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Grammar

o Formation of adverbs
For 1st and 2nd declension adj.- take base and add
o Future of 3rd, 3rd i, and 4th conjugation verbs
Stem + endings:
1st
2nd
3rd

s.
-am
-s
-et

pl.
-mus
-tis
-ent

o Imperfect tense
Stem + endings:
1st
2nd
3rd

s.
-bam
-bs
-bat

pl.
-bmus
-btis
-bant

o Past tenses
Translations:
Perfect- (past tense of word), was, were, have (verb)
Imperfect- was, were, used to, kept on
o Passive Voice
Appropriate stem + endings
1st and 2nd conjugations
Present
st

1
2nd
3rd

s.
-r
-ris
-tur

pl.
-mur
-min
-ntur

Imperfect
st

1
2nd
3rd

s.
-bar
-bris
-btur

pl.
-bmur
-bmin
-bantur

Future
1st
2nd

s.
-bor
-beris

pl.
-bimur
-bimin

3rd

-bitur

-buntur

3rd and 4th conjugations


Present
st

1
2nd
3rd

s.
-r
-ris
-tur

pl.
-mur
-min
-ntur

Imperfect
st

1
2nd
3rd

s.
-bar
-bris
-btur

pl.
-bmur
-bmin
-bantur

Future
st

1
2nd
3rd

s.
-ar
-ris
-tur

pl.
-mur
-min
-entur

o Transitive and Intransitive Verbs


Transitive- action is carried out to a d/o; Intransitive- verb w/ no d/o
o Ablative of Agent
Transitive verbs are turned passive. If action is carried out by a person, (ab) is added
into the sentence [(action being done) by]; if the action is carried out by an idea or thing,
dont add .
o Words Used as Nouns (Substantives)
1. Pronouns
Ego (or any other pronoun) used in place of a persons name
2. Infinitives
As subject: To (action) is
As object: (Subject and main action) to (infinitive action)
3. Adjectives
Assume the subject or object (which is described in by the adjective) depending
on the context.
o Pluperfect and Future Perfect Tenses
Pluperfect (perfect stem+ imperfect tense of sum)
st

1
2nd

s.
-eram
-ers

pl.
-ermus
-ertis

3rd

-ert
-ernt
Translation: had (action)
Future Perfect (perfect stem + -eri- + personal endings)

s.
pl.
-er
-erimus
-eris
-eritis
-erit
-erint
Translation: will have
o Personal Pronouns
1st
2nd
3rd

s.
pl.
s.
Nom.
ego I
ns we
t you
Gen.(dont use)
me of me
nstrum of me
tu of you
Dat.
mihi to me
nbis to us
tibi to you
Acc.
m me
ns us
t you
Abl.
m with me
nbis with us
t with you
Abl. Forms + cum at end = with (meaning)
o Possesive Adjectives- used in place of the genitive for personal pronouns
meus-my, my own, mine
noster- our, our own, ours
tuus- your, your own, yours
vester- your, your own, yours
o Infinitives as Objects- have acc. subjects
Subject (verb) acc (<=d/o; sub=>) infinitive
o Perfect Passive Tenses
4th principle part (-us, -a, -um) + endings:
Perfect passive(was, were, have been)
1
2nd
3rd

s.
pl.
sum
sumus
es
estis
est
sunt
Pluperfect passive(had been)

1st
2nd
3rd

s.
pl.
eram
ermus
ers
ertis
erat
erant
Future Perfect passive (will have been)

st

st

1
2nd
3rd

s.
er
eris
erit

pl.
erimus
eritis
erunt

pl.
vs you
vestrum of you
vbis to you
vs you
vbis with you

o Present Passive Infinitive


1st, 2nd, 4th conjugation- take last e of infinitive and change to
3rd conjugation- take ere to -
o Relative Pronoun
s.
f.
quae
cuius
cui
quam
qu

m.
qu
cuius
cui
quem
qu

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

n.
quod
cuius
cui
quod
qu

m.
qu
qurum
quibus
qus
quibus

pl.
f.
quae
qurum
quibus
qus
quibus

m., f.
n.
Nom. who, which, that
which, that what
Gen. whose, of whom, of which whose, of which
Dat.
to whom, which
to which
Acc. whom, which, that
which, that, what
Abl.
by, with etc.,
by, with etc.
Antecedent- gives number and gender
Relative clause- gives case
-is used as an interrogative when following word is a verb
o Interrogative Adjective- is used when the following word is an object

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

s.
m., f.
quis who
cuius
whose
cui to
whom
quem
whom
qu by
whom

n.
quid what
cuius of
what
cui to
what
quid what

m.
qu
qurum

pl.
f.
quae
qurum

quibus

quibus

quibus

qus

qus

quae

qu by
what

quibus

quibus

quibus

o Ablative of Manner
How a phrase is done- uses a preposition to introduce it
(Cum) abl. form of noun
o Third Declension
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

s.
-is
-

pl.
-s
-um
-ibus

n.
quae
qurum

n.
quae
qurum
quibus
quae
quibus

Acc.
Abl.

-em
-e

-s
-ibus

o Conjugation of possum
Prefix =pos- or pot- . Pos- if the form begins with s, pot- if form begins with letter other
than s.
Add to respective forms of sum. (Ex: present= prefix + present forms of sum)
o Participles used as clauses
Translations- expand on literal meaning
4 clauses:
Relative- who, which
Temporal (time)- when, after
Causal- since, because
Adversative/Concessive- although, if
o Ablative Absolute
-usually determined by being located at front of sentence or enclosed in two commas
-consider the literal meaning and then expand into clause beginning with:
- When
- Once
- Since
- After
- Because
- If
- although