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# Brian Bowers (TA for Hui Sun)

MATH 20D
Homework Assignment 1
October 7, 2013

## 20D - Homework Assignment 1

2.2 #1,2,3,4,6 Solve the given differential equation.
(1) y 0 = x2 /y
(2) y 0 = x2 /y(1 + x3 )
(3) y 0 + y 2 sin x = 0
(4) y 0 = (3x2 1)/(3 + 2y)
(6) xy 0 = (1 y 2 )1/2
All of the equations in this set are separable, so our goal should be to get the terms involving y on the
left side and the terms involving x on the right side. I will rewrite y 0 as dy/dx for these problems.
(1) We separate and then integrate:
dy
= x2 /y
dx
= ydy = x2 dx [separating variables]
y2
x3
=
+ C [integrating]
2
3r
2x3
= y =
+ C [solving for y]
3

## (2) We separate and then integrate:

dy
= x2 /y(1 + x3 )
dx
x2
= ydy =
dx [separating variables]
1 + x3
1
y2
= ln |1 + x3 | + C [integrating]
=
2
3r
2
= y =
ln |1 + x3 | + C [solving for y]
3

## (3) We separate and then integrate:

dy
= y 2 sin x
dx
dy
= 2 = sin xdx [separating variables]
y
1
= = cos x + C [integrating]
y
1
= y =
[solving for y]
cos x + C

## (4) We separate and then integrate:

dy
= (3x2 1)/(3 + 2y)
dx
= (3 + 2y)dy = (3x2 1)dx [separating variables]
= 3y + y 2 = x3 x + C [integrating]
= (y + 3/2)2 = x3 x + C [completing the square]
p
= y = x3 x + C 3/2 [solving for y]

## (6) We separate and then integrate:

dy
= (1 y 2 )1/2
dx
dx
[separating variables]
= (1 y 2 )1/2 dy =
x
= sin1 (y) = ln |x| + C [integrating]
x

## = y = sin(ln |x| + C) [solving for y]

2.2 #9a, 17a, 19a Find the solution of the given initial value problem in explicit form.
(9a) y 0 = (1 2x)y 2 ,

y(0) = 1/6

## (17a) y 0 = (3x2 ex )/(2y 5),

(19a) sin 2xdx + cos 3ydy = 0,

y(0) = 1
y(/2) = /3

First, we should clarify what it means to find an explicit solution - an explicit solution is a solution of
the form y = f (x) (as opposed to something like y 2 + y = x3 + 1). Once again, for each problem, I will write
y 0 as dy/dx for ease of separation.
(9a) We separate and then integrate:
dy
= (1 2x)y 2
dx
dy
= 2 = (1 2x)dx [separating variables]
y
= y 1 = x x2 + C [integrating]
1
= y =
[solving for y]
x x2 + C
Next, we plug in our initial condition:
y(0) =

1
1
1
=
=
,
(0) (0)2 + C
C
6

which we can solve to get that C = 6. Thus, plugging back into our solution for y, we get
y=

1
.
x x2 + 6

## (17a) We separate and then integrate:

dy
= (3x2 ex )/(2y 5)
dx
= (2y 5)dy = (3x2 ex )dx [separating variables]
= y 2 5y = x3 ex + C [integrating]

2
5
= y
= x3 ex + C [completing the square]
2
p
5
= y = x3 ex + C + [solving for y]
2
Next, we plug in our initial condition:
q

5
5
y(0) = (0)3 e(0) + C + = C 1 + = 1.
2
2

3
So, we find that C 1 = 2 . But the square root of a number is always positive, so we choose the

13
negative sign and get C 1 = 3
2 , which we can solve to find that C = 4 . Thus, plugging back
into our solution for y, we get
r
13 5
y = x3 ex +
+ .
4
2
Note that our final solution only involves the negative of the square root since this is what we found
from our initial conditions.
3

## (19a) We separate and then integrate:

sin 2xdx + cos 3ydy = 0
= cos 3ydy = sin 2xdx [separating variables]
1
1
= sin 3y = cos 2x + C [integrating]
3
2

Next, we plug in our initial condition (which says that when x = /2, we have y = /3):
1
sin(3(/3)) =
3
1
= sin() =
3

1
cos(2(/2)) + C
2
1
cos() + C
2
1
= 0 = + C
2
1
= C =
2

sin(x) = sin( x)

and

## Thus, we get the solution

1
1
1
sin(3y) = cos(2x) +
3
2
2
3 cos(2x) + 3
= sin(3y) =
2

sin1

= y =

3 cos(2x)+3
2

sin1

+ 2k
or

3 cos(2x)+3
2

+ 2k

## If we plug our initial condition into the first formula, we get



1 3 cos(2(/2))+3
+ 2k
sin
2

sin1 (0) + 2k
2k
=
=
=
,
3
3
3
3
but this solves to k = 1/2, which is not an integer. So, we consider the second formula:


1 3 cos(2(/2))+3

sin
+ 2k
2

sin1 (0) + 2k
+ 2k
=
=
=
,
3
3
3
3
which solves as k = 0. Thus, our final explicit formula should be the second formula with k = 0,
namely


sin1 3 cos(2x)+3
2
y=
.
3

y 4x
dy
=
.
dx
xy

(1)

dy
(y/x) 4
=
;
dx
1 (y/x)

(2)

## thus Equation (??) is homogeneous.

(b) Introduce a new dependent variable v so that v = y/x or y = xv(x). Express dy/dx in terms of x, v,
and dv/dx.
(c) Replace y and dy/dx in Equation (??) by the expressions from part (b) that involve v and dv/dx.
Show that the resulting differential equation is
v+x
or
x

v4
dv
=
,
dx
1v

dv
v2 4
=
dx
1v

(3)

## . Observe that Equation (??) is separable

(d) Solve Equation (??), obtaining v implicitly in terms of x.
(e) Find the solution of Equation (??) by replacing v by y/x in the solution in part (d).
First, I think its worth clarifying what homogeneous means in this context. We are using the definition
given on pages 49-50, namely If the right side of the equation dy/dx = f (x, y) can be expressed as a function
of the ratio y/x only, then the equation is said to be homogeneous. Now lets work through the problem:
(a) In order to rewrite an equation, we want to modify it in such a way that the content remains unchanged.
In this case, we achieve this by multiplying the right side of the equation by 1 in a special way.
y 4x
dy
=
dx
xy


dy
1/x y 4x
=
[multiplying by 1]
dx
1/x x y
dy
(y/x) 4
=
[simplifying]
dx
1 (y/x)

Thus, since the right side of the equation is expressed solely in terms of y/x, we conclude that the
equation is homogeneous.
(b) Define v = y/x. If we solve for y, we get y = xv. Differentiating with respect to x, we use the product
rule to get
dv
dy/dx = v + x .
dx

dv
(c) Next, we plug substitute y/x = v and dy/dx = v + x dx
:

dv
dx
dv
= x
dx
dv
= x
dx
dv
= x
dx
v+x

v4
1v
v4
=
v [rearranging]
1v
v 4 v v2
=

## [getting a common denominator]

1v
1v
v2 4
=
[combining terms]
1v
=

dx
dv(1 v)
=
,
2
v 4
x

(4)

## which means that this equation is separable.

(d) Now we solve Equation (??) using the separated version, Equation (??). In order to integrate the left
side of Equation (??), we will need to use partial fractional decomposition. We need to find A and B
such that
A
B
A(v + 2) + B(v 2)
(A + B)v + (2A 2B)
1v
=
+
=
=
.
2
2
v 4
v2 v+2
v 4
v2 4
Thus, comparing the terms with v we see that 1 = A + B, and comparing the constant terms, we see
that 1 = 2A 2B. The first equation tells us that A = 1 B. Pluggin this into the second equation
we get
2(1 B) 2B = 4B 2 = 1,
which we can solve to get B = 3/4. Substitution this back into our first equation, we get 1 = A3/4,
which we can solve to get A = 1/4. Thus, we can rewrite Equation (??) as


1/4 3/4
dx
+
dv =
v2 v+2
x
1
3
=
ln |v 2| ln |v + 2| = ln |x| + C [integrating]
4
4

## (e) Last, we substitute v = y/x everywhere in our solution. We get

3
1
ln |(y/x) 2| ln |(y/x) + 2| = ln |x| + C.
4
4
This is technically a correct solution to the differential equation and we could end the problem here, but
we have to do a bit of work to make this a simpler form (specifically a simpler form that matches the
answer given in the back of the book.) If youre interested to see how to get the nicer form, read the

## following steps. If not, feel free to stop the problem here.

1 y 2x 3 y + 2x
=
ln
= ln |x| + C [common denominator]
ln
4
x 4 x

y + 2x 3/4
y 2x 1/4

+
ln
= ln |x| + C [properties of logs]
= ln
x
x
= eln|

3/4
y2x 1/4
+ln y+2x
x
x

1/4

## = eln |x|+C [exponentiating]

3/4

y2x
y+2x
= eln| x |
eln| x |
= eln |x| eC [properties of exponents]

1/4
3/4
y + 2x
y 2x

= C|x| [simplifying, renaming C]
=
x

x
 1/4
 3/4
1
1
1/4
3/4
= |y 2x|
|y + 2x|
= C|x| [factoring out]
|x|
|x|

## = |y 2x|1/4 |y + 2x|3/4 |x| = C|x| [regrouping]

= |y 2x|1/4 |y + 2x|3/4 = C [dividing by |x|]
= |y 2x||y + 2x|3 = C [raising both sides to the 4 power, renaming C]

2.2 #32b The method outlined in Problem 30 can be used for any homogeneous equation. That is, the
substitution y = xv(x) transforms a homogeneous equation into a separable equation. The latter equation
can be solved by direct integration, and the replacing v by y/x gives the solution to the original equation.
Solve the differential equation
dy
x2 + 3y 2
=
.
dx
2xy
We will follow the model of problem 30.
(a) In order to express the right side in terms of (y/x), we need to multiply the right side by 1 in a particular
way, specifically:


dy
x2 + 3y 2 1/x2
=
[multiplying by 1]
dx
2xy
1/x2
1 + 3y 2 /x2
=
2y/x
1 + 3(y/x)2
=
2(y/x)

## (b) As in problem 30, we see that

dy/dx = v + x

dv
.
dx

(c) Now we replace (y/x) and dy/dx and rearrange to make it separable:
dy
dx
dv
= v + x
dx
dv
= x
dx
dv
= x
dx
dv
= x
dx
2v
dv
=
1 + v2

=
=
=
=
=
=

1 + 3(y/x)2
2(y/x)
1 + 3v 2
2v
1 + 3v 2
v [subtracting]
2v
2
1 + 3v
2v 2

[common denominator]
2v
2v
1 + v2
[combining terms]
2v
dx
[rearranging]
x

## (d) Now we integrate:

2v
dx
dv =
1 + v2
x
2
= ln(1 + v ) = ln |x| + C [integrating]
= eln(1+v

= eln(1+v

## (e) Last, we substitute v = y/x and simplify:

1 + v 2 = C|x|
= 1 + (y/x)2 = C|x|
y2
= C|x|
x2
x2 + y 2
=
= C|x|
x2
2
2
= x + y = C|x|x2
= 1 +

2.3 #13 (abridged) The half-life of carbon-14 is approximately 5730 years. If Q(t) is the amount of
carbon-14 at time t and Q0 is the original amount, then the ratio Q(t)/Q0 ca be determined, as long as
this quantity is not too small.
(a) Assuming that Q satisfies the differential equation Q0 = rQ, determine the decay constant r for
carbon-14.
(b) Find an expression for Q(t) at any time t, if Q(0) = Q0 .
(c) Suppose that certain remains are discovered in which the currend residual amount of carbon-14 is 20%
of the original amount. Determine the age of these remains.

(a) Lets solve the differential equation first and see if we can answer the question. In other words, well be
doing part (b) first.
dQ/dt = rQ
= dQ/Q = rdt [rearranging]
= ln |Q| = rt + C [integrating]
= Q = ert+C [exponentiating]
= Q = Cert [renaming C]
Next, we use the initial condition, namely Q(0) = Q0 . Plugging into our equation, we get
Q(0) = Cer(0) = C = Q0 ,
which tells us that C = Q0 . Thus, the solution to the differential equation is
Q = Q0 ert .
Now lets use the half-life given in the problem statement. It tells us that after 5730 years, the remaining
amount will be half of the original amount. Written as an equation, this tells us that Q(5730) = Q0 /2.
Lets use this to find r. We get
Q(5730) = Q0 er(5730) = Q0 /2
= er(5730) = 1/2 [dividing by Q0 ]
= r(5730) = ln(1/2) [taking ln]
= r = ln(1/2)/5730
= ln(2)/5730
0.00012097

(b) Looking back at part (a), we see that we basically already found this. We take our equation and plug
in the value of r that we just found.
Q = Q0 e.00012097t
(c) If the current amount is 20% of the original, then we can write this in equation form as
Q(t) = Q0 e.00012097t = .2Q0
= e.00012097t = .2 [dividing by Q0 ]
= .00012097t = ln(.2) [taking the ln of both sides]
= t = ln(.2)/.00012097 [solving]
13304 years [simplifying]

2.3 #15 Suppose that a certain population satisfies the initial value problem
dy/dt = r(t)y k,

y(0) = y0 ,

where the growth rate r(t) is given by r(t) = (1 + sin t)/5 and k represents the rate of predation.
(a) Suppose that k = 1/5. Plot y versus t for several values of y0 between 1/2 and 1.
(b) Estimate the critical initial population yc below which the population will become extinct.
(c) Choose other values of k and find the corresponding yc for each one.
(d) Use the data you have found in parts (b) and (c) to plot yc versus k.
9

To complete this problem, we must use differential equation graphing software of some variety. By trial
and error, we can find the answers by studying the graphs.
(a) [Use software to find this step - too long to show here.]
(b) By studying the graphs from step (a), we can find that yc 5/6.
(c) If we choose different values of k, we find that yc 25k/6.
(d) A graph of yc versus k would look like the following:

2.3 #17a (abridged) Heat transfer from a body to its surroundings is described by the differential
equation
du
= (u4 T 4 ),
dt
where u(t) is the absolute temperature oft he body at time t, T is the absolute temperature of the surroundings, and is a constant depending on the physical parameters of the body. However, if u is much larger
thatn T , then solutions of the above equation are well approximated by soutions of the simpler equation
du
= u4 .
dt
Suppose that a body with initial temperature 2000 K is surrounded by a medium with temperature 300 K
and that = 2.0 1012 K 3 /s.
Determine the temperature of the body at any time by solving the second equation.
Putting the above conditions into equation form, we get u(0) = 2000, T = 300, and = 2.01012 K 3 /s.
As it turns out, we dont even need the information about T , so we plug in and solve:
du
= 2.0 1012 u4
dt
= u4 du = 2.0 1012 dt [separating]
u3
= 2.0 1012 t + C [integrating]
3
= u3 = 6.0 1012 t + C [multiplying and renaming C]

## Now we use our initial condition:

u(0) = (6.0 1012 (0) + C)1/3 = C 1/3 = 2000,
10

which we can solve to get C = 20003 . Thus, plugging back into our solution, we get
u = (6.0 1012 t + 20003 )1/3 .
[Believe it or not, this is equivalent to the answer given in the back of the book.]
2.3 #18a Consider an insulated box (a building, perhaps) with internal temperature u(t). According to
Newtons law of cooling, u satisfies the differential equation
du
= k[u T (t)],
dt
where T (t) is the ambient (external) temperature. Suppose that T (t) varies sinusoidally; for example,
assume that T (t) = T0 + T1 cos(t). Solve the differential equation and express u(t) in terms of t, k, T0 , T1 ,
and . Observe that part of your solution approaches zero as t becomes large; this is called the transient
part. The remainder of the solution is called the steady state; denote it by S(t).
We plug in the equation for T (t) and then solve:
du
= k[u (T0 + T1 cos(t))] [substituting for T (t)]
dt
du
=
= ku + kT0 + kT1 cos(t) [distributing]
dt
du
+ ku = kT0 + kT1 cos(t) [rearranging]
=
 dt

du
= ekt
+ ku = ekt (kT0 + kT1 cos(t)) [integrating factor with p(t) = k]
dt
= (ekt u)0 = kT0 ekt + kT1 ekt cos(t) [rewriting each side]
wekt sin(t) + kekt cos(t)
+ C [using the integration below]
2 + k2
(w sin(t) + k cos(t))
= u = T0 + kT1
+ Cekt [dividing]
2 + k2

= ekt u = T0 ekt +

Now we justify the integration step above using two steps of integration by parts. In integration by parts,
we have two functions u and v and use the formula
Z
Z
udv = uv vdu.

11

## Warning: this one gets ugly.

Z
Z
kt
e cos(t)dt = ekt cos(t)dt [simplifying a bit]
1
[choose u = ekt , dv = cos(t)dt = du = kekt , v = sin(t)]
Z
Z
1 kt
k
kt
e cos(t)dt = e sin(t)
ekt sin(t)dt

1
[choose u = ekt , dv = sin(t) = du = kekt , v =
cos(t)]


Z
Z
1 kt
k
1 kt
k
kt
kt
e cos(t)dt = e sin(t)
e cos(t) +
e cos(t)dt

Z
Z
k2
1
k
ekt cos(t)dt
ekt cos(t)dt = ekt sin(t) + 2 ekt cos(t) 2


Z
1
k2
k
ekt cos(t)dt = ekt sin(t) + 2 ekt cos(t)
1+ 2

Z
1
k
2 + k2
ekt cos(t)dt = ekt sin(t) + 2 ekt cos(t)
2

Z
kt
kt
e
sin(t)
+
ke
cos(t)
ekt cos(t)dt =
2
2
k +

2.4 #1 For each problem, determine (without solving the problem) an interval in which the solution of
the given initial value problem is certain to exist.
(1) (t 3)y 0 + (ln t)y = 2t,

y(1) = 2

## (5) (4 t2 )y 0 + 2ty = 3t2 ,

y(1) = 3

Lets start with an overview of how to apply Theorem 2.4.1. Here are the steps we can follow:
(i) Rearrange the differential equation to the form 0 + p(t)y = g(t).
(ii) Find all values of t at which p(t) is not continuous - mark them on a number line with vertical dashes.
(iii) Find all values of t at which g(t) is not continuous - mark them on the same number line with vertical
dashes.
(iv) Mark the t value for which the initial condition is defined as a star on the number line.
(v) Theorem 2.4.1 is guaranteed to hold on the biggest interval that contains the star and no dashes.
In other words, this interval we found is the largest interval in which the solution to the differential
equation is certan to exist. Moreover, the solution is unique.
Now, lets enumerate the things which cause a function f not to be continuous in this course:
(a) f is discontinuous any place where its denominator is equal to 0.
(b) f is discontinuous any place where it takes the square root of a negative number.
(c) f is discontinuous any place where it takes the ln of a number which is 0 or negative.
(d) f is discontinuous any place where it takes sin1 or cos1 of a number x with x < 1 or x > 1.
Lets apply this process to our problems.

12

(1)

## (i) We rearrange as follows:

(t 3)y 0 + (ln t)y = 2t
ln t
2t
= y 0 +
y=
[dividing]
t3
t3

Thus, p(t) =

ln t
t3

and g(t) =

2t
t3 .

(ii) We see that p(t) is discontinuous at t <= 0 (because of ln t) and t = 3 (because of the denominator,
t 3).
(iii) We see that g(t) is discontinuous at t = 3 (because of the denominator, t 3).
(iv) We see that the initial condition (y(1) = 2) is defined at t = 1. We mark this on the number line
with a star. The completed number line appears below.

(v) We can see that the biggest interval containing the star and no dashes is (0, 3) (which can also be
expressed as {t : 0 < t < 3} - in words, the set of values of t such that 0 < t < 3).
(5)

## (i) We rearrange as follows:

(4 t2 )y 0 + 2ty = 3t2
= y 0 +

Thus, p(t) =

2t
4t2

and g(t) =

2t
3t2
y
=
4 t2
4 t2

3t2
4t2 .

## (ii) We see that p(t) discontinuous at t = 2 and t = 2 (because of the denominator, 4 t2 ).

(iii) We see that g(t) is discontinuous at t = 2 and t = 2 (because of the denominator, 4 t2 ).
(iv) We see that the initial condition (y(1) = 3) is defined at t = 1. We mark this on the number
line with a star. The completed number line appears below.

(v) We can see that the biggest interval containing the star and no dashes is (2, 2) (which can also
be expressed as {t : 2 < t < 2} - in words, the set of values of t such that 2 < t < 2).

2.4 #14,15 In each problem, solve the given initial value problem and determine how the interval in
which the solution exists depends on the initial value y0 .
(14) y 0 = 2ty 2 ,
(15) y 0 + y 3 = 0,

y(0) = y0
y(0) = y0

13

dy
= 2ty 2
dt
dy
= 2 = 2tdt [separating]
y
1
=
= t2 + C [integrating]
y
1
[dividing, renaming C]
= y =
C t2
Now we use our initial condition:
y(0) =

1
1
=
= y0 ,
C (0)2
C

## which means that C = 1/y0 . Thus, substituting back in, we get

y=

1
.
1/y0 t2

Now note that we cant use Theorem 2.4.1 because it is impossible to get the differential equation in
the form y 0 + p(t)y = g(t). So, we must simply look at our final answer. We think about where this
solution is discontinuous and see that it is discontinuous anywhere
that the denominator, 1/y0 t2 , is
p
equal to 0. Solving, we see that this happens when t = 1/y0 . If we think carefully about this, we
can realize that this solution exists only when y0 > 0 (since we cant take the square root of a negative
number or divide by 0). So lets look at three cases:
p
(i) y0 > 0: In this case, y is discontinuous at t = 1/y0 , as we showed above. So the number line
appears as follows:

p
p
Thus, the solution exists on the interval ( 1/y0 , 1/y0 ).
(ii) y0 = 0: In this case, the solution we found above is not even defined, so its clearly not correct.
But we can confirm that the solution y = 0 satisfies the differential equation and the initial
condition. Thus, our solution is y = 0, and it exists everywhere (aka on the interval (, )).
(iii) y0 < 0: In this case, the denominator is never equal to 0, so the solution exists everywhere (aka
on the interval (, ).).
dy
+ y3
dt
dy
=
dt
dy
=
y3
1
=
2y 2

=0
= y 3 [rearranging]
= dt [separating]

= t + C [integrating]
r
1
= y =
[solving, renaming C]
2t + C

14

s
y(0) =

1
=
2(0) + C

1
= y0 .
C

## But now we immediately need to examine various cases for y0 :

(i) y0 > 0: Note
q that the square root of a number is always nonnegative (if its even a real number).
Thus, if C1 = y0 and y0 > 0, then we MUST choose the + sign, not the sign. So, we
q
solve C1 = y0 to get C = y02 . Plugging back into our solution (and recalling that we chose thet
q
1
+ sign), we get y = 2t+y
2 . Now we must consider where this solution exists. We know that
0

we can only take the square root of a nonnegative number, so we must have
know that we cannot divide by 0, so we must have
y02

2t +
> 0, which means t >
number line appears as follows:

y02
2 .

2t + y02

1
2t+y02

0. We also

y02
2 .

The

## Thus, the solution exists on the interval (y02 /2, ).

(ii) y0 = 0: In this case, we cannot solve our initial condition equation for C. In fact, our solution for
y is impossible since the square of 1 divided by a number can never equal 0. As in problem 14,
we can confirm that the solution y = 0 satisfies the differential equation and the initial condition.
Thus, our solution is y = 0, and it exists everywhere (aka on the interval (, )).
(iii) y0 < 0: Note
q that the square root of a number is always nonnegative (if its even a real number).
Thus, if C1 = y0 and y0 < 0, then we MUST choose the sign, not the + sign. So, we
q
solve C1 = y0 to get C = y02 . Plugging back into our solution (and recalling that we chose
q
1
thet sign), we get y = 2t+y
2 . Now we must consider where this solution exists. We know
0

that we can only take the square root of a nonnegative number, so we must have
also know that we cannot divide by 0, so we must have
y02

that 2t +
> 0, which means t >
The number line appears as follows:

y02
2 .

2t + y02

1
2t+y02

0. We

## Thus, the solution exists on the interval (y02 /2, ).

15

y02
2 .

2.4 #27 Sometimes it is possible solve a nonlinear equqation by making a change of the dependent
variable that converts it into a linear equation. The most important such equation has the form
y 0 + p(t)y = q(t)y n ,
and is called a Bernoulli equation after Jakob Bernoulli.
(a) Solve Bernoullis equation when n = 0; when n = 1.
(b) Show that if n 6= 0, 1, then the substitution v = y 1n reduces Bernoullis equation to a linear equation.
This method of solution was found by Leibniz in 1696.
(a) Well do both cases of n:
(i) [n = 0]: We have the differential equation y 0 + p(t)y = q(t), which is identical to the standard
form for the method of integrating factors with g(t) = q(t). Thus, we can use the general solution
[Equation (33)] given on page 37, namely
Z t R

1
y = R p(t)dt
e p(s)ds g(s)ds + c .
e
t0
(ii) [n = 1]: We have the differential equation
dy
+ p(t)y
dt
dy
=
dt
dy
=
dt
dy
=
y

= q(t)y
= q(t)y p(t)y [subtracting]
= y(q(t) p(t)) [factoring]

## = (q(t) p(t))dt [separating]

Z
= ln |y| = (q(t) p(t))dt + C [integrating]
= y = e

(q(t)p(t))dt+C

[exponentiating]

## (b) Suppose n 6= 0, 1 and note that if v = y 1n then v 0 = (1 n)y n y 0 , and in particular, y n y 0 =

can find
y 0 + p(t)y = q(t)y n
= y 0 y n + p(t)y 1n = q(t) [dividing by y n ]
v0
+ p(t)v = q(t) [substituting in terms of v]
1n
= v 0 + (1 n)p(t)v = (1 n)q(t) [multiplying by (1 n)]
=

## We can see that this is a linear equation in terms of v.

2.4 #28 Solve the given Bernoulli equation using the substitution mentioned in Problem 27(b).
t2 y 0 + 2ty y 3 = 0,

16

t > 0.

v0
1n .

We

Lets first rearrange this equation to match the form of the equation from problem 27.
t2 y 0 + 2ty y 3 = 0
= t2 y 0 + 2ty = y 3
2
1
= y 0 + y = 2 y 3 [dividing by t2 ]
t
t
Now lets use the transformation from problem 27 (taking n = 3 - so v = y 1n = y 2 ) and solve:
2
1
y0 + y = 2 y3
t
t
2
1
= v 0 + (1 3) v = (1 3) 2 [using the transformation]
t
t
4
2
= v 0 +
v = 2 [simplifying]
t
t 



R
4
4
2
4
0
4
(4/t)dt
= t
v +
v =t
[integrating
factor

=
e
= e4 ln t = eln(t ) = t4 ]
t
t2
= (t4 v)0 = 2t6
2
= t4 v = t5 + C [integrating]
5
2
= v =
+ Ct4 [solving]
5t
Last, we substitute in v = y 2 and solve for y:
2
+ Ct4 [substituting]
5t
1
= y = q
[solving]
2
5t
+ Ct4
y 2 =

2.5 #3 This problem involves an equation of the form dy/dt = f (y). In each problem sketch the graph
of f (y) versus y, determine the critical (equilibrium) points, and classify each one as asymptotically stable
or unstable. Draw the phase line, and sketch several graphs of solutions in the ty-plane.
dy/dt = y(y 1)(y 2),

y0 0.

## First, we sketch a graph of f (y) versus y.

Next, we identify the critical/equilibrium points, which are the values of y for which dy/dy = 0. These
values are y = 0, 1, 2. Now we create a phase line. We mark each critical point on the line and then add
17

a plus sign for each segment of the graph that is positive, as well as a minus sign for each segment of the
graph that is negative. Last, for each plus sign, we draw an arrow to the right, and for each minus sign, we
draw an arrow to the left.

We identify that y = 0 is unstable, y = 1 is stable, and y = 2 is unstable. Below we sketch a graph of several
solutions.

2.5 #12,13 These problems involve equations of the form dy/dt = f (y). In each problem sketch the
graph of f (y) versus y, determine the critical (equilibrium) points, and classify each one asymptotically
stable, unstable, or semistable (see Problem 7). Draw the phase line, and sketch several graphs of solutions
in the ty-plane
(12) dy/dt = y 2 (4 y 2 ),

< y0 <

< y0 <

18

## We see that y = 0 and y = 1 are both semistable.

19

2.5 #16 Another equation that has been used to model population growth is the Gompertz equation
dy/dt = ry ln(K/y),
where r and K are positive constants.
(a) Sketch the graph of f (y) versus y, find the critical points, and determine whether each is asymptotically
stable or unstable.
(b) For 0 y K, determine where the graph of y versus t is concave up and where it is concave down.
(c) For each y in 0 < y K, show that dy/dt as given by the Gompertz equation is never less than dy/dt
as given by the logistic equation.
2.5 #22 Suppose that a given population can be divided into two parts: those who have a given disease
and can infect others, and those who do not have it but are susceptible. Let x be the proportion of
susceptible individuals and y the proportion of infectious individuals; then x + y = 1. Assume that the
disease spreads by contact between sick and well members of the population and that the rate of spread
dy/dt is porportional to the number of such contacts. Further, assume that members of both groups move
about freely among each other, so the number of contacts is proportional to the product of x and y. Since
x = 1 y, we obtain the initial value problem
dy/dt = y(1 y),

y(0) = y0 ,

where is a positive proportionality factor, and y0 is the initial proportion of infectious individuals.
(a) Find the equilibrium points for the differential equation and determine whether each is asymptotically
stable, semistable, or unstable.
(b) Solve the initial value problem and verify that the conclusions you reached in part (a) are correct.
Show taht y(t) 1 as t , which means that ultimately the disease spreads through the entire
population.
2.5 #23 Some diseases (such as typhoid fever) are spread largely by carriers, individuals who can transmit
the disease but who exhibit no overt symptoms. Let x and y denote the proportions of susceptibles
and carriers, resepectively, in the population. Suppose that carriers are identified and removed from the
population at a rate , so
dy/dt = y.
(5)
Suppose also that the disease spreads at a rate proportional to the product of x and y; thus
dx/dt = xy

(6)

(a) Determine y at any time t by solving Equation (??) subject to the initial condition y(0) = y0 .
(b) Use the result of part (a) to find x at any time t by solving Equation (??) subject to the initial condition
x(0) = x0 .
(c) Find the proportion of the population that excapes the epidemic by finding the limiting value of x as
t .

20

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