Molten steel flow in a wide single-strand tundish with different flow control devices (FCDs) for slab continuous-casting was investigated by physical and mathematical simulations in this work. The effects of different FCDs on the flow characteristics and velocity and temperature fields in the tundish with larger width, shorter length and larger depth were studied. The results showed that locations and dimensions of weirs and dams and geometry of turbulence inhibitors (TIs) have a large effect on the flow characteristics and velocity and temperature profiles. Adoption of a square turbulence inhibitor without extending top lips can improve the molten steel flow better than that with top extending lips in the tundish. In comparison with the former tundish configuration, the flow characteristics are improved to a great extent in the optimum case. A big “spring uprush” forms on the free surface around the long shroud when molten steel flows into a turbulence inhibitor with extending top lips and rushes up reversely out of the TI, while four small “spring uprushes” appear on the surface when a square TI without extending top lips is adopted because the liquid steel flows mainly out of the 4 corners of the square TI. The flow of liquid steel in the former tundish configuration is not reasonable and the height of an area where temperature is less than 1819 K is about half of liquid surface height at the right side of the stopper, which means that big dead zone exited in the former tundish configuration. In the optimum case, the height of such area was only one seventh of the liquid surface height. The RTD curves obtained from the mathematical simulation are agreed with those from the physical modeling and the flow characteristics obtained from these two methods in this work are coincident with each other.

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Molten steel flow in a wide single-strand tundish with different flow control devices (FCDs) for slab continuous-casting was investigated by physical and mathematical simulations in this work. The effects of different FCDs on the flow characteristics and velocity and temperature fields in the tundish with larger width, shorter length and larger depth were studied. The results showed that locations and dimensions of weirs and dams and geometry of turbulence inhibitors (TIs) have a large effect on the flow characteristics and velocity and temperature profiles. Adoption of a square turbulence inhibitor without extending top lips can improve the molten steel flow better than that with top extending lips in the tundish. In comparison with the former tundish configuration, the flow characteristics are improved to a great extent in the optimum case. A big “spring uprush” forms on the free surface around the long shroud when molten steel flows into a turbulence inhibitor with extending top lips and rushes up reversely out of the TI, while four small “spring uprushes” appear on the surface when a square TI without extending top lips is adopted because the liquid steel flows mainly out of the 4 corners of the square TI. The flow of liquid steel in the former tundish configuration is not reasonable and the height of an area where temperature is less than 1819 K is about half of liquid surface height at the right side of the stopper, which means that big dead zone exited in the former tundish configuration. In the optimum case, the height of such area was only one seventh of the liquid surface height. The RTD curves obtained from the mathematical simulation are agreed with those from the physical modeling and the flow characteristics obtained from these two methods in this work are coincident with each other.

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org

doi:10.14355/me.2014.0303.03

PhysicalandMathematicalSimulationof

FluidFlowinaWideSinglestrandTundish

forSlabContinuouscasting

ZhongLiangcai*1,HaoRuichao2LiJunzhe3LiLei1ZhuYingxiong4XuNinghui5

SchoolofMaterialsandMetallurgy,NortheasternUniversity,Shenyang110004,China;5PinggangJiujiang

BranchCorporation,Jiujiang332000,Jiangxi,China.

14

*1

zhonglc@126.com;2ohaoruichaoo0203@126.com;3why873936932@126.com;4lileineu2008@163.com

Received16July,2013;Accepted22September,2013;Published9June,2014

2014ScienceandEngineeringPublishingCompany

Abstract

Molten steel flow in a wide singlestrand tundish with

different flow control devices (FCDs) for slab continuous

casting was investigated by physical and mathematical

simulationsinthiswork.TheeffectsofdifferentFCDsonthe

flow characteristics and velocity and temperature fields in

the tundish with larger width, shorter length and larger

depth were studied. The results showed that locations and

dimensions of weirs and dams and geometry of turbulence

inhibitors(TIs)havealargeeffectontheflowcharacteristics

andvelocityandtemperatureprofiles.Adoptionofasquare

turbulenceinhibitorwithoutextendingtoplipscanimprove

themoltensteelflowbetterthanthatwithtopextendinglips

in the tundish. In comparison with the former tundish

configuration, the flow characteristics are improved to a

great extent in the optimum case. A big spring uprush

forms on the free surface around the long shroud when

moltensteelflowsintoaturbulenceinhibitorwithextending

top lips and rushes up reversely out of the TI, while four

small spring uprushes appear on the surface when a

squareTIwithoutextendingtoplipsisadoptedbecausethe

liquidsteelflowsmainlyoutofthe4cornersofthesquareTI.

Theflowofliquidsteelintheformertundishconfiguration

is not reasonable and the height of an area where

temperatureislessthan1819Kisabouthalfofliquidsurface

heightattherightsideofthestopper,whichmeansthatbig

deadzoneexitedintheformertundishconfiguration.Inthe

optimumcase,theheightofsuchareawasonlyoneseventh

of the liquid surface height. The RTD curves obtained from

themathematicalsimulationareagreedwiththosefromthe

physical modeling and the flow characteristics obtained

from these two methods in this work are coincident with

eachother.

Keywords

Slab Continuouscasting; Wide Singlestrand Tundish;

Mathematical Simulation; Physical Modelling; Fluid Flow

Device

Introduction

Tundishes in continuous casting have very important

effects for steel cleanness. Tundish metallurgy has

beenpaidmoreandmoreattentions.1Itiswellknown

thatmoltensteelflowcharacteristicsintundisheshave

great effects on nonmetallic inclusion removal from

theliquidsteel,slagandairentrainmentminimization,

and new inclusion formation prevention. Different

flow control devices (FCDs), such as weirs, dams,

baffles and turbulence inhibitors (TIs), have been

applied in continuouscasting tundishes for

improvementofthecharacteristicsofmoltensteelflow.

Manyresearchers210haveappliedTIswithotherFCDs

to optimize the tundish configurations since 1990s by

physical modeling and/or mathematical simulation.

Generally, the TIs used have extending top lips in

these researches and good flow characteristics have

beenachieved.Butnotalltundishesaresuitabletouse

suchTIswithextendingtoplips.WhatkindsofTIsin

geometry should be adopted in a tundish lies on the

insideprofileoftundishes.

The geometry characteristics of the singlestrand slab

tundishprofilestudiedinthepresentworkarelarger

width,shorterlengthandlargerdepth,being1513mm

(upper width)4035 mm(upper length)1215(working

liquid surface depth). For such tundish, different TIs

with or without extending top lips were applied to

optimize the tundish configuration together with a

weir and a dam through physical modeling

experimentsandmathematicalsimulationcalculations,

109

www.mejournal.orgJournalofMetallurgicalEngineering(ME)Volume3Issue3,July2014

differenttundishconfigurationsandtheirvelocityand

temperaturefieldsareinvestigatedinthiswork.

Mixingflowvolumefractionvm

vm

Vm

1 vd vp (5)

V

In order to ensure that the fluid flowing between a

modeltundishandaprototypetundishforisothermal

and nonreactive systems is similar, geometrical and

dynamicsimilaritiesmustbesatisfiedbetweenthetwo

vessels. In the present work, the ratio of geometrical

similarity of model tundish to the prototype, was

chosen to be 1:2.5. Dynamic similarity required

simultaneousequalityofbothturbulentReynoldsand

Froude numbers, but it was impossible to keep the

condition satisfied in reduced scale modeling studies.

ThecomputationalworkofSahaiandBurval11andthe

experimentalworkofSinghandKoria1213showedthat

the magnitude of turbulent Reynolds number under

turbulent flow range in different tundishes was very

similar.Therefore,Froudenumberbetweenthemodel

tundish and the prototype was maintained to be

equivalentinthiswork.Withthiscondition,thewater

flow rate, Qm in the experiments was calculated from

theliquidsteelflowrate,Qpbythefollowingequation:

Qm 2.5Q p

FIG.1SCHEMATICOFEXPERIMENTALAPPARATUS

GoverningEquations

Theliquidsteelflowinthecontinuouscastingtundish

can be considered to be threedimensional, turbulent.

The flow is treated as steady by neglecting the

phenomena involved during filling and emptying of

the tundish. The effect of surface slag to the flow is

ignoredandthemeltsurfaceisassumedtobeflat.The

molten steel is Newtonian and incompressible fluid.

Therefore, the governing equations in Cartesian

tensional form for the liquid steel flow in the tundish

canbewrittenas:

(1)

g/mlNaClsolutionof500mlwasusedasthetracerin

thephysicalmodelingexperiments.Afterfluidflowin

the model tundish reached stable, the tracer was

injected into the tundish though the ladle shroud. A

probe was located under the outlets ofthe tundish to

measurethevariationofwaterconductivitywithtime,

that is, residence time distribution (RTD) curves. The

probe was connected to a conductivity meter and the

signals were recorded with a data acquisition system

andacomputer.FromtheRTDcurvesmeasured,fluid

flow characteristics in a certain tundish configuration

werecalculatedwiththefollowingequations:

Continuity

Momentum

( ui u j )

eff

xi

xi xi

tav

tc t dt

c t dt

ti c ti ti

i

c ti ti

(2)

relationship with the turbulent kinetic energy and its

dissipationrate.Theturbulentkineticenergy,kandits

dissipationrate,canbeexpressedwiththefollowing

equations:

Plugflowvolumefractionvp

Vp min max

vp

(3)

V

2

Deadzonevolumefractionvd14

V

Q

vd d 1 a a (4)

V

Q

110

gi (7)

eff t (8)

u u j

i

x j xi

pressure, g the gravitation acceleration, and eff the

effective viscosity. i and j represent the three

coordinate directions. eff is equal to the sum of

molecularandturbulentviscosityofsteelasfollows:

Averageresidencetimetav

( ui ) 0 (6)

xi

Turbulentkineticenergy

k

ui k eff G (9)

xi

xi k xi

JournalofMetallurgicalEngineering(ME)Volume3Issue3,July2014www.mejournal.org

Dissipationrateofturbulentkineticenergy

BoundaryConditions

ui eff C1G C2 (10)

xi

xi xi k

tundish was chosen as the numerical calculation

domain.Theabovecontinuity,momentumandenergy

equations were solved with the equations for k and

by using the boundary conditions. Nonslipping

conditionswereappliedasboundaryconditionstoall

solid walls. Frictionless conditions were used to the

free surface of liquid steel. The logarithmic law was

employed to all nodes closest to any solid walls. The

verticalvelocityprofilesoftheliquidsteelattheinlet

aswellasattheoutletofthetundishwereassumedto

be uniform through the cross sections and the other

two velocity components were assumed to be zero.

Thevaluesofkandattheinletwerecalculatedfrom

the inlet average velocity through the well known

equations.Aconstantmassflowrateofsteelfromthe

ladle to the tundish was 2.98 ton/min for the

mathematicalsimulation.

givenas:

u u j

u

G 2 t i t i

xi

x j xi

2

(11)

Theturbulentviscosity,tcanbewrittenas:

C k 2

(12)

C1,C2,C,kandaretheempiricalconstantsofthek

model and were assigned to their standard values

from Launder and Spalding15: 1.44, 1.92, 0.09, 1.0 and

1.30,respectively.

Theheattransferinthetundishisgovernedbyenergy

equationasfollows:

( CP uiT )

T

eff

(13)

xi

xi

xi

uniform and constant heat flow rates were used at

every wall surface of the tundish and liquid surface.

The heat flow rates used in this work were those

recommendedbyChakrabortyandSahai16andrelated

parameterswerelistedinTable1.

sumoftwocomponents:

C p t

eff

(14)

Prt

TABLE1PARAMETERSFORMATHEMATICALSIMULATIONOFLIQUID

STEELFLOWINTHETUNDISH

here,PrtistheturbulentPrandtlnumber,isthermal

conductivity,CpisheatcapacityandTistemperature.

Parameters

Values

Liquidsteel

7000

density/kgm3

Liquidsteel

41

conductivity/Wm1K1

the molten steel in the tundish with different

configurations and compare them to the RTD curves

obtained from the physical modeling experiments, a

pulse of tracer was introduced into the melt through

the inlet and allowed to flow with the melt. By

monitoring the change in tracer concentration of the

melt at the tundish outlet, the residence time

distribution curve was obtained. The transport of the

tracer and the variation in tracer concentration are

governedbythemasstransportequationasfollows:

1823

Heatfluxat

bottom/kWm2

1.4

Heatfluxattransverse

walls/kWm2

3.8

liquidsurfaceformassequationsolution.Att=0sthe

massfractionoftraceratinletofthetundishwassetto

be 0.1. After t=1 s it was given as zero. The

concentrationofthetracerattheoutletofthetundish

wasmonitoredfromt=0andtheRTDcurveswouldbe

obtainedfromthenumericalcalculation.

c (ui c)

c

Deff

(15)

t

xi

xi

xi

wherecrepresentstheconcentrationofthetracer,tis

the time and Deff is the effective mass diffusion

coefficient and is the sum of the molecular and

turbulent diffusivity (D+DT). Under the condition

whereturbulentSchmidtnumberisequalto1,onehas:

solve the above governing equations with the

boundary conditions. In the numerical solution

scheme Semi Implicit Method for Pressure Linked

Equation (SIMPLE) algorithm was used for pressure

Deff

1 (16)

eff

Inlettemperature/K

Parameters

Values

Liquidsteel

0.0067

viscosity/kgm1s1

Liquidsteelspecific

750

heat/Jkg1K1

Heatfluxatwalls

1.75

insidetundish/kWm2

Heatfluxatliquid

15

surface/kWm2

Heatfluxat

3.2

longitudinal

walls/kWm2

111

www.mejournal.orgJournalofMetallurgicalEngineering(ME)Volume3Issue3,July2014

TIsareallsquareathorizontalcrosssectionexceptTI3

whose horizontal crosssection is rectangle with 280

mmshortsides.

for momentum and scalar transport equations. Once

the flow and temperature fields were converged to

steady state the problem defined module of the

FLUENT solver was changed to unsteady state for

solving the transient tracer dispersion Eq. (15) with

appropriateinitialandboundaryconditions.

TheRTDcurvesinthetundishwithconfigurationsof

C0, C6, C7 and C11are shown in Fig. 4 and the flow

characteristics of different tundish configurations are

giveninTable3.ItisknownfromTable2thatC0and

C7 used the same TI, i.e., TI1, and the difference

between these two cases was their weir and dam

locationsandheights,i.e.,S1,S2,H1andH2.Asshown

inFig.4,therearehighpeaksintheRTDcurvesforC0

andC7cases,whichindicatesthatalotoftracersflow

outofthetundishandlargedeadzonevolumesexitin

thetundishwithC0andC7configurations,asseenin

Table 3. Even though C7 and C11 have the same

valuesofS1,S2,H1andH2,thepeakoftheRTDcurve

inC11caseisloweredapparentlyduetothedifferent

TIanditsRTDcurvemovestowardsrightsideinFig.

4.TheseresultsindicatethatTI1isnotsuitableforthis

kind of tundish studied in present work. The

difference among C6, C7 and C11 cases in

configuration is that there is no TI in C6 case. It is

known from Fig. 4 that the minimum residence and

peak concentration times in C6 case are short. Short

minimumresidenceandpeakconcentrationtimesare

notexpectedeventhoughitspeakconcentrationislow.

Therefore,theadoptionofturbulentinhibitorwithout

extending top lips, TI5, in this tundish can distribute

molten steel well to larger space of the tundish and

prolong residence time of liquid steel in the tundish,

whichisfavorabletoremovalofnonmetalinclusions.

Such result is determined by the characteristic of this

tundishprofile.

PhysicalModeling

FIG.2SCHEMATICOFTUNDISHCONFIGURATIONSINTHE

EXPERIMANTS

TABLE2TYPICALTUNDISHCONFIGURATIONSINEXPERIMENTS

Case

C0

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

C8

C9

C10

C11

TI

TI1

TI1

TI1

TI2

TI3

TI4

TI1

TI5

TI5

TI5

TI5

S1/mm

632

590

590

590

590

540

390

390

540

440

390

390

S2/mm

108

108

200

150

150

200

150

150

200

200

200

150

H1/mm

96

96

130

55

55

55

55

55

55

55

55

55

H2/mm

136

136

205

205

205

225

250

250

250

250

250

250

2.0

1.5

C0

C/-

C7

FIG.3SCHEMATICOFSOMETURBULENCEINHIBITORSIN

THEEXPERIMENTS

C11

Differenttundishconfigurationstudiedinthisworkis

showninFig.2.Thetundishconfigurationsconsisted

of different turbulent inhibitors (TIs), different

locations of a weir and a dam (S1 and S2) and their

different heights (H1 and H2). A lot of tundish

configurations had been experimented in the present

work,butforspacelimitedonlysometypicaltundish

configurations are listed in Table 2 where C0 is the

former tundish arrangement. Figure 3 presents some

TIsusedinthephysicalmodelingexperiments.These

112

C6

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

/FIG.4RTDCURVESINSOMEDIFFERENTTUNDISH

CONFIGURATIONS

AsshowninTable3,thefluidflowinthetundishwith

the former configuration, C0, is not perfect. Its

JournalofMetallurgicalEngineering(ME)Volume3Issue3,July2014www.mejournal.org

and dam and let fluid flow toward upper part of the

right end wall, which increases residence times and

decreasesdeadzonevolumeinthetundish.

minimumresidenceis64s,itspeakconcentrationand

average residence times are short and its dead zone

volume is larger, being 35%, which decreases largely

theeffectivevolumeofthetundish.ThesameTI1was

usedinC1andC2casesandthelocationsandheights

of the weir and dam were adjusted, but the flow

characteristics in these two cases change less. Their

averageresidencetimesincreasealittleandtheirdead

zone volumes decrease less, and all of their fractions

wereover30%.

Comparing to C6 case, minimum residence and peak

concentration times in C7 case are prolonged, but its

dead zone volume fraction is enlarged from 21% to

25%, which means that this TI1 is not favorable to

decreasing dead zone volume in this tundish.

Application of TI in C7 case, in comparison with C6,

prolongs distance of fluid flow in the tundish.

Therefore, its minimum residence time increases. But

such TI with extending top lips makes the fluid flow

out of the TI in a concentrative way and can not

transfer the fluid to the whole tundish volume. For

thisreason,thetracersaddedintothetundishwithC7

configuration flow out of the tundish quickly due to

its larger width, which makes its RTD curve have

short peak concentration time and high peak

concentration,asshowninFig.4.Asaresult,thereis

largerdeadzonevolumeinthetundishwithC7case.

TABLE3FLOWCHARACTERISTICSINDIFFERENTTUNDISH

CONFIGURATIONS

Case

C0

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

C8

C9

C10

C11

tmin/s

64

64

70

78

80

78

54

63

88

82

79

81

tmax/s

81

81

108

113

130

134

91

99

121

139

141

163

tav/s

237

241

249

279

280

289

286

273

291

303

307

314

vp/%

20

20

24

26

29

29

20

22

29

30

30

33

vd/%

35

34

32

24

23

21

21

25

20

17

16

14

vm/%

45

46

44

50

48

50

59

53

51

53

54

53

ItwasfoundfromtheexperimentsthatincreaseinTIs

outlet area can improve fluid flow characteristics in

this tundish. TI5 was achieved by canceling TIs

extendingtoplips.C8,C9,C10andC11configurations

consist of TI5 and different locationsand heights ofa

weir and a dam. It is known from Table 2 and 3 that

the peak concentration and average residence times

are prolonged greatly by using TI5 and moving the

weir and dam towards the direction of the tundish

outlet and the dead zone volume is reduced greatly,

beingless20%.Thedeadzonevolumefractioninthe

tundishwithC11caseisloweredto14%,lessby60%

thanthatintheformertundishconfigurationC0.

in tundish configurations of C3, C4 and C5,

respectively. The outlet areas of these three TIs are

incremental. It can be seen from Table 2 and 3 that

flow characteristics in such tundish are improved by

changing TIs and adjusting locations and heights of

the weir and dam. The minimum, peak and average

residence times are increased and the dead zone

volumeislowered,beingbelow25%.

TherewasnoTIinC6caseanditsdeadzonevolume

is low obviously, lower 40% than that in the former

case C0. The peak and average residence times are

prolongedinsomedegree,buttheminimumresidence

time becomes shorter by 10 s due to no TI, as

comparedtothatinC0case.Whenfluidflowsintothe

tundish,apartofitflowstothedamalongthetundish

bottomifnoTIisusedinthetundish.Asaresult,the

flowing distance of this part of fluid is short and the

minimum residence time in such tundish

configurationbecomeslow.

35

vd /%

30

25

20

ItcanbeconcludedfromTable2and3thatreduction

inS1andH1andincreaseinS2andH2arefavorableto

improvement for fluid flow characteristics in this

tundish.Averageresidencetimeisincreasedanddead

zone volume is decreased. Lowering H1 and S1 and

increasing S2 and H2 can prolong fluids flowing

distance,reduceitsflowingvelocitybetweentheweir

15

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

S1/mm

FIG.5RELATIONSHIPBETWEENDEADZONEVOLUME

FRACTIONINTHETUNDSIHANDS1

113

www.mejournal.orgJournalofMetallurgicalEngineering(ME)Volume3Issue3,July2014

fraction in the tundish with the distance S1 between

thedamandthecentrelineofthetundishoutletunder

theconditionofthesameTI,S2,H1andH2.WhenS1is

reduced from 632 mm to 390 mm, the dead zone

volume fraction is lowered from 35% to 30% for the

formertundishconfigurationC0,whilethefractionis

decreased from 20% to 14% for the optimum tundish

configurationC11whenS1isreducedfrom540mmto

390 mm. As described above, the fluid flowing over

the dam can moves towards the end wall at higher

velocitywhentheweirandthedamaremovedtothe

side of the tundish outlet. The same effect is also

obtained if the dams height is increased. Therefore,

thedeadzoneatthatendwallisreduced.

experimentsandmathematicalsimulationsindifferent

tundishconfigurationsaregiveninFigs.6and7.Itis

shown in these figures that the RTD curves obtained

from mathematical simulations are agreed basically

with those from corresponding physical modeling

experiments. Only some differences between these

two methods in this work exist in the vicinity of the

peaks of the curves, but the results in the

mathematical simulations can reflect fluid flow

characteristics in different tundish configurations.

Table4givesacomparisonofflowcharacteristicsfrom

mathematical simulation to those from physical

modeling.Itisobviousinthistablethatthecalculated

flow characteristics from the RTD curves in

mathematical simulations are coincident with those

fromthemeasuredRTDcurves.

and their locations in tundishes should be optimized

carefully to determine an optimum tundish

configuration according to tundish inside profile and

molten steel flow rate so that the optimumfluidflow

characteristics in tundishes can be achieved for the

sufficientremovalofinclusionsfromliquidsteel.

TABLE4COMPARISONOFFLUIDFLOWCHARACTERISTICSINDIFFERENT

TUNDISHCASESFROMNUMERICALANDPHYSICALSIMULATIONS

Case

C0

C11

MathematicalSimulation

C7

C6

1.5

C/-

0.5

0.0

0

/ -

FIG.6RTDCURVESFROMMATHEMATICALANDPHYSICAL

SIMULATIONSINC6ANDC7TUNDISHCONFIGURATIONS

1.5

Numerical result for C11

1.0

C/-

0.5

0.0

0

/-

FIG.7RTDCURVESFROMMATHEMATICALANDPHYSICAL

SIMULTIONSINC0ANDC11TUNDISHCONFIGURATIONS

114

tmin/s

68

63

86

82

70

63

54

54

tmax/s

123

76

185

165

113

99

169

91

tav/s

285

235

320

313

297

273

321

286

vp/%

26

19

37

34

25

22

31

20

vd/%

28

35

17

14

24

25

19

21

vm/%

46

45

46

52

51

53

50

59

fieldsinthetundishwithdifferentconfigurations,the

former tundish configuration and the optimum one

were chosen to conduct such comparison in the

mathematical simulation. The velocity fields and

streamlines at symmetrical longitudinal plane and

liquidsurfaceintheformertundishconfigurationare

presented in Figs. 8 and 9, respectively. It is known

from the two figures that the liquid steel flowing out

ofthelongshroudimpingesthebottomoftheTIwith

extendingtoplipsandthenflowsoutoftheTIatthe

oppositedirectiontowardstheliquidsurface.Thereis

a big recirculation region around the stream entering

the tundish through the long shroud with the

recirculation eye near the TI bottom. When the

molten steel reaches the free surface, it forms a big

springuprushandthenflowsalongthesurfaceand

againstthelongshroudtowardstothesidewallsand

theweir.Asthemoltensteelreachesthesesolidwalls,

it turns downward. There are two other recirculation

zones near the liquid surface in the area between the

left tundish side wall and the weir, as can be seen in

Fig. 8(b). After the melt reach the tundish bottom,

some part of steel flow along the tundish bottom

1.0

Method

Numerical

Physical

Numerical

Physical

Numerical

Physical

Numerical

Physical

JournalofMetallurgicalEngineering(ME)Volume3Issue3,July2014www.mejournal.org

foundfromthesetwofiguresthatthestreamfromthe

long shroud impinges the bottom of the TI without

extending top lips and diverts along its bottom. The

meltrushesreverselyupmainlyoutofthe4cornersof

the TI toward the free surface where 4 small spring

uprushes are formed, as can be seen in Fig. 11(b).

Such phenomena could be observed visually in the

physical modeling experiments with the TI without

extending top lips. A recirculation region with small

height is formed around the shroud stream near the

TIsbottom.Themeltsreachedatthefreesurfaceflow

all around along the surface and turn downward at

the around walls and the symmetrical plane of the

tundish when they encounter. No other recirculation

zonesarefoundunderthefreesurfaceasthoseinthe

former tundish configuration in the vertical

symmetrical plane. Only several very small

recirculation flowing zones can be observed on the

free surface at the left side of the weir. Such flowing

characteristics in the optimum tundish case are

different from those in the former tundish case. With

the reduction in distance between the dam and the

tundish outlet, the recirculation flow region between

the dam and the stopper becomes small, while with

increaseindistancebetweentheweirandthedam,the

recirculationzonebehindtheweirbecomeslarge.

towardthedam.Thenthispartofliquidsteelisforced

to move upwards to the liquid surface due to the

obstructioneffectofthedam.Themeltflowsalongthe

freesurfacetowardtherightsidewall.Finally,itturns

down near the stopper and flows toward the tundish

outlet.Alargerecirculationregionisformedbetween

the dam and the right tundish side wall. A small

recirculation flow exists in the right side of the weir.

Although some recirculation regions are formed on

thefreesurfaceneartherighttundishsidewall,ascan

be found in Fig. 9(b), they would not lead to slag

entrapmentbecausethevelocityhereisverysmall.

0.5m/s

(a)Velocityfield

0.5m/s

(b)Streamline

FIG.8FLOWFIELDANDSTREAMLINESATVERTICAL

SECTIONINTHEFORMERTUNDISHCONFIGURATION

0.5m/s

(a)Flowfield

(a)Flowfield

(b)Streamline

FIG.10FLOWFIELDANDSTREAMLINESATVERTICAL

SECTIONINTHEOPTIMALTUNDISHCONFIGURATION

0.5m/s

(b)Streamline

FIG.9FLOWFIELDANDSTREAMLINESATFREESURFACEIN

THEFORMERTUNDISHCONFIGURATION

tundish with the optimum configuration in the

symmetricallongitudinalplaneandonthefreesurface

are shown in Figs. 10 and 11, respectively. It can be

(a)Flowfield

115

www.mejournal.orgJournalofMetallurgicalEngineering(ME)Volume3Issue3,July2014

steeltemperaturerangeintheareaof1/2heightofthe

bath near the free surface at the right side of the

stopper varies from 1819 K to 1813 K and the lowest

melt temperatures at the two side walls on the free

surfaceattherightsideofthetundishareonly1807K

and 1808 K, respectively. Therefore, in such areas the

moltensteelflowsslowlyanddeadzonesareformed,

resulting in lower temperature regions and reduction

in effective tundish volume and being unfavorable to

makingfulluseofmetallurgicalfunctionsoftundishes.

It can be known from Fig. 13 that the temperature

gradients along the melt flow direction in the

optimumtundishconfigurationbecomessmallerthan

those in the former tundish case. The high

temperaturezonesdisperseatthe4gushesabovethe4

corners of the TI. There are larger areas where the

temperature is between 1822 K and 1821 K in the

verticalsymmetricalplaneandonthefreesurface.The

molten steel temperature range in the area of 1/7

heightofthebathnearthefreesurfaceattherightside

of the stopper varies from 1819 K to 1816 K and the

lowest melt temperature at the two side walls on the

freesurfaceattherightsideofthetundishis1813K.It

is indicated from the above results that the molten

steel flow is reasonable and dead volume and low

temperature regions are reduced in the optimum

tundishconfiguration.

(b)Streamline

FIG.11FLOWFIELDANDSTREAMLINESATFREESURFACEIN

THEOPTIMALTUNDISHCONFIGURATION

(a)Verticalsymmetricalplane

FIG.12TEMPERATUREFIELDINTHEFORMERTUNDISH

CONFIGURATION

Conclusions

Moltensteelflowinawidesinglestrandtundishwith

different FCDs for slab continuouscasting was

investigated by physical and mathematical

simulations in this work. The following conclusions

canbedrawnoutfromthisinvestigation.

(a)Verticalsymmetricalplane

FCDs are not reasonable, resulting in poor flow

characteristics. The residence times are short and the

dead zone volume is large, being 35%. Such tundish

configurationisunfavorabletotheinclusionremoval.

(2)AdoptionofaTIwithoutextendingtoplipsinthis

tundish can improve flow characteristics in

comparisontotheformerTIwithextendingtoplipsin

thisspecialtundish.Increaseintheheightofweirand

dam and movement of the weir and dam toward the

outletofthetundishcanprolongresidencetimesand

reducedeadzonevolume.

(b)Freesurface

FIG.13TEMPERATUREFIELDINTHEOPTIMALTUNDISH

CONFIGURATION

formerandtheoptimumconfigurationsarepresented

inFigs.12and13,respectively.ItcanbeseenfromFig.

12 that larger temperature gradients exist along the

flow direction of liquid steel and its temperature

changesfrom1821Kto1807Kattherightsideofthe

weironthefreesurface.Thehightemperatureregion

concentrates around the shroud stream. The molten

116

configuration,theflowcharacteristicsintheoptimum

tundishcaseareimprovedtoagreatextent;minimum

residence time, peak concentration time and average

JournalofMetallurgicalEngineering(ME)Volume3Issue3,July2014www.mejournal.org

residencetimeareincreasedfrom64s,81sand237s

to81s,163sand314s,respectively,andthefractionof

dead zone volume decreases from 35% to 14%, being

reducedby60%.

thiskeyresearchproject(No.61333006).

REFERENCES

impingesthebottomoftheTIwithextendingtoplips

and then flows out of the TI at the opposite direction

towards the liquid surface. A big recirculation region

around the stream entering the tundish through the

longshroudisformed.Abigspringuprushappears

aroundthelongshroudonthefreesurface.

Tundish Using Residence Time Distribution Data. ISIJ

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JhaPK,DashSK,KumarS.Fluidflowandmixinginasix

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(6)Largertemperaturegradientsintheformertundish

configuration exist along the flow direction of liquid

steelanditstemperaturechangesfrom1821Kto1807

K at the right side of the weir on the free surface.

There is a larger low temperature zone in the area of

1/2heightofthebathnearthefreesurfaceattheright

side of the stopper and the lowest melt temperatures

at the two side walls on the free surface at the right

side of the tundish are only 1807 K and 1808 K,

respectively. This indicates that the velocity of liquid

steel in this area is low and large dead zone volume

exists.

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(7)Themoltensteeltemperaturerangingfrom1819K

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occupiestheareaof1/7heightofthebathnearthefree

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melt temperatures at the two side walls on the free

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PalafoxRamsJ,BarretoJ,LopezRamireS,etal.MeltFlow

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simulationsareinbasicagreementwiththosefromthe

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mathematical simulations can reflect fluid flow

characteristicsindifferenttundishconfigurations.

VolumeTundishes.IronmakingandSteelmaking,2001,

28(2),101109.

RamosBanderasA,MoralesRD,GarcaDemedicesL,etal.

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Ray S K, Isac M, Guthrie R I L. Modelling performance of

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fourstrand,12tdeltashapedcontinuouscastingtundish

fitted with different flow modifying arrangements for

Science Foundation of China for financial support of

117

www.mejournal.orgJournalofMetallurgicalEngineering(ME)Volume3Issue3,July2014

38(3),173180.

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castingtundishes.ISIJInt,1996,36(6),667672.

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118

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