agreed upon by the whole society.
LEVELS OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
PRE-CONVENTIONAL obedience and punishment (consequences),
individualism & exchange
CONVENTIONAL interpersonal relationship, maintain social order
POST-CONVENTIONAL social contract and individual rights, universal
principles, set of values and briefs.
URIE BROFENBRENNER
ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM THEORY
MICROSYSTEM surroundings of individual: family, friends,
neighborhood
MESOSYSTEM connections between context, school experiences to
church experience
EXOSYSTEM includes other people and places that the child herself
may not interact with often herself but that still have a large effect on
her.
MACROSYSTEM which is the largest and most remote set of people
and places things to a child but which still has a great influence over
the child.
EXOSYSTEM includes other people and places that the child herself
may not interact often herself but that still have a large effect on her.
MACROSYSTEM which is the largest and most remote set of people
and places and things to a child but which still has a great influence
over the child.
ALBERT BANDURA SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
: environment effects childs personality : learning occurs by
simply observing people, people learned from what they see and
the consequences of what they did

PART 7: FOUR PILLARS OF LEARNING


LEARNING TO KNOW focuses on combining broad gen.
knowledge and basic educ. with the opportunity to work on a
small number of subjects in the light of rapid changes brought
about by scientific progress and new forms of economic and
social activity.
- Learning how to learn and to discover, as to benefit from
ongoing educational opportunities continuously arising
throughout life.
- Developing the faculties of memory, imagination, reasoning
and problem solving.
- Understanding about ones environment.
- Communicating with others.

LEARNING TO DO emphasizes on the learning of skills


necessary to practice a profession or trade.
- Applying in practice what has been learned.
- Developing vocational/occupational and technical skills
- Developing social skills in building meaningful interpersonal
relationships
- Developing competence, social behavior, attitude for
teamwork
- Enhancing the ability to communicate and work with others
- Managing and resolving conflicts
LEARNING TO BE prioritizes the development of the human
potential to the fullest.
- Tapping the hidden talents with individual
- Developing personal commitment and responsibility for the
common good.
LEARNING TO LIVE TOGETHER emphasizes understanding of
others, their history, tradition and cultures, and also living and
interacting peacefully.
- Appreciating diversity of human race
- Being receptive to others and encounter others through
dialogue and debate
- Caring about others
- Working
toward
common
objectives
in
cooperative
undertakings.
- Managing and resolving conflicts.

PART 8: COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE: GESTALT PRINCIPLE


German word means whole, form, pattern or configuration
The focus of this theory is on Perception and how people assign
meaning to visual stimuli, The whole is more than the sum of all
parts
LAW OF PROXIMITY elements that are closer together be
perceived as a coherent object.
LAW OF SIMILARITY similar will perceived as part of the same
form.
LAW OF CLOSURE ignoring gaps in the figure
LAW OF CONTINUATION patterns establish an implied
direction, people tend a good continuous line.
LAW OF PRAGNANZ stimulus will be organize into a good
figure as possible.
LAW OF FIGURE/GROUND we tend to pay attention and
perceived things in the foreground first.
INSIGHT LEARNING Gestalt adheres to the idea of learning
takes place by discovery.

PART 9
Ripple Effect spreading effect of series of consequences caused
by single action or event.
Hawthorne Effect type of reactivity effect in which individuals
improve an aspect of their behavior in response to their
awareness of being observed.
Halo Effect cognitive bias which an observer overall impression
of a person, influences the observers feeling and thoughts about
the entitys character or property
Pygmalion Effect shows the teachers expectation (selffulfillment)
Golem Effect low expectation leads to decrease in performance
REINFORCEMENTS
POSITIVE presence of stimulus
NEGATIVE absence of stimulus
ESCAPE removes stimulus
AVOIDANCE remove stimulus
REINFORCEMENT increase of behavior
PUNISHMENT weakens response