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Envirotemp FR3 Fluid

6 June 2007

Cooper Power Systems


McGraw-Edison Development Corporation
19, Mykinon Street
GR-166 74 Glyfada, Athens
GREECE
telephone: +30 210 964 6332
email: cps-athens@cooperpower.com

Cooper Power Systems


1900 East North Street
Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188-3899
USA
telephone: +01 262 524 3300

Contents
1.

2.

Dielectric properties
1.1.

Partial discharge behavior .................................................................................................... 4

1.2.

Withstand capability curves .................................................................................................. 5

1.3.

Effect of dissolved water and temperature on dielectric strength ......................................... 7

1.4.

Effect of voltage distribution in insulation structure ............................................................... 8

1.5.

Effect of temperature on power factor and dielectric constant ............................................. 8

1.6.

Creep withstand .................................................................................................................. 10

Thermal properties
2.1.

3.

Viscosity at low temperatures ............................................................................................. 11

Ageing
3.1.

Oxidation inhibitors .............................................................................................................. 11

3.2.

Transport atmosphere ......................................................................................................... 11

3.3.

Long term ageing fluid properties ....................................................................................... 12

3.4.

Impact of moisture and dissolved oxygen on ageing .......................................................... 15

3.5.

Dissolved oxygen ................................................................................................................ 15

3.6.

Causes of dissolved gas ..................................................................................................... 15

3.7.

Typical dissolved gas spectra ............................................................................................. 15

3.8.

Dissolved gas and ageing ................................................................................................... 16

3.9.

Sensitivity to oxygen of immersed material in air ................................................................ 17

3.10. Normal gassing ................................................................................................................... 18


3.11. Effectiveness of gas extraction ........................................................................................... 19
3.12. Interpretation of dissolved gas data .................................................................................... 19
4.

5.

General properties
4.1.

Fluid preservation ................................................................................................................ 19

4.2.

Materials compatibility ......................................................................................................... 19

4.3.

Water absorption during maintenance and on-site drying .................................................. 20

4.4.

Measures to avoid polymerization ...................................................................................... 20

4.5.

Traces of other liquids ......................................................................................................... 20

4.6.

Aging rate of thermal upgraded paper ................................................................................ 21

4.7.

Electrostatic charging and streaming electrification ............................................................ 22

Handling / oil processing


5.1.

Processing rigs .................................................................................................................... 22

5.2.

Impregnating solid insulation .............................................................................................. 22

5.3.

Influence of other oils and synthetic liquids during degassing ............................................ 22

5.4.

Disposal methods ................................................................................................................ 22

5.5.

Hydrolytic stability ............................................................................................................... 22

5.6.

Processing for water content .............................................................................................. 22

5.7.

Vapor phase processing ..................................................................................................... 22

References .......................................................................................................................................... 22

1. Dielectric properties

Partial discharge behavior


Envirotemp FR3 fluid appears to have a higher partial discharge inception voltage compared to
mineral oil.
Figure 1 shows results obtained by the
University of New South Wales using
needle to spherical section geometry [1].
Water was added to the fluids for the 4
mm gap tests, resulting in a much smaller
inception voltage for both fluids.

20
transformer oil

Envirotemp FR3 fluid

15

Voltage (kV)

1.1

10

The breakdown voltages of the two fluids


are quite different, however. Envirotemp
FR3 fluid has a much higher breakdown
voltage compared to mineral oil. This may
be attributed to its higher tolerance of
water.

0
inception

breakdown

inception

2 mm gap

breakdown

inception

3 mm gap

breakdown

4 mm gap + H2O

Partial Discharge (point - semisphere)

Figure 1. Partial discharge inception voltage for


mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid. [1]

IEC 61294, 50mm gap, University of Hanover


40

Partial Discharge Inception (kV)

Figures 2-4 show results from the


University of Hannover [2] using the
IEC 61294 method and a 50mm gap.
The variations of partial discharge
inception with regard to temperature
and relative water content were
explored. At low relative saturations,
mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid
have similar inception voltages. As the
relative water contents increase,
Envirotemp FR3 fluid appears to have
higher inception voltages compared to
mineral oil.

20

10
Envirotemp FR3 fluid: needle-plane
Envirotemp FR3 fluid: needle-sphere
0

20

Partial Discharge Inception (kV)

10

60

IEC 61294, needle-plane, 50mm gap, University of Hanover

30

20

10

Envirotemp FR3 fluid


mineral oil

Envirotemp FR3 fluid (50 C)


mineral oil (60oC)
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Water Content as Relative Saturation (%)

Figure 3. Partial discharge inception voltage versus


water content of mineral oil at 60C and Envirotemp
FR3 fluid at 50C. [2]

80

Figure 2. Partial discharge inception voltage versus


water content of mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3
fluid at 20C. [2]

40

20

40

IEC 61294, needle-plane, 50mm gap, University of Hanover

30

mineral oil: needle-plane


mineral oil: needle-sphere

Water Content as Relative Saturation at 20 C (%)

40

Partial Discharge Inception (kV)

30

10

12

14

16

18

20

Water Content as Relative Saturation at 90 C (%)

Figure 4. Partial discharge inception voltage versus


water content of mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid
at 90C. [2]

Withstand capability curves


Oil gap withstand tests were conducted at three laboratories according to their voltage
capabilities: Cooper Power Systems, Doble Engineering, and Waukesha Electric Systems. Figure
5 shows the electrode configurations. Withstand capabilities for 60 Hz (Figure 6), full wave
negative and positive impulse (Figure 7), chopped wave negative and positive impulse (Figure 8),
and switching surge negative and positive impulse (Figure 9) are shown.

1.2

Sphere-to-sphere full wave negative impulse withstand is shown in Figure 10. The University of
Manchester used the ASTM D3300 test method with a 12.7mm gap.
All of the results demonstrate that the oil gap withstand capabilities of mineral oil and Envirotemp
FR3 fluid are, for all practical purposes, equivalent.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 5. Electrode configurations for oil gap tests performed at the Thomas A. Edison Technical Center (a), Doble
Engineering (b), and Waukesha Electric Systems (c).

Full Wave Negative Impulse (kV/mm)

100

10

Doble
Engineering

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

Waukesha
Electric Systems

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

Thomas A. Edison
Technical Center

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

10

100

Oil Gap (mm)

(a)

Full Wave Positive Impulse (kV/mm)

100

60 Hz Breakdown (kV/mm)

100

10

Doble
Engineering

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

Waukesha
Electric Systems

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

Thomas A. Edison
Technical Center

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

10

10

Doble
Engineering

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

Waukesha
Electric Systems

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

Thomas A. Edison
Technical Center

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

10

100

Oil Gap (mm)


100

Oil Gap (mm)

Figure 6. AC withstand for mineral oil and Envirotemp


FR3 fluid.

(b)
Figure 7. Negative (a) and positive (b) full wave
impulse withstand for mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3
fluid.

100

Switching Surge Negative Impulse (kV/mm)

Chopped Wave Negative Impulse (kV/mm)

100

10

Doble
Engineering

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

Thomas A. Edison
Technical Center

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

10

100

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

Thomas A. Edison
Technical Center

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

10

(a)

100

100

Switching Surge Positive Impulse (kV/mm)

Chopped Wave Positive Impulse (kV/mm)

Waukesha
Electric Systems

(a)

Doble
Engineering

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

Thomas A. Edison
Technical Center

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

10

10

100

Doble
Engineering

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

Waukesha
Electric Systems

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

Thomas A. Edison
Technical Center

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

10

Oil Gap (mm)

Oil Gap (mm)

(b)

(b)

Figure 8. Chopped wave negative (a) and positive (b)


impulse withstand for mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3
fluid.

100

Figure 9. Switching surge negative (a) and positive (b)


impulse withstand for mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3
fluid.

20

20

ASTM D3300, sphere-sphere, 12.7mm gap, University of Manchester

Full Wave Negative Impulse (kV/mm)

ASTM D3300, sphere-sphere, 12.7mm gap, University of Manchester

Full Wave Negative Impulse (kV/mm)

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

Oil Gap (mm)

10

15

10

Doble
Engineering

Oil Gap (mm)

100

10

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

15

10

100

200

300

Absolute Water Content (mg/kg)

(a)

400

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

10

20

30

Relative Water Content (% 20oC saturation)

(b)

Figure 10. Full wave negative impulse strength versus absolute water content (a) and relative water content (b) of
mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid. [2]

40

1.3

Effect of dissolved water and temperature on dielectric strength


The dependence of dielectric breakdown strength on water content is shown in Figures 11-13.
Variation of ASTM D1816 (VDE electrodes) dielectric breakdown strength in term of both absolute
and relative water contents are shown for 2mm gap (Figure 11) and 1mm gap (Figure 12). The
ASTM D877 (disk electrodes) dependence on absolute water content is shown in Figure 13.
Dielectric breakdown strength variation with temperature is given in Figure 14.
50
ASTM D1816, 1mm gap, University of Manchester

Dielectric Breakdown Strength (kV)

D1816 Dielectric Breakdown Strength (kV)

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
Envirotemp FR3 fluid
mineral oil

10
0

40

30

20

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

10

0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

100

200

Water Content (mg/kg)


50

ASTM D1816, 1mm gap, University of Manchester


70

Envirotemp FR3 fluid


mineral oil

Dielectric Breakdown Strength (kV)

D1816 Dielectric Breakdown Strength (kV)

400

(a)

(a)
80

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

40

30

20

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

10

20

30

40

Relative Water Content (% 20 C saturation)

(b)
Figure 11. Dielectric breakdown strength versus water
content for mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

(b)
Figure 12. Dielectric breakdown strength versus water
content for mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid. [3]

80

D1816 Dielectric Breakdown Strength (kV)

100

Envirotemp FR3 fluid


FR3 production history
conventional transformer oil

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

10

Water Content (% of 20oC saturation)

D 877 Dielectric Breakdown (kV)

300

Absolute Water Content (mg/kg)

100

200

300

400

500

600

Water Content (ppm)

Figure 13. Dielectric breakdown strength versus water


content for mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

80

60

40

20
mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid
0

-40

-20

20

40

60

Temperature (oC)

Figure 14. Dielectric breakdown strength versus


temperature for mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

1.4

Effect of voltage distribution in insulation structure


The dielectric strength of solid insulation (in this case Kraft insulation impregnated with dielectric
fluid) is close to an order of magnitude higher than the fluid itself. Thus the weak material in the
insulation structure is the fluid. By bringing the permittivity of the liquid and solid insulation closer
together more of the dielectric stress will be distributed in the solid material. This will reduce the
stress in the fluid, which typically sets the design clearance. T. Prevost, presentation of [4]
1=permittivity fluid
mineral oil 2
FR3 fluid 3
2=permittivity solid insulation
solid insulation 4
Z=(d1/1) + (d2/2)
Let d1 = d2 = 5mm
E1= U/(1 * Z)
E2= U/(2 * Z)
U= Applied Voltage
Let U = 100 kV
E1= Stress fluid
E2= Stress in solid insulation

An example is given in Figure


28.

Mineral oil:
E1= 13.33 kV/mm
E2= 6.67 kV/mm
Envirotemp FR3 fluid:
E1= 11.43 kV/mm
E2= 8.57 kV/mm

Figure 28. Dielectric breakdown strength versus temperature for mineral


oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid. from T.A. Prevost presentation of [4]

1.5

Effect of temperature on power factor and dielectric constant


The dielectric constants of mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid as a function of temperature are
shown in Figure 14. The University of Hannover [2] values are the average dielectric constant for
a range of water contents. The error bars represent the maximum and minimum dielectric
constants. Envirotemp FR3 fluid was tested at water contents of 30, 50, 200, and 500 mg/kg;
mineral oil was tested at 11, 20, and 40 mg/kg. Figures 15-17 show the dielectric constants of
impregnated solid insulation versus temperature.

5.5

4.0

Diamond Pattern Paper


Relative Permittivity

Relative Permittivity

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

EHV Weidmann
mineral oil

Thomas A. Edison Technical Center


mineral oil

FR3 fluid

1.5

-20

FR3 fluid

20

40

80

100

120

Temperature ( C)

Figure 14. Relative permittivity versus temperature of


mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

4.5

4.0
mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

University of Hannover
mineral oil
FR3 fluid

60

5.0

3.5
20

40

60

80

100

120

Temperature (oC)

Figure 15. Relative permittivity versus temperature of


Kraft paper impregnated with mineral oil and
Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

5.5

5.5

5.0

High Density Pressboard


Relative Permittivity

Medium Density Pressboard


Relative Permittivity

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

4.5

4.0

5.0

4.5

4.0
mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

3.5
20

40

60

80

100

3.5
20

120

40

60

Temperature (oC)

80

100

120

Temperature (oC)

Figure 16. Relative permittivity versus temperature of


T-IV pressboard impregnated with mineral oil and
Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

Figure 17. Relative permittivity versus temperature of


Hi-Val pressboard impregnated with mineral oil and
Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

Dissipation factors of mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid as a function of temperature are shown
in Figure 18. Again, the University of Hannover [2] values are the average dielectric constant for a
range of water contents, and the error bars represent the maximum and minimum values. Figures
19-21 show the dissipation factors of impregnated solid insulation versus temperature.
10

10
University of Hannover
mineral oil

Diamond Pattern Paper


Dissipation Factor (%)

Dielectric Fluid
Dissipation Factor (%)

FR3 fluid

0.1

0.01
EHV Weidmann
mineral oil
FR3 fluid

0.001

20

40

60

0.1

0.01

Thomas A. Edison Technical Center


mineral oil
FR3 fluid

80

100

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

0.001
20

120

40

60

Temperature ( C)

Figure 18. Dissipation factor versus temperature of


mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

10

10

0.1

0.01

40

60

80

120

0.1

0.01
mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

0.001
20

100

Figure 19. Dissipation factor versus temperature of


Kraft paper impregnated with mineral oil and
Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

High Density Pressboard


Dissipation Factor (%)

Medium Density Pressboard


Dissipation Factor (%)

80

Temperature (oC)

100

120

Temperature (oC)

Figure 20. Dissipation factor versus temperature of T-IV


pressboard impregnated with mineral oil and
Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

0.001
20

40

60

80

100

120

Temperature (oC)

Figure 21. Dissipation factor versus temperature of


Hi-Val pressboard impregnated with mineral oil and
Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

Creep Withstand Capabilities


AC and impulse creep withstand tests were performed by EHV Weidmann [4]. Their electrode
configuration is shown in Figure 27. The geometry gives a non-uniform field with the highest
stress along the pressboard-fluid interface. The electrode and test specimen are designed to
minimize the effect of oil wedges.

1.6

(a)

(b)

Figure 27. EHV Weidmann creep electrode design (a) and photo of creep
breakdown (b). [4]

100

Full Wave Negative Creep


Breakdown Stress (kV/mm)

60 Hz Creep Breakdown Stress (kV/mm)

100

10

10

EHV Weidmann

EHV Weidmann

mineral oil

mineral oil

Envirotemp FR3 fluid

Envirotemp FR3 fluid

10

100

10

(a)

(a)
100

Full Wave Negative Creep


Weibull 1% Probability (kV/mm)

60 Hz Creep Breakdown Stress


Weibull 1% Probability (kV/mm)

100

10

EHV Weidmann
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

10

EHV Weidmann
Envirotemp FR3 fluid
mineral oil
Weidmann design curve

mineral oil
Weidmann design curve

10

100

Creep Distance (mm)

(b)
Figure 22. 60 Hz creep strength of mineral oil and
Envirotemp FR3 fluid: (a) shows test values and (b)
shows the calculated Weibull 1% probability.

10

100

Creep Distance (mm)

Creep Distance (mm)

10

100

Creep Distance (mm)

(b)
Figure 23. Full wave negative creep strength of
mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid: (a) shows test
values and (b) shows the calculated Weibull 1%
probability.

For AC creep withstand (Figure 22) and negative full wave impulse creep withstand (Figure 23),
the Weibull 1% probability is calculated and compared to the published Weidmann creep curve.
Figure 24 shows the results to date for positive full wave impulse creep withstand. Tests
completed to date demonstrate that the creep strengths of mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid
are, for all practical purposes, equivalent.
10000

100

Kinematic Viscosity (cSt)

Full Wave Positive Creep


Breakdown Stress (kV/mm)

1000

10

100

10

EHV Weidmann

mineral oil
Envirotemp FR3 fluid

10

100

Creep Distance (mm)

Figure 24. Full wave positive impulse creep withstand


of mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid

-20

Envirotemp FR3 fluid


7-day hold
conventional transformer oil

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Temperature ( C)

Figure 25. Viscosity versus temperature for mineral oil


and Envirotemp FR3 fluid

2. Thermal properties
2.1

Viscosity at low temperatures


Many variables affect the low temperature flow characteristics of Envirotemp FR3 fluid. The low
temperature viscosity depends not only on the temperature, but also time at temperature, the rate
of cooling, and the fluid volume. Figure 25 shows the viscosity versus temperature curves for
mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid. Comparing the 7-day hold values to the standard viscosity
shows the time at temperature effect.
(Another Cooper Power Systems product, R-Temp fluid, has a pour point similar to that of
Envirotemp FR3 fluid, but its viscosity is considerably higher. R-Temp fluid had the same cold flow
concerns, but has had no field issues in 30+ years of cold climate applications.)

3. Ageing
3.1

Oxidation inhibitors
Envirotemp FR3 fluid contains an additive package that includes a proprietary oxidation inhibitor
at 0.4 wt%. The ASTM D4768 gas chromatography method for determining the inhibitor content in
insulating liquids can be used to determine the inhibitor content in Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

3.2

Transport atmosphere
Tests using transformer power factor
models are currently underway to evaluate
the effects of dry air transport of
transformers using Envirotemp FR3 fluid.
The pressboard models, impregnated with
mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid,
emulate the geometry of power transformer
coils on a small scale (Figure 26).

Figure 26. Example of power factor model used in


tests to evaluate dry air transport of Envirotemp FR3

11

3.3

Long term ageing fluid properties


A number of side-by-side accelerated aging tests have been conducted using Envirotemp FR3
fluid and mineral oil. One series of tests used transformer construction materials in the proper
proportions to evaluate material compatibility. The tests, run at multiple temperatures and times,
show the changes in fluid properties over 4 IEEE normal lifetimes, the rough equivalent of 86
years of operation at rated load (Figures 27-34).

D1816 Dielectric Strength, 2mm gap (kV)

80
70

Dissipation Factor, 25 C (%)

10

60
50
40
30
20

Envirotemp
FR3 fluid

130 oC
150 oC

10
0

mineral
oil

170 C

0.1

0.01

Envirotemp
FR3 fluid

150 C

0.001
0

Figure 27. Dielectric breakdown strength versus time


for mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

mineral
oil

150 oC

Equivalent "Normal" Lifetimes

Figure 28. Dissipation factor versus temperature for


mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

10

1e+16
o

130 C
150oC

1e+15

mineral
oil

130 C
150oC
170oC

170 C

Acid Number (mg KOH/g)

Envirotemp
FR3 fluid

1e+14

1e+13

0.1

0.01
Envirotemp
FR3 fluid

1e+12

130oC
150oC

mineral
oil

170oC
1e+11

130 oC
170 oC

170 oC

Equivalent "Normal" Lifetimes

DC Resistivity (-cm)

130 oC

150 oC
o

170 oC
0

130 oC

0.001

150 C
o

170 C

Equivalent "Normal" Lifetimes

Equivalent Lifetimes

Figure 29. Resistivity versus time for mineral oil and


Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

130oC

Figure 30. Acid number versus temperature for


mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid.
50
130oC

Interfacial Tension (dyne/cm)

Envirotemp
FR3 fluid

150 C

40

mineral
oil

130oC
o

150 C
o

170 C

170 C

30

20

10

Equivalent "Normal" Lifetimes

Figure 31. Interfacial tension versus time for mineral


oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

12

10

80

Viscosity at 100 C (mm /s)

Water Content (mg/kg)

100

130oC
150oC

mineral
oil

170oC

130oC
150oC
170oC

40

20

Envirotemp
FR3 fluid

Envirotemp
FR3 fluid

60

130oC
150oC
o

170 C

Equivalent "Normal" Lifetimes

(a)

(a)

100

50
Envirotemp
FR3 fluid

130oC
150oC

80

mineral
oil

150oC
170oC

40
2

170oC

130oC

Viscosity at 40 C (mm /s)

60

30

mineral
oil

Equivalent "Normal" Lifetimes

Water Content (% 25 C saturation)

150oC
170 C

130oC

40

20

Envirotemp
FR3 fluid

130oC
o

150 C

20

mineral
oil

170oC

130oC
o

150 C
170oC

10

Equivalent "Normal" Lifetimes

Equivalent "Normal" Lifetimes

(b)
Figure 32. Water content versus time as (a) absolute
water content and (b) relative water content of mineral
oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

(b)
Figure 33. Kinematic viscosity versus time at (a)
100C and (b) 40C of mineral oil and Envirotemp
FR3 fluid.

340
360
320

340

300

Flash Point ( C)

Fire Point (oC)

350

330

Envirotemp
FR3 fluid

130oC
o

150 C
170oC

180

mineral
oil

130oC
150oC
o

170 C

170

280

Envirotemp
FR3 fluid

130 oC
150 oC

mineral
oil

150 oC
170 oC

170 oC

170

130 oC

160

160
150
150

Equivalent "Normal" Lifetimes

(a)

Equivalent Lifetimes

(b)

Figure 34. Flash point (a) and fire point (b) versus time of mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

13

100

D1816 Dielectric Breakdown Strength (kV)

Figure 35 shows the dielectric breakdown


strength versus dissipation factor at 25C
for Envirotemp FR3 fluid. The fairly small
decrease in dielectric strength indicates the
high dissipation factor is due to larger polar
molecules resulting from Envirotemp FR3
fluid thermal degradation instead of
conductive particulate contaminants.

80

60

40

20

150oC

110oC

170oC
130oC
210oC (Nomex)
0

10-3

10-2

10-1

100

101

102

Dissipation Factor, 25 C (%)

Figure 35. Dielectric breakdown strength versus


dissipation factor Envirotemp FR3 fluid 2mm gap.

The transformers having the longest continuous service are installed at a Cooper Power Systems
factory in Waukesha, Wisconsin. These transformers, both 225 kVA 3P and installed in 1996,
have been constantly loaded at about 90% of nameplate rating and periodically monitored. The
fluid properties are shown in Figures 36-42. Several laboratories have tested the fluid samples
over the years, accounting for some of the variations seen. Except for resistivity (Figure 40), which
shows a moderate decrease over time, the properties remain essentially unchanged. Of note is
the viscosity (Figure 37). Viscosity is the definitive indicator of oxidation in Envirotemp FR3 fluid.
The unchanging viscosity demonstrates absence of fluid oxidation in the transformers.

50

ASTM D6871 40 C new fluid maximum

Kinematic Viscosity (cSt)

Temperature ( C)

360

340

320

300

1996

Fire Point:

S/N 1429

S/N 1430

Flash Point:

S/N 1429

S/N 1430

40

30

20

40 oC:

S/N 1429

S/N 1430

100 oC:

S/N 1429

S/N 1430

ASTM D6871 100 C new fluid maximum

10

IEC 61203 continued service fire point minimum


ASTM D6871 new fluid fire point minimum

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

0
1996

2006

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Figure 37. Kinematic viscosity over time of new


transformers filled with Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

Figure 36. Flash and fire points over time of new


transformers filled with Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

100

Dissipation Factor at 25 C (%)

Dielectric Breakdown Voltage (kV)

0.8

80

60

40

S/N 1429:

S/N 1430:
D1816, 2mm gap
D1816, 2mm gap
D877
D877

20

0
1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Figure 38. Dielectric breakdown strength over time of


new transformers filled with Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

14

IEC 1203 continued service maximum (60 Hz)

0.6
S/N 1429
S/N 1430
0.4

0.2

ASTM D6871 new fluid maximum

0.0
1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Figure 39. Dissipation factor over time for new


transformers filled with Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

1e+15

10

IEC 61203 continued service maximum

Acid Number (mg KOH/g)

1e+14

1e+13

1e+12

1
S/N 1429
S/N 1430

0.1
ASTM D6871 new fluid maximum

(IEC 61203 continued service minimum)

1e+11
1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

0.01
1996

2006

Figure 40. Resistivity over time of new transformers


filled with Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Figure 41. Acid number over time of new transformers


filled with Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

Water Content in Paper (wt%)

S/N 1429
S/N 1430
40

30

20

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Figure 42. Interfacial tension over time of new


transformers filled with Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

10oC

20oC

1898

1403

1189

1640

2179

40oC
60oC

30oC

2481

50 C
4

80 C

70oC
90oC

2806
100oC

110oC

3151
3519

10
1996

0oC

996

50

824

540
672

Solubility Limit (mg/kg)

Interfacial Tension (dyne/cm)

DC Resisitvity (ohm-cm)

S/N 1429
S/N 1430

200

400

600

800

1000

Water Content in Envirotemp FR3 Fluid (mg/kg)

Figure 43. Water content in Envirotemp FR3 fluid in


equilibrium with water content in thermally upgraded
Kraft paper based on vapor pressure of water (Piper
chart).

3.4

Impact of moisture and dissolved oxygen on ageing


Increasing water content in the solid insulation increases its aging rate (thermo-hydrolytic
degradation). The solubility of water in Envirotemp FR3 fluid is higher than that of mineral oil,
shifting the equilibrium and causing water to migrate from the paper into the fluid. Figure 43 shows
the effect of the equilibrium shift and its drying effect on the solid insulation. The influence of the
water shift is discussed in [10,11].

3.5

Dissolved oxygen
Dissolved oxygen in and of itself is not a problem. The amount of oxygen that can be dissolved
into Envirotemp FR3 from the headspace or as a result of small leaks is insignificant in terms of
fluid stability. The concern instead is long-term (years) free access to oxygen. Cooper Power
Systems does not recommend applying Envirotemp FR3 fluid in free-breathing equipment.
Transformers using conservators fitted with bags or membranes, nitrogen preservation systems,
and sealed designs in general are suitable applications of Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

3.6

Causes of dissolved gas


Just as with mineral oil, gases in Envirotemp FR3 fluid are formed during normal aging processes,
thermal breakdown, operation of fuses or switches, by electrical defects, or during abnormal
events. The Envirotemp FR3 dissolved gas guide [16] contains analysis recommendations and
examples of normally operating and faulted transformers.

15

after fill

10,000

Sept `96
Dec `96

1,000

Dissolved Gas (ppm)

Jan `97
May `97

100

March `98
Feb `99
10

July `99
July `00

July `01

July `03

July `02
hydrogen H2

carbon
monoxide CO

methane CH4

ethane C2H6

ethylene C2H4 acetylene C2H2

Total
Combustible
Gases

carbon dioxide
CO2

May `04
Sept '05

(a)
10,000

after fill

1,000

Nov `96

100

Jan `97

Dissolved Gas (ppm)

Oct `96

Jan `97

March `98
July `99

10

July `00
July `01

July `02
July `03

hydrogen H2

carbon
monoxide CO

methane CH4

ethane C2H6

ethylene C2H4 acetylene C2H2

Total
Combustible
Gases

carbon dioxide
CO2

May `04
Sept '05

(b)
Figure 44. Dissolved gases over time of new 225 kVA distribution transformers filled with Envirotemp FR3 fluid:
(a) S/N 1429, (b) S/N 1430. Note the fairly high initial gas content. Fluid for power transformers is typically more
thoroughly processed.

3.7

Typical dissolved gas spectra


Dissolved gases over time for the two transformers described in 3.3 are shown in Figure 44. Both
have a higher proportion of ethane than is typical for a normally operating mineral oil transformer
a signature of Envirotemp FR3 fluid [16].

3.8

Dissolved gas and ageing


To help develop an understanding of the gases dissolved in Envirotemp FR3 fluid as transformers
age, two sets of transformers were aged at 137C, one set filled with mineral oil and the other with
Envirotemp FR3 fluid for the equivalent of 36 normal years. At 137C, one IEEE "normal" year is
equivalent to 672 hours. Fluid samples for dissolved gas analysis were periodically taken. The gas
results are shown in Figure 45.
The gas generation rates as well as the quantities and proportions of gases in the mineral oil and
Envirotemp FR3 fluid are strikingly similar. Other than the characteristically higher proportion of
ethane in the Envirotemp FR3 fluid compared to mineral oil, the gases over time are comparable.

16

1,000,000

initial
1 yrs

Dissolved Gas (ppm)

100,000

2 yrs
3 yrs

10,000

6 yrs
9 yrs

1,000

12 yrs
100

15 yrs
18 yrs

10

21 yrs
24 yrs

27 yrs
30 yrs

hydrogen H2

carbon
monoxide
CO

methane
CH4

ethane C2H6

ethylene
C2H4

acetylene
C2H2

carbon
Total
Combustible dioxide CO2
Gases

33 yrs
36 yrs

(a)
1,000,000

initial
1 yrs

Dissolved Gas (ppm)

100,000

2 yrs
3 yrs

10,000

6 yrs
9 yrs

1,000

12 yrs
15 yrs

100

18 yrs
10

21 yrs
24 yrs

27 yrs
30 yrs

hydrogen H2

carbon
methane CH4 ethane C2H6
monoxide CO

ethylene
C2H4

acetylene
C2H2

Total
carbon
Combustible dioxide CO2
Gases

33 yrs
36 yrs

(b)
Figure 45. Dissolved gas versus time. Test transformers filled with (a) mineral oil and (b) Envirotemp FR3 fluid
were run at an hottest spot temperature of 137C using the IEEE C57.100 method. One IEEE "normal" year of
21.54 years is represented by 672 hrs at 137C represents.

3.9

Sensitivity to oxygen of immersed material in air


Although Envirotemp FR3 fluid in bulk is relatively immune to oxidation due to air exposure, thin
films of the fluid can oxidize to form a polymer coating. It is the metal surfaces coated with thin
films that are prone to polymerization. A metal surface with a thin coating of Envirotemp FR3 fluid
exposed to shop air may become tacky in a matter of days. Porous surfaces, such as paper and
pressboard, impregnated with Envirotemp FR3 fluid can be exposed for months without becoming
tacky. They will, of course, absorb water from the atmosphere.
Following a sequence of tests, a large test tank filled with Envirotemp FR3 was put into a
warehouse without a cover, and was promptly forgotten. After several years, it was discovered
and the fluid tested. Aside from elevated dissipation factor and water content values, the fluid was
still in good condition. No film was seen on the surface of the fluid. There was no change in
viscosity, the definitive indicator of oxidation in Envirotemp FR3 fluid.
Ongoing experiments use the power factor models described in 3.2 to assess the effects of hot air
drying on impregnated surfaces.

17

An effect of hot air oven processing of Envirotemp FR3 fluid-impregnated coils was inadvertently
determined for us. Two transformers manufactured using Envirotemp FR3 fluid were tested for
power factor. The power factors of both transformers were higher than typically found in mineral
oil transformers. The power factor specification limit for mineral oil, 0.5%, was used as the limit for
these units. Because the dissipation factor of Envirotemp FR3 fluid is higher than that of mineral
oil, the power factor of the transformer also increases. Assuming a problem existed, the
transformers were reworked as if they were impregnated with mineral oil. The coils were ovendried and the transformer retested. The power factor of the transformers went up due to the
increase in dissipation factor of the Envirotemp FR3 fluid as some oxidation occurred, instead of
down as expected. This process is used to dry mineral oil coils to lower the transformer power
factor. It also dried the Envirotemp FR3 fluid coils, but the increase in power factor due to
increased dissipation factor was larger than the reduction in power factor due to drier insulation.
3.10 Normal gassing

Dissolved gas levels in normally operating transformers filled with Envirotemp FR3 fluid are similar
to those found in equivalent mineral oil transformers. A feature unique to Envirotemp FR3 fluid is
its higher proportion of ethane compared to that found in normally operating mineral oil
transformers [16].

10,000

Dissolved Gas (ppm)

1,000

100

mineral oil
10

FR3 fluid

hydrogen H2

carbon
methane CH4 ethane C2H6
monoxide CO

ethylene
C2H4

acetylene
C2H2

Total
Combustible
Gases

carbon
dioxide CO2

(a)
100,000

mineral oil control


10,000

Dissolved Gas (ppm)

FR3 fluid control


mineral oil

1,000

FR3 fluid
100

mineral oil + Cu
FR3 fluid + Cu

10

hydrogen H2

carbon
methane CH4 ethane C2H6 ethylene C2H4
monoxide CO

acetylene
C2H2

carbon dioxide
Total
CO2
Combustible
Gases

(b)
Figure 46. Mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid subjected to (a) partial discharge and (b) thermal stress [12]

18

3.11 Effectiveness of gas extraction

Degassing Envirotemp FR3 fluid is done in the same way using the same equipment as used for
mineral oil. In order to keep the mineral oil flow rate through the processor and the same
transformer set time after filling, Envirotemp FR3 fluid should be heated to 80-85C, compared to
60C temperature typically used for mineral oil processing. If higher temperature is not feasible,
lower pressure in the degasser or slower flow rate can be used.
3.12 Interpretation of dissolved gas data

In general, the same basic interpretations of gas content used for mineral oil are used for
Envirotemp FR3 fluid [16]. The IEC Duval method has been the most reliable fault identification
method for Envirotemp FR3 fluid. Combinations of combustible gas generation rate and gas
proportions, along with the Duval method, are recommended. Applications of these methods are
given in the examples of [16].
Figure 46 shows the results of subjecting mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid to partial discharge
and thermal stress [12].
4. General properties
4.1

Fluid preservation
Envirotemp FR3 fluid is not suitable for long-term use in true free-breathing equipment. A
transformer equipped with a nitrogen preservation system or a conservator fitted with a bag or
membrane is suitable, as are sealed tank designs in general.

4.2

Materials compatibility
CPS has run multiple compatibility studies and found that Envirotemp FR3 fluid, relative to mineral
oil, has similar compatibility with materials used in the manufacture of transformers.

Core & Coil Materials


core steel
bare copper
bare aluminum
polyvinyl Formvar
copper magnet wire
aluminum magnet wire
conical mandrel
Kraft paper
pressboard
diamond paper
plain paper
tubing
crepe tubing
vulcanized fiber sheet
polyamide bias tape w/o
epoxy
polyvinyl acetate adhesive
Group A Materials
thermo set epoxy
Rynite 530 (PET)
high temperature Nylon
Rostone thermoset
polyester
fiberglass/epoxy
GPO3 polyester/glass
laminate
Amodel 1133
polyphthalimide

Mylar film (PET)


Masonite
porcelain - radio glaze
Nylon tie wrap
Carri-strap
Group B Materials
Rosite 3250
PVC wire jacket
Storm Trapper epoxy
coating & wires
pine block
Switchgear Components
tin-plated bus bar
silver-plated bus bar
Nylon tie wraps
fiberglass string
fiberglass string
bottle bushing
CT protector
cover gasket wide
cover gasket narrow
bushing gasket
GPO-3 polyester
semaphore window
auxiliary switches
shaft seal o-ring
semaphore gasket
bottle disc

tank connector
tank connector gasket
CT with wire leads
Elastomers
Buna-N
Nitrile NBR
Nitrile HNBR
Epichlorohydrin
Viton
Neoprene (used)
Cork/neoprene (used)
Sealants
Locktite PST592 pipe sealant
Locktite Vibra-Seal
Permatex 51D pipe joint
compound
Core Banding
Glass / Polyester
Dacron / Epoxy
Green Polyester Bands
Black Nylon Bands
Adhesives
PVA
Casein
Epoxy
Cyanoacrylate

Anaerobic (Thread lockers)


Acrylics (Tapes)
Tapes
polyester/glass with
thermo set rubber adhesive
thermosetting acrylic adhesive
Kraft paper w/ wheat gum adhesive
Miscellaneous
polyethylene naphthalate (PEN)
Rynite 350
HTN primary bushing
tap changer
bayonet fuse
Epoxy Paint (Two Part)
Core Epoxy
Phenolic (DETC)
Heat Shrink (Polyester)
Laminated Wood
TX Block Material
Nylon (6/6) Ty-wraps, Banding
Yoke Band Insulation
CTC (Bonded)
Epoxy Paint (Two Part)
Core Epoxy

19

4.3

Water absorption during maintenance and on-site drying


Water absorption from the atmosphere is shown in Figure 47. In terms of absolute water content,
Envirotemp FR3 fluid absorbs water at a faster rate than does mineral oil. In terms of relative
water content, mineral oil absorbs water at a faster rate. The same precautions taken to minimize
water absorption by mineral oil during maintenance should be taken for Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

100

500

400

300

Envirotemp FR3 fluid


transformer oil

200

100

500

1000

1500

2000

Exposure Time (hrs)

(a)

2500

3000

Relative Water Content


(% room temperature saturation)

Absolute Water Content (mg/kg)

600

80

60

40

20
Envirotemp FR3 fluid
transformer oil
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

Exposure Time (hrs)

(b)

Figure 47. Water absorption from laboratory ambient atmosphere of mineral oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid as (a)
absolute water content and (b) relative water content.
4.4

Measures to avoid polymerization


Water uptake is almost always more of a concern than oxidation. Polymerization (oxidation leads
to the formation of oligomers, which eventually form polymers) is most likely to occur when thin
films of Envirotemp FR3 fluid on metal surfaces are exposed to air and sunlight (UV radiation). In
transformers, a free-breathing system will take years to show an increase in viscosity, the
definitive indication that oxidation is occurring. Long before the viscosity increases, the dissipation
factor will increase greatly, so ample warning is given in transformers routinely sampled.
Maintenance and repair tasks are most likely to expose thin films of Envirotemp FR3 fluid to the
atmosphere. Ideally, components impregnated with Envirotemp FR3 fluid or having thin films on
the surface will be immersed in Envirotemp FR3 fluid or mineral oil. The components could be
rinsed with mineral oil or stored in plastic bags of low oxygen permeability. Do not dry components
in hot air ovens.

4.5

20

Traces of other liquids


Envirotemp FR3 fluid is compatible with most dielectric fluids except silicone. The two do not mix,
and when put together separate into two phases. Silicone oil, even in low concentrations, may
cause foaming during the degassing process. Changes in Envirotemp FR3 fluid properties with
mineral oil content are shown in Figures 48-50.

40
fire point

350

viscosity at 40 oC

Kinematic Viscosity (mm /s)

viscosity at 100 oC

300

Temperature ( C)

flash point

250

200

30

20

10

150
0

10

20

40

60

80

100

10

20

30

Mineral Oil Content (%)

Figure 48. Flash and fire points versus mineral oil


content in Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Mineral Oil Content (%)

Figure 49. Kinematic viscosity versus mineral oil


content in Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

Interfacial Tension (dynes/cm)

50

40

30

20

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Mineral Oil Content (%)

Figure 50. Interfacial tension versus mineral oil


content in Envirotemp FR3 fluid.

4.6

Aging rate of thermal upgraded paper


Significant reductions in the aging rates of plain Kraft, cotton/Kraft, and thermally upgraded Kraft
are seen. Full-scale transformer accelerated aging tests, using the IEEE C57.100 method, are
described in [5]. These tests qualified the Envirotemp FR3 fluid/thermally upgraded Kraft paper
insulation system for 65C average winding rise applications. Extending the tests qualified the
insulation system as a 75C average winding rise system.
The results obtained in the full-scale tests led to an in-depth study of Envirotemp FR3 fluid
interactions. Sealed tube studies using the IEEE C57.100 method showed a much slower aging
rate of the thermally upgraded Kraft paper in Envirotemp FR3 fluid [6]. Plain (not thermally
upgraded) Kraft also show a significant decrease in aging [7], as did cotton/Kraft paper [8]. The
previous studies focused on new paper. Retrofill simulations were conducted showing a change
from the aging rate of paper/mineral oil to the aging rate of paper/Envirotemp FR3 fluid after the
retrofill [9]. The mechanisms responsible for the reduced aging rates are proposed in [10,11].
The thermally upgraded Kraft paper/Envirotemp FR3 fluid aging rates are applied to ANSI
standard transformer designs [13,15] using the aging equation derived from the sealed tube
studies [14].

21

4.7

Electrostatic charging and streaming electrification


The higher dissipation factor and lower resisitivity of Envirotemp FR3 fluid compared to those of
mineral oil should reduce the electrostatic charging and streaming electrification tendencies.
Cooper Power Systems is planning experiments to verify this.

5. Handling / oil processing


5.1

Processing rigs
Standard mineral oil processing rigs are commonly used with good results to process Envirotemp
FR3 fluid. The rig should be drained of mineral oil and flushed with Envirotemp FR3 fluid. It is then
ready for Envirotemp FR3 fluid processing. When finished, drain the Envirotemp FR3 fluid and
flush with mineral oil to return the rig to mineral oil use. Mineral oil is typically processed at about
60C. To keep the same mineral oil flow rate through the processor and set time for the filled
transformer, the Envirotemp FR3 fluid should be processed around 80-85C. The fluid degasses
easily at that temperature. If higher temperature operation of the rig is not possible, a reduced flow
rate may be needed.

5.2

Impregnating solid insulation


Envirotemp FR3 fluid penetrates solid insulation more slowly than does mineral oil. Allow double
the mineral oil impregnation time for Envirotemp FR3 fluid at the same temperature. Impregnation
times of laminated TX-2 is given in [17].

5.3

Influence of other oils and synthetic liquids during degassing


Avoid contamination with silicone oil. Most other dielectric fluids are compatible with Envirotemp
FR3 fluid and will degas normally.

5.4

Disposal methods
Envirotemp FR3 fluid is suitable as base stock used for biodiesel fuel production. Local lubrication
oil recyclers, restaurant grease recyclers, or fat rendering operations may also be possible.
Envirotemp FR3 fluid can be burned for heat recovery only if diluted to 10% or less in mineral oil.
It is not a hazardous waste for landfill disposal. If contaminated with hazardous materials, it must
be treated as such.

5.5

Hydrolytic stability
Envirotemp FR3 fluid, like other esters, can undergo hydrolysis. The hydrolysis reaction gives free
fatty acids. These acids typically are present in Envirotemp FR3 fluid and result in acid numbers
higher than those seen in mineral oil. The acid number quantifies the amount of acid but does not
advise its reactivity. Long chain fatty acids are less reactive than the shorter chain organic acids
found in mineral oil. A discussion of hydrolysis in Enirotemp FR3 fluid is given in [11].

5.6

Processing for water content


The water content of Envirotemp FR3 fluid is reduced in the same way as in mineral oil. Water
contents below 50 mg/kg are easily achieved. See 5.1.

5.7

Vapor phase processing


Cooper Power Systems has not had the opportunity to use vapor phase processing of Envirotemp
FR3 fluid coils. Envirotemp FR3 fluid is compatible with the kerosene type oils used in vapor
phase. Consult the manufacturer of the vapor phase equipment for recommendations.

References
[1]

T.C. Wei, T.R. Blackburn, A Report of the Partial Discharge Test Conducted on Envirotemp FR3 Fluid for
Cooper Power Systems, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South
Wales, June 2004

[2]

E. Gockenbach, H. Borsi, B. Dolata, Research project on the comparison of electric and dielectric properties
of natural Ester fluid with a synthetic Ester and a Mineral based transformer oil: Report No. 2 (Partial

22

discharge behaviour, permittivity and dissipation factor tan d), Institute of Electric Power Systems, Division of
High Voltage Engineering, Schering-Institute, University of Hanover, Germany, Sept.-Nov. 2005
[3]

D. Martin and Z.D. Wang, A Comparative Study of the Impact of Moisture on the Dielectric Capability of
Esters for Large Power Transformers, IEEE/DEIS Conf. on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena,
Oct. 15-18, 2007, Kansas City, USA

[4]

T.A. Prevost, Dielectric Properties of Natural Esters and their Influence on Transformer Insulation System
Design and Performance, IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conf., May 21-26, Dallas USA

[5]

C. P. McShane, G.A. Gauger, and J. Luksich, Fire Resistant Natural Ester Dielectric Fluid and Novel
Insulation System for Its Use, IEEE/PES Transmission & Distribution Conf., April 12-16, 1999, New Orleans,
USA

[6]

C.P. McShane, K.J. Rapp, J.L. Corkran, G. A. Gauger, and J. Luksich, Aging of Paper Insulation in Natural
Ester Dielectric Fluid, IEEE/PES Transmission & Distribution Conf, Oct. 28 - Nov. 2, 2001, Atlanta, USA

[7]

C.P. McShane, K.J. Rapp, J.L. Corkran, G. A. Gauger, and J. Luksich, Aging of plain Kraft paper in natural
ester dielectric fluid, IEEE/DEIS 14th International Conf. on Dielectric Liquids, July 7-12, 2002, Graz, Austria

[8]

C.P. McShane, K.J. Rapp, J.L. Corkran, and J. Luksich, Aging of cotton/Kraft blend insulation paper in natural
ester dielectric fluid, TJ|H2b TechCon Asia-Pacific Condition Based Maintenance & Diagnostic Conf., May 7-9,
2003, Sidney, Australia

[9]

C.P. McShane, J.L. Corkran, K.J. Rapp, and J. Luksich, Aging of paper insulation retrofilled with natural ester
dielectric fluid, IEEE/DEIS International Conf. on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Oct. 19-22,
2003, Albuquerque, USA

[10] K.J. Rapp, C.P. McShane, and J. Luksich, Interaction Mechanisms of Natural Ester Dielectric Fluid and Kraft
Paper, IEEE/DEIS 15th International Conf. on Dielectric Liquids, June 26 - July 1, 2005, Coimbra, Portugal
[11] A.W. Lemm, K.J. Rapp, and J. Luksich, Effect of Natural Ester (Vegetable Oil) Dielectric Fluid on the Water
Content of Aged Paper Insulation, EIA/IEEE 10th Insucon International Electrical Insulation Conf., May 24-26,
2006, Birmingham, UK
[12]

L. Lewand, Laboratory evaluation of several synthetic and agricultural-based dielectric liquids, Doble
International Client Conference, 5E, 2001, Boston, MA USA

[13] S. Durian, Dielectric Fluid Relative Thermal Performance, Engineering Development Report TP03-DR-006,
Cooper Power Systems, May 21, 2003
[14] J. Luksich, IEEE Loading Guide A and B Factors for Envirotemp FR3 Fluid and Thermally Upgraded Kraft
Insulation, Engineering Development Report TP03-DR-009, Rev. 1, Cooper Power Systems, June 12, 2003
[15] S. Durian, Comparative Loading, Thermal, and Aging Performance of Thermally Upgraded Paper in Mineral
and Envirotemp FR3 Fluid, Engineering Development Report TP03-DR-017, Cooper Power Systems, July 14,
2003
[16] Envirotemp FR3 Fluid Dissolved Gas Guide, R900-20-19, Cooper Power Systems, August 17, 2006
[17] T. Prevost, Oil Impregnation Rate of Cooper FR3 Oil, Wicor International Technical Report 3206, EHV
Weidmann, February 6, 2006

23