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U.S. Bellows, Inc.

presents:

U.S. Bellows 101:


Expansion Joint Basics

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Manager
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Presentation Summary
Bellows Movement & Motion
Bellows Fabrication and Terminology
Expansion Joint Testing
Type and Applications of Expansion Joints
Expansion Joint Accessories

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Certifications & Manufacturing Facility


Certifications

Manufacturing Facility

EJMA Member

ASME U-Stamp

ASME R-Stamp

ASME NS Certified

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Minority Business Enterprise


(MBE) by City of Houston

Houston Minority Business


Council (HMBC)

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Houston, Texas USA

450,000 Square Feet of Covered


Shop Space on a 35 Acre
Property

Located Near the Port of Houston

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Expansion Joint Applications


Fossil Fuel
Power Plant

Chemical &
Petrochemical

Stationary Engine
Exhaust

Pulp & Paper

Power

Heat
Exchangers

Municipal Water
Districts

Aerospace Turbo
Engine Exhaust

District
Energy

FCC Units

Waste Water
Treatment

Truck Exhaust

Gas Turbines

U.S. Navy

Solid Waste
Incineration

Heavy Metal

Steam
Distribution

Kilns

Environmental
Applications

Marine Piping &


Exhaust

Geothermal
Power Plants

Furnace Sealing
Bags

Liquefied Natural
Gas (LNG) Service

Refinery

Research &
Development

HVAC Building
Heating & Cooling
Systems

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Bellows Basics - Types of Movement


Axial Movement

Lateral Movement

Angular Movement

Torsional Movement

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Bellows Basics - Types of Bellows Motion

Gimbal Expansion Joint

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Expansion Joint Movement

Tied Single Expansion Joint

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Bellows Basics - Types of Movements Cont.

Universal Expansion Joint


Tied Universal Expansion Joint

Hinged Universal Expansion Joint

Single Expansion Joint

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Slotted Hinged Expansion Joint

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Pipe Guide Spacing

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Installation, Anchoring and Guiding Instructions

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Bellows Basics
Bellows Material Types
Depending on the style or design of a bellows, wall thicknesses may
range from:
.010" TO .500" wall with varying
number of plies in the various alloys

STAINLESS STEEL T-321, T-316, L & H, T-304, L &H


MONEL 400
INCONEL 625
INCONEL 625 LCF
INCOLOY 800
INCOLOY 825
HASTELLOY C-276
TITANIUM
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Bellows Basics - EJMA Standards

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Bellows Basics - Product Data Sheet


U.S. BELLOWS, INC.
PRODUCT ENGINEERING
Data Sheet

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Bellows Fabrication: Stage 1


METHOD OF MANUFACTURE
BUTT WELDED TUBE

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Bellows Fabrication: Stage 2


PUNCHING THE BELLOWS

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Bellows Fabrication: Stage 3

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Bellows Basics
INSIDE DIAMETER

OUTSIDE
DIAMETER

LIVE-LENGTH OF
BELLOWS

PITCH

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WALL THICKNESS

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Bellows Basics

EFFECTIVE
AREA
IT IS APPROXIMATELY
EQUAL TO THE
AREA OF A CIRCLE LYING
HALFWAY BETWEEN THE CONVOLUTIONS INSIDE AND OUTSIDE
DIAMETERS.
USED TO CALCULATE END THRUST LOAD WHICH WILL BE
PRODUCED.

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Bellows Basics

SPRING RATE
THE LOAD IN POUNDS REQUIRED TO COMPRESS A BELLOWS
ONE INCH (lb/in).

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Value-Added Services
Performance Assurance Program
Hydrostatic Testing

Burst Test

Magnetic Particle
Ultrasonic
Cycle Test
Burst Test
Helium Leak Detection
Liquid Penetrant

Dye Penetration Testing

Inspection
Radiography Test
Positive Material
Identification (PMI) Test
Pneumatic Testing
Spring Rate Testing
Fatigue Testing

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Value-Added Services

Stresses
Temperature Change
Repetitive Mechanical
Movements
Vibrations
Cycle Test on a 12" diameter A240-321SS Bellows with 8 convolutions.
The bellows has met the EMJA cycle life calculation of 1,000 cycles and
failed in the root of the convolutions at 1,285 cycles.

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Types of Expansion Joints - Single


Single Expansion Joints
This expansion joint is simply a bellows element with end connections. Regardless of accessories,
such as liners and covers, it will deflect in any direction or plane that the bellows will. It is the least
expensive type, but requires that the piping be controlled as to the direction of the movements
required of the unit.

12" Diameter Single Tied


Expansion Joints Fabricated from
Stainless Steel
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Types of Expansion Joints - Single


The expansion joint should not be expected to control the movement of the pipe. If the piping analysis
shows that the expansion joint must accept axial compression, then the piping must be guided and
constrained so that only that movement will occur.

Single Weld End

Single Flanged End

Single Flanged Weld End

* Data tables for single expansion joints can be found in our online catalog: usbellows.com/data

76" Diameter Single Tied Expansion Joint


Fabricated from Stainless Steel for a Hot Blast
Valve in a Steel Mill
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A Metal Cover was Installed to Allow Hot Air to


Escape. It was Designed for 1,900F at 100 psig with
1" Compression

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Types of Expansion Joints - Single


This expansion joint will not resist any deflections with any force other than the resistance of the bellows,
which is a function of the spring rate times the deflection amount. It is incapable of resisting the pressure
thrust along its axis, which is the product of the pressure times the effective, or cross sectional, area of
the bellows. Large diameter units, even with low pressures, can generate very large axial pressure thrust
forces, which must be reacted by main and directional anchors. Otherwise the expansion joint will
extend with disastrous results.

605 Single Expansion Joints with Rectangular Plate Flanges and Weld Ends
(6" Dia., 15-3/8" Overall Length, Design Temp.: 525F, Design Pressure: 1 psig)
These Expansion Joints will be Installed in a Heater for a Delayed Coker Unit

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Types of Expansion Joints - Universal


Universal Expansion Joints
The universal expansion joint consists of two bellows separated by a pipe section or spool. The primary
purpose of this arrangement is to have a unit which will accept large amounts of lateral deflection. The
amount of lateral deflection they can accept is a function of the amount of angulation each bellows can
absorb and the distance between the bellows. For a given bellows element, the amount of lateral deflection
capability can be increased or decreased by simply changing the length of the center spool.

66" Dia. Tied Universal Metallic Expansion Joints


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Types of Expansion Joints - Universal


In our expansion joint catalog three standard overall lengths are given with their lateral movement capability.
If the piping problem requires greater capability, then the overall length can be increased to suit.

Flanged Universal Expansion Joint

Tied Universal Expansion Joints


with Stainless Steel Flanges

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Tied Universal Expansion


Joint with Covers

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Types of Expansion Joints - Universal


Since deflections are usually the result of piping thermal expansion, and universal expansion joints are
usually long, our units are designed so that the thermal expansion of the entire unit's length is accepted as
compression by the two bellows elements. In this way, the overall length of the unit does not change when
the piping is heated. The standard units in our expansion joint catalog have all been designed to accept
the thermal expansion of their length when the temperature is up to the design temperature shown.

6" Tied Universal Expansion Joints


for a Steam Recovery Reformer Project
in Virginia
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5" Tied Universal Expansion Joints


for an Oil Piping System Application
in Nevada

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Types of Expansion Joints - Hinged


Hinged Expansion Joints
Hinged Expansion Joints contain hinges or pivots which allow the unit to bend in a single plane.
These units are designed to restrict axial deflection, either in extension or compression. The
hinge mechanism is typically designed to accept full pressure thrust.

Two 43" Hinged Expansion Joints with 5" Thick


Refractory Lining, Manufactured to be Part of
FCC Stand Pipes in a Synfuels Plant
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Types of Expansion Joints - Hinged


Also, because of the hinge mechanism's design, shear loads, such as from the weight of adjacent piping, can
be accepted by this expansion joint, relieving the piping designer of having to provide additional supports and
anchors required by the Single type.

Two 43" Hinged Expansion Joints with 5" Thick


Refractory Lining, Manufactured to be Part of
FCC Stand Pipes in a Synfuels Plant

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Single Hinged Expansion


Joint with Control Rods

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Types of Expansion Joints - Hinged


Some hinge types can be provided with hinge pin holes which are slotted to permit limited axial travel.
These "slotted hinge" types will not resist pressure thrust forces, and anchoring must be provided. This
catalog only depicts the fully restrained hinged type. If axial travel is desired, the piping designer should
clearly state that the slotted hinge type is wanted in the design requirements, and he should provide for
pressure thrust anchoring.

90" Universal Flanged and Flued Head Expansion Joint and Duct Work Assembly
(Designed for a 90" dia. line; includes slotted hinge plates installed across the bellows to carry the weight of the duct
between the bellows and equalize the axial compression between the two bellows)

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Types of Expansion Joints - Hinged


On the other hand, if the full axial restraint of the hinged type is desired, the piping designer should
understand that there is no allowance in the expansion joint for any axial travel, including none for any
installation misalignment.

24" Universal Hinged Expansion Joint


(Overall length is 125-5/8", designed with Inconel 625 bellows, a 304 stainless steel liner
and carbon steel 150 lb. flanges; the hinges allow up to 5 of angular movement)

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Types of Expansion Joints - Gimbal


Gimbal Expansion Joints
The gimbal expansion joint is basically the same as the hinge type, except that instead of being limited to
deflection in only one plane, it can accept bending or angulation in any plane.

Features:
- Absorbs angular rotation
- Eliminates pressure thrust forces
- Transmits shear and wind loads
- Supports dead weight
- Prevents torsion on bellows
- No main anchors required
- Minimum guiding required
- Low forces on piping system

55" O.D. Double Gimbal Universal Expansion Joint


(Designed for an FCC unit; equipped with floating rings and Inconel 625 LCF bellows)

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Types of Expansion Joints - Gimbal


It contains two sets of hinge pins or pivots, the axis of each set perpendicular to the other. Each set of
pins is connected to each other with a central gimbal ring, in much the same way that a universal joint
on an automobile works. This unit provides the same type of restraint and resistance to axial forces,
such as the pressure thrust, and to shear forces as the hinge type.

44" Double Gimbal Universal Expansion Joint


Designed for Angular Rotation in Two Planes of
up to 4 in Each Plane

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72" Double Gimbal Universal Expansion


Joint with a 90 Elbow and
Flanged and Flued Head Bellows

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Types of Expansion Joints - Elbow Pressure Balanced


Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joints
This type of expansion joint is really a combination of several types. Its purpose is to retain and balance
the pressure thrust so that main anchoring of the pipe or adjacent equipment is not required, and forces
and movements on attachment flanges of delicate equipment, such as turbines, are kept to acceptably
low levels.

60" Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joint

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Types of Expansion Joints - Elbow Pressure Balanced

The deflections to be accepted are handled by the proper type of expansion joint, which
normally, and as shown in the above sketch, is a tied universal type to accept lateral
movements. However, the pressure balanced elbow is usually required because axial
deflections are also present. In order to accept these movements, a bellows is added
beyond the elbow with the same cross-sectional area as the ones in the universal section.
26" Dia. Pressure
Balanced Elbow
Expansion Joint
Refurbished for
an Effluent
Header at Cedar
Bayou Plant

Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion


Joints designed for 150 PSIG and
450F for a 42" steam line
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Types of Expansion Joints - Elbow Pressure Balanced


This balancing bellows is connected by the tie rods to the pipe beyond the universal section; in this
way the pressure thrust is contained as tension in the tie rods. The section of the expansion joint
between the tie rods, which includes the elbow, is now free to move axially, with the only resistance
being a function of the spring rates of the bellows.

36" Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joints

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Types of Expansion Joints - Elbow Pressure Balanced


Because of their arrangement, however, the spring rate of the entire expansion joint is the sum of
the spring rates of the balancing and the universal bellows. This is a constant volume system, in that
when the universal end compresses, the balancing end extends the same amount. All of the lateral
deflection is absorbed by the universal end, and there is no lateral deflection imposed on the
balancing end. Therefore, the balancing bellows is almost always a single bellows type.

54" Pressure Balanced Elbow Turbine Crossover Expansion Joint (Refurbished)


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Types of Expansion Joints - Inline Pressure Balanced


In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints
When axial deflections exist, and anchoring is
impractical for structural or economic reasons,
such as high in the air or short straight pipe runs
between two large vessels, the in-line pressure
balanced expansion joint is a powerful solution to a
difficult design problem. The principle of this type
of unit is essentially the same as the pressure
balanced elbow type, in that the axial pressure
thrust is reacted by the pressure acting on a crosssectional area equal to the area of the working or
primary bellows.

14" In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint


(Designed for 51 psig and 167F for a highly
corrosive application)

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Types of Expansion Joints - Inline Pressure Balanced


Since this unit is entirely axial, and there are no directional changes in the pipe, such as with the elbow in
the previous discussion, the cross-sectional area needed to balance the pressure is placed around the
outside of the unit. Since the pressure forces are generated by the pressure acting on the annular surface
between the primary and outer, or balancing bellows, the arrangement of the tie rods transfers and
balances the pressure thrust created in the pipe on each end. Now the forces needed to compress or
extend the unit are only the result of the spring resistance of the bellows, and main anchoring of the pipe
or vessels is not required.

24" In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints


(designed for 175 psig and 610F for a petrochemical plant in Venezuela)

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Types of Expansion Joints - Inline Pressure Balanced


This expansion joint is obviously more expensive than the simpler types; however, they may result in a
lower overall system cost when the elimination of main anchoring is considered. This expansion joint can
also be used to replace pipe loops, and its cost advantage may be seen in reduced pumping energy by
the elimination of the loop's elbow-generated pressure losses. This may also allow reducing the pipe size
for the entire system.

14" In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints


(Designed for 125 psig, 244F and 48,000 lb. of pressure thrust)

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Types of Expansion Joints - Externally Pressurized


Externally Pressurized Expansion Joints
Externally pressurized expansion
joints, also known as x-flex
expansion joints, are suited for
piping systems that require large
amounts of axial compression or
extension.

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10 to 24 diameter range
304 stainless steel bellows
Carbon steel shell and flanges
Design conditions: 150 PSIG at 350F
Maximum of 4 compression
Hydrostatically tested

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Types of Expansion Joints - Externally Pressurized


In externally pressurized expansion joints, the bellows elements are arranged so that the media flow
is on the external surface of the bellows. Externally pressurizing the bellows eliminates pressure
instability as a limitation to the design and permits the absorption of large amounts of axial
expansion.

14 Externally Pressurized Expansion Joints


Designed in various sizes for NASA
Diameters range from 4" to 10"
Overall length ranges from 21" to 42"

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Types of Expansion Joints - Externally Pressurized

16" Dia. Externally Pressurized Expansion Joints


(Designed for an oil refinery; 60-1/4" face-to-face;

56 Externally Pressurized Expansion Joints

304 SS bellows; custom designed for 8" of axial


movement and 150 psig at 176F, with a
spring rate of 2,152 lb./in.)

(Designed for a cooling system; 37.5" dia. and 36"


face-to-face with 304 SS bellows)

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Types of Expansion Joints - Toroidal


Toroidal Bellows Expansion Joints
(Omega Bellows Expansion Joint)
A toroidal convolution consists of a circular tube (or totus) wrapped around weld
ends or pipe ends having a gap at the I.D. to permit axial stroke. A toroidal
expansion joint may consist of one convolution, or multiple convolutions. This
joint is also known as an Omega bellows expansion joint for it resembles the
Greek letter Omega.

Most toroidal bellows are hydraulically formed which requires high pressure.
Others are free formed, similar to blowing up a balloon. More accurate
convolution shapes may be formed into toroidal dye cavities. Since this forming
pressure is high, pressure resistance is also high.

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Types of Expansion Joints - Toroidal


"U" shaped bellows cause a bending stress due to the pressure load on the convolution side wall. This
generally determines the maximum pressure, however the toroid contains only membrane stress thus
determining the maximum pressure. Due to the toroidal shape, deflection is limited. With "U" shaped
convolutions, more deflection can be achieved but allowable pressures are lower.

92" Toroidal Bellow Expansion Joint for an ASME U Stamp Heat Exchanger Shell.
(Designed for 400 psig at 500F; extension stroke of 5/16"; the bellows element
was fabricated from .060" Inconel 600 with A-516 Gr. 70 weld ends)

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Types of Expansion Joints - Clamshell


Clamshell Bellows Expansion Joints

3-Day Emergency Fabrication of a 40" Clamshell


Expansion Joint for a Chemical Plant in Texas.

Clamshell Bellows Expansion Joint


Q.C. Performing a
Dye Penetrant Test on
a Clamshell Bellows

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(Designed for a shell and tube heat


exchanger; 14" dia.; 150 psig at 150F)

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Types of Expansion Joints - Refractory-lined


Refractory Lined Expansion Joints
Depending on the temperature, pressure, movement and flow media conditions, refractory-lined
expansion joints can be hinged, in-line pressure balanced, gimbal, tied-universal and can also include
pantographic linkage. For hot applications (up to 1400F), the bellows is packed with KO wool and lined
with insulating refractory.

44" Universal Refractory Lined


Expansion Joint designed for
30 psig and 1400F

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36" Double Hinged


Expansion Joint designed
for 50 psig and 1000F

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70" Tied Universal


Expansion Joint designed
for 51 psig and 1460F

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Types of Expansion Joints - Refractory-lined


The refractory-lining allows for the use of carbon steel pipe instead of 300 series stainless steel. It can
reduce the pipe wall temperature to between 300-450F and also protect the bellows from abrasion
caused by the flow of abrasive particles.

80" Dia., 36" Long Refractory-lined Tied Universal Expansion Joint


This expansion joint was fabricated with two-ply Inconel 625 LCF bellows, tie rods, slotted hinges,
insulation bags and liner seals. It is designed to operate at 58 PSIG and temperatures up to 1,450 F.
The expansion joint was preset for 6" lateral travel and is capable of lateral travel up to 13".
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Phone: 877-660-1795

Types of Expansion Joints - Refractory-lined


Refractory-lined expansion joints are used in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU), furnaces, hot gas
turbines, styrene plants, fluidized bed boilers, kilns, power recovery trains and thermal oxidizers.
Refractory-lined expansion joints are custom designed for each application due to the extreme
environments.

76" Diameter Single Expansion Joints with


4" Refractory Lining, 321 Stainless Steel
Bellows and A588-A Corten Angle
Flanges.

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Types of Expansion Joints - Thick Wall


Thick Wall Expansion Joints
These may be a cost-effective option for large-diameter piping systems which operate at low
pressure. Metals can be selected to satisfy different temperature conditions. The distribution of
axial, angular, and lateral forces will be different when thick-wall expansion joints are used. We
can provide your design engineers with the potential forces and movements for proper design of
the structural members supporting the system. These joints have a long life which justifies the
initial investment.

72" Diameter Tied Universal Thick Wall Expansion


Joint with 316 SS Bellows for a Sulfuric Acid Plant

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108" Diameter Thick Wall Expansion Joint


(with 2 convolutions)

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Phone: 877-660-1795

Types of Expansion Joints - Thick Wall


Thick-wall expansion joints are used primarily in heat exchangers and large diameter piping systems
where thin-wall expansion joints would not be sufficient. The bellows are typically fabricated from A516
Grade 70 material, with the thickness ranging from 3/16" to 1". Other materials are available to meet
different temperature requirements.

78" I.D. x 100" O.D. Thick Wall Flanged and Flued Head Expansion Joints
All four expansion joints were fabricated from 1/4 thick ASTM A516 grade 70 carbon steel plate. The
expansion joints were cold formed and heat treated. The weld ends of the expansion joint are beveled,
and drainage plugs are installed in the crest of the bellows.

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Phone: 877-660-1795

Types of Expansion Joints - Rectangular Metallic


Rectangular Metallic Expansion Joints
Rectangular metal expansion joints have a variety of applications in
the power, petrochemical, refining, chemical, and steel industries.
Since there are no standard duct sizes, and due to the wide range
of pressure and temperature combinations, each rectangular metal
expansion joint is custom-engineered to provide the most
economical design that will absorb the thermal movements of the
system in which it is installed.

71" x 143" Round Corner Regular Expansion


Joint for an Oil Refinery in India

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Rectangular Metallic Expansion Joint


240" x 80" and 157" x 65"

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Types of Expansion Joints - Rectangular Metallic


Like circular expansion joints, rectangular expansion joints absorb three types of movement: axial,
lateral and angular. For the purpose of designing rectangular bellows, it is critical to know in which
direction the lateral and angular movements will occur, i.e. parallel to the long and/or short side of the
bellows.

55' Long by 14' 6" Wide Rectangular Metallic Expansion Joint


The expansion joints were fabricated from COR-TEN ASTM 588 carbon steel and are designed for 1.2
PSI at temperatures up to 748F. The expansion joints were designed for an axial compression of 1.5
and a lateral resultant movement of 1.84. The entire expansion joint was shipped to the job site in one
piece. This avoided having to splice weld the expansion joint into one piece, which saved the customer
countless assembly man hours in the field.
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Types of Expansion Joints - Rectangular Metallic


Unlike circular bellows where the pressure stress is a circumferential membrane (hoop) stress, the
rectangular bellows must be designed for longitudinal (beam) bending stresses. Long unsupported
lengths must frequently be supported to prevent excessive deflection and stresses of the bellows
element. In certain applications, covers and liners can perform the function of pressure supports.

Single Miter Corner

Rounded Corner

Camera Corner

Typical convolution geometry's and corner construction details are shown below. The "V" convolution
profile will be supplied with single miter corners, unless otherwise specified. Round corner bellows will
always be constructed using the "U" convolution profile.

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Types of Expansion Joints


Slip Type Expansion Joints
Slip type (Dresser Style) expansion joints are used when the primary problem is a large axial movement.
Materials can be selected to accommodate high temperatures and pressures. Design details include
selection of packing and seals and perhaps resistance to abrasive solids. Some applications may require
surfaces to minimize abrasive wear. Special features such as "wipers" can be included to prevent potential
clogging of the space provided for slip movement.

30" Slip Type Expansion Joint


(Designed for hydrocarbon flaring system )

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Types of Expansion Joints


Fabric Expansion Joints
Fabric expansion joints are often used in ducts which carry hot gases at low pressures. The major design
parameters are the temperatures and flow rates of the gases and the amount and abrasiveness of solids
suspended in the gases. Layers of different fabrics insulation can be combined to accommodate the
temperatures and pressure in the system. The fabric belt may need to be replaced periodically.

128" x 229" Rectangular Fabric Expansion Joint

24" Dia. Fabric Expansion Joints Designed for


Inlet and Exhaust Piping of a Hot Air Blower
81" x 18" Fabric Expansion Joint Designed for High Air
Circulation Flow for Air Cooling Loop Duct in a Power Plant

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sales@usbellows.com

Phone: 877-660-1795

Types of Expansion Joints - Fabric

Stitching the Fabric Belt on the 1st Layer

36" x 10" Face-to-Face fabric Expansion Joint with a


Three Layer fabric Belt Including 150 lb. Flat Face
Flanges with Carbon Steel Backing Bars and Liner
Up Close of Stitching the Fabric Belt

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sales@usbellows.com

Phone: 877-660-1795

Types of Expansion Joints


Fabric Expansion Joints and Duct Work
U.S. Bellows provides custom designed expansion joints in duct work and fabricated duct work
assemblies. The assemblies may include fabricated elbows, tees, and straight sections of duct work, in
carbon steel or stainless steel, and in diameters of 42" or larger. The duct sections can include fabric or
metallic expansion joints and can be rectangular or round. U.S. Bellows can also provide specialized pipe
supports and spring hangers for large diameter duct work. Additionally, we offer complete pipe stress
analysis of your duct systems using CAESAR II software.

78" Dia. Fabric Expansion Joint and Duct Work


Assembly with a 90 Elbow for a Sulphuric Acid Plant
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72" Dia. Duct Work Designed for Absorbing


Tower Piping in an Acid Plant

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Phone: 877-660-1795

Types of Expansion Joints


Neoprene / Rubber Expansion Joints

59" Diameter Neoprene Expansion Joint


(Carbon Steel Angle flanges and Stainless
Steel Clamp Rings)

59" x 39.5" Neoprene Expansion Joints


for Air Intake in a generator Unit at a
Packaged Power Facility

30" Diameter Rubber


Expansion Joint (EPDM
reinforced tube & cover,
telescoping linear and
A516-70 flanges)

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sales@usbellows.com

Phone: 877-660-1795

Expansion Joint Accessories


Internal Liners
Internal liners are used to reduce
turbulence across the bellows, and to
protect the bellows from erosion. They
are necessary when particulate barriers
and purges are specified.
Liners are normally required when ducts
are refractory lined, as they become
refractory lined as well.
Applicable lateral and angular
movements should be specified, in order
that adequate clearance is provided in
the liner design.

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sales@usbellows.com

Phone: 877-660-1795

Expansion Joint Accessories


Protective Covers

Being relatively thin, the bellows element should be protected on the outside from damage during plant
construction and later maintenance activities. Falling tools, standing on the bellows, contact with pipes,
hangers and equipment, and weld and burning spatter can render a bellows unsafe or unusable. PT&P
offers, as an optional accessory, standard carbon steel removable covers attached to the upstream end
connection, and sized to permit free flexing of the expansion joint.
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sales@usbellows.com

Phone: 877-660-1795

Expansion Joint Accessories


Limit Rods

It is sometimes desirable to limit the axial expansion or compression of the expansion joint. Limit rods,
shown above, provide freedom of movement over a range determined by the location of nut stops along
the rods. In the event of a main anchor failure, limit rods are designed to prevent bellows overextension while restraining the full pressure thrust of the system.
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sales@usbellows.com

Phone: 877-660-1795

Expansion Joint Accessories


Purge Connectors / Particulate Barriers

In systems that have a media with significant


particulate content (i.e. flash or catalyst), a barrier
of ceramic fiber can be utilized to prevent
corrosion and restricted bellows flexibility resulting
from the accumulation of the particulate.
Purging systems may also be used to perform this
function. Liners will necessarily have to be
installed when a particulate barrier or purge
connection is specified.

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sales@usbellows.com

Phone: 877-660-1795

sales@usbellows.com

Phone: 877-660-1795

EJMA Standards

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EJMA Standards

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sales@usbellows.com

Phone: 877-660-1795

Value-Added Services
Emergency Response

Refurbishment of 54" Pressure


Balanced Elbow Turbine Crossover
Expansion Joint

4" Single Expansion


Joint Refurbished
(Received in the
Morning and Shipped
the Very Same Day)

Metallic Expansion Joint


Refurbished in Just 2 Days

Same-Day Emergency Service


on an 8" Single Expansion Joint
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sales@usbellows.com

Phone: 877-660-1795

Value-Added Services
Emergency Services

24x7 Web-based Emergency Services

24x7 Emergency/Quick-turn Services for a


48" dia expansion joint

Friday, 5:30pm

Sunday

Saturday

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sales@usbellows.com

Phone: 877-660-1795

Value-Added Services
Engineering & Design Department

Engineering and Design


Piping, pipe support and
structural design
3D modeling technology
Pipe Stress Analysis
ANSYS

Finite Element Analysis

Special stress/thermal problems

Pro/E for 3-D Part Design

ANSYS for Mesh Generation


+ Analysis + Results Analysis

Field Testing
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sales@usbellows.com

Phone: 877-660-1795

Technical Information
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Pressure Balanced
Expansion Joints

Heat Exchanger
Shell Bellows

Fatigue Testing

High Temp
Furnace Seal Bag

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sales@usbellows.com

Phone: 877-660-1795

Thank You for Joining U.S. Bellows 101:


Expansion Joint Basics Webinar
Please forward any additional questions or inquiries to us at
sales@usbellows.com, call us at 877-660-1795 or visit our
website at www.usbellows.com

www.usbellows.com

sales@usbellows.com

Phone: 877-660-1795