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engus I

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engus son of Fergus (Pictish: *Onuist map Urguist;

engus mac Fergusa

Old Irish: engus mac Fergusso, "Angus mac


Fergus"), was king of the Picts from 732 until his
death in 761. His reign can be reconstructed in some
detail from a variety of sources.
[a]

engus became the chief king in Pictland following a


period of civil war in the late 720s. During his reign,
the neighbouring kingdom of Dl Riata was
subjugated and the kingdom of Strathclyde was
attacked with less success. The most powerful ruler in
Scotland for over two decades, he was involved in
wars in Ireland and England. Kings from engus's
family dominated Pictland until 839 when a
disastrous defeat at the hands of Vikings began a new
period of instability, which ended with the coming to
power of Cined mac Ailpn.

Contents

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Sources and background


Rise to power
Piercing of Dal Riata
Alt Clut, Northumbria, and Mercia
Cult of Saint Andrew
Death and legacy
Notes
References
8.1 Primary sources
8.2 Secondary sources
9 External links

King of the Picts

The figure of the Old Testament King David shown


killing a lion on the St Andrews Sarcophagus is

thought to represent King engus. The figure is

dressed as a Roman emperor of Late Antiquity and

wears a fibula like that of the Emperor Justinian on


Reign

the mosaic at San Vitale, Ravenna.[1]

Predecessor
Successor
Died

Burial
Issue

House

732761

Nechtan son of Der-Ile


Bridei mac Fergus
c.761

St Andrews
Bridei

Talorgan
engus

Sources and background


Surviving Pictish sources for the period are few, limited to king lists, the original of which was prepared
in the early 720s,[2] and a number of accounts relating to the foundation of St Andrews, then called
Cennrgmonaid. Beyond Pictland, the principal sources are the Irish annals, of which the Annals of

Ulster and the Annals of Tigernach are the most reliable. These include materials from an annal kept at
the monastery of Iona in Scotland. engus and the Picts appear occasionally in Welsh sources, such as
the Annales Cambriae, and more frequently in Northumbrian sources, of which the Continuation of
Bede's chronicle and the Historia Regum Anglorum attributed to Symeon of Durham are the most
important.[b]

The Picts were one of four political groups in north Britain in the early
8th century. Pictland ran from the River Forth northwards, including
Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles. Prior to the Viking Age, the
main power in Pictland appears to have been the kingdom of Fortriu.
Known high-status sites in Fortriu include Burghead and Craig Phdraig
by Inverness. Pictland appears to have had only one bishop with his seat
at Rosemarkie.[c]

From the Forth south to the River Humber lay the kingdom of
Northumbria. Once the dominant force in Britain, it remained a powerful
kingdom, but the end of the old dynasty of kings with the death of Osric
in 729 led to conflict between rival families for the throne. The growing
power of the Mercian kingdom to the south added to the problems faced
by Northumbrian kings. For most of engus's reign Northumbria was
ruled by the capable King Eadberht Eating.[d]

Selected political groups in


Northern Britain around 740
AD.

To the south-west of Pictland were the Gaels of Dl Riata where the


kingship was disputed between the Cenl Loairn of northern Argyll and
the Cenl nGabrin of Kintyre. In 723 Selbach mac Ferchair abdicated
as head of the Cenl Loairn and king of Dl Riata in favour of his son Dngal, who was driven out as
king of Dl Riata by Eochaid mac Echdach of the Cenl nGabrin in 726. Dngal and Eochaid were still
in conflict as late as 731, when Dngal burnt Tarbert.[e]

The history of the fourth group, the Britons of Alt Clut, later the kingdom of Strathclyde, leaves little
trace in the record. King Teudebur map Beli had ruled from Dumbarton Rock since 722, and continued
to do so until his death in 752 when his son Dumnagual succeeded him.[5][f]

Rise to power

Irish genealogies make engus a member of the Eganachta of Munster, as a descendant of Coirpre
Cruthnechn or "Cairbre the little Pict", a mythological emanation or double of Coirpre Luachra mac

Cuirc,[6] legendary son of Conall Corc,[g] and ancestor of the Eganacht Locha Lin, rulers of the
kingdom of Iarmuman. The branch of the kindred from which he came, known in the annals as the
Eoghanachta Magh Geirginn, were said to be located in an area known as Circinn, usually associated

with modern Angus and the Mearns.[7][h] His early life is unknown; engus was middle-aged by the time
he entered into history.[8] His close kin included at least two sons, Bridei (died 736) and Talorgan (died
782), and two brothers, Talorgan (died 750) and Bridei (died 763).[i]

King Nechtan son of Der-Ile abdicated to enter a monastery in 724 and was imprisoned by his successor
Drest in 726. In 728 and 729, four kings competed for power in Pictland: Drest; Nechtan; Alpn, of
whom little is known; and lastly engus, who was a partisan of Nechtan, and perhaps his acknowledged
heir.[j]

Four battles large enough to be recorded in Ireland were fought in 728 and 729. Alpn was defeated
twice by engus, after which Nechtan was restored to power. In 729 a battle between supporters of
engus and Nechtan's enemies was fought at Monith Carno (traditionally Cairn o' Mount, near
Fettercairn) where the supporters of engus were victorious. Nechtan was restored to the kingship,
probably until his death in 732.[10] On 12 August 729 engus defeated and killed Drest in battle at
Druimm Derg Blathuug, a place which has not been identified.

Piercing of Dal Riata

In the 730s, engus fought against Dl Riata whose traditional overlords


and protectors in Ireland, the Cenl Conaill, were much weakened at this
time. A fleet from Dl Riata fought for Flaithbertach mac Loingsig, chief
of the Cenl Conaill, in his war with ed Alln of the Cenl nEgan,
and suffered heavy losses in 733.[8][11] Dl Riata was ruled by Eochaid
mac Echdach of the Cenl nGabrin who died in 733, and the king lists
are unclear as to who, if anyone, succeeded him as overking. The Cenl
Loairn of north Argyll were ruled by Dngal mac Selbaig whom
Eochaid had deposed as overking of Dl Riata in the 720s.

Fighting between the Picts, led by engus's son Bridei, and the Dl
Riata, led by Talorgan mac Congussa, is recorded in 731. In 733, Dngal
mac Selbaig "profaned [the sanctuary] of Tory Island when he dragged
Bridei out of it." Dngal, previously deposed as overking of Dl Riata,
was overthrown as king of the Cenl Loairn and replaced by his first
cousin Muiredach mac Ainbcellaig.[12]

In 734 Talorgan mac Congussa was handed over to the Picts by his

Satellite image of northern


Britain and Ireland showing
the approximate area of Dl
Riata (shaded).

brother and drowned by them.[13] Talorgan son of Drostan was captured


near Dn Ollaigh. He appears to have been the King of Atholl, and was drowned on engus's order in

739.[k] Dngal too was a target in this year. He was wounded, the unidentified fortress of Dn Leithfinn
was destroyed, and he "fled into Ireland, to be out of the power of engus."[15]

The annals report a second campaign by engus against the Dl Riata in 736. Dngal, who had returned
from Ireland, and his brother Feradach, were captured and bound in chains. The fortresses of Creic and
Dunadd were taken. Muiredach of the Cenl Loairn was no more successful, defeated with heavy loss by
engus's brother Talorgan mac Fergusa, perhaps by Loch Awe. A final campaign in 741 saw the Dl
Riata again defeated. This was recorded in the Annals of Ulster as Percutio Dl Riatai la h-engus m.
Forggusso, the "smiting of Dl Riata by engus son of Fergus".[16] With this Dl Riata disappears from
the record for a generation.[17][18][19][l]

It may be that engus was involved in wars in Ireland, perhaps fighting with ed Alln, or against him
as an ally of Cathal mac Finguine.[20] The evidence for such involvement is limited. There is the
presence of engus's son Bridei at Tory Island, on the north-west coast of Donegal in 733, close to the
lands of ed Alln's enemy Flaithbertach mac Loingsig. Less certainly, the Fragmentary Annals of
Ireland report the presence of a Pictish fleet from Fortriu fighting for Flaithbertach in 733 rather than
against him.[8][21][m]

Alt Clut, Northumbria, and Mercia


In 740, a war between the Picts and the Northumbrians is reported, during which thelbald, King of
Mercia, took advantage of the absence of Eadberht of Northumbria to ravage his lands, and perhaps burn
York.[22] The reason for the war is unclear, but it has been suggested that it was related to the killing of
Earnwine son of Eadwulf on Eadberht's orders. Earnwine's father had been an exile in the north after his
defeat in the civil war of 705706, and it may be that engus, or thelbald, or both, had tried to place
him on the Northumbrian throne.[23]

Battles between the Picts and the Britons of Alt Clut, or


Strathclyde, are recorded in 744 and again in 750, when Kyle
was taken from Alt Clut by Eadberht of Northumbria. The 750
battle between the Britons and the Picts is reported at a place
named Mocetauc (perhaps Mugdock near Milngavie) in which
Talorgan mac Fergusa, engus's brother, was killed.[25][26]
Following the defeat in 750, the Annals of Ulster record "the

ebbing of the sovereignty of engus".[27] This is thought to refer


to the coming to power of ed Find, son of Eochaid mac
Echdach, in all or part of Dl Riata, and his rejection of engus's
overlordship.[28][29][n]

Escomb Church, County Durham.


The stone churches built for Nechtan,
and perhaps engus's church at St
Andrews, are presumed to have been

Unlike the straightforward narrative of the attacks on Dl Riata,


a number of interpretations have been offered of the relations
similar.[24]
between engus, Eadberht and thelbald in the period from 740
to 750. One suggestion is that engus and thelbald were allied
against Eadberht, or even that they exercised a joint rulership of Britain, or bretwaldaship, engus
collecting tribute north of the River Humber and thelbald south of the Humber. This rests largely on a
confused passage in Symeon of Durham's Historia Regum Anglorum, and it has more recently been
suggested that the interpretation offered by Frank Stentonthat it is based on a textual error and that
engus and thelbald were not associated in any sort of joint overlordshipis the correct one.[26][28]

In 756, engus is found campaigning alongside Eadberht of Northumbria. The campaign is reported as
follows:

In the year of the Lord's incarnation 756, king Eadberht in the eighteenth year of his reign,
and Unust, king of Picts led armies to the town of Dumbarton. And hence the Britons
accepted terms there, on the first day of the month of August. But on the tenth day of the
same month perished almost the whole army which he led from Ouania to Niwanbirig.[30]

That Ouania is Govan is now reasonably certain,[31][32] but the location of Newanbirig is less so.
Although there are very many Newburghs, it is Newburgh-on-Tyne near Hexham that has been the

preferred location.[33] An alternative interpretation of the events of 756 has been advanced: it identifies
Newanbirig with Newborough by Lichfield in the kingdom of Mercia. A defeat here for Eadberht and
engus by thelbald's Mercians would correspond with the claim in the Saint Andrews foundation
legends that a king named engus son of Fergus founded the church there as a thanksgiving to Saint
Andrew for saving him after a defeat in Mercia.[34][o]

Cult of Saint Andrew

The story of the foundation of St Andrews, originally


Cennrgmonaid, is not contemporary and may contain many
inventions. The Irish annals report the death of "Tuathaln, abbot
of Cinrigh Mna", in 747, making it certain that St Andrews had
been founded before that date, probably by engus or by
Nechtan son of Der-Ilei.[20][35][36][37][p] It is generally presumed
that the St Andrews Sarcophagus was executed at the command
of engus.[20][38][39][q] Later generations may have conflated this
king engus with the 9th century king of the same name.[40][41]
The choice of David as a model is, as Alex Woolf notes, an

The St Andrews Sarcophagus

appropriate one: David too was an usurper.[42]

The cult of Saint Andrew may have come to Pictland from Northumbria, as had the cult of Saint Peter
which had been favoured by Nechtan, and in particular from the monastery at Hexham which was
dedicated to Saint Andrew. This apparent connection with the Northumbrian church may have left a
written record. engus, like his successors and possible kinsmen Caustantn and Egan, is recorded
prominently in the Liber Vitae Ecclesiae Dunelmensis, a list of some 3000 benefactors for whom prayers
were said in religious institutions connected with Durham.[43][44][r]

Death and legacy

engus died in 761, "aged probably more than seventy, ... the dominating figure in the politics of
Northern Britain".[45] His death is reported in the usual brief style by the annalists, except for the
continuator of Bede in Northumbria, possibly relying upon a Dl Riata source, who wrote:
engus, king of the Picts, died. From the beginning of his reign right to the end he

perpetrated bloody crimes, like a tyrannical slaughterer.[46][47][48][49]


The Pictish Chronicle king lists have it that he was succeeded by his brother Bridei. His son Talorgan
was later king, and is the first son of a Pictish king known to have become king.[50][s]

The following 9th-century Irish praise poem from the Book of Leinster is associated with engus:[7]
Good the day when engus took Alba,
hilly Alba with its strong chiefs;
he brought battle to palisaded towns,

with feet, with hands, with broad shields.[7]

An assessment of engus is problematic, not least because annalistic sources provide very little
information on Scotland in the succeeding generations. His apparent Irish links add to the long list of
arguments which challenge the idea that the "Gaelicisation" of eastern Scotland began in the time of
Cined mac Ailpn; indeed there are good reasons for believing that process began before engus's

reign.[t] Many of the Pictish kings until the death of Egan mac engusa in 839 belong to the family of
engus, in particular the 9th century sons of Fergus, Caustantn and engus.[42][52][u]

The amount of information which has survived about engus compared with other Pictish kings, the
nature and geographical range of his activities and the length of his reign combine to make King engus
one of the most significant rulers of the insular Dark Ages.[v]

Notes

a. Forsyth (2000) discusses the various forms of engus's name, also providing Ungus(t) as an alternative
Pictish form.
b. Most sources are collected in Early Sources of Scottish History (ESSH) and Scottish Annals from English
Chroniclers (SAEC), edited by Alan Orr Anderson.
c. Early 8th-century bishops include Curetn, Fergus and Brecc.[3][4] Surveys of North Britain can be found in
D. W. Harding, The Iron Age in Northern Britain: Celts and Romans, Natives and Invaders (2004), and
Leslie Alcock, Kings & Warriors, Craftsmen & Priests in Northern Britain AD 550850 (2003). Foster
(2004) excludes southern Scotland and northern England.
d. Surveys of Northumbria include David Rollason's Northumbria, 5001100: Creation and Destruction of a
Kingdom (2003), and Nick Higham's The Kingdom of Northumbria AD 3501100 (1993).
e. John Bannerman, Studies in the History of Dalriada (1974), remains the standard work on Dl Riata.
f. "Rotri, king of the Britons", whose death is recorded in the Annales Cambriae s.a. 754, has sometimes been
identified as a king of Alt Clut, but this notice refers to Rhodri Molwynog ap Idwal, King of Gwynedd.
g. An early cycle of tales have Conall Corc traveling to Pictland, and there taking the daughter of the Pictish
king as his first wife, hence Coirpre's epithet. In any case, contacts between Scotland and distant Munster are
known from the earliest times. The early Dl Riata were said to have lived in West Munster (Iarmuman)
before migrating to Ulster and western Scotland.
h. The genealogy appears in the Rawlinson B 502 manuscript, 1083.
i. Yorke (2006), pp. 4950, 54 & 288289 discusses the reconstructed relationship between late Pictish kings.
Talorgan is a hypocoristic form of Talorg.[9]

j. For reports of events from 724 to 729, see Anderson (1990), pp. 221227. For engus as Nechtan's
supporter, Henderson (1998), pp. 155156 and Woolf (2005), p. 36.
k. Talorgan was related to Nechtan, and is called his brother in 713, which may mean half-brother, fosterbrother, or brother-in-law.[14]
l. Who led the Dl Riata in 741 is unclear: the sons of Fiannamail ua Dnchado named by the Annals of Ulster
may be unconnected, and the mention of Alpn son of Crup, sometimes taken to be the same person as the
Alpn overthrown in 729, may be misplaced.
m. As already noted, most Irish annals say that Flaithbertach was supported by a fleet from Dl Riata.
n. The entry for 752 in the Annals of Tigernach, recording "the battle of Asreth in Circinn", is thought to be
misplaced.
o. This version of the St Andrews foundation legend is given in Anderson (1980), pp. 258260.
p. The most recent study, Yorke (2006), favours "engus".
q. It is less certain whose remains the sarcophagus contained. Woolf and MacLean (2000) argue for engus
while Henderson favours Nechtan mac Der Ilei. Clancy, "Caustantn", favours a 9th-century date.
r. engus is listed 43rd, Caustantn 80th and Egan 100th.
s. Sons of kings became kings more frequently in the 9th century, but it was not until the 11th century that
kings were succeeded by their descendants rather than their brothers or cousins.
t. Nechtan son of Der-Ilei and his brother Bridei are thought to have had a Gaelic father, Dargart mac Finguine
of the Cenl Comgaill.[51]
u. Arguing otherwise, see Bannerman (1999), passim. The arguments are compared in Yorke (2006), pp. 4950,
54 & 288289.
v. The strongest claims are made in those accounts which take engus to have been joint Bretwalda with
thelbald, such as Charles-Edwards, Forsyth and Yorke. Other, such as Broun and Woolf, make less
sweeping claims, but make engus among the most powerful Pictish kings and the dominant force in
northern Britain. For engus's significance on a cultural and artistic level see Henderson & Henderson
(2004), p. 12 and MacLean (2000), pp. 200201.

References

1. See Charles-Edwards (2000), Yorke (2006),


21. Anderson (1990), pp. 227228
pp. 236237 and Henderson (1998), pp. 105ff.
22. Anderson (1908), pp. 5556
For similar images, see Henderson & Henderson
23. Woolf (2005), p. 37. For Earnwine, see Kirby
(2004), pp. 130132.
(1991), p. 150, Yorke (1990), p. 90
2. Anderson (1980), pp. 88102
24. Foster (2004), p. 89
3. Anderson (1990), p. 221
25. Anderson (1990), pp. 238239
4. Yorke (2006), pp. 153155
26. Anderson (1908), p. 56
5. Anderson (1990), pp. 240241 & 243
27. Anderson (1990), p. 240
6. Byrne (2001), pp. 193194, 291
28. Woolf (2005), p. 38
7. Forsyth (2000), pp. 2728
29. Anderson (1980), pp. 186187
8. Woolf (2005), p. 36
30. After Forsyth (2000), p. 29; see also Anderson
9. Anderson (1990), p. 253, note 2
(1908), p. 57.
10. Woolf (2006a)
31. Forsyth (2000), pp. 2930
11. Anderson (1990), pp. 229230
32. Woolf (2005), p. 39
12. Anderson (1990), pp. 227229
33. Kirby (1991), p. 150
13. Anderson (1990), p. 232 & corrigenda, p. xviii
34. Woolf (2005), pp. 3940.
14. Anderson (1990), pp. 214, 236
35. Anderson (1990), p. 238
15. Anderson (1990), p. 232
36. Forsyth (2000), pp. 2122
16. AU 741.10
37. Foster (1998), pp. 4243
(http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100001A/text311.html)
38. Henderson (1998), pp. 155156
17. Anderson (1990), pp. 182, 232238
39. MacLean (2000), pp. 200201
18. Woolf (2005), pp. 3637
40. Foster (1998), p. 42
19. Anderson (1980), pp. 184186
41. Broun (1998), pp. 8081
20. Woolf (2002)
42. Woolf (2005), p. 40

43.
44.
45.
46.
47.

Forsyth (2000), pp. 2526


Yorke (2006), p. 167
Forsyth (2000), p. 21
Forsyth (2000), p. 22
Anderson (1990), p. 244

Primary sources

48.
49.
50.
51.
52.

Anderson (1908), p. 57
Woolf (2005), p. 37
Yorke (2006), p. 49
See Clancy (2002b) and Yorke (2006), pp. 5455.
Broun (1998), passim

See also External links below for online editions.

Anderson, Alan Orr (1990). Early Sources of Scottish History AD 500 to 1286. 1. Reprinted, with corrections
by Marjorie O. Anderson. Stamford: Paul Watkins. ISBN 1-871615-03-8.
Anderson, Alan Orr (1908). Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 5001286. London: D. Nutt.
Bede (1990). D. H. Farmer, ed. Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Translated by Leo SherleyPrice. Revised by R. E. Latham. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-044565-X.

Secondary sources

Anderson, Marjorie Ogilvie (1980). Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic
Press. ISBN 0-7011-1604-8.
Aitchison, Nick (2006). Forteviot: a Pictish and Scottish royal centre.
Bannerman, John (1999). "The Scottish takeover of Pictland and the relics of Columba". In Dauvit Broun;
Thomas Owen Clancy. Spes Scotorum: Saint Columba, Iona and Scotland. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark.
ISBN 0-567-08682-8.
Broun, Dauvit (1998). "Pictish kings 761839: integration with Dl Riata or separate development". In Sally
Foster. The St Andrews Sarcophagus: a Pictish Masterpiece and its International Connections. Dublin: Four
Courts Press. pp. 7183. ISBN 978-1-85182-414-4.
Byrne, Francis John (2001). Irish Kings and High-Kings (2nd revised ed.). Dublin: Four Courts Press.
ISBN 1-85182-196-1.
Charles-Edwards, T. M. (2000). " 'The Continuation of Bede', s.a. 750: High-Kings of Tara and
'Bretwaldas' ". In Alfred P. Smyth. Seanchas: Studies in Early Medieval Irish Archaeology, History and
Literature in Honour of Francis J. Byrne. Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 1-85182-489-8.
Clancy, Thomas Owen (2002a). "Caustantn son of Fergus (Uurgust)". In M. Lynch. The Oxford Companion
to Scottish History. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-211696-7.
Clancy, Thomas Owen (2002b). "Nechtan son of Derile". In M. Lynch. The Oxford Companion to Scottish
History. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-211696-7.
Foster, Sally (1998). "Discovery, recovery, context and display". In Sally Foster. The St Andrews
Sarcophagus: a Pictish Masterpiece and its International Connections. Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 36
62. ISBN 978-1-85182-414-4.
Foster, Sally (2004). Picts, Gaels, and Scots: Early Historic Scotland (2nd ed.). London: Batsford.
ISBN 0-7134-8874-3.
Forsyth, Katherine (2000). "Evidence of a lost Pictish source in the Historia Regum Anglorum of Symeon of
Durham". In Simon Taylor. Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland, 5001297: Essays in Honour of
Marjorie Ogilvie Anderson on the Occasion of her Ninetieth Birthday. Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 1932.
ISBN 1-85182-516-9.
Henderson, Isabel (1998). "Primus inter Pares: the St Andrews Sarcophagus and Pictish sculpture". In Sally
Foster. The St Andrews Sarcophagus: a Pictish Masterpiece and its International Connections. Dublin: Four
Courts Press. pp. 97167. ISBN 978-1-85182-414-4.
Henderson, George; Henderson, Isabel (2004). The Art of the Picts. London: Thames and Hudson.
ISBN 0-500-23807-3.
Kirby, D. P. (1991). The Earliest English Kings. London: Unwin Hyman. ISBN 0-04-445692-1.

MacLean, Douglas (2000). "The Northumbrian perspective". In Simon Taylor. Kings, Clerics and Chronicles
in Scotland, 5001297: Essays in Honour of Marjorie Ogilvie Anderson on the Occasion of her Ninetieth
Birthday. Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 978-1-85182-516-5.
Woolf, Alex (2002). "Ungus (Onuist), son of Uurgust". In M. Lynch. The Oxford Companion to Scottish
History. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-211696-7.
Woolf, Alex (2005). "Onuist son of Uurguist: tyrannus carnifex or a David for the Picts?". In David Hill &
Margaret Worthington. Aethelbald and Offa: Two Eighth-Century Kings of Mercia. British Archaeological
Reports, British series. 383. Oxford: Archaeopress. ISBN 1-84171-687-1.
Woolf, Alex (2006a). "AU 729.2 and the last years of Nechtan mac Der-Ilei" (PDF). The Scottish Historical
Review. 85 (1): 131137. doi:10.1353/shr.2006.0030.
Woolf, Alex (2006b). "Dn Nechtain, Fortriu and the geography of the Picts". The Scottish Historical
Review. 85 (2): 182201. doi:10.1353/shr.2007.0029.
Yorke, Barbara (1990). Kings and Kingdoms of Early Anglo-Saxon England. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781-134-70724-9.
Yorke, Barbara (2006). The Conversion of Britain: Religion, Politics and Society in Britain c. 600800.
London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-77292-3.

External links

CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts (http://celt.ucc.ie) at University College Cork including the
Annals of Ulster, the Annals of Tigernach, the Chronicon Scotorum and genealogies from
Rawlinson B 502
Annals of Clonmacnoise (http://historical.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/cul.cdl/docviewer?
did=cdl360) at Cornell University, see p. 113ff (http://historical.library.cornell.edu/cgibin/cul.cdl/docviewer?did=cdl360&seq=129&frames=0&view=50).
Bede's Ecclesiastical History and the Continuation of Bede (pdf)
(http://www.ccel.org/ccel/bede/history.pdf), at CCEL (http://www.ccel.org), tr. A.M. Sellar
Annales Cambriae (translated) (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/annalescambriae.html) at
the Internet Medieval Sourcebook (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook.html).
The Rolls edition of the Brut y Tywyssogion (http://sul-derivatives.stanford.edu/derivative?
CSNID=00003251&mediaType=application/pdf) (PDF) at Stanford University Library
(http://library.stanford.edu/)
engus I
House of engus

Born: 7th century

Preceded by
Nechtan son of Der-Ile

Regnal titles

Died: 761

King of the Picts


732761

Succeeded by
Bridei son of Fergus

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=engus_I&oldid=736577978"

Categories: 7th-century births 761 deaths Pictish monarchs 8th-century Scottish monarchs
This page was last modified on 28 August 2016, at 12:57.

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