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RepublicofthePhilippines

SUPREMECOURT
Manila

A.M.No.1288SC
JUDICIALAFFIDAVITRULE
Whereas,casecongestionanddelaysplaguemostcourtsincities,giventhehugevolumeofcases
filedeachyearandtheslowandcumbersomeadversarialsyste1nthatthejudiciaryhasinplace;
Whereas,about40%ofcriminalcasesaredismissedannuallyowingtothefactthatcomplainants
simplygiveupcon1ingtocourtafterrepeatedpostponements;
Whereas,fewforeignbusinessmenmakelongterminvestmentsinthePhilippinesbecauseits
courtsareunabletoprovideampleandspeedyprotectiontotheirinvestments,keepingitspeople
poor;
Whereas,inordertoreducethetimeneededforcompletingthetestimoniesofwitnessesincases
underlitigation,onFebruary21,2012theSupremeCourtapprovedforpilotingbytrialcourtsin
Quezon City the compulsory use of judicial affidavits in place of the direct testimonies of
witnesses;
Whereas,itisreportedthatsuchpilotinghasquicklyresultedinreducingbyabouttwothirdsthe
time used for presenting the testimonies of witnesses, thus speeding up the hearing and
adjudicationofcases;
Whereas,theSupremeCourtCommitteeontheRevisionoftheRulesofCourt,headedbySenior
AssociateJusticeAntonioT.Carpio,andtheSubCommitteeontheRevisionoftheRuleson
CivilProcedure,headedbyAssociateJusticeRobertoA.Abad,haverecommendedforadoptiona
JudicialAffidavitRulethatwillreplicatenationwidethesuccessoftheQuezonCityexperience
intheuseofjudicialaffidavits;and
Whereas,theSupremeCourtEnBancfindsmeritintherecommendation;
NOW, THEREFORE, the Supreme Court En Banc hereby issues and promulgates the
following:
Section1.Scope.(a)ThisRuleshallapplytoallactions,proceedings,andincidentsrequiring
thereceptionofevidencebefore:
(1) The Metropolitan Trial Courts, the Municipal Trial Courts in Cities, the
Municipal Trial Courts, the Municipal Circuit Trial Courts, and the Shari' a
CircuitCourtsbutshallnotapplytosmallclaimscasesunderA.M.0887SC;
(2)TheRegionalTrialCourtsandtheShari'aDistrictCourts;

(3)TheSandiganbayan,theCourtofTaxAppeals,theCourtofAppeals,andthe
Shari'aAppellateCourts;
(4)TheinvestigatingofficersandbodiesauthorizedbytheSupremeCourtto
receiveevidence,includingtheIntegratedBarofthePhilippine(IBP);and
(5)Thespecialcourtsandquasijudicialbodies,whoserulesofprocedureare
subjecttodisapprovaloftheSupremeCourt,insofarastheirexistingrulesof
procedurecontravenetheprovisionsofthisRule.1
(b)Forthepurposeofbrevity,theabovecourts,quasijudicialbodies,orinvestigating
officersshallbeuniformlyreferredtohereasthe"court."
Section2.SubmissionofJudicialAffidavitsandExhibitsinlieuofdirecttestimonies.(a)The
partiesshallfilewiththecourtandserveontheadverseparty,personallyorbylicensedcourier
service, not later than five days before pretrial or preliminary conference or the scheduled
hearingwithrespecttomotionsandincidents,thefollowing:
(1)Thejudicialaffidavitsoftheirwitnesses,whichshalltaketheplaceofsuch
witnesses'directtestimonies;and
(2)Theparties'docun1entaryorobjectevidence,ifany,whichshallbeattached
tothejudicialaffidavitsandmarkedasExhibitsA,B,C,andsooninthecaseof
thecomplainantortheplaintiff,andasExhibits1,2,3,andsooninthecaseof
therespondentorthedefendant.
(b)Shouldapartyorawitnessdesiretokeeptheoriginaldocumentorobjectevidencein
his possession, he may, after the same has been identified, marked as exhibit, and
authenticated,warrantinhisjudicialaffidavitthatthecopyorreproductionattachedto
suchaffidavitisafaithfulcopyorreproductionofthatoriginal.Inaddition,thepartyor
witnessshallbringtheoriginaldocumentorobjectevidenceforcomparisonduringthe
preliminaryconferencewiththeattachedcopy,reproduction,orpictures,failingwhich
thelattershallnotbeadmitted.
Thisiswithoutprejudicetotheintroductionofsecondaryevidenceinplaceoftheoriginalwhen
allowedbyexistingrules.
Section3.ContentsofjudicialAffidavit.Ajudicialaffidavitshallbepreparedinthelanguage
knowntothewitnessand,ifnotinEnglishorFilipino,accompaniedbyatranslationinEnglishor
Filipino,andshallcontainthefollowing:
(a)Thename,age,residenceorbusinessaddress,andoccupationofthewitness;
(b)Thenameandaddressofthelawyerwhoconductsorsupervisestheexaminationof
thewitnessandtheplacewheretheexaminationisbeingheld;

(c)Astatementthatthewitnessisansweringthequestionsaskedofhim,fullyconscious
thathedoessounderoath,andthathemayfacecriminalliabilityforfalsetestimonyor
perjury;
(d) Questions asked of the witness and his corresponding answers, consecutively
numbered,that:
(1) Showthe circumstances under whichthe witness acquiredthe facts upon
whichhetestifies;
(2)Elicitfromhimthose facts whicharerelevant tothe issuesthat the case
presents;and
(3)Identifytheattacheddocumentaryandobjectevidenceandestablishtheir
authenticityinaccordancewiththeRulesofCourt;
(e)Thesignatureofthewitnessoverhisprintedname;and
(f)Ajuratwiththesignatureofthenotarypublicwhoadministerstheoathoranofficer
whoisauthorizedbylawtoadministerthesame.
Section4. Swornattestationofthelawyer. (a)Thejudicialaffidavitshallcontainasworn
attestationattheend,executedbythelawyerwhoconductedorsupervisedtheexaminationofthe
witness,totheeffectthat:
(1)Hefaithfullyrecordedorcausedtoberecordedthequestionsheaskedandthe
correspondinganswersthatthewitnessgave;and
(2)Neitherhenoranyotherpersonthenpresentorassistinghimcoachedthe
witnessregardingthelatter'sanswers.
(b)Afalseattestationshallsubjectthelawyermentionedtodisciplinaryaction,including
disbarment.
Section5.Subpoena.Ifthegovernmentemployeeorofficial,ortherequestedwitness,whois
neitherthewitnessoftheadversepartynorahostilewitness,unjustifiablydeclinestoexecutea
judicialaffidavitorrefuseswithoutjustcausetomaketherelevantbooks,documents,orother
thingsunderhiscontrolavailableforcopying,authentication,andeventualproductionincourt,
therequestingpartymayavailhimselfoftheissuanceofasubpoenaadtestificandumorduces
tecumunderRule21oftheRulesofCourt.Therulesgoverningtheissuanceofasubpoenatothe
witnessinthiscaseshallbethesameaswhentakinghisdepositionexceptthatthetakingofa
judicialaffidavitshal1beunderstoodtobeexparte.
Section6. Offerofandobjectionstotestimonyinjudicialaffidavit. Thepartypresentingthe
judicial affidavit of his witness in place of direct testimony shall state the purpose of such
testimonyatthestartofthepresentationofthewitness.Theadversepartymaymovetodisqualify
the witness or to strike out his affidavit or any of the answers found in it on ground of

inadmissibility. The court shall promptly rule on the motion and, if granted, shall cause the
markingofanyexcludedanswerbyplacingitinbracketsundertheinitialsofanauthorizedcourt
personnel,withoutprejudicetoatenderofexcludedevidenceunderSection40ofRule132ofthe
RulesofCourt.
Section7.Examinationofthewitnessonhisjudicialaffidavit.Theadversepartyshallhavethe
righttocrossexaminethewitnessonhisjudicialaffidavitandontheexhibitsattachedtothe
same.Thepartywhopresentsthewitnessmayalsoexaminehimasonredirect.Ineverycase,
thecourtshalltakeactivepartinexaminingthewitnesstodeterminehiscredibilityaswellasthe
truthofhistestimonyandtoelicittheanswersthatitneedsforresolvingtheissues.
Section8.Oralofferofandobjectionstoexhibits.(a)Upontheterminationofthetestimonyof
hislastwitness,apartyshallimmediatelymakeanoralofferofevidenceofhisdocumentaryor
objectexhibits,piecebypiece,intheirchronologicalorder,statingthepurposeorpurposesfor
whichheofferstheparticularexhibit.
(b)Aftereachpieceofexhibitisoffered,theadversepartyshallstatethelegalgroundfor
hisobjection,ifany,toitsadmission,andthecourtshallimmediatelymakeitsruling
respectingthatexhibit.
(c) Since the documentary or object exhibits form part of the judicial affidavits that
describeandauthenticatethem,itissufficientthatsuchexhibitsaresimplycitedbytheir
markings during the offers, the objections, and the rulings, dispensing with the
descriptionofeachexhibit.
Section9. Applicationofruletocriminalactions. (a)Thisruleshallapplytoallcriminal
actions:
(1)Wherethemaximumoftheimposablepenaltydoesnotexceedsixyears;
(2)Wheretheaccusedagreestotheuseofjudicialaffidavits,irrespectiveofthe
penaltyinvolved;or
(3)Withrespecttothecivilaspectoftheactions,whateverthepenaltiesinvolved
are.
(b)Theprosecutionshallsubmitthejudicialaffidavitsofitswitnessesnotlaterthanfive
daysbeforethepretrial,servingcopiesifthesameupontheaccused.Thecomplainantor
publicprosecutorshallattachtotheaffidavitssuchdocumentaryorobjectevidenceashe
mayhave,markingthemasExhibitsA,B,C,andsoon.Nofurtherjudicialaffidavit,
documentary,orobjectevidenceshallbeadmittedatthetrial.
(c)Iftheaccuseddesirestobeheardonhisdefenseafterreceiptofthejudicialaffidavits
oftheprosecution,heshallhavetheoptiontosubmithisjudicialaffidavitaswellas
thoseofhiswitnessestothecourtwithintendaysfromreceiptofsuchaffidavitsand
serveacopyofeachonthepublicandprivateprosecutor,includinghisdocumentaryand
objectevidencepreviouslymarkedasExhibits1,2,3,andsoon.Theseaffidavitsshall

serveasdirecttestimoniesoftheaccusedandhiswitnesseswhentheyappearbeforethe
courttotestify.
Section10.EffectofnoncompliancewiththejudicialAffidavitRule.(a)Apartywhofailsto
submittherequiredjudicialaffidavitsandexhibitsontimeshallbedeemedtohavewaivedtheir
submission.Thecourtmay,however,allowonlyoncethelatesubmissionofthesameprovided,
thedelayisforavalidreason,wouldnotundulyprejudicetheopposingparty,andthedefaulting
partypaysafineofnotlessthan P 1,000.00normorethan P 5,000.00atthediscretionofthe
court.
(b)Thecourtshallnotconsidertheaffidavitofanywitnesswhofailstoappearatthe
scheduledhearingofthecaseasrequired.Counselwhofailstoappearwithoutvalid
causedespitenoticeshallbedeemedtohavewaivedhisclient'srighttoconfrontby
crossexaminationthewitnessestherepresent.
(c)Thecourtshallnotadmitasevidencejudicialaffidavitsthatdonotconformtothe
contentrequirementsofSection3andtheattestationrequirementofSection4above.The
court may, however, allow only once the subsequent submission of the compliant
replacementaffidavitsbeforethehearingortrialprovidedthedelayisforavalidreason
andwouldnotundulyprejudicetheopposingpartyandprovidedfurther,thatpublicor
privatecounselresponsiblefortheirpreparationandsubmissionpaysafineofnotless
thanP1,000.00normorethanP5,000.00,atthediscretionofthecourt.
Section11.Repealormodificationofinconsistentrules.TheprovisionsoftheRulesofCourt
andtherulesofproceduregoverninginvestigatingofficersandbodiesauthorizedbytheSupreme
Courttoreceiveevidencearerepealedormodifiedinsofarastheseareinconsistentwiththe
provisionsofthisRule.1wphi1
The rules of procedure governing quasijudicial bodies inconsistent herewith are hereby
disapproved.
Section12.Effectivity.ThisruleshalltakeeffectonJanuary1,2013followingitspublicationin
twonewspapersofgeneralcirculationnotlaterthanSeptember15,2012.Itshallalsoapplyto
existingcases.
Manila,September4,2012.
MARIALOURDESP.A.SERENO
ChiefJustice
ANTONIOT.CARPIO
AssociateJustice

PRESBITEROJ.VELASCO,JR.
AssociateJustice

TERESITAJ.LEONARDODE
CASTRO

ARTUROD.BRION
AssociateJustice

AssociateJustice
DISODADOM.PERLATA
AssociateJustice

LUCASP.BERSAMIN
AssociateJustice

MARIANOC.DELCASTILLO
AssociateJustice

ROBERTOA.ABAD
AssociateJustice

MARTINS.VILLARAMA,JR.
AssociateJustice

JOSEP.PEREZ
AssociateJustice

JOSEC.MENDOZA
AssociateJustice

BIENVENIDOL.REYES
AssociateJustice

ESTELAM.PERLASBERNABE
AssociateJustice

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