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CYLINDER OPERATION

s'r.' n'i{""l'"t6tt

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LrltH$R

Reciprocating CoFpress_gls * _

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rrYr$

Basic Principles - Working Principte

drive

ssed

Anim

Basic Principles

Real vs. ldeal

.:

cating cycle

,

.t

ilit$:8tR

t

flilnIlG$

Piston Compressors

,l,}xgr$tli

Unloader

Piston rod

/ Valve cage

Distance piece

i .suction valve

'l ,Suction

valve nest

Piston

 

Piston rings

Cylindef head

 

Discharge valve nest

Piston rod

Discharge valve

packings

Valve cage

Cylindei

diamelet

Cylinder liner Di:livery ducl

Cooling water channels

Piston Compressors

IIilIRB[$[B

Piston Speed - pV Diagram - Clearance Volume

pis:on speed

suction p1

delivery p2

deaivery pressure p2

piston stroke

E.l1

3B

pisto

Piston Gompressors

Clearance Volume

.:.:

ume;+

reaxp

Gompressor Valves

Valve Types -

Application, Selection

,fu

v"*' 'in' uatt z:e*'

mm$il:t3

Overview

.

.

.

Existing valve types

Which valve type for which application?

Efficiency - Reliability

.t"

u$ilft[

Comparison ,,Old Valve Types" - ,,New Valve Types"

Optimised Valve Type Portfolio

t-

Overview on existing valve types

Type Descriplion

Narrow Ported Plate

Valves

Wide Pofied Plate Valves

Narow Pofted Ring

Valves

Wide Ported fung Valves

Hoerbiger Valve Tlpes

CED, CFD, {HDS). R. CT

,

CKD,

E3D, F3D, G3D, H, J, K + (CED, CFD lubed

design), CS

CE

CX

Which valve type for which

aoolication?

,!,.

ilm$t$

,4

ffiilIfi:I

Plate

Ring

Poppet

Valves

Valves

Valves

Air

Gas-transoort

Gas-storaoe

Lioht Gases

Heavy gases

Contaminated Application (Dirt)

Low temperature

special Gases

(o2, cr)

Wide

Ported

Narrow

Ported

Wide

Ported

Narrow

Ported

Efficiency / Reliability -

n compromise

?

. Targets

- High Efficiency - High Reliability

{\ Low valve ttt Llfetime

tngineer;rt parax*aers

- Valve design - Valve lift selection

- N/aterial selection

losses

Design parameters influencing the

efficienc

. available flow area

- length of the seat lands

- numbers of flow channels

curvature of the flow paths

plate valve

- vorticity generated within lhe gas

,,edges" within the flow channels

- increasing separation regimes

profiled ring valve

L

_11111111

t.

llilttt3r,

Design parameters influencing the efficienc

. Design of seat and guard areas

- saturation effects (drilled seats)

lnfluence of unloaders

- closing the seat area

lnfluence of plugs

- dereasing the flow area

Effective flow area (PHl)

50

40

.:,

ii2a

10

0

PHll

PH12

24

Lin (mm)

milled seat

drilled seat

Prediction of efficiency - good models

are available

,,

]lilMEfi

. Main valve parameters for efficiency calculation

- valve design

- valve lift

o

do

D

o

eq fialent fiov, arca

v

----'-=

Og nax

Lift (mm)

Prediction of reliability -

still a challenqe

t

ilu3st8lfl

Life time - impact stresses - impact velocity Life time - material properties (low E modulus preferrable)

o =". ^[t

. p

o

induced sness[Wa]

t

inpact

wlociryln l sl

E

e I ast ic iry Modulus lMPal

p

natetiat densitutks fn3l

Measured improvements

Relative safety factor S compared to steel

Ti

ii t

i sren l

trPEEKGF3O

o PAGF3O'l

Goal for new valve designs

optimized seat and guard geometry

- no flow resistance efFects

- enough space for unloaders

- enough strength to avoid drilled seats

,

,tr,rxr't

high impact resistance of the sealing elements

- optimised for the temperature of operation (MT, PK)

- high lifts poss:ble

Focus on specific valve design strengths

- Ring valves for critical applications

lndividual engineering

- Application based selection

Basic Valve Type Portfolio

low

wide (CS) and narrow ported plate valves

light gas

Conclusions

t,

ru$[l8m

pressure

,

lln:xx&[

. Advantages of modern, highly efficient valve types are

- efficient but still reliable

- low lifts but still efficient

- exploiting modern non metallic sealing materials

- high damping resistance

- optimized portfolio for different applications - wide and narrow ported

- ring and plate valves

- higher flexibility within the valve engineering process

Plate Guidance

Valves with Frictionless Guided Plates

s-ffi

=

-

-l

-1

,,.- 3

8 -

6 \_-

=-

=--/-7

4.5 154F3d 4,5

_--.---

_-=-=u

E-g

-

't-

-2

1

seat

2

guard unit

3

valve plate

4

lift washer

5

lift washer

6

dampler plate

7

closing springs

8

damping springs

9

nut

suction valve

-E*

i

delivery valve

Plate Guidance

Frictlonless Guided Plates

Valve plate

154F3d

Dampet plaie

Plate Guidance

Frictionless Guided Plates - Examples

Valve plate 134R

Dwg. No. 004658

double guide arm,

hollow gro!nd

1'''.2

'((CI

.i\\\\j

I\\N {hi

/4 S

'['G_

"

"',r

'-:

-

\si'':-,'

Valve plate 134R

twg. No. 057303

single guide arm

Damper plate 100FD

Dwg. No. ir$354

datale guide ar.t

Spring plate 109DlA

3wg. No.443068 :.'iple guide arm

Damping plate 183R

Dwg. No.099199

single guide r.m

Plate Guidance

Valves with Centrally Guided Valve Plates

-1

8

2-

_,_f_

-.'' :-r:

-l

P==- =.----\6

\4

5

z-{

4.=.-

-

143CGd :

J==-

6-=

3-

3

-'

--a.

===

1

=

Suction valve

'l .,, seat

1---

2

guard unit

3

valve plate

4

damper plate

5

guide ring

6

closing springs

7

damping springs

8

nut

Delivery valve

Demands on a Compressor Plate Valve

Optimized Eouivalent Area

Demands on a Compressor Plate Valve

Long valve life and reliability

Low valve losses

large passage areas

-

goodaerodynamiccharacteristics

Low masses of moving parts

Quick response to low dilferential pressure Low clearance volume

Compressor Valve Design

Plate Valve types made by HOERBIGER

Overview

Damping

Tumbling

The valve plate normally impacts at an angle onto the seat.

vr

@

1st impact

With the first impact the velocity of the cantre of gravity is reduc€d, the ptale starts to rotate wi:l angular velocity .l}.

2nd impact

on opposite side

center of

impacl

t:r. 2nd impact is ar.der

aaan lhe firsl imte.l,

:mpact veloeilr:

V2-vj+ta-a

Translatory speed of the centre of gravily of the plate = impact velocity of the l"t impact.

Angular velocity of rotation caused by 'lst impact.

lntroduction to Plate Valve T

pe Designation of Steel Plate Valves

Overview

Type

designation

s*e

[[[l[[

consistsof:

i-3diEilr

Size:

desisn reatures

----L,!1jS:]!_

diameter ol the

Design features:

Letters or combination of letters and numbers:

r plate guidance

' slot designation

number of slots

double danping

C centrally - frictionless: no indication

D:FGHJK.L:!tN

I2',g

D

6

4

5

7

8.9

.t0

Type Designation of Steel Plate Valves

Examples

'134R 1

i

I

l- L-

o :ole. J rod orawi'g:,

high speed type stze .

H-series 213H2

-

tt I I

L

IL

on2 robso--t : cnod. awiros)

r- series (frictionless guided. 5 slots. double damping)

5;.g

HDs-series 92FD

I

l---

L

doubte damping

3 slots - - -'frictionless guided valve plate and damper plate (non lubricated operation) size

Traditional Steel Plate Valves

Valves for Process Compressors

Type

Se.ies

R/RLX

oo.:t{

HDS

10Ry37RLX

88R / RLX

79R / RLX

1.17R

/ RLX

i.,

134R

,38DD

r.:

92FD .,

2t4R

64FD

254MD

92CFD -. 2s4CND

CED

CFD

ceS'r,.

ED

,:iH

52CED

74CFO '"

:

-65CED

.

.' 184cGD

100ED

37lH

126eFD,

88CGD

70ED '

213H

Applicataci o, :is R,seriea:

ation :,

lcompressor speed

I

n IRPMI "

60

1500

30

1500

25

1500

400

1000:lr'

:'.

200

200

200

bis 400

bis 400

4oo

4oo

bis 400

400

60

1000

1000

,lobo

I OO0 .

r.

looo ':li

'1000

7oo

R-types are used in air compressors or in the low pressure stages of

O2'compressors, For non lubricated compressors and sizes smaller

than 134R the types 37RLX to 117RX are used.

Traditional Steel Plate Valves

Small R-Types, up to 117R

Valves ri:ti spring plates

'

.

up to size l17R

for lubricated and non lubricated high speed air, refrigeration and gas compressors: "High speed -valves

Traditional Steel Plate Valves

Large R-Valves, above and including 134R

&.1.

Frictionless ;r:,ilsd valve plates

valve plate with single guide arm

middle lift washer

z oamper ptales

,.,

upper lift washer

closing springs .-===:--

-

'

*:

@

G _il

for lubricated and non Iubricated high speed air, refrigeration and gas compressors: "High speed"-valves

Goncentric Valves