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##########Chapters 7 9 ReviewIn the space provided, write the letter of the term
or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. A #1.
The surface area-to-volume ratio of a small cell is####A.
greater than
that of a larger cell. ####B. less than that of a larger cell. ####C. equal to that
of a larger cell. ####D. not affected by the cells size. ######D #2.
In
prokaryotic cells, the genetic material is found in####A. the DNA and RNA. ####
B. the nucleolus. ####C. the nucleus. ####D. a single loop. ######C#3.
In
eukaryotic cells, mitochondria####A. transport materials. #### B. make
proteins. ####C. produce ATP #### D. control cell division. ######C #4.
Which
cell structures do all bacteria and plants have in common?####A. chloroplasts
####B. pili####C. a cell wall#### D. Both (a) and (c)######A
#5.
Which
of these are always unicellular?####
A. prokaryotes
#### B.
eukaryotes####C. protists####D. flagella######B_____ #6. Most animals and plants
have groups of cells with a similar structure and function that are organized
into####
A. organ systems.
####B. tissues. ####
C. nerves and
muscles. ####
D. All of the above######C
#
7. Which part of the cell
membrane identifies the cell type?####
A. phospholipid bilayer
#### B.
transport proteins#### C. receptor proteins####
D. cell-surface
markers###########Questions 8 and 9 refer to the figure at right. ##D
#8.
The
cell in the figure is a####
A. prokaryotic cell. ####
B. eukaryotic
cell. ####C. plant cell. #### D. Both (b) and (c)######D
#9.
The structure
labeled A####
A. supports the cell. ####
B. protects the cell. ####
C.
surrounds the cell membrane. ####
D. All of the above######A
#10.
Which of
these statements is true about the cell membrane?####A.
The outer surfaces are
polar, while the interior is nonpolar. ####B.
The outer surfaces are nonpolar,
while the interior is polar. ####C.
Polar and nonpolar regions are randomly
arranged throughout the membrane. ####D. A layer of water within the membrane
causes the membrane to form as a lipid bilayer. ######A
#11.
By
controlling what enters and leave a cell, the cell membrane ####A.
aids in
maintaining homeostasis within the cell. ####B.
aids in maintaining
homeostasis outside of the cell. ####C.
aids in maintaining osmosis within the
cell. ####D.
aids in maintaining osmosis outside of the cell. ######A
#12.
Which kind of molecules can pass unaided through the cell membrane?####A. small,
polar molecules####B.
small, nonpolar molecules####C.
polar molecules of a
specific shape####D.
nonpolar molecules of a specific shape######C #13.
Diffusion is the movement of a substance####A.
only in liquids. ####B.
through only a lipid bilayer. ####C. down its concentration gradient. ####D.
against its concentration gradient. ######D
#14.
When particles move out
of a cell through facilitated diffusion, the cell####A.
gains energy. #### B.
uses energy. ####C.
first gains and then uses energy. ####D.
does not
experience any change related to energy. ######B
#15.
The diffusion of water
through a selectively permeable membrane is called####
A. endocytosis. ####B.
osmosis. ####
C. exocytosis. ####
D. isotonic movement. ######C #16.
Molecules that are too large to be moved through a cell membrane can be transported
into the cell by####A. osmosis. ####
B. exocytosis. ####
C.
endocytosis. #### D. membrane proteins. ######B #17. .
If the concentration of
a sugar solution is lower outside the cell than inside the cell, which of the
following will happen by osmosis?####
A. Sugar will move into the cell. ####
B. Water will move into the cell. ####
C. Water will move out of the
cell. ####
D. Both (a) and (c)####
##B
#18. Which of these always
involves the movement of a vesicle?####A. diffusion ####B. endocytosis#### C.
facilitated diffusion
#### D. All of the above######C
#19. How do organisms

store and use energy?####A.


by converting oxygen into organic compounds#### B. by
taking in electrons from electron transport chains####C.
by making and breaking
the chemical bonds in organic compounds####D. by transferring energy through the
process of homeostasis######A #20.
What is the main way that organisms
contribute to the carbon cycle?####A. through metabolic processes####B.
through the diffusion of hydrogen ions####
C.
by reflecting light####
D. by splitting water molecules######D #21.
Which is the ultimate source
of energy for most organisms on Earth?####A. oxygen ####B. water####C. carbon
dioxide
####D. sunlight######A #22.
What captures light energy for
photosynthesis?####
A. pigments in chloroplasts #### B. electromagnetic
radiation####
C. thylakoids in mitochondria
#### D. hydrogen ions in ATP
synthase######B
#23.
Which is necessary for the final stage of photosynthesis
to occur?####A. chlorophyll #### B. carbon dioxide####C. oxygen####D.
glucose##Questions 24-26 refer to the graphs below. #C #24.
Graph A demonstrates
that the rate of photosynthesis####A.
decreases in response to increasing light
intensity. ####B.
increases indefinitely in response to increasing light
intensity. ####C.
increases in response to increasing light intensity but
only to a certain point. ####D.
is not affected by changes in light
intensity. ##D
#25.
Taken together, these graphs demonstrate####A.
photosynthesis is independent of environmental influences. ####B.
increases in light intensity correlated with increases in temperature. ####C.
as the rate of photosynthesis increases, light intensity and temperature
eventually
decrease. ########D. the rate of photosynthesis is affected by
changes in the environment. ######C #26.
Would you expect a graph showing the
relationship between carbon dioxide concentration
and
rate of photosynthesis to be similar to either of these graphs?####### A. No.
There is no relationship between carbon dioxide concentration and the rate of
photosynthesis. ########B. No. The rate of photosynthesis remains steady with
changing carbon dioxide
concentration. ########C. Yes. The relationship
between the rate of photosynthesis and carbon dioxide concentration is similar to
the relationship between the rate of photosynthesis and light intensity. ####D. Yes.
The relationship between the rate of photosynthesis and carbon dioxide
concentration is similar to the relationship between and the rate of photosynthesis
and
temperature. ##########C #27.
When do your muscle cells use lactic
acid fermentation?####A.
when these cells run out of oxygen####B.
when
these cells run out of carbon dioxide#### C. when these cells run out of ATP####D.
when these cells need to use the electron transport chain##Complete each
statement by writing the correct term or phrase in the space provided.
__microscope___________
#28. Scientists first discovered cells by using
a(n) _____. ##___Cell membrane________ # 29. A cells boundary is called the
_____. ##__Ribosomes____________ #30.
_____ are cell structures common to
both prokaryotes and
eukaryotes on which proteins are
made. ##___nucleus______________ ____organells___________
#
31. Eukaryotes
differ from prokaryotes in that only eukaryotic cells
32. have a(n) _____
and membrane-bound _____. ##__DNA________________ #33. The nucleus has a double
membrane, called the nuclear envelope, that
helps protect a cells _____ from
becoming damaged or lost.
# DOCVARIABLE "Break:_0000184",
PreserveFormatting:=True \* MERGEFORMAT ## DOCVARIABLE "PageNo:0018",
PreserveFormatting:=True \* MERGEFORMAT ###___vacuole_____________ #34. In plant
cells, rigidity is provided by a large, membrane-bound sac called the
______. ##_Endoplasmic reticulum____Golgi bodies___ #35.
When a cell makes
proteins that are to be transported outside the
cell the proteins are packaged
in the _____ modified and repackaged36. in the ______
and then transported to
the cell membrane. ##__lysosomes_____________ # 37. Vesicles which contain enzymes
that break down large molecules are
called ____. ##_Cytoplasmic skeleton_____#38.
The ____ is a network of protein fibers that supports a cell and aids in its
movement. ##__chloroplasts___________ #39.
Organelles that use light energy to
make sugar from water and carbon dioxide are called
______. ##__organ________________ # 40. A(n)_____ is made up of different kinds of

tissues arranged together to perform a specific


function. ##___multicellular__________#Multicellula41. Cells in a(n)
______________________ organism cannot survive on their own. ###Questions 42-48
refer to the figure to the right. 42. The structure labeled A is the _cell
membrane_______. 43. The organelle labeled B is the ___Golgi bodies________.
44. The structure labeled C is the __cell wall___________. 45. The structure
labeled D is the __vacuole____________. 46. The organelle labeled E is the
__Endoplasmic reticulum_.
47. The organelle labeled F is a(n)
_mitochondria_______.
48. The organelle labeled G is a(n)
__chloroplast____________________. #Questions 49-51 refer to the figures below. #
49. Figure A illustrates a cell in a(n) __hypertonic______________ solution.
50. Figure B illustrates a cell in a(n) __hypotonic_______________ solution. 51.
Figure C illustrates a cell in a(n) __isotonic__________________ solutionIn the
space provided,
write the letter of the description that best matches each term. #b
52.
lipid bilayerf
53.
concentration gradientd
54.
facilitated diffusiona
55.
active transporte
56.
passive
transportc
57.
equilibriumh
58. ATPi
59. cellular
respirationg
60. photosynthesisRead each question, and write your
answer in the space provided. 61. List the primary differences between prokaryotes
and eukaryotes. _
Prokaryotes are small, single-celled organisms that lack
internal membrane-bound compartments, including a nucleus and other membrane-bound
organelles. The genetic material of prokaryotes is a single loop of DNA. Eukaryotes
may be single-celled or multicellular. They have a nucleus, which is a membranebound compartment that houses the cells DNA, and other organelles that carry out
specific functions. Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells and
can carry out more specialized functions. 62. What are 2 functions of the nucleus?
_The nucleus contains the DNA which is the genetic information; is the control
center of the cell; and contains nucleoli which produce RNA and ribosomes. __ The
main function of the nucleus is to store and protect the DNA, preventing it from
becoming damaged or lost ___________________ 63. What do autotrophs need from the
environment in order to carry out photosynthesis?__Autotrophs need the sunlight,
carbon dioxide and water in order to carry out photosynthesis. ___ 64. List the
three parts of the cell theory. Explain the significance of the cell theory to
biology.
__ All living things are made up of one or more cells. Cells are
the basic units of structure and function in organisms. All cells arise from
existing cells. __________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________65.
What would happen if the cell membrane became impermeable?___Nothing would be able
to enter or exit the cell. If this occurred the cell would not be to rid itself of
waste or to obtain the materials that it needed from its environment in order to
survive.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________66. Compare and
contrast the different methods cells use to move substances across the cell
membrane. _ Simple diffusion occurs when substances pass down the concentration
gradient on their own. Oxygen molecules passing from outside the cell, through the
cell membrane, to the inside of a cell is an example. Facilitated diffusion occurs
when substances pass down the concentration gradient, moving across the cell
membrane with the aid of transport proteinseither channel proteins or carrier
proteins. Sodium ions can diffuse through a cell membrane by means of channel
proteins.
The sodium-potassium pump is a carrier molecule that moves sodium
against its concentration gradient out of a cell and moves potassium against its
concentration gradient into a cell. Sodium ions and a phosphate group bind to the
carrier protein inside the cell. The carrier protein changes shape and releases the
sodium ions outside the cell. Potassium ions that are outside the cell bind to the
carrier protein. The phosphate group is released from the protein. The protein

returns to its original shape and releases the potassium inside the cell.
Osmosis allows cells to maintain water balance as the conditions around the
cell change.
The cell consumes food particles that are too big to pass
through a channel protein by using endocytosis.
Endocytosis is the movement
of substances into a cell by means of vesicles; exocytosis is the movement of
substances out of a cell by means of vesicles. Both employ vesicles and both are
examples of active transport, and therefore require energy. 67. What are three
environmental factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis?____Three
environmental factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis in plants are
temperature, light intensity and carbon dioxide levels.
____________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________#