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2001-AL

P MATH
PAPER 2

HONG KONG EXAMINATIONS AUTHORITY


HONG KONG ADVANCED LEVEL EXAMINATION 2001

PURE MATHEMATICS A-LEVEL PAPER 2


1.30 pm 4.30 pm (3 hours)
This paper must be answered in English

1.

This paper consists of Section A and Section B.

2.

Answer ALL questions in Section A and any FOUR questions in Section B.

3.

You are provided with one AL(E) answer book and four AL(D) answer books.
Section A : Write your answers in the AL(E) answer book.
Section B : Use a separate AL(D) answer book for each question and put the
question number on the front cover of each answer book.

4.

The four AL(D) answer books should be tied together with the green tag provided.
The AL(E) answer book and the four AL(D) answer books must be handed in
separately at the end of the examination.

5.

Unless otherwise specified, all working must be clearly shown.


Hong Kong Examinations Authority
All Rights Reserved 2001
2001-AL-P MATH 21

FORMULAS FOR REFERENCE


sin( A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B
cos( A B ) = cos A cos B ! sin A sin B
tan( A B) =

tan A tan B
1 ! tan A tan B

A+ B
A B
cos
2
2
A+ B
A B
sin A sin B = 2 cos
sin
2
2
A+ B
A B
cos A + cos B = 2 cos
cos
2
2
A+ B
A B
cos A cos B = 2 sin
sin
2
2
sin A + sin B = 2 sin

2 sin A cos B = sin( A + B) + sin( A B)


2 cos A cos B = cos( A + B ) + cos( A B)
2 sin A sin B = cos( A B) cos( A + B)

2001-AL-P MATH 22

SECTION A (40 marks)


Answer ALL questions in this section.
Write your answers in the AL(E) answer book.

1.

(e

e x
.
1 cos 2 x
x

(a)

Find lim

(b)

Prove that lim x 2 cos

x 0

x 0

1
=0 .
x
(6 marks)

2.

3.

Evaluate
x3

(a)

1+ x

(b)

dx ,

tan 1 x dx .
(5 marks)

Let a1 = 1 and a n +1 =

4 + an
2

for n N . Show that 1 a n < 2 for all

nN.
Hence show that {a n } is convergent and find its limit.
(6 marks)

4.

Let P be the parabola y 2 = 4ax where a is a non-zero constant, and

) (

A at1 , 2at1 , B at 2 , 2at 2

) be two distinct points on P .

(a)

Find the equation of chord AB .

(b)

If A and B move in such a way that chord AB always passes through


(a, 0) , find the equation of the locus of the mid-point of AB .
(5 marks)

2001-AL-P MATH 23

Go on to the next page

5.

Let f be a real-valued function continuous on [0, 1] and differentiable in


(0, 1) . Suppose f satisfies
A.

f(0) = 0 ,

B.

f(1) =

C.

1
,
2
0 < f (t ) < 1 for t (0, 1) .

Define F( x) = 2

x
0

f(t )dt [f( x)]

for x [0, 1] .

(a)

Show that F ( x) > 0 for x (0, 1) .

(b)

Show that

1
0

f(t )dt >

1
.
8
(6 marks)

6.

7.

3
x 12 x when
Let f : R R be defined by f(x) =
x
x
+
when
2
ex
e

x2,
x <2.

(a)

Show that lim f ( x) = lim+f ( x) = 0 .

(b)

Is f differentiable at x = 2 ? Explain your answer.

x2

x 2

Figure 1 shows the curve


3
x = cos t ,
:
0 t 2 .
y = sin 3 t ,
(a)

Find the length of .

(b)

Find the area enclosed


by .
(7 marks)

Figure 1
2001-AL-P MATH 24

(5 marks)

SECTION B (60 marks)


Answer any FOUR questions in this section. Each question carries 15 marks.
Use a separate AL(D) answer book for each question.
2

8.

Let f ( x) = x 3 (6 x) 3 .
(a)

(i)

Find f ' ( x) for x 0, 6 .

(ii)

Show that f ' (0) and f ' (6) do not exist.

(iii)

Show that f '' ( x) =

8
4
x3

(6

5
x) 3

for x 0, 6 .
(4 marks)

(b)

Determine the values of x for each of the following cases:


(i)

f ' ( x) > 0 ,

(ii)

f ' ( x) < 0 ,

(iii)

f '' ( x) > 0 ,

(iv)

f '' ( x) < 0 .
(3 marks)

(c)

Find all relative extreme points and points of inflexion of f(x) .


(3 marks)

(d)

Find all asymptotes of the graph of f(x) .


(2 marks)

(e)

Sketch the graph of f(x) .


(3 marks)

2001-AL-P MATH 25

Go on to the next page

y
9.

In Figure 2, C is the circle

x 2 + ( y + 1) 2 = 4 2 and F is the
point (0, 1) . For any point P on
C , let L p be the perpendicular
bisector of the line segment FP . It
appears that as P moves on C , all
the L p s are tangents to an ellipse
inside C .

LP
P

F
4

2
4
6

Figure 2
(a)

Suppose for every P on C , the line L p is tangent to the same ellipse.


Write down the equations of the two horizontal tangents and the two
vertical tangents to the ellipse.
Hence guess the equation of the ellipse.
(Note that C is symmetric about the y-axis and F lies on this line of
symmetry.)
(5 marks)

(b)

Let E be the ellipse found in (a).


(i)

(ii)

2001-AL-P MATH 26

For any point P(p, q) on C , let M be the point (m, n) where


3p
4(q 1)
m=
and n =
. Show that
7q
7q
(I)

M lies on E ,

(II)

the tangent at M to E is the perpendicular bisector of


FP .

For any point M on E , show that there is a point P on C such


that the perpendicular bisector of FP is the tangent to E at M .
(10 marks)

10.

(a)

Prove by induction that lim+ x(ln x) n = 0 for any non-negative


x0

integer n .

(3 marks)
(b)

Let n be a positive integer.

(ln x)

Show that

(ii)

Show that the improper integral


(i.e. lim+
h 0

1
h

dx = x(ln x) n n (ln x) n 1dx .

(i)

1
0

ln x dx is convergent

ln x dx exists) and find its value.

Hence deduce that the improper integral

1
0

(ln x) n dx is

convergent and find its value.


(8 marks)
(c)

Let n be a positive integer and be a positive real number. For


1
1
1
x 1 (ln x) n dx = n +1 (ln x) n dx .
0 < h < 1 , show that
h
h

Hence show that the improper integral

1
0

x 1 (ln x) n dx is convergent

and find its value.


(4 marks)

2001-AL-P MATH 27

Go on to the next page

11.

(a)

Let f and g be real-valued functions continuous on [a, b] and


differentiable in (a, b) .
(i)

By considering the function


h( x) = f( x)[g(b) g( a )] g( x)[f(b) f(a )] on [a, b] , or
otherwise, show that there is c (a, b) such that
f (c)[g(b) g(a )] = g (c)[f(b) f( a )] .

(ii)

Suppose g ( x) > 0 for all x (a, b) . Show that


g( x) g( a ) > 0 for any x (a, b) .
f ( x )
is increasing on (a, b) , show that
g ( x )
f( x) f(a )
P( x) =
is also increasing on (a, b) .
g( x) g( a )
(9 marks)

If, in addition,

(b)

Let

e x cos x 1
sin x + cos x 1
Q( x) =
1

if

x 0, ,
4

if

x=0 .

Show that Q is continuous at x = 0 and increasing on 0, .


4
Hence or otherwise, deduce that for x 0, ,
4

2001-AL-P MATH 28

x
0

Q(t ) dt x .
(6 marks)

12.

(a)

Evaluate
(i)

(ii)

1
2

(x

x +1

dx ,

x 2 +1
2

x + 1)( x 2 + x + 1)

dx .
(6 marks)

(b)

For n = 1, 2, 3, and 0 x < 1 , define g n ( x) =


h n ( x) =

x 6 r 5
and
r =1 6r 5
n

x 6 r 1
. For any fixed x [0, 1) ,
r =1 6r 1
n

(i)

show that the sequences {g n ( x )} and {h n ( x)} are increasing;

(ii)

deduce that lim g n ( x) and lim h n ( x) exist.


n

(3 marks)
(c)

For n = 1, 2, 3, and 0 x < 1 , define


f n ( x) =
(i)

For any fixed x (0, 1) , evaluate f n ( x) and show that


lim f ( x) exists.
n

(ii)

x 6 r 5 x 6 r 1
and let f( x) = lim f n ( x ) .

r =1 6r 5
n
6r 1

Assuming that f ( x) = lim f n ( x) for any fixed x (0, 1) and


n

f is continuous on [0, 1) , show that f ( x) =


x (0, 1) .

1+ x 2
1+ x 2 + x 4

for

Hence find f(x) .


(6 marks)

2001-AL-P MATH 29

Go on to the next page

13.

Let f : (0, ) (0, ) be a continuous function satisfying f[f( x)] = x and


f(1 + x) =

(a)

f( x )
for all x .
1 + f( x)

Show that for any n N and x R , f(n + x) =

f( x)
.
1 + n f( x)
(3 marks)

(b)

Define x n = 1 +

f(1)
n +1
for any n N . Show that f( x n ) =
.
1 + n f(1)
n+2

Hence, by considering lim x n , show that f(1) = 1 .


n

Deduce that f(n) =

1
1
and f = n .
n
n
(5 marks)

(c)

For any q N and q 2 , let S(q) be the statement


p q
f =
for all p N with 0 < p < q .
q p
(i)

Show that S(2) is true.

(ii)

Assume that S(h) is true for 2 h q and h N . Use (a) to


q +1
p
=
for 0 < p < q + 1.
show that f
p
q
+1

Hence deduce that S(q + 1) is true.

(iii)

Use (a) to show that for any positive rational number x ,


1
f( x) = .
x
(7 marks)
END OF PAPER

2001-AL-P MATH 210

2001 Paper 2
Section A
1.

(a)

2.

(a)

x2 1
ln(1 + x 2 ) + c
2 2

(b)

x3
x2 1
tan 1 x
+ ln(1 + x 2 ) + c
3
6 6

3.

4.

(a)

2 x (t1 + t 2 ) y + 2at1t 2 = 0

(b)

y 2 = 2ax 2a 2

6.

(b) No

7.

(a)

(b)

2001 Paper 2
Section B

8.

(a)

(i)

f (x) =

1 3
x (6 x) 3 [2(6 x) x]
3

= x

(ii) Since

2 3
1
x ( 6 x ) 3 x 3 (6 x ) 3
3
3

1
3

(6 x )

2
3

for x 0, 6

(4 x)

f (0) = lim
h 0

2
h3

1
(6 h) 3

6 3
= lim 1 = ,
h 0 h

6 3
f + (0) = lim+ 1 = ,
h 0 h

(6 + h) 3 ( h) 3
6 3
= lim + 1 = , and
f (6) = lim
h 0
h 0
h
h
2

6 3
f + (6) = lim+ + 1 = ,
h 0
h
therefore both f ' (0) and f ' (6) do not exist.
4

1
2
(iii) f (x) = x 3 (6 x) 3 (4 x) + x 3 (6 x) 3 (4 x) x 3 (6 x) 3
3
3
4

1
= x 3 (6 x) 3 [ (6 x)(4 x) + 2 x (4 x) 3 x(6 x )]
3
8
= 4
for x 0, 6
5

x 3 (6 x ) 3

2001 Paper 2
Section B
f (x) > 0

(b) (i)

(c)

0<x<4

(ii) f (x) < 0

x < 0 or 4 < x < 6 or x > 6

(iii) f (x) > 0

x>6

(iv) f (x) < 0

x < 0 or 0 < x < 6

(, 0)

(0,4)

(4,6)

(6,)

Undefined
Undefined

f(x)

5
23

f (x)
f (x)

Undefined
Undefined

One relative minimum point:


One relative maximum point:
One point of inflexion:

(0, 0) .
5
23

(4, ) .
(6, 0) .
1

(d) Since

f( x)
6 3
lim
= lim 1 = 1 , and
x x
x x

lim [f( x) + x ]

6 3
1 + 1
1
2

x
= lim x 3 (6 x) 3 + x = lim
x
1
x

therefore

6 3
= lim 2 1
=2,
x x

y = x + 2 is an oblique asymptote of the graph of f(x) .

2001 Paper 2
Section B
(e)

The graph of f(x) :


y

(4, 2 3 )

(6,0)

y = x + 2

2001 Paper 2
Section B
9.

(a)

P1 = (0, 3) and P2 = (0, 5) are the two points on C such that


P1 F and P2 F are vertical.

The two horizontal tangents to the ellipse are L P1 and L P2 .

i.e.

y = 2 .

Putting y = 1 into x 2 + ( y + 1) 2 = 4 2 , we have x = 2 3 .

P3 = 2 3 , 1 and P4 = 2 3 , 1 are the two points on C such that


P3 F and P4 F are horizontal.

The two vertical tangents to the ellipse are L P3 and L P4 .

i.e.

x= 3 .

Since the circle is symmetric about the y-axis and F also lies on
this line of symmetry, the ellipse must also be symmetric about the y-axis.
Thus one of the axes of symmetry of the ellipse is vertical.
Since y = 2 are the horizontal tangents,
the end-points of this vertical axis of the ellipse must be (0, 2) .
This implies that the centre of the ellipse is the origin and the other axes of
symmetry is horizontal and passes through the origin.
Since x = 3 are the vertical tangents,

the end-points of this horizontal axis must be 3 , 0 .


2

The equation of the ellipse is

x y

+ =1

3 2

4 x 2 + 3 y 2 = 12

2001 Paper 2
Section B
(b) (i)

(I)

Since P lies on C ,

p 2 + q 2 + 2q 15 = 0 .

Putting M into the equation of E , we have


LHS =
=

(7 q ) 2
12
(7 q ) 2
12

48(q 1) 2
(7 q ) 2

[3(q

2q + 15) + 4(q 2 2q + 1)

q 2 14q + 49
(7 q ) 2
= 12 = RHS
M lies on E .
=

36 p 2

(II) The equation of the tangent, TM , at M to E is


4mx + 3ny = 12
or
px + (q 1) y + (q 7) = 0 .
Slope of TM = mTM =
Slope of FP = m FP =

12 p
p
4m
=
=
.
12(q 1)
q 1
3n

q 1
.
p

mTM m FP = 1 .

p q +1
Putting the mid-point of FP , ,
, into the equation of TM :
2
2
p 2 (q 1)(q + 1)
+
+ ( q 7)
2
2
1
= (q 2 2q + 15) + (q 2 1) + 2(q 7)
2
= 0 = RHS .

LHS =

TM is the perpendicular bisector of FP .

2001 Paper 2
Section B

(ii) Let M(m, n) be any point on E . Solving m =


we have p =

3p
4(q 1)
and n =
,
7q
7q

8m
7n + 4
and q =
.
n+4
n+4

Since M lies on E , 4m 2 + 3n 2 = 12 .
Let P be the point (p, q) and put (p, q) into C ,
LHS =
=

64m 2
(n + 4) 2

64(n + 1) 2
( n + 4) 2

16(3n 2 + 12 + 4n 2 + 8n + 4)

( n + 4) 2
= 16 = RHS .
P lies on C .
4(n + 1)
4m
,
Mid-point of FP =
.
n
4
n+4
+

3n
.
4m
Equation of the perpendicular bisector of FP is
(n + 4) y 4(n + 1)
4m
=
( n + 4) x 4m
3n
Slope of FP =

3n(n + 4) y 12n(n + 1) = 4m(n + 4) x + 16m 2


4m(n + 4) x + 3n(n + 4) y = 12n(n + 1) + 4(12 3n 2 )
4m(n + 4) x + 3n(n + 4) y = 12(n 2 + n + 4 n 2 )
4mx + 3ny = 12
which is the same as the equation of the tangent to E at M .

2001 Paper 2
Section B

10. (a)

lim x(ln x) 0 = 0 .

For n = 0 ,

x0+

Assume lim+ x(ln x) k = 0 where k is a non-negative integer.


x0

Then lim+ x(ln x) k +1 = lim+


x0

(ln x) k +1
x 1

x 0

= lim+

(k + 1)(ln x) k

[by LHospital rule]

x 1

x0

= 0
[by induction hypothesis]
By the principle of mathematical induction, the result follows.
(b) (i)

Using the method of integration by parts,


d
(ln x) n dx = x(ln x) n x ( ln x) n dx
dx

= x(ln x) n n (ln x) n 1dx

(ii) For 0 < h < 1 ,

1
h

ln x dx = [x ln x x ]1h = 1 h ln h + h

Since lim+ h ln h = 0 by (a), lim+


h 0

1
0

h 0

ln x dx = lim+
h 0

for any positive integers n .

1
h

1
h

ln x dx exists and

ln x dx = 1

For 0 < h < 1 and any positive integer n ,

1
h

(ln x) n dx = x(ln x) n

] n (ln x)
1

1
h

n 1

dx

= h(ln h) n n x(ln x) n 1 h (n 1)

= h(ln h) n + nh(ln h) n1 + n(n 1)

(ln x)

n 2

(ln x)
h

n2

dx

dx


= h(ln h) n + nh(ln h) n 1  + (1) n (n! )h(ln h) + (1) n (n! )
Since lim+ h(ln h) k = 0 (k = 0, 1, 2, ) by (a),
h 0

lim+

h 0
1

1
h

(ln x) n dx exists and

(ln x)
0

dx

= lim+
h 0

1
h

(ln x) n dx = (1) n (n!)

1
h

dx

2001 Paper 2
Section B

(c)

Let y = x , > 0 .
Then

dy
= x 1 and
dx

1
h

x 1 (ln x ) n dx =
=

Since lim+
h 0

lim+

h 0

1
0

1
h

1
h

1
h

1
1
( ln y ) n dy

n +1

1
h

(ln x) n dx

(ln x) dx = (1) n n! by (b)(ii) ,

x 1 (ln x ) n dx exists and

x 1 (ln x) n dx = lim+
h 0

n +1

(1) n n!

n +1

(ln x) n dx =

2001 Paper 2
Section B
11. (a)

(i)

h( a ) = f(a )[g(b) g(a )] g( a )[f(b) f(a )] = f(a ) g(b) f(b) g( a ) and


h(b) = f(b)[g(b) g(a )] g(b)[f(b) f(a )] = f(a ) g(b) f(b) g(a )
h(a) = h(b)
Since h is continuous on [a, b] and differentiable in (a, b) ,
there is a c (a, b) such that
h (c) = 0
[Mean Value Theorem]
i.e. f (c)[g(b) g(a )] = g (c)[f(b) f(a)]
g ( x) > 0 for all x (a, b) ,

(ii) Since

g(x) is strictly increasing on (a, b)


By the continuity of g at x = a , g(x) > g(a) for any x (a, b) .
i.e. g( x) g( a ) > 0 for any x (a, b) .
For any x (a, b) ,
[g( x) g( a)] f ( x) [f( x ) f(a )] g ( x)
.
P ( x) =
[g( x) g( a )] 2
Using the result of (a) and for x (a, b) ,
f (c )
f( x) f(a )
P(x) =
=
for some c (a, x)
g( x) g( a )
g (c )
f ( x )
f (c )
f ( x )
Since
is increasing,

.
g ( x )
g (c )
g ( x )
f ( x )
f( x) f(a )

Hence
g( x) g( a )
g ( x )

i.e.

[g( x) g( a )] f ( x) [f( x) f( a )] g ( x) 0
P ( x) 0

P(x) is also increasing on (a, b) .

2001 Paper 2
Section B
(b) Using LHospital rule,
e x (cos x sin x)
e x cos x 1
= lim+
= 1 = Q(0)
x 0 sin x + cos x 1
x 0
cos x sin x
Q is continuous at x = 0 .

lim+ Q( x) = lim+

x 0



Now, Q is continuous on 0, and differentiable in 0, .
4
4

Putting f(x) = e x cos x and g(x) = sin x + cos x , then for x 0, ,
4
g ( x) = cos x sin x > 0 and
f ( x) e x (cos x sin x)

=
= e x which is increasing on 0, .
g ( x)
cos x sin x
4
f( x) f(0)
e x cos x 1

Now for x 0, , Q(x) =
=
.
4
g(
x) g(0)
sin
+
cos

1
x
x


Using the result in (a)(ii) and the fact that Q is continuous on 0, ,
4

Q is increasing on 0, .
4

Hence Q(x) Q(0) = 1 for x 0, ,
4

x
0

Q(t ) dt

x
0


dt = x for x 0, .
4

2001 Paper 2
Section B

12. (a)

1
2

x +1

(x

dx =

1
1 2
)
2

+(

3 2
)
2

dx

x 1

2
tan 1
+c
3
3
2
2
2x 1
2
+c
tan 1
=

3
3
1

Let

x 2 +1
2

( x x + 1)( x + x + 1)

ax + b
2

x x +1

cx + d

for some a, b, c, d R .

x + x +1

x 2 + 1 (ax + b)( x 2 + x + 1) + (cx + d )( x 2 x + 1)

Then

a = c = 0, b = d =

(x

Hence
=

1
2

1
.
2

x 2 +1
2

dx

x + 1)( x 2 + x + 1)

dx +

1
2

dx
x +1
+ x +1
2x 1 1
2x +1
1
+
+c
tan 1
tan 1
=

3
3
3
3
2

(b) For n = 1, 2, 3,  and any fixed x [0, 1) ,


x 6( n +1) 5
x 6( n +1) 1
(i) g n +1 ( x) g n ( x) =
0 and h n +1 ( x) h n ( x) =
0 .
6(n + 1) 5
6(n + 1) 1

(ii)

{g n ( x)}

g n ( x) =

x 6 r 5

r =1 6r 5
n

n
r =1

x 6 r 5 =

x(1 x 6 n )
1 x

x
1 x 6

n
x5
x 6 r 1
x 5 (1 x 6 n )
x 6 r 1 =

6
r =1 6r 1
r =1
1 x
1 x 6
Both {g n ( x )} and {h n ( x)} are bounded above.

h n (x ) =

and {h n ( x)} are increasing.

Using (i), lim g n ( x) and lim h n ( x) exist.


n

2001 Paper 2
Section B

(c)

Let n = 1, 2, 3,  .
(i)

For any fixed x (0, 1) ,


n
x 6 r 6 x 6 r 2
f ( x) =

(
= (1 + x + x

r =1
6

12

+  + x 6( n 1) x 4 1 + x 6 + x 12 +  + x 6( n 1)

(1 x )(1 x

6n

1 x
Since 0 < x <1 , x 6 n 0 as n .
lim f ( x) exists.

f ( x) = lim f n ( x)

(ii) For x (0, 1) ,

=
=

Hence

f(x) =
=
=
=

1 x 4
1 x6
1+ x 2
1+ x 2 + x 4

1+ x2

1+ x
(x
(x

+ x4

dx

x 2 +1
2

+ 1) 2 x 2

dx

x 2 +1
2

x + 1)( x 2 + x + 1)

dx

2x 1 1
2x +1
+
+c
tan 1
tan 1

3
3
3
3

for x (0, 1)
Noting that f(0) = 0 since f n (0) = 0 for all n and that f is
continuous on [0, 1) , we have c = 0 .
2x 1 1
2x +1
1
+

i.e. f(x) =
tan 1
tan 1

3
3
3
3

2001 Paper 2
Section B

13. (a)

Using the given condition, f(1 + x) =

f( x)
.
1 + f( x)

f( x)
where k Z+ . Then
1 + k f( x)
f(k + x)
f[(k + 1) + x] =
1 + f(k + x)
f( x)
1 + k f( x)
=
f( x)
1+
1 + k f( x)
f( x)
.
=
1 + (k + 1) f( x)
By the principle of mathematical induction, the result follows.

Assume f(k + x) =

(b)

f(1)
f( x n ) = f 1 +

1
n f(1)
+

f(1)
f

1 + n f(1)
=
f(1)
1+ f

1 + n f(1)
=

f[f(n + 1)]
1 + f[f(n + 1)]

n +1
n+2
By the continuity of f ,
=

n +1
f(1) = f lim x n = lim f( x n ) = lim
=1
n n + 2
n n
For n > 1 ,
f(n) = f[(n 1) + 1]

For n N ,

f(1)
1 + (n 1) f(1)

1
n

1
f = f[f(n)] = n
n

( by (a) )

2001 Paper 2
Section B

(c)

(i)

1
From (b), f = 2 . S(2) is true.
2

(ii) Assume that S(h) is true for 2 h q and h N .


For 0 < p < q + 1 , there are , N with 0 < p such that
q + 1 = p + .

q +1

= f +
f
p
p

()
=
1+ f ( )
f

1+

()
p

[from (a)]

[by induction hypothesis]

p
p
+
p
=
q +1

q + 1
p q +1
p
= f
=
, f
f f
p
q
1
p

+
q +1

i.e. S(q + 1) is true.

Hence

2001 Paper 2
Section B
(iii) From (i), S(2) is true.
From (ii), assuming that S(h) is true for 2 h q ,
it is proved that S(q + 1) is true.
By the principle of mathematical induction, S(q) is true for q = 2, 3, 4, 
For any positive rational number x ,
1
by (b).
x
(II) If x is not an integer, then x = n + r for some
non-negative integer n and 0 < r < 1 .
p
where p, q N and 0 < p < q .
Let r =
q

(I)

If x is an integer, then f( x) =

Then

p
)
q

f(x) = f(n +

()
=
1+ nf ( )
p
q

p
q

q
p

1+ n
1

n+
=

1
x

p
q

q
p

[by (a)]

[Since S(q) is true]