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XII
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43
: XII - ,
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, 2015. 237 .
13 2014 . , ,
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;
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ISBN 978-5-93493-230-6

2015
, 2015
2

81'34+81'37
,

, .

[11,

. 151152]; ,

, , -

androsova_s@mail.ru

Androsova Svetlana Viktorovna

[21, . 244]. : -

Doctor of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor

, (-

Amur State Universit

), , , -

Blagoveschensk

/ / , -

androsova_s@mail.ru

( ), . , .



COORDINATION FUNCTION OF THE SYLLABLE
IN PHONEMIC LANGUAGES

. , . .
The current paper focuses upon advantages and disadvantages of the functions


? ,
,
. ,
[14, . 58].
: 1) ( ), 2) ( ).
. . . ,

: -

and upon the motivation to introduce a new non-traditional approach to coordination

as the main function of the Syllable. I hypothesize the open syllable to be the minimal

[10, . 98; 16, c. 140-141].

unit of coordination. The analysis of allophonic speech patterns in the flow of speech

. . ,

is used to prove the hypothesis.

[11, . 74].

: , , ,
, .
Key words: syllable, coordination, phrasal allophone, inter-level interaction,

,
, .
, , ,
[17, . 2728; 27, . 80], -

speech production.
3

. -

, ; 2) -

, ; 3) -

, . , . .

, -

, .

(, ,

, , ,

) [4, . 27; 13, . 201],

, . , , -

1) , 2) -

, . , /di/
, ( ), /di/ -

.
[22,

, /di/,

. 104118, 164165; 2; 1; 20, . 173, 193] :

, -

1) -

( -

[26]; 2) , ,

), , . -

, ; 3) -

c. 344];

, .

4) [23, . 67; 12, . 168169; 6,

[8,

. 100110].

. 52, 57] -

[25,

. . . , -

. . ,

, , -

[11, . 125126]. , ,

[8, . 52, 57]; -

.. , ,

( )

, , -

, [8, . 107126]. -

[9, . 145; 16,

c. 140-141].

, ,

. -

. -

: 1) -

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,

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.

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( 1), /

( 2), ( 3),

, [15].

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4), / ( 5),

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( 8). , , -

( ) -

, , -

: ) , ) ,

, .

) ,
.


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, -

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50- . . ..

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. -

[5, . 33]. -

(),

[19, . 2124, 3031]:

13, 5. 8 5

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, : (2) They parted, but they

wanted to be together , -

, ,

, ,

. , -

, .

together, ,
, .
, . (1) We would usually be

(1).
, , .
(1) (2)
. ,
. at
: (3) Look at a child, (4) I don't like it at all [], (4) (3) ,

together a lot of the time ( 1);


( 2).
[] , -

, . [] /
-

. , []

. [] , :

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) 2 ,

) ( 3) /i/, -

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5:

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). 5 2 -

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[] .

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( 6) [], .
( 78) [],
9

, )
[24, c. 23] [18, c. 187].
10

): . ...- . 10.02.19 / ..; . . - .

.. . ., 1969.

, ,

8. .. / .. . .: - . -, 1981. 200 .

(, -

9. , .. //

), -

. : 100-

( ),

.. / .. : . . / . . .. . .:

, 1981. . 141146.

). -

10. , .. -

( ), , -

// / .. . .: . . ,

2006. . 10-238.

11. , .. .

1. , .. / .. .
. 6-. .: , 1984. 383 . [1- . 1950].
2. , .. /
.. . .: - . -, 1956. 240 .
3. , .. (- ): . ...- . : 10.02.19 / C..; . -. , 2012. 535 .

/ .. . . 3-. .: , 2006. 248 . [1- . 1965].


12. , .. . / .. . .: , 1976. 288 .
13. , . /
. . . 2-. .: , 2002. 656 . [1- . 1993].
14. , .. / .. . .
2-. .: , 2009. 112 . [1- . 1979].

4. , .. (-

15. , ..

- ):

/ .. // . .:

. . .... . : 10.04.04 / ..; . . . -

, 1974. . 2439.

. . . . ., 1980. 35 .
5. , .. / .. /

Linguistics. 1969. Vol. 5, N 1. P. 136142.


17. Bailey C.-J. N. Evidence for Variable Syllable Boundaries // The Melody of

. .. . .: , 1990. 495 .
6. , ..

16. Anderson, J. Syllabic or Non-Syllabic Phonology? / J. Anderson // J. of

: /

.. , .. , .. . .: - , 2000.

Language: Intonation and Prosody / C.-J. N. Bailey. Baltimore: [S. n.], 1980.
P. 25-39.
18. Berg, T., Niembi, J. Syllabification in Finnish and German: Onset filling

157 .
7. , ..
(-
11

vs. onset maximization / T. Berg, J. Niembi // J. of Phonetics. 2000. Vol. 28, 2.


P. 187216.
12

19. Bernstein, N.A. The Coordination and Regulation of Movements /


N.A. Bernstein. London: Pergamon, 1967. 196 p.
20. Borowsky T.J. Topics in the Lexical Phonology of English: PhD disserta-

81'34+811.11+378+371.3
,
, .

tion / T.J. Borowsky. [S. l.]: The Univ. of Massachusetts, 1986. Chap. 3.2.

P. 165268.

21. Cruttenden, A. Gimson's Pronunciation of English / A. Cruttenden. [S. l.]:


Edward Arnold Limited, 2001. 360 p.

taniho@inbox.ru
Anihovskaya Tatyana Vladimirovna

22. Jespersen, O. Phonetische Grundfragen / O. Jespersen. Leipzig; Berlin:


[S. n.], 1904. 186 p.

Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor


Blagoveschensk State Pedagogical University

23. Malmberg, B. Phonetics / B. Malmberg. New York: [S. n.], 1963. 123 p.

Blagoveschensk

24. Moltmann, F. Syllabification and Lexical Phonology in German / F. Molt-

taniho@inbox.ru

mann. [S. l.]: [S. n.], 1990. P. 120. : http://semantics.univ-paris1.fr/pdf/Phonology-1990.pdf

25. Ohala, J.J. Alternatives to the Sonority Hierarchy for Explaining Segmental

Sequential Constraints / J.J. Ohala, H. Kawasaki-Fukumori // Language And Its Ecology: Essays in Memory of Einar Haugen. Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs / [ed. by Stig Eliasson and Ernst H-kon Jahr]. 1997. Vol. 100. Berlin:
Mouton de Gruyter. P. 343365.

INTERMEDIATE
TYPES OF PHONETIC EXERCISES IN THE INTERMEDIATE
LEVEL ENGLISH-LANGUAGE COURSEBOOKS.
,

26. Parker, S. Sound Level Protrusions as Physical Correlates of Sonority /


S. Parker // J. of Phonetics. 2008. Vol. 36. P. 5590.
27. Wells, J.C. Syllabification and Allophony / J.C. Wells // Studies in the Pronunciation of English. A Commemorative Vol. in Honour of A.C. Gimson / [ed. by
S. Ramsaran]. Great Britain: Routledge, 1990. P. 7686.

- Intermediate , .
The article deals with the types of phonetic exercises used in the Intermediate
English-language course-books and compares the approach to practicing pronunciation offered in several popular courses.
: , , .
Key words: pronunciation, intonation, listening comprehension.

.
,
, .

13

14

short as in fill. Look at the list of words and think about the underlined sounds.

, , -

Which are long vowels and which are short vowels? :

, , ( Beginner

The schwa is the commonest sound in English. Its phonetic symbol is //. You hear it

Elementary)

in words like dinner, cinema, around. It is never stressed.

. -

, Intermediate -

, -

: Divide words into two groups with long and short vowels. Listen

Inside Out Straightforward, Pronunciation -

to the words, then match the sounds to the phonetic symbols. Think of other words

Advanced.

for each sound. ,


New
Headway
Beginner
Elementary
PreIntermediate
Intermediate
UpperIntermediate
Advanced

, : Listen to the chat-

Inside Out

Enterprise

Upstream

Straightforward

+
+
-

+
+
+

+
+
+

+
+
+

+
+
+

up lines do you like best? Which ones do you like least? Choose four chat-up lines

+
+

+
+

them into English and mark the schwas.

up lines below. All the schwas have been marked. Work with a partner. Which chat-

and practice them. Do you know any chat-up lines in your own language? Translate
(Intonation)
,

Intermediate - Inside Out, Straightforward

: Look at the tapescript and listen to the questions. Underline the strongest

Enterprise.

stress in each question. Make up similar questions to you partner.

, Inside Out Intermediate

: Complete the following dialogues, then listen and check. Listen again, and

. -

notice the pronunciation of the words in bold. Practice the dialogues with a partner.

(long and short vowels,

Make up and practice a similar dialogue. : Read

the schwa sound, short vowels, easily confused consonants, pure vowels and

the dialogues. Choose an appropriate response from the box. Listen to the dialogues

diphthongs), -

and check your answers. Listen to the responses. Practice the stress and intonation.

(stress in questions, using stress to express strong feelings, syllable-timed stress,

stresstiming ( ), ,

showing empathy).
, -

: Look at this popular childrens nursery rhyme and lis-

(Pronunciation)

ten to the recording. The boxes show the stressed syllables. Say the rhyme along with

. : Vowels in English can be long as in feel or

the recording. Follow the stress and speed of the recording. Try to finish at exactly

15

16

the same time as the recording. Work with a partner. Write the nursery rhyme. Use
these words and any others you need. Then put boxes around stressed syllables.

.
(Word linking), -

Enterprise Intermediate -

(was/were), -

of. , -

Pronunciation, .
, ( //, /a:/, / /; //,
/i:/; //, //; / /, /o:/; /s/, //; /n/, //; /t/, //; /s/, /z/).
, , : Listen to
these words and put a tick in the relevant box. Then listen again and repeat. : Listen and underline/circle the words which you hear on the tape. Listen again
and repeat. ,
, -

: We often join two words when an initial vowel


sound follows a final consonant sound. Look at these examples, then listen and repeat. Practice saying these phrases quickly.
,
: /s/, /z/, //; /u/,/u:/; //, //.
: Listen to the underlined sound in the sentence. Look at the underlined letters and put the words in the box into three groups /s/, /z/, //. Listen to the recording
and check your answers.

: Listen to the dialogue,

, -

underline the words which express statement, circle the ones which express disbelief

and surprise, then act out the dialogue using the correct intonation.

Straightforward Intermediate Pronunciation

. -

-, -

, .

(Intonation of
lists, intonation of requests, expressing feelings, sentence stress, intonation of social
expressions). , , , , . : Listen to the extract
from the conversation ( ).
Notice how the voice goes up for each item of the list and then down at the end of the

Pronunciation . , , Intermediate ,
,
.
. ,

list. Practice reading these lists in the same way. Listen to the recording to check your

- Intermediate

pronunciation. Work in pairs. Take it in turns to add one more item to the lists below.

Repeat the whole list each time.

.
17

18

811.11+81'34


1. Evans, Virginia, Dooley, Jenny. Enterprise Intermediate Corsebook. Express
Publishing.
2. Evans, Virginia, Dooley, Jenny. Upstream Intermediate Students Book.
Express Publishing.
3. Kay, Sue, Jones, Vaughan. Inside Out Intermediate Students Book. Macmil-

,
, .
,
.
s_guseva@mail.ru

lan, Heinemann.
4. Kerr, Philip, Jones, Ceri. Straightforward Intermediate Students Book.

,
.

Macmillan.
5. Soars Liz and John. New Headway Intermediate Students Book. Oxford

,
.

university press.

ksiyniatp@mail.ru
Guseva Svetlana Ivanovna
Doctor of Philology, Professor
Amur State University
Blagoveschensk
s_guseva@mail.ru
Tyschenko Kseniya Pavlovna
Masters degree student
Amur State University
Blagoveschensk
ksiyniatp@mail.ru



PERCEPTUAL AND ACOUSTIC CHARACTERISTICS
OF SPONTANEOUS SPOKEN DISCOURSE
.
19

20

Taking as a basis the acoustic and perceptual analysis of the German language

[1, 2, 3]. -

vowels we study the dependence of the phonetic characteristics implementation from

the position of the segment in the information structure of the utterance.

: , -

: , -

, , , -

, , . -

, .

, -

Key words: perceptual characteristics, acoustic characteristics, spontaneous

. , ,

spoken discourse, informational approach, informative frame of discourse, the allo-

, , -

phones of German vowels.

, -

, -

( ), (-

, -

), -

().

, -

( 60 100 % , -

). -

.. .

: 1,0 = 100 % , 0,9 = 90% .. 0,6,


60% .

, , -

. , , -

. -

, -

, .. ,

, -

, -

, .

. -

, -

, .

. -

,
, 21

- ,
- .
22


PRAAT , , , , , .
,
.
-)

, ,
. ,
nicht ,
(
7%), nicht
. , , -,
/ .

nicht .
, ,
[4].
nicht .
/t/
.
D nicht

, . -

nicht:

, /i/.

) ; ) ; ) .

. 1.
23

24

1
/i/

/i/
t ()
FI ()
FII ()
I ()

nicht 0,7
68
370
2500
75

nicht 0,7

nicht 0,6

nicht 0,9

36
407
2384
71

46
370
2400
79

55
369
2346
78

/i/
/i:/. , -

nichts 0,9
68
445
2574
73

nicht
49
369
2498
68

Studium, studieren,
. /i:/
, . 2.

nicht

nichts, ,
nicht. , ,
.

/i:/

/i:/
t ()
FI ()
FII ()
I ()

studieren 0,6

studieren 0,9

studieren 0,8

studieren 0,6

25
330
2460
71

68
407
2460
69

51
331
2460
67

60
407
2384
72

(). , (

. 2 /i:/ -

) , -

. 0,9

, .

, -

. 1 /i/ -

,
.

FI FII (369 2498 ) ,

/i:/ /i/ .

, nichts 0,9 (445 2574 ), 90 % -

/i:/, ,

, .

25 % , 45 %

/i/, 35% ,

, -

, /y:/ //.

, . , -

/i/ 42 % ; 58%

, ,

, , -

. , -

/i/ /i:/.

nichts -

, , -

. -

nicht.

/i:/ : -

25

26

25%, 25%; 50% /i:/ /i/.

/i/, -

1. , ..

/i:/, -

/ .. . : - . -, 1998.

12,5% .

153 .

2. -

. -

/ . .. . : - . -,

75% , 100%

2006. 272 .
3. , .. : /

/i/.

/i/ finde. : /i:/.

.. // . 2014. 3. . 11 21.
4. Ortman, D., Qasim, E. Phonothek. 27 bungslektionen zur deutschen Aussprache / E. Qasim, D. Ortman. Mnchen, 1989.

/n/
/d/ . , .

:
1) ,
, ;
2) ,
;
3) , -,
.
27

28

81'34+811.11

The article presents a complex analysis of phonetic modifications in AAVE

based on theoretical points and experimental data. A part of the article gives a de-

, .

scription of AAVE phonetic features. The data were taken from academic publishing

and internet resources on the subject. Another part focuses on phonetic modifications

in AAVE, which havent been fully investigated. An acoustic experiment was con-

svetich_d2000@mail.ru

ducted in order to illustrate tendencies in realization of some phonemes in AAVE.


: , ,

,
094 . ,
,

, , .
Key words: African American dialect, spontaneous speech, vowels and consonants, comparative analysis, acoustic analysis.

nutella-0207@mail.ru

, , .

Derkach Svetlana Viktorovna


Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor

,
. .

Amur State University

: , -

Blagoveshchensk

, , , , [3]. , -

svetich_d2000@mail.ru

African American Vernacular English, Black English,

Kasyan Anna

(Ebonics), -

Student of group 094

[6].

Amur State University

, -

Blagoveshchensk

nutella-0207@mail.ru


, -



THE PECULIARITIES OF PHONETIC MODIFICATIONS
IN AFRICAN AMERICAN ENGLISH

.
.

, , .

. -

, -

29

30

, , -

). , , sister

sistah.

2. [] [v]
-

[4] (African American

[d] [] [f] [t],


.

English AAE),

3. , /m/

(African American Vernacular English AAVE) -

/n/, ,

[2].

, .
: .
, . , XVI XVII XIX . , -

4. /l/, . , .
5. /d/, /t/, /l/, /n/. ,
[l] , -

, ,

, , -

. - -

, , ,
, [1].
,
,
( , inner cities), ,
.

. ,

.
:

6. (
).
7. /o/ [] []
money, worry.
, , - DMX 6.09 14.20 . , ,
2012 .
.
- -

1. .. /r/

( -

PRAAT. -

31

32

, (F0, F1, F2), -

god []

, -

[gd]. : F1=1630 , F2=2553 . 20,8 ,

72,73.

, .

.
,

, [5], , , [] car [k]


: F1= 687 , F2=1077 . 9,7 , 76,38 .

: , forget [f'get]
(. 1) [r] ,

: F1=1230 ,

F2=2309 . 8,2 ,
60,33 .

.
determination , [ei]
. :
F1= 2354 , F2=2525 , : F1= 2325 , F2= 2456 . 17,9 , 84,53 .
[au] : F1=1578 ,
F2=2744 . 21,4 , 87,68 .
[ai] : F1=1665
, F2=2587 , F1=2170 , F2=2622 .
12,5 , 88,77 , . our,
excitement.
[]

. 1. Forget.

[a]: , gather ['g] [] :


F1=2065 , F2=2727 . 8,7 , 87,7 .

cop [] -

mentality [men'tlt]: []: F1=1560 , F2=2674

[] [kp]. : F1=1081 , F2=2427 .

. 4,7 , 72,27 .

9,1 , 83,68 .

[]

dear F2 [i] 1995 ,

, [i]. jubilee ['ubli] [i]

F2 -

: F1=1839 , F2=2692 . 1,83 , -

2514 .

84,68 .
33

34

. ,
/i/ [e].

. 3. Dead.
. 2. Dear god.

dead [d],

[t] (

( 355 ),

r : -

. , -

[d] [r] , ). , beautiful

, -

[t] : 1 , 5 ,

: F2 2600 2200

7,3 . 71,62 .
[l] RP . -

F1 500 850 .

beautiful, [l] : husband [] [u], F1 520 ,


F2 1500 .

: F0 = 428 , F1=2344 , F2=3388 . 7,8 ,


65,44 .
[j] duty, news ( -

.

, ,
,

[j] ). duty, [j] : : F0=372 , F1=2291 , F2=2848 .


4,3 . 92,39 .

.
35

36


(glottal stop) . ,
not crazy, 6 .
.
[] [v]/[d]
[] [f]/[t], .
mother, [] [d]. 4 . [f] [] both,
10,9 .
and then - [d]
[], , , ,

. 4. Thinking.

(3800-9000 ).

30 , 90 . - [d] [] ,
then, with, that, the, that 88% [d].

. with, [] , 20 .

thinking [] [t],

pretty [],

95 120 . -

. -

, .

4500-6500 . [t]

, -

[] 70%

three, everything, think.

. kettle, better,

[l] ,

letter.

. absolutely [l]

[t+to] , wanna

: F0=568 , F1=2413 , F2=3057 .

10,7 , 73,96 . long [l] -

got to want to 50 % .

1000 ( 1350) ,

husband - -

. [l] 71%

[d] [n]. -

kill you, call her, look, little, love, let, lot of.

[d] [nd] -

37

38

, .

81'34+81'38

30 26

and. 27% [nd],

, 83%

- [d],

554454@inbox.ru

, . , ,
. , , ,
, ,
, , , .

Zharovskaya Elena Viktorovna


Candidate of Philological Sciences
Amur State University
Blagoveschensk
554454@inbox.ru

THE EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION OF INTONATION
IN ADVERTISING DISCOURSE
,

1. , ..

, .

/ .. // -. .: , 2004.
2. , . / .
// : . :
http://lingvomania.info/tag/anglijskij-yazyk
3. , ..
/ .. . ., 1983.

The article discusses the phonetic means of expressiveness used in advertising


discourse. Special attention is paid to intonation as one of the main components involved in the creation of advertising text.
: , , , , .
Key words: intonation, expression, advertising discourse, phonetic means of
expressiveness, intensity.

4. . / . . .. . .: , 2002.
5. Cruttenden, A. Gimsons Pronauniation of English / A. Cruttenden. Edward Arnold (Publisher) Limited, 2001. 395 p.
6. Rickford, J. African American Vernacular English: Features and Use, Evolution and Educational Implications / J. Rickford. London, 1999.
39

, ,
, .
, ,

, .
40

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. -

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[3, . 1].

[ ].

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-

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.

[2, . 50].
2. ( ).
3. ( ,
).
,
, .

4. , -

; -

, . , -

, , ,

, .. ,

, , -

// /i:/ -

[2, . 22].

, /:/ /u:/ [ 1974, 1991; -

1981; , 2002 . . : 2].

, -

5. . ,

, , , -

, -

41

42

6. - .

. -

-- !) //, .. -

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[2].

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(---!

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-, ,

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, [ , . 64].


, .

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43

44

). , -

. ., 2003.

, , ,

2. , .. -

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: / .. //

- .

. : - , 2008. 108 .

, -

3. , .. / -

. . // -

. 2009. . 1. . 75-77.


.

. ()
,
. ,
.
, , , .. , ,
, , . , ,
, , , .

, ; ,
; , , .

1. , .. / .. // , 45

46

Key words: stressed monothongs duration, theme, rheme, utterance, voiced /


voiceless labial, dental, alveolar, and velar consonants.

8134+811.11

,
,

() . , -

, .

, -

polia-80@mail.ru

- ,

Ivanashko Yulia Petrovna

, , -

Senior Teacher

, ,

Amur State University

, , , -

Blagoveschensk

. [1, . 265; 2, . 33; 3, . 159, 273].

polia-80@mail.ru

THE DURAION OF VOWELS WITHIN THE INFORMATIONAL

: (D1), (D2) (D3). -

STRUCTURE OF AN UTTERANCE

1 30 .

- , -

. -

, -

. , , -

, -

The present article shows the results of acoustic study of stressed monophthongs segmented from theme and rheme parts of utterances. The paper analyzes the duration of vowels followed by voiced/voiceless labial consonants on the
one hand and voiced/voiceless dental, alveolar, and velar consonants on the other.
: , , , / , / .
47

, ,
.
. 1,
, , .
48

( justice, but, just, us), []

,
D1
D2
D3

59
70
56
56
67
58
127
121
124
79
109
83
91
68
60
68
86
75
150
100
126
86
100
71
62
74
59
67
60
55
161
170
174
129
170
118
95
123
193

79
116
129

74
135
95
109

65
125
67
93

90
114
91
155

75
125
56
108

D1
-11
6
23
50
-12
-9
16
7
64

D2
0
45
-8
40
-8
45
9
10
28
16

2-3
( government, publishing, suddenly .), [] .
, , , .
, , , , , : , , .

( ) . 2.

[] , 1, 2

D3
9
26
11
29
5
52
15
-11
35
47

. 3, []
.
3
[],

D1
D2
D3

59
59
56
41
67
56

70
90
63
50
55
35
49
34
58
48
63
52

. 3 , []
, .

,
([] D1, [e] D2, [] D1, D2, [] D1, [] D3), , .
-

, . -

. , , 49

50

D3

, , CV CVC.
,


D3 44%. D2,
31% , .

, , .
-

D1 13%.
-

, , , ,

. 5.

D1, D2, D3


20
18
16
14

(/.)

12
10
8

(/.)

6
4
2
0
D1

D2

44

. 4 ,


,
D1
D2
D3
70
54
57
96
118
98
75
77
70
87
90
120
60
70
98
140
137
120
86
55
125
165
144
130
87
95
66
80
98
132
130
132
-


,
D1
D2
D3
70
55
76
90
102
82
70
68
70
80
84
104
50
64
70
110
110
111
63
55
69
135
117
120
55
76
53
58
65
94
127
110
99

D3

, , ,

(. 1).

. 1. .


. 4
D1, D2, D3.
4

D1
D2

, %
13
31
51

D1, D2, D3 ( %), . 6.


. 6 , ,
, ( )
.

52

,
.
6

, %

D1
0
6
7
8
17
21

D2
0
14
12
7
9
20

D3
-25
16
0
13
28
8

27
18
37
27
2

0
19
20
34
17

44
8
20
29
-

17

15

18

(
) -

D1, D2, D3 17% ,

[4].

.
. 2 3,
summit (D1),
.
, [], , , (44 64 ).
[] (D3), [] (D1, D2), [] (D2),

. 2. [] ( )
summit (D1).
. 3. [] ( )
summit (D1).
, ,
, ,
, , , -

, [] D2 ,
.

, . , , .

53

54

1. , .. : .
. . . . . / .. ; ., . . ..
. . 2-, . . .: ;
.: , 2007. 576 .

811.11+81'34
,
, .
,

2. Clark, J. An introduction to phonetics and phonology / J. Clark, C. Yallop.


Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 2000. 473 p.
3. Crystal, D. A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics / D. Crystal. 6th ed.
Blackwell Publish. Ltd., 2011. 529 p.

.
kvv888@list.ru
Kiselev Valerii Vasilevich
Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor

4. Gay, T. Effect of speaking rate on vowel formant movements / T. Gay // The


Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 1978. 2. P. 223 230.

Amur State University


Blagoveschensk
kvv888@list.ru
R:

LINKING AND INTRUSIVE R: A PHONETIC PHENOMENON
AND A FACT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE HISTORY
R, , .
The phenomena of linking and intrusive R, or R-sandhi, are discussed. Their
history and status are described as well as social and linguistic constraints on their
usage.
: linking R, intrusive R, received pronunciation, language
evolution, linguistic and social constraints, distribution, (non)rhotic varieties.
Key words: R, R, , , , , () .
R
, .

55

56

[1], R

.. [3], [r] -

, , -

, -

(rhotic) ,

, -

. -

[r] , -

( ) . , -

, , -

, -

. ,

[3].
1

1700 . [1].
[r]

. , (linking)
(intrusive) R () ? , R,
(hiatus), , .
- , - ?
(linking) (intrusive) R?
, r, , [r]. [r] XVI . (
), [s]. [r]
XV . [r] monyng cadenall , [2]. [r] ,
.
XVI-XVII .
XVIII ., 1790- . 1790 . [r]

bark
Harm
Turn
Port
Care
Here

XVI .
[bark]
[harm]
[turn]
[port]
[ke:r]
[hi:r]

XVII, XVIII .
[bk]
[hm]
[tn]
[pt]
[k]
[h]

-
, RP (received
pronunciation).
, , , .
.
, (rhoticity)
,
R r , , []
[r] [] [2].

, [2].

(rhoticity)

XIX . -

- (non-rhotic).


57

58

(, rhotic) , R -

varieties, 1982) . 15

, - (-, non-rhotic), -

R [2].

R [15].

- (non-rhotic) -

R , []

-
R

rod very , car' cart. [] ,


. [r] -

, ,

RP (received pronunciation)
RP,








. [r] , [4,5,6].

(rhotic) - (non-rhotic) , . , [r] - XIX
. ,
,
(, ), , XIX (,
, ), -. , , , . - , R (
),
, -, - , , ,
[2].

for

/r/

for it

/r/

saw it

/r/
-

, R
- . , (vernacular Afroamerican) ,
[r] . R Received Pronunciation
(RP). , RP
, , . RP R, . , -- ().
11 (Everymans English Pronouncing Dictionary, 11-th

Ed.,1956) [13] -

(P. Trudgill, Jean Hannah International English. A guide to the


59

60

: R ,

, Anna/r/ and I, law/r/ and order. [r]

. R -

, R (intrusive R), [r] -

, R,

, , . -

, R , ,

R , -

, - . R

, , -

. , ,

, , withdraw/r/al, gnaw/r/ing. R- ,

, , , R

[11].

, [12: . 13].
R
. RP: . (Variabil-

R- ()
, , .
R
, : [,:,:,:,,

ity and change in Received Pronunciation: A study of six phonological variables in

,]. R ,

the speech of television newsreaders) [11]. R -

, r ,

, R.

R-, .. , [r]

R [], [:] [:].

, , for/r/ ever, China/r/ and Japan. ,

, R-: -

RP R -

[r], [r]. , -

. [16: . 11], -

, /R/ -

, R-.

[r] ,

r liaison, , , -

. , , , [r]
( ), -

[9: . 11].
Received Pronunciation (RP), -
, [r] , , , [r]. , , [r] ,
. r (better off, far away), [r] R. [r] /R/,
. RP [r], ,

. R (, Wells (1982),
(1988) , Foulkes (1997) [16, 7, 10: . 11]). , R-
, ,
- [r]
(, viva/r/ Espaa). : , ,
R- RP -
[16: . 11].

61

62

R- , ,

( R

- .

),

, RP

[10: . 11].


[16: . 11].

R- , ,

R . -

. ,

R Mainstream (-

, , ) RP, R , -

R- . , R-

, , ,

RP,

[11].

, -

R , ,

. R -

. -

RP , R -

BBC

[16: . 11].

R: -

R-, ,

... R. ,

. , -

, , a pair of [8: .

R ,

11]. R -

R [:,:], [].

. , , ,

, , [:,:], -

[r] [14: .

, [].

11].

, -

R,

R-, [r] .

. -

R, , error, nearer,

[10: .

roar, straw, era, etc., -, -

11], . -

. , R-

, R -

. , R, ,

, R -

(, act your /age) [10: . 11].

- .

, R-, ,

R -

: , R

, , R -

. , R, ,

. , R -

Sir, Mr., Dr. .. [14:

. 11].

63

64

R- , .
, R -

30 . R,
, . 3:
3

[14: . 11].
R

R R . , ,
. R , , , ,
,
.
, , , , R.
30 15 15 [11].

[r]

N
3612
2433
6045

%
59.8
40.2
100

, , ,
[r] : [r] 60% . R , 59,8 , R , , RP R.
R ,

R- R/0, -

R: 558 .

[r].

R, , -

(hiatus)
R-, , . -

, , R
, R (. 4). R- RP.

, -

R- .

R- ,
[r] [9: . 11].
, R - [] . R-

[r]

N
182
376
558

%
32.6
67.4
100

, -

[], [r]

R.

(Igor Ivanov, Amir al Sadi). -

, ,

, .. -

[11] .

. -

6045 ,
R, 200 65

R R:
R.
66

, R -

mail, [r] . R,

, -

, , -

[r], , career of, interior of, lecturer is, etc.

R .

, [r].

, R

, , -

R -

R [10:

. -

. 11].

, , R

, R,

. :

[11]. , R
. .
, , .

1. The Severn Bore, which happens twice a year/r/, is caused by the Atlantic
tide.
2. Our top story this hour/r/: after a day-long assault
3. What about there in Singapore/r/? Is there that feeling

, R , ,
, there are, here is, where a, or a, are also, your own, etc. R
for a, before a, over a, after it, here on, more
of, fear of, number of, leader of, fire in, hour of, etc.
, consumer attitude, senior administration, former economic, tighter immigration, newspaper allegations, etc.
year-old, four oclock, far away, share index, Far East,
Winter Olympics, mortar attack, R [11].
, R, . , -

4. Fifty-two bombers have been arriving at RAF Fairford air base in Gloucestershire/r/, a clear signal that
R, , .
R [11].
, , R,
R- ,
. -
, , RP (received pronunciation), [r].
R- , R [r], -

R, , , Mister

, R [r]

Annan, Doctor Austen, Sir Alex Ferguson, prime minister Ariel Sharon, Emperor

, , .

Akihito, Yasser Arafat, near Al Kut, for Edward, etc. R

R : -

88,1%, , R

, , -

, [14: . 11].

, -

, R

. -

, : for /hours, were /injured, restore /order, your /e-

. ,

67

68

--, . , R 60%,
R 32% .
,
R-, , , .

12. Jespersen, O., Haislund, N. A modern English grammar on historical principles / O. Jespersen, N. Haislund. G. Allen & Unwin, 1949.
13. Jones, D. English pronouncing dictionary / D. Jones. 11th ed. London:
J.M. Dent & Sons., 1956.
14. Lewis, J.W. Linking /r/ in the General British pronunciation of English /

J.W. Lewis // Journal of the International Phonetic Association 5. 1975. P. 37-42.

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhoticity_in_English
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linking_and_intrusive_R
3. , .. : . :
. / .. ; . .. . . 3-. .: ,

15. Trudgill, P., Hannah, J. International English. A guide to the varieties /


P. Trudgill, J. Hannah. 1982.
16. Wells, J.C. Accents of English (Three volumes + cassette) / J.C. Wells.
New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

2007. 288 .
4. , .., , ..
/ .. , .. . . 4-. .: . . , 2006.
288 .
5. -, .., , .. /
.. -, .. . .: . , 2002.
384 .
6. , .., , .., , ..
/ .. , .. , .. . ., 1996. 480 .
7. Brown, A. Linking, intrusive and rhotic /r/ in pronunciation models /
A. Brown // Journal of the International Phonetic Association 18. 1988.
P. 144-151.
8. Burchfield, R. The spoken word. A BBC guide / R. Burchfield. London:
British Broadcasting Corporation, 1981.
9. Cruttenden, A. Gimsons Pronunciation of English / A. Cruttenden. 6th ed.
London: Arnold, 2001.
10. Foulkes, P. English [r]-sandhi a sociolinguistic perspective / P. Foulkes //
Histoire, Epistmologie, Langage 19: 1, 1997. P. 73-96.
11. Hannisdal, B.R. Variability and change in Received Pronunciation: A study
of six phonological variables in the speech of television newsreaders / B.R. Hannisdal. University of Bergen, 2006.
69

70

81'34+81'42+811.11+811.161.1

RS1. 20

ES1 ES2 65% , 33% -

, 2% .
The study compares stops in Russian fast and slow reading and in American

,
.

spontaneous speech. The results enable to speak about two strategies of tempo varia-

jane_7@mail.ru

tion: (i) manipulation with the tempo of articulation, (ii) manipulation with pauses.

Klimenko Evgeniya Mikhailovna

Both English speakers (ES1, ES2) preferred the second strategy; Russian speakers

Assistant

(RS1, RS2) used both strategies: RS1 the first strategy,

Amur State University

There is a statistically significant difference between the duration for Russian stops

Blagoveschensk

in slow and fast tempo for RS1. The difference between the duration for stops in slow

jane_7@mail.ru

and fast tempo for RS2, ES1, and ES2 was not statistically significant. Of this subset

RS2 the second one.

of 20 English tokens, 65% were defined as flapped, 33% were defined as unflapped,

and 2% were unreleased or glottalized.


: , - , -

, , .
Key words: spontaneous speech, stops, duration, tempo variation, modifica-

( )
DURATION VARIATION OF INTERVOCALIC STOPS INSIDE A WORD
AND WORD BOUNDARY IN RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH SPEECH

tions.
-

, ,

, , -

. -

[6]. - -

: 1)

. ,

; 2) .

, -

(ES1, ES2)

. (RS1, RS2)

: RS1 -

; RS2, ,

, /t/ /d/

. -

71

72

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ,

, -

; 4) -

. , -

, , ,

, .

, -,
( ), -,
( ).
- .


/ , -, /t//d/.
. : 1)

[15] -
( ) 20 , ,

.
-

; 2)

. -

, -

. -

, ,

, .

, -

. -

, , -

[7, . 204], .

. -

, -

, , -

, [11].

,
.


, .
.. ,

[3, . 115].
73

, (
. .. ).
. 74

, -

RS1 RS2
. RS1

.
,

15 ,

RS2 8 . RS1 -

, [3,

, RS2 . , , RS2

. 139]. ,

, .

, , .

10 /t/ /d/ -

/t, d/, -

( , , )

, -

65% 20 (.

, -

. 23).
/t/ /d/ -

PRAAT (

. -

. 1-2). 40 ( 20 -

, -

), 20.

MS Excel. -

, -

MS Excel.

/t, d/
RS1 RS2 ()

/t/
/d/

RS1
62
52

RS1
47
41

RS2
78
62


RS2

. 1. /d/
lay down ES1.

(.

. 1), 100 .

,
,

64
60

[5].
. 2

/t, d/
ES1 ES2()

/t/
/d/


ES1
35
45


ES2
39
43
75

,
.
, , . , 76

, .

, -

, ,

[4, . 221].

50% .

, , -

, (),

. ,

. 2. /d/ soda ES2.

.
,

, .
.. ,
, .

.
,
.

. . ,
.
. 3.
/t/ tutor ES1.

,
-

[2, . 142]. .
, ,
. ,

: , , . ,
,
, - ,
.
,
, , .

, , . . . .
[1, . 125].
. 77

,
. , . :
,
,
..
78

, : -,

. . -

, -, ,

, -

, -

, -

, -

, , -

. -

: 1) ; 2) .

, , , ,

RS1

, [10,

. , ,

c. 140]. ,

.
. -
,

.

, . , .
, ( , )
, . . . :
,
. ;
,
.
79

, , .
,
,
, .
, , , [2, . 146].

1. , .. : . / .. . .: , 1979. 130.
2. , .. / .. .
.: - , 1998. 276 .
3. , .., , .., , .. / .. , .. , .. . .: - ,
2000. 152 .
80

4. , .. -

13. , .. : / .. -

( ): . . .

// . , 2008 . URL: http: www.linguanet.ru/science/

/ .. . .: , 2004.

publishing/Vestniki-2008/vestnuk1-2008.pdf
14. , .., , .. / .. ,

5. , .. .
/ .. , .. , .. . .: , 2006.

.. . ., 1984. 248 .
15. . ., 1982. 368 .

272 .

16. / . .. . ., 1988.

6. , .. (-
): . . . . / .. . , 1984. 198 .
7. , ..
: /
. - , 1998. 180 .
8. , ..
/ .. // - -

248 c.
17.
, URL: http: www.phonetics.spbu.ru/fpt1.rtf
18. Hudgins, C.V. Relative speed of articulatory movements / C.V. Hudgins,
R.H. Stetson // Archives neerlandaises de Phonetique experimentale. 1937. Vol.
13. P. 85-94.
19. Lehiste, I. Suprasegmentals / I. Lehiste Cambridge, Mass., L.: M.I.T.
Press, 1970. 194 p.

2002 . : . .. , 2003. 156 .


9. , .., , .., , .. / .. , .. , .. // : - :
. . ., 1993. 147 .
10. , .. , / .. // . . 169. ., 1980. . 235-251.
11. , .. /
.. // . - -. 1964. .
69, 25. . 3-28.
12. , ., , . . .,
1974.

81

82

811.161.1+8134+811.58+8124

- . () ,
. . 17

.
,

24 .
-

.
lukomorye_more@mail.ru

. -

Mavletkulova Victoria Vladimirovna

( , -

Teacher

53 ).

Datong State University

China

lukomorye_more@mail.ru

,
.

, , , -

() . , -

THE LANGUAGE INTERFERENCE INFLUENCE ON PERCEPTION


OF WEAK FORMS OF A RUSSIAN WORD BY CHINESE SPEAKERS


. -

. -1, ,
.

. 18 .

.
The article reveals the results of the experiment devoted to perception of weak

: 1) -

forms of a Russian word by Chinese speakers of the Russian language on different

; 2) -

levels of teaching this very language. It also proves the necessity of introducing a

; 3)

special course of the Russian spoken speech phonetics in teaching the Russian lan-

guage.

; 4) -

: , , , , .
Key words: normal speech tempo, allegro tempo, perception, weak forms of a
Russian word, reduction.

.
30 , . ,
,

83

84

61%

3- 4-

100%. ,

, -

, -

72% ,

66,5%,

83%,

50%, -

94%,

. :

83%.

. -

( 5,5%)

,
,


=
=

, -

. , -

66,5% ,

(5,5%)


=
=
=

=
=
=


, , .
.

, 17 -

, -

, ,

. -

. , -

. -

, , -

: -

61 94%.

. , -

, ,

() 100% 88%.

72 76%,

11,76%,

41%. , 29 %

, -

1.

, ?

, , .

( [kakaja]) 72%

, -

, .

. 49%

; 20% [ ek].
85

, 83%

, , !
, .
86

0 94 % -

2.
, ?

, , .
, .

0 88%;

0,06 88%; 0,06 74%

, ?

3.

; 0 71%

, -

, ?

, .

. , ,

,
, . -

4.

, , -

, ?

, , ?

, ?

, .

. ,

. ,

( )

[d l].

, , , . -,

( ).

. , -

, -

, /b-p/, /d-

t/, /g-k/, /p-p/, /t-

.
47%,

t/, /k-k/. [b], [d], [g] [6, . 38].

34%.
87

88

[p], [t], [k] [2, . 51]*, -

( ),

[t]

, : , , (

[d] [t] -

), , , , .

[r]

[l].

, -

, , . .

[],

[r] . [r]

[]

[n / n],

- .

. -

[l]

[] ,

. ,

, -

, -

0 41%, ,

. [n] ,

,
[l]. [r] ,
[l]

. 18 53%, 41%
.

[n]. , [] [n] [a] [an], [o], [on].


, [n] [n]: , ,


. , : , ( ), ( ), ,
, , , , .

. -

, , -

, , ( -

, ,


).

( 0 18%).
,
*

[b], [d], [g] . .


89

.
.
: , , , , , , , , 90

. , , -

[r], -

, , [n]. -

, ..,

, ,

, . -

, , [l] (

[l]/[l] [n]/[n]) [5, . 88].

, , -

, -

, -

, -

[r] -

: ( -

[l]. -

, -

[l], -

, , ). ,

( ).

, , [nm n]. ,

, : . -

[], [a].

[l].

, - [m] , , -

, . -

, , ,

: , .

, : , , , -

: , , , , , -

, , , . , -

, -

[o]: . -

. , ,

, ,

, -

, . ,

//, //

([m l], [n ]) long, lin, ling.


, ,
. , [l] 91



-1. ,
92

) / .. // , , : .

, / . .

, ,

.. , .. , .. . .: -, 1998. . 6.

, -

. 78-92.


,
.
,

6. , .. :
/ .. . .: , 2006. 256 .
7. , .. / .. . .: ,
1980. 141 .

.

.

,
.

1. , .. . . .
. : /
.. . .: : -; : , 2008. 96 .
2. , .. ( ) /
.. // . 2004. 1. . 49-52.
3. , .., , .. / .. , .. // . 1966. 1. . 10-15.
4. () [ ] / //
XVI ,
/ . . .. , .. , .. . http://lomonosov-su.ru/archive/Lomonosov_2009/filologia.htm
5. , .. ,
(
93

94

81'34+81'44+811.512.2

The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of syllable and rhythmical structure of


the Evenki language. Types of syllables and variety of word stress in the Evenki lan-

,
, .
,

guage are considered. We conclude that the Evenki word stress is rather imperceptible than centralized.
: , , , -

, , .

morozova_olga06@mail.ru

Key words: rhythm, stress, synharmony, inflectional languages, agglutinative

,
, .
Saint-Quentin-En-Yvelines,

languages, the Evenki language.


( , , ,

alavrillier@gmail.com

), . -

Morozova Olga Nikolayevna

, -

Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor

, .

The Amur State University

Blagoveschensk

) ()

morozova_olga06@mail.ru

, (,

Alexandra Lavrillier

) () [3]. .. ,

Researcher-Lecturer of European Center for the Arctic, Doctor of Social Anthropol-

. -

ogy

, -

University of Verailles Saint-Quentin-En-Yvelines

France

- [3, . 5]. ,

alavrillier@gmail.com

, ,

-

PECULIARITIES OF SYLLABLE AND RHYTHMICAL STRUCTURE
OF THE EVENKI SPEECH
-
. e
. -

/ () . , . .. , ..
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99

100

81'42+81'34+811.11

.
,

, , - .
, -

, .

blagmeg@yandex.ru

, -

Musaeva Elena Georgievna


Senior Teacher

. -

Amur State University

, -

Blagoveschensk

, , -

blagmeg@yandex.ru

, ..
, -


()
PHONETIC ANALYSIS PECULIARITIES OF POLITICAL DISCOURSE
.

[2, 7, 9, 14].
, ,
,
, .

: (-

, .

) (-). -

, , .

, , -

The article deals with the issue of the spoken political discourse. The phonetic

, , -

analysis of political discourse is mainly focused on its prosodic and segmental fea-

tures which undergo mutual interdependence. Duration change, reduction, assimila-

() -

tion are among the most widely identified segments modifications.

: , , , , .
Key words: political discourse, prosodic and segmental features, reduction, assimilation, segments modifications.

, .

, ,
-. , 101

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[11, .16-20; 13, . 76-80].

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/t/ st (just enormous).

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. 136137.

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[10].

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312 .

81'34+811.161.1+811.512.2
,

7. , .. / .. // :
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, 2000. . 5-20.

.
,
.

8. , .. / .. .
, 1973. 210 .

amursea@mail.ru
Protsukovich Elena Aleksandrovna

9. , .. /
.. , .. //
: VII . . ., 1999. . 186-197.
10. , .. / .. // -

Senior teacher
Amur State University
Blagoveschensk
amursea@mail.ru

. . . 2010. . 46, 22

(203). . 89-93.

11. , .. : : . . . : 10.02.04 /

COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEMS


OF RUSSIAN AND EVENKI LANGUAGES

.. . ., 2003. 198 .
12. , .. / .. -

. ., 1982. 176 .
13. , .. - -

-. -

: -

: . . . : 10.02.04 / .. -

.
Differences in phonological systems of typologically different Russian and

. , 2004. 197 .
14. Harris, Z. Discourse analysis / Z. Harris // Language. 1952. V.28, 1.

Evenki languages create certain conditions for the impact of the Evenki sound system
on Russian speech of the Evenks. The article focuses on the results of the comparative

P. 1-30.
15. Lindblom, B., Sussman, H.M., Agwuele, A. A duration-dependent account
of coarticulation for hyper- and hypoarticulation / Lindblom et al. // Phonetica.
2009. Vol. 66, 3. P.188-195.

analysis of the phonological systems the Russian and the Evenki languages.
: , , , , , ,

16. Port, R.F. The influence of tempo on stop closure duration as a cue for
voicing and place / R.F. Port. http://www.haskins.yale.edu/sr/SR051/SR051_06.pdf

.
Key words: the Evenki language, the Russian language, bilingualism, phonetic
interference, phonological system, vowel phonemes, consonant phonemes.

109

110

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repis_itogi1612.htm

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81342.1

18. Morozova, O.N. Acoustic and perceptial features of Selemdzha Evenki


consonants / O.N. Morozova // Proceedings of the 11th Seoul International Altaistic

Conference Synchronic and diachronic studies on Altaic languages, Korea, 2013.

P. 233-246.

,
.
VikaSy696@yandex.ru
Sysoenko Victoria Vladimirovna
Masters degree student
Amur State University
Blagoveschensk
VikaSy696@yandex.ru



THE ACOUSTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SPONTANEOUS
CONVERSATIONAL AND VOCAL SPEECH
.
. .
The paper deals with the acoustic characteristics of the informational focus of
the spontaneous conversational and vocal speech. The results of acoustic analysis
are presented. The peculiarities of different phonetic manifestation in highly informative parts of spontaneous conversational and vocal speech are studied.
: , , , .
Key words: spontaneous conversational speech, vocal speech, highly informative parts of speech, informative corpus, vowels.
121

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811.161.1+81'28+81'34+8142
,
.
,
.

ksiyniatp@mail.ru

1. , .., , .., , .. -

Tyschenko Kseniya Pavlovlna

/ .. , .. , .. . .; .: , 2004.

Masters degree student

160 .

Amur State University

2. , ..
: /

Blagoveschensk
ksiyniatp@mail.ru

.. . . -, 1998. . 44-45.
3. , .. / .. //
. ., 1964. . 38-60.

C
( )
SYNTAGMATIC ARTICULATION OF SPONTANEOUS SPEECH
(on material of the Russian Far East residents speech)

.
.
The article presents the results of auditory analysis of spontaneous speech in
radio discourse. The syntagmatic articulation of spontaneous speech of the Russian
Far East residents was the purpose of this research.
: , ,
, .
Key words: auditory analysis, radio discourse, syntagmatic articulation, spontaneous speech.
, . 16-
. -

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133

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81'34+81'28+811.11

, , .

, .
- ,

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. -

elena_shamina@hotmail.com

. -

Shamina Elena Anatolevna


Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor

, .. ,
( ). . (Crystal, 2004) ,

St. Petersburg State University

St. Petersburg

, . -

elena_shamina@hotmail.com

.
:

THE PHONETIC SPEECH PECULIARITIES OF ENGLISH BOOKS
CHARACTERS: MEANS OF DEPICTING

, , . , , ,
1:
The sweat wis lashing oafay Sick Boy; he wis trembling. Ah wis jist sitting

thair, focusing oan the telly. (Irvine Welsh. Trainspotting, 1993)


Jaysis! Wha tracks are yis doin, eejits? (Roddy Doyle. The Commitments,

The article deals with means of depicting of the phonetic speech peculiarities

1987).

of English books characters.

: , , , .
Key words: dialects, pronunciation characteristics, literature characters, letter

, . , .. . -

transcription.
,
, , , ,

. ,
,
135

,
.
.. ,
:
1

.
136

An tha canna mae it horrid. Tha mun tae th rough wi th smooth. (D.H
Lawrence. Lady Chatterleys Lover, 1928).
Well, I knows what Is gwyne to do. Is gwyne to set here and listen tell I
hears it agin. (Mark Twain. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, 1884).

Romance 511 , The Gun Seller 15


339 . The Wench is Dead ( 142 ),

The Jewel that was Ours 15 (

, , -

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Next time we know, youll be wearing a beret. He pronounced it so it rhymed

. -

with garret3 [5, p. 224]4 -

, -

, . , .. Possession: a
2

.
137


.
4
, .
138

What? The tongue tapped the teeth sharply at the final t. He spoke with
the clipped precision of an antique pedagogue [3, p. 332].

, :
Jennifer spoke with an easy, clear diction. A good education, he thought [3,
p. 38].

Not so tough, she said, wiping her eyes. Truth is, Im a freakin marshmallow [5, p. 536].
I tell you sumpin you cn draw. Where yo pad? ... Naw, naw. Use one of
hers [5, p. 679].
No kidding, hey, I goddam near fainted when I saw you at the hospital. You
looked like a goddam corpse. How much weight ya loose? How many pounds? Ya

His shirt was from Jermin Street, his suit was from Savile Row, and his voice
was from one of our more expensive public school [6, p. 185].

know? [9, p. 105].


Hey, If-So-Girl, whatcha doon? [5, p. 392].

, -

she turned to him and said, I dont want to open my mouth, theyll all hate

, , -

my accent, which came out more like Ahdantwanopnmamarth, theyolol hayet ma-

(. ,

acksent. No they wont, Martin reassured her. But they did [1, p. 426].

2014).

(0,6%) :

:
1) (

She wished he would speak again, for she liked the sound of his voice with its
sarft Glarcestershire accent. But he didnt [3, p. 58].
He said, Those chirrun were heartbroken for the baby-uns. Wiremans imitation of the old mans southern accent was eerily good... [5, p. 446].
She had a deep southern-girl accent that turned chinas into CHA-nahs [5,
p. 179].

, , bleedin, cn, im). ,


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, shes, theyve, dont,
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So when he came home from work I said to im, whos this bleedin Yvonne

( 13% , , gerrout -

when shes at home? Well, is face went white. I said, You can gerrout and stay out

get out, whatcha what are you, Ahdantwanopnmamarth, theyolol hayet

[10, p. 31].

ma-acksent I dont want to open my mouth, theyll all hate my accent).


139

140

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. -

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VII . .: -

, 2014.
2. Crystal. D. The stories of English / D. Crystal. London: Penguin Books,

,
-

2004.

, ,

1. Atkinson, K. One Good Turn. London: Black Swan, 2006. 527 p.

, :

2. Byatt, A.S. Possession: a Romance. London: Vintage, 1991. 511 p.

That Stones here fer (for)5 a good reason. It was almost stolen outta (out of)
Gringotts I sppose (suppose) yehve (you have) worked that out an (and) all? [8,
p. 251].
And if you cant be an artist, feed em (them), care for em (them), and make
sure they have a place to come in out of the rain [5, p. 434].
Aah, they tellya (tell you) a lotta (lot of) stuff [9, p. 60].
,
, ,
.
-

3. Dexter, C. The third Inspector Morse Omnibus. London: Pan Books, 1998.
530 p.
4. Fowles, J. The Collector. London: Pan Books, 1986. 283 p.
5. King, S. Duma Key. NY: Pocket Books, 2008. 783 p.
6. Laurie, H. The Gun Seller. London: Mandarin. 339 p.
7. Murdoch, I. The Unicorn. St. Albans: Triad/Panther Books, 1977. 270 p.
8. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2000. 332 p.
9. Salinger, J.D. Nine Stories. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1982. 437 p.
10. Townsend, S. The Queen and I. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg University
Publishers, 1999. 165 p.

.
,
-

11. Waterfield, G. The Hound in the Left-Hand Corner. London: Review,


2003. 273 p.


.
141

142

378+81'24+811.11+371.3

, .

This paper analyzes difficulties in teaching foreign languages to Russian uni-

versity students majoring in non-linguistic areas in the artificial language learning

environment. Some ways of overcoming such difficulties are described. We prove that

lapucher@ drevlanka.ru

students filmmaking is a highly productive way of acquiring English language skills.


: , - ,

,
, .
,

, .
Key words: bilinguals, non-native English-speaking teachers, project-based method, filmmaking.

dalex@sampo.ru
Abramova Irina Yevgenjevna

, -

Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor

- .

Petrozavodsk State University

, -

Petrozavodsk

lapucher@ drevlanka.ru

), -

Shishmolina Elena Petrovna

. -

Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor

, -

Petrozavodsk State University

, ,

Petrozavodsk

dalex@sampo.ru

2010 . ( 5,5%
) [3], EF EPI,



HOW TO COMPENSATE FOR THE LACK OF THE NATURAL LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENT IN NON-NATIVE CLASSROOMS

54 .
52,78, 31 60 [4].
, 2014 . () () , ,

, -

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, -

143

144

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: , 1% -

- :

, 28% ,

( ),

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(65%), -

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(Native English-speaking

). , , -

teacher/NEST) (Non-

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native English-speaking teacher/NNEST) [15]. ,

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language community (-

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(KIZHI, PETROZAVODSK; Sochi 2014, At the Hotel, In a Travel Agency).

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3. 2010: , 2011.
: http://www.perepis-2010.ru/results_of_the_census/results-inform.php. (
: 24.09.2011).
4. EF EPI. :

150

http://www.ef-russia.ru/epi/ ( : 01.05.2014).

71%
100

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29%

50

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0


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: . .: - , 2007. . 52.
6. ,.. / .. . -: , 1990. . 43-44.

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. : http://www.kitaygorodskaya.ru/about-us/news/ kul-

turatv.html ( 01.10.2013).

8. , ..

, .

/ .. // --

, -

, -. : http://vestnik.mgimo.ru/

, -

razdely/k-70-letiyu-fakulteta-mo/perspektivnye-napravleniya-razvitiya-vuzovskoy-

. -

metodiki ( 25.04.2014).

9. Liu, H.W. A Study on Foreign Teachers Teaching Evaluation and Coping

Strategy / H.W. Liu // Journal of Harbin Institute of Vocational Technology. 2006.

Vol. 1. P. 26-27.

10. Liu, M., Zhang, L. Student Perceptions of Native & Non-native English

1. , .., , .., , .. : // European social science journal ( ). ; . 2012. 4 (20).


. 221-229.

Teachers Attitudes, Teaching Skills Assessment and Performance / M. Liu, L. Zhang.


URL: www.asian-efl-journal.com/ ( : 27.10.2009).
11. Llurda, E., Moussu, L. Non-Native English-Speaking English Language
Teachers: History and Research / E. Llurda, L. Moussu // Language Teaching.

2. , .. , / .. // . 2002. 1 (30). . 29-35.


151

2008. 41 (3). P. 315-348.


12. Medgyes, P. The Non-Native Teacher / P. Medgyes. L.: Macmillan,
1994. 128 .
152

13. Medgyes, P., Arva, V. Native or Non-Native Teachers in the Classroom /


P. Medgyes, V. Arva // System. 2000. Vol. 28. P. 355-372.
14. Meng, Z. On the Management of Foreign Teachers of English / Z. Meng //

378+81'42+811.11
,
.

Foreign Language Teaching & Research in Basic Education. 2006. Vol. 9.

P. 20-21.

15. Prodromou, L. In Search of SUE: The Successful User of English / L. Prodromou // Modern English Teacher. 2003. Vol. 12(2). P. 5-14.

a_ananyina@mail.ru
Ananyina Anastasia Valeryevna
Senior teacher
Petrozavodsk State University,
Petrozavodsk
a_ananyina@mail.ru



TEACHING WRITTEN POLITICAL DISCOURSE:
TYPES OF STUDENT ERRORS
-
, . ,
.
The article analyses the most common communication and pragmatic errors in
political science student writing. The findings demonstrate that university students
very often choose poor and inadequate communication strategies when completing
their writing assignments.
: - ,
, , .
Key words: communication and pragmatic errors, academic writing, communication tactics, political discourse.

(.. 153

154

, ..

[3]) , ,

( , -

) , ,

. , ,

1:1, ,

( ) -

. ,
, , -

1. Globalization still remains being a controversial issue ( Globalization remains)


2. Pollution becomes a very crucial problem ( Pollution becomes a
crucial problem)

. -

3. Governments and countries face... ( Governments face...)

4. we can be speaking about integration ( we can speaking about in-

. -

tegration)

5. Scientists are emphasizing ( Scientists emphasize)

, ,

- [4, . 41]. -

1. The first positive line of globalization that should be pointed out is an inter-

national collaboration that finds its impression in settling global problems with using

almost all possibilities of countries.

.
,
: )
; )
.
-

2. Science technical revolution is an inseparable part of the globalization because it supports vital functions of the process.
3. In addition to that, one of the facts, which directly contributes and cooperates with globalization, is the Internet.
4. For the moment, we are witnessing the situation when the vast majority of
states are opening to a new policy of moving to the whole worlds's union.

5. Unification is the key element of cultural connotations.

( )

, , -

, -

. -

, . -

155

156

, , -

, , ..

1. More and more countries are now becoming part of the whole world, rather
than a piece of a region.

,
, . , -

2. The inventions of the science technical revolution in the wrong way of utilization can ruin the world.

.
,

3. I consider globalization to be worth adoring.

4. Modern world every day makes a step to new inventions or conversions of

: , -

previous techniques.

, , , ( ),

5. Communication between countries is a key way to install the maintenance.

. -

6. The best solution is to reduce negative aspects (of globalisation), so a person

from any part of the world can be sure in the right to have his own way of living.
7. United culture can solve a lot of conflicts, both military and mental ones.
8. It is possible to find solution to political conflicts after the union of states to
a global society.

,
.
,

9. [will be able to find] the only religious way which would be perfect for
every state.

, , -

10. Globalization can have possible influence in positive way on economy.

, .

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157

158

, .. , -

/ . .. , .. . . 8.

. -, ()

., 2005.

, , -

4. Seriot, P. Analyse du discours politique sovietique / P. Seriot (Cultures et

Societes de 1'Est. 2). P.: Institut d'etudes slaves, 1985. . : .. .

, , -

. . / ..

, . ,

// . . . .: , 1995.

-,
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[2]. , ,
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1. , .. . / .. . .: - , 2008.
2. , .. : . : . . . : 10.02.04 / ..
. : , 2003.
3. , .. /
.. // : 159

160

378+811.11+8124+371.3

( ). -

[3, .61]. ,
080100.62 :

- , -

blokhinskaya@mail.ru

Blokhinskaya Lyudmila Olegovna

Assistant Professor

Amur State University

Blagoveschensk

, -

blokhinskaya@mail.ru


[4].


,
THE WAYS OF STUDYING TERMINOLOGY OF ACCOUNTING
AND AUDITING

,

: , (), .

, .

The article focuses on some peculiarities of teaching English for specific pur-

poses. It also considers the effective ways of studying terminology of accounting and

, ,

auditing.

: ,
, , .
Key words: English for specific purposes, terminology, active and interactive

.
, .
, , -

methods of teaching.
,

. ,

[2, c.72].

, -

, .

161

162

. , ,

, -

, [1,

. -

c. 87].

, . , ,

[1, c. 7].

.
. ,
, -

. , , ,
[1, c. 5-6].
Understanding

Accounting [5], -

, , ,

, -

. ( )

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, , -

; -

. -

; - ; -

, ..

, -

,
: , -

, .
-

[1, c. 70].
, ,

, . , vocabulary to be learnt:
Account a detailed record of all the money that a person receives and spends.
Accountant a person whose job is to inspect or keep accounts.

163

164

Accounting the system that measures business activities, processes that information into reports, and communicates these findings to decision makers.
AIS Accounting information system
APB -- Accounting Principles Board (19591973)
AICPA American Institute of Certified
Public Accountants

6) Make up your own situation using as much word combinations of the previous exercises as possible.
Make up your own sentences using the construction:
It is/was who/that


()

CPA Certified Public Accountant


CA Chartered Accountant

, , ( online), ,
. :
1) Transcribe the following words, practice their pronunciation, and translate
them into Russian.

It is an account that is a detailed record of all the money that a person receives and
spends. It is an accountant who is a person whose job is to inspect or keep accounts.
7) Fill in the blanks with the right English terms.
1. ; , , ,
, , ,
2. ; ,

Committee, theory, commercial, applicable, industry, financial, scholars, record, coordinate, assume, ensure, reconcile, competitor, ledger, identity, expenditure
2) Give the Russian equivalents for:
a detailed record; to keep accounts; to open an account; to keep an account with a
bank; to pay an account; to make out an account; to measure business activities; to
process information into reports; to communicate findings to decision makers.
3) Give the English equivalents for:
1) ( ), , ; 2) ; 3)

3. , , ,
.
4. , ..
5. , , , ..
8) Try to guess what it means.

; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) -

; 9) ; 10) .
4) Write the pairs of the synonyms.
Chief accountant; rival, transaction, competitor, business, accountant in charge, bargain, enterprise, dealing.
5) Give the opposites of:
Liabilities, receivables, long-term liabilities, tangible assets, profit, single-entry
bookkeeping, fall, increase, lend, debtor.

9) Match the terms with their definitions. Print the letter identifying your
choice in the Answers column.

165

166

Term

Definition

Answers

A. . - 1. c

: : , ,

2.accounting B. . , - 2.____
cycle
( )
3.
C., , ; , - 3._____
accounting event
.
1. account

10) Give your own definitions. Let the other students guess what term you de-

What is accounting?
1. Accounting can be defined as the measuring and recording of all relevant financial ______concerning a particular entity that is business, government organization, etc.
a) data

b) figures

c) positions

2. Financial ______ is the communicating of such information in appropriately


summarized form.
a) problem

b) reporting

c) crisis

3. In the UK such summarized form is called Accounts. In the USA it is


called Financial statements. These accounts or statements are communicated to in-

fined.
11) Translate the definitions into English and match them with the words given

terested parties both within and outside _______.


a) the unit

below.
accounting valuation

accounting equation

accounting software

b) a system

c) the organization.

4. Financial reporting provides ________ that is useful to present and potential


investors, creditors and other users in making rational investment, credit and other

1. ;
;
, .

a) information

b) accounts

c) opinion

5. Accounting is often _______to as the language of business and, as a direct


result of the work of accountants and auditors.

2. ; , ,
(GAAP).

a) belongs

b) referred

c) thought

15) Round table discussion. Using the language of meetings and round-table
discussions debate why we need accounting. Are there any alternatives to double-

3. ( ).
12) Word-building. Complete the table: write the appropriate related words
under each heading.
Noun
Account

economic decisions.

entry system? [5].


, ,

Adjective

Verb

Meaning

payable

, .
-

Profit

financial

13) Form the verbs from the following nouns.


Finance, credit, import, increase, discount, interpret, export, control, supply, purchase, face, experience, debit, proceed, decrease, transfer, persuade, deposit.

.

. , -

14) Choose the correct variant.


167

168

. , Render or translate the following extract into

able economic entity. 3. Accountings role of assisting decision makers by measuring

English.

processing, and communicating information is usually divided into the categories of

management accounting and financial accounting. 4. It is very important for every

person involved with a business to understand financial statements which are a cen-

, , -

tral feature of accounting. 5. Accounting is shaped by the environment in which it op-

, .

erates.

, .

.
, ,
. , .
.
.

, (, , ).
, :

1) Make up Glossary of the unit.


2)
a) Choose the word or word combination to match the definition.
1.
(balance sheet account/ balanced budget/ balance).
2. ,
,
- (balance of payments/ balance of
retained income/ balance of trade).
3. ,
, ,
(balance sheet/ favorable balance/ balance in hand).

1) Agree or disagree with the following statements.


1. Accounting is the language of literature and finance.
2. We dont know when and where accounting was born.
3. It is a role of accounting standards to attempt to reconcile the conflicts.
4. In 1873 The International Accounting Standards Committee was established
to coordinate the development accounting standards internationally.
5. The study of accounting begins with the understanding of the way in which
the economists see the business transaction.

4. ,
, (balance of an account/balance of payment deficit/ trial balance).
5. ,
(statement of cash receipts and disbursements/statement/ statement of affairs) [5].
Make up your own text using the vocabulary from the test.
b) Defining Accounting Terms

Answers

2) Comment on the following statements.

1. An amount owed by a business is called (an)

1. Accounting is a very old discipline 2. Accounting is an information system

a) asset

c) equity

b) liability

d) none of these

that measures, processes, and communicates financial information about an identifi169

170

1.__

2. A liability that results from a purchase of goods or


services on open account
a) account payable

c) current asset

b) account receivable

d) none of these

3. A person whose job is to inspect or keep accounts


a) a worker

c) an accountant

a) a lawyer

d) none of these

3.___

4. Liabilities those fall due within the coming year or within

4.___

the normal operating cycle if longer than a year


a) long - term liabilities
b) current liabilities

1) Find in the crossword 25 words of accounting:

2.__

c) debt

O
M
r
o
a
c
c
a
t
a
r
t

b
o
p
i
r
b
t
o
d
o
c
u
s

l
o
e
t
l
a
n
u
s
m
t
y
t

e
k
k
r
a
c
o
s
t
m
i
e
l

n
d
e
e
n
r
a
i
n
o
d
d
s

b
e
e
p
c
e
s
s
p
r
e
g
e

o
r
c
u
e
m
p
e
u
t
i
t
i

r
w
e
s
t
o
r
t
s
i
l
w
o

r
o
r
c
y
r
o
t
l
b
e
n
e

e
r
e
n
e
e
f
i
i
a
n
s
r

o
r
e
c
x
p
o
r
t
i
t
h
i

s
a
s
a
t
i
r
p
i
t
y
e
p

e
l
s
b
i
f
o
g
n
e
r
n
e

s
y
T
I
L
S
D
R
o
c
m
o
y

Answer Key:

d) none of these

5. The records for a group of related accounts

5.___

Account, asset, balance, borrower, bookkeeper, competitor, currency, costs,


commodity, customer, data, entity, excess, input, ledger, lender, liabilities, money,

kept current in a systematic manner


a) balance

c) ledger

b) annual report

d) none of these

ownership, profit, profitability, records, reporting, sales, trust


2)


.
Defining accounting terms
Term
1. T-account
2. statement of revenue and
expenditures
3. tangible asset

Translation
a)
b)

Answers
1._b________
2.____

c)

3. _______

:
Translation

Term

1. All items of property that contribute to the value of an organization, that


contribute to the value of an organization, including tangible items such as cash,

Answers

stock and real estate, as well as intangible items such as goodwill.2. A book in which

a) T-account

1__b______

accounts are written.3. A single separate body of an organization. 4. Money which a

b) tangible asset

2._________

person receives and salary or dividends; money which an organization receives as

c) statement of revenue and expenditures

3._________

gifts or from investments. 5. Investments in a company represented by shares of fixed

, , . , .
Make up your own crosswords using as much terms of accounting as possible.
There are some examples below.

interest securities; shares in a company.


Answer Key:
1) asset 2) ledger 3)entity 4) income 5) stocks
,
, , ,
, ..

171

172

[1, c.11]. , , , ,
, , , , .. [1, c.11],
, .

378.096+371
,
.
,
.
elena2026@yandex.ru
Grigoreva Elena Sergeevna

Teacher

1. , .. :

Petrozavodsk State University

. / .. , .. , .. . .: ,

Petrozavodsk

2000. 264 .

elena2026@yandex.ru

2. , .. ,

/ .. , . // Alma mater.

( . )
TEACHER TRAINING SYSTEM IN FINLAND

2010. 7. C. 7073.
3. , .. -

(by the example of Oulu university)

/ .. , .. // . 2012.

5. . 61-63.

4.
080100 ( () ) URL:http://www.amursu.ru/ index.php?option= com_content&view=article&id=5357:2012-02-03-02-59-08&catid
=230:2009-12-01-13-5735&Itemid=1036&lang=ru
5. Understanting accounting: . . 080100.62 , / , ; . ...
: - . . -, 2011. 192 .

. , , ,
, , .
The quality of education in Finland directly depends on the quality of teacher
training in the universities. The purpose of the article is to analyze the system of
teacher training in Finland through the example of the University of Oulu. There is a
close connection between all educational institutions, kindergartens, schools and
universities in Finland. Due to the fact high quality education is provided, and it is a
prerequisite for the development of innovative knowledge-based economy.
: , , , , , .

173

174

Key words: teacher training, knowledge-based economy, education, continuing


education, professional standards.

. .. ,

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. , -

[2, .

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360]. .. .. , -

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, [4, . 129].

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(120 ).
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. (Oulun normaalikoulu, Norssi).

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2009. 1. . 15-33. : http://ecsocman.hse.ru/hsedata/2011/01/20/


1208894284/Education_Reform.pdf. ( : 20.01.2014).

6. Reijo Laukkanen Finnish Strategy for High-Level Education for All / Lauk-

. ,

kanen Reijo // N. C. Soguel and P. Jaccard (eds.), Governance and Performance of

, -

Education Systems, 2008 Springer. P. 305324. : http://link.sprin-

. .

ger.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4020-6446-3_14#page-1.

25.12.2013).

, , , . ,


1. , .. -
/ .. //
. 2012. 4. . 99-107. : http://www.pmedu.ru/
res/2012_ 4_8.pdf. ( : 20.01.2014).
2. , .. / .. //
. . 78. 2008. 4. . 360-364.
: http://www.ras.ru/ publishing/ rasherald/ rasherald_articleinfo.aspx?articleid=4ff1db62-4e3d-495f-81ba-bee7a5b1ad1e. ( : 14.12.2013).
3. , .. / .. // . 2011. 10.
. 39-45. : http://cspu.ru/uchenomu/magazines/2011_10.pdf. (
: 17.01.2014).
4. , .., , .. /
.. , .. // . 2011. 10. . 128-131.

http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/opyt-finlyandii-v-sfere-obrazo-

vaniya. ( : 20.01.2014).
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181

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lyucy@inbox.ru

Ermakova Lyudmila Vitalevna

Candidate of Philological Sciences

Amur State University

Blagoveschensk

lyucy@inbox.ru

.


DIFFICULTIES IN MASTERING FOREIGN
PROFESSIONAL VOCABULARY
, .
The article gives a short description of the process of mastering foreign professional vocabulary by university students whose major is not a foreign language.
Moreover the paper presents some kinds of exercises which can make mastering professional vocabulary a more effective process.
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Key words: foreign professional vocabulary, levels of mastering vocabulary,
professional communication in the foreign language, a system of exercises.
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/html/media69595/087_spiridonova.pdf. : 17.12.2014.


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: 10.01.2015.

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2011. 4. . 49-53. : http://journals.uspu.ru/i/inst/ped/ped15/

ped_8.pdf. : 13.12.2014.

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.: , 1986. 223 .

t_kravetc@mail.ru
Kravets Tat yana Vladimirovna
Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate professor
Amur State University
Blagoveshchensk
t_kravetc@mail.ru



THE PROBLEM OF STUDENTS MOTIVATION IN NONLINGUISTIC
HIGH SCHOOLS AT FOREIGN LANGUAGE LESSONS
.
.
The paper focuses on the problem of motivation of studying foreign languages
in institutes of higher education. The author analyses the reasons of lack of motivation and studies ways of raising it.
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Key words: motivation, foreign languages, higher education, nonlinguistic faculties, students.

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legus_@mail.ru

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Logasheva Elena Sergeevna


English teacher

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Borovichi Teachers college

/ .. //

Borovichi, Novgorod region

( ). : http://www.iling-ran.ru/library/sborniki/ for_lang/

legus_@mail.ru

2009_01/ 13.pdf
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: 13.00.08 / .. ; . . -. , 2012.

36 .

THE ROLE OF SPOKEN ENGLISH PROFICIENCY


7. , ..

IN THE FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL SKILLS

/ .. // -

OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION

- -

XXI . /.: . - , 2003.

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.115.

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The article discusses aspects of teaching spoken English in the field of Management and Advertising in the institution of secondary professional education. It
presents the abstract role play as the main task when validating business communication skills.
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Key words: conversational foreign language skills, business English, professional communication, role play.
XXI

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Student's Books / Araminta Crace, Richard Acklam.: Pearson-Longman, 2012 (


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Although I do not have any directly relevant experience, I understand that

2.1. .

training would be given and 1 would come to the job with great enthusiasm and mo-

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tivation.

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I enclose my CV. and look forward to hearing from you in the near future.

3.

Yours faithfully, Judith Brown

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Alexandra Brown

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23, Monkton Road, Coventry, CV3 9QT Mobile: 07789 345222 ab-

rown3@yahoo.co.uk
1

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WANTED:
ENERGETIC & CONFIDENT
Summer Waiters/Waitresses
June-August
Languages & experience working with
people an
advantage.
Send CV and letter of application to: Mr
Hargreaves,
The Blue Whale Restaurant, 17 White
Road, Dover.

Part-time/weekend
SALES ASSISTANT
for city centre gift shop
Must be trustworthy and have a
friendly, sociable personality.
Would suit a student.
Please apply in writing to:
Simon Willis, PO Box 2 3 4

Application letter sample


1 Personal statement
I am a Business Administration graduate from the University of Manchester. I
have the skills and knowledge for managing key areas of an organisation and I have
excellent problem-solving skills. I am looking for a graduate trainee position in marketing where I can use my strong influencing skills.
2 Education
2007-2010 University of Manchester -BA (Hons) Business Administration 2:1
Modules included:
Human Resources Management
Marketing

Dear Sir/Madam,
I would like to apply for the job of Tour Guide, which T saw advertised on

Strategic Management Business Mathematics Accounting and Finance Ecommerce

your website.
As you can see from my curriculum vitae, I recently graduated with a good degree in Italian and I have visited Italy many times. I would be delighted to have the
opportunity to live and work in the country.
I believe that I possess excellent communication skills and I very much enjoy
working as part of a team. While at university, I set up a group which raised money

Heartlands High School, Coventry


2007 A levels: Mathematics (A), History (A), Geography (B) 2005 GCSEs: 9
GCSE passes including Maths and English
3 Work Experience
June-Sept 2009: Wayfield Supermarket, Store Assistant:
I worked in a busy team, sometimes under pressure, and provided a quality

for charity through sporting events.

service to customers.
205

206

June-Sept 2008: NewsShop, Cashier: I worked in a small team in a busy newsagent shop. I often had responsibility for the whole shop, including cashing up at the

end of the day.


4 Interests
Sport: I believe a healthy body is the key to a focused mind in today's hectic


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society. I enjoy the dedication and discipline of karate, and the team-playing involved
in basketball.
5 Skills
Languages: Spanish (fluent) and French (good) Driving: Full, clean driving li-

cense.
2. . . .
to be familiar with the requirements of this job , -


a full-time job
a part-time job
well-paying job

job in ones special field -

length of service
cash award
lay-off
benefits

.

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probationary period
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net salary
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to make a good impression
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: . 2013. : http://festi-

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.

val.1september.ru/articles/503064/
2. , .. /
.. // : . 2012. : http://nsportal.ru/shkola/inostrannye-yazyki/ library/
rolevaya-igra-na-urokakh-inostrannogo-yazyka.
3. , .. /
.. // . 2003. 3. . 17.
4. , .., , .. -
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5. , .. -

lily_of_valley@mail.ru
Yusupova Liliya Nailievna
Teacher
Petrozavodsk State University
Petrozavodsk
lily_of_valley@mail.ru
,


THE USE OF AN UNUSUAL APPROACH IN WRITING

/ .. //
. .. . 2009.
102. . 290-296.

AN ABSTRACT IN ENGLISH

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(language experience approach),

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2007. 278 .

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The article is devoted to using the Language Experience Approach in writing

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an abstract in English. It is considered to be an alternative effective teaching method

. : . , 2011.

in writing. Much attention is given to the main features of this approach, and the
phases of applying it in class are described in detail.
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Key words: abstract, productive writing, language experience approach, process approach to writing.

209

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. LEA Roach Van Allen, 60- . [12].
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http://filolingvia.com/publ/80-1-0-1505.

01.05.2014.

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216

8. , .., , .., , .., , .., , .., , .. //


. .: - , 1971.

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175 .
9. Taylor, M. The Language Experience Approach and Adult Learners / M.
Taylor. : http://www.ericdigests.org/1993/approach.htm. -

Intermediate ........................................................................................14
.., ..
..........................................................................20

: 26.04.2014.
10. Roach, Van Allen Updating the Language Experience Approach / Van Al-

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Roach.

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.....................................................................................................29

dacbdfmadadm/ http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED040831.pdf. :

.. .................40

01.05.2014.

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Chromeextenson://

11. Steele, V. Product and process writing: A comparison / V. Steele //

............................................................................................47

BBC. Teaching English. : http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/

.. R:

product-process-writing-a-comparison. : 16.04.2014.

........................................................................................56

12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_Experience_Approach

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