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-

( )
..

-
2001


1 2
- .
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.
,
.
, ,
,
.

,
.
, , ,
.
,
.
, ( 70- )
.
4 . 1 , 2
, 3 , 4
.

2001

1
2
1
1
2 , , ,
3
4 ,
5 ( ).

2
1
2
3
4 . .

5 . . .

6
7
8 .
9 ( )
10 .
11 .
12 .

13
13.1
13.2
14
3
1
2 (1904 )
3 :
4 ,
4
1
2 , .

3 ( ).
4 :
5
6
5
1
3

11
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12
15
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86

2
3
4
5 (
)
6 .
7
8
9
10

88
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105

2

1
1 . .
2
3
4
5
5.1
5.2
2
1 ,
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6 ,

2
3
4 ( )
5
3

1 .
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
3
4
5 .
6
7
7.1
7.2
8
9
4

109
111
112
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10
11
12
13 --
14 -
4
1
1.1
1.2
2 .
3
4 .
5
5
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2
3
4
6
1 .

1.1
1.2
2 .
3
4

159
162
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202

3
1 ()
1
2
3
3.1
3.2 -
4
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
6
7
8
8.1
8.2
9
10 ,
5

206
206
210
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231


10.1 -
10.2 ,

11
2
1
2
3 --
3
1
2
3
4
5
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
5 ()
1
2 --
3
4 ()
5
6
7
8
9
6
1
2
3 ( )
4 , ,
5
6

6.1
6.2

6.3

7 .
7.1
7.2
8
9
6

231
233
235
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7
1 .
2 .
3

304
304
308
310

4
1
1 .
2 .
2.1
2.2
2.3
3
4
4.1
4.2
5
6
7 , -
8
9
9.1
9.2 .
10
11
12
13
14
15 .

16
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4

2
1 .
2 .
3
3.1 -,
3.2
3.3
4
4.1
4.2
3
1 .
1.1 .
1.2 . .
7

312
312
315
315
317
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322
322
323
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327
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365
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384
384
384
386

2 -
3
3.1
3.2
4
4.1 -
4.2
4.3
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
6 -
6.1 -
6.2
4
1
2
3
5
1 .
1.1
1.2
2
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

389
392
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395
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427
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431
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432
435
436

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11


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2
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- ).
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: i, j, k - x, y, z .
Z

i
X

x y z , .
x i, y j z k .
r = x i + y j + z k , r - .
x, y z .
12

, - ,
. SI - System International.

( )
1.1675. .
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1 (
1 ).
, . :
= 2 (l /g)1/2 l = g T2 / (2)2 0,25
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1889 . 10 , 0,1
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. - , ( , :
).
Z

B
Y

r2,t2

A
r1,t1

13


1960 .
1 - 1/ 86400
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1 - 1/ 31556925,9747 1900 , 1 , . - 10-7.
1972. 8 .
1 = 9192631770 Cs - 133 [m = 4, M = 0 m = 3, M = 0, m M -
Cs] .
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.

14

.


.
1

- ,
.
, ,
. -
:
r (t), v (t), a (t), ...

- , , ( - " ").
a = ax i + ayj + azk. i, j, k-
( ), x,y,z- .
15

(1586, ). a1
a2
,


. :
a
a2

a1

a = a1 + a2
:
a
a3

a1

a = a1 + a2 + a3
,
a2 = a - a1
, :
a1 = a1xi + a1yj + a1zk

a2 = a2x i + a2y j + a2zk,

a = a1 a2 = (a1x a2x)i + (a1y a2y)j + (a1z a2z)k


- .
16

. : a - ,
, > 0 - , < 0 .
,
ax, ay az
, a = axi + ayj + azk,
- , 2 = x2+ ay2+ az2 ,

.
. :
12 =12Cos(a1^a2), ii=jj=kk=11Cos 0 = 1,
ij=ik=jk=Cos ( /2)= 0.
.
( axi+ayj+azk)2 = ax2+ ay2+az2+axayij+ ... .

.. - ,
,
.

, , (
) ,
. a x, ay, az

.
: ax (a xx, a xy, a xz), ay (a yx, a yy, a yz), az (a zx, a zy, a zz).

17

2 , , ,

, ( ).
Y
r2
r

r1

= r2 - r1 - , , r, - ,

y(x).
.

. .

Y

r2
r

r1
X

v = lim(r/ t) = dr/dt,
t0

[v] = /, v = vx i + vy j + vz k, vx = dx/dt, vy = dy/dt,
vz = dy/dt, v2 = vx2 + vy2 + vz2
18

- .
:
a = lim v/t = dv/dt = d2r/dt2,
t0
a = axi + ayj + azk, ax = dvx/dt = d2x/dt2,
ay = dvy/dt =d2y/dt2, z = dvz/dt = d2z/dt2, a2 = ax2 + ay2 + az2.

, ,
.
.
V
vi

V(t)

t
t0

S ,
S = s1 + s2 + ... + sn = si
vi = si/t, si = vi t, t -
S = si = vi t.
19

i = 1 i = n - .
, t.
t
s = lim vit = v(t) dt
t0
t0
t0 t
. .
t

v(t) dt = dr(t) = r2 - r1 = r
t0
t0
(v = dr/dt dr = v dt)
:
t
<v> = s/(t - t0) = [1/(t -t0)] v(t) dt,
t0

t
<v> = r/t = [1/(t - t0)] v(t) dt
t0
,

x2
<f> = [1/(x2 - x1)] f(x)dx
x1
20

f(x)

4 ,

()

, ,

- (d), ,
.
d, - ,
, . d - . :
= lim/t = d/dt, = lim /t = d/dt = d2/dt2,
t0
t0
- .

,
= /t = cst = 0.
, , t = T,
= 2,
= /t = 2/T T = 2/
21

[] = ., ., [t, T] = , [] = /, [] = /2

=1/ = / 2 = 2, [] = c-1= .
.
1
, , s
. R -

R
s

s R

(s/2)/R = sin /2.


, s< R,
sin /2/2
s R
,

v = lim s/t = ds/dt = R d/dt = R, (ds = R d)


t0
a = dv/dt = d(R)/dt = R d/dt = R

2.
e - ,
e = i Cost + j Sint, = /t = t

22

-
)

(, -

r = r e = (r Cost)i + (r Sint)j v = dr/dt = d(r e)/dt = d[(r Cost)i + (r Sint)j] /dt =


= r[(-Sint)i + (Cost)j].
. v = r , r = R v = R. .
a = dv/dt = r2[(-Cost)i + (-Sint)j] = - r 2e.
( ), , r
.
a = 2R = v2/R.

5 ( ).

n
e

.
, , - , -

= , - de/dt = lim e/dt= lim /t = ,
t0
t0
de/dt = .
23

,
.
, : v =v,

=dv/dt = d(v) /dt= (dv/dt) + v d/dt = a + vn = a + an n = a + an,
n v
. :
a = dv/dt -
an = v = v2/R - ( = v/R)

( )

n
A = A1e1 + A2e2 + A3e3, Ai ei = Ae = A,
i=1
,
. ,
n
n
n
n
AB = ( Ai ei ) ( Bj ej ) = AiBjeiej = Ai Bj ij
i=1
j=1
i,j=1
i, j=1
ei ej = ij = {1 i=j, 0 i j}. ij - .

24

- . (

,
) .
, ,
. :
, . - ?
.
13 3,98 = 105
. - .
25

. ,
1 ,
, 39 , 39
- 90% Pt 10% Ir . ,
, , - 21 /.
, 1 1 - , 1
.
. "m"
.
( )
.

, - , - , [p] = /

1- . ( ).


(
.. ).
" ,
, ".
( Neuton I. Philosophia naturalis principia mathematica.Londoni, 1687.)
! :
, (
,
).
( ,
) - .
,
26


( :
).
,
" ".
1. () ,
( m = V,

, ; ;
- ..)
2. ,
(p = mv)
3. ,
,
.
4. , ,
, .
... , .
2-

, .
,
dp/dt = d(mv)/dt = mdv/dt = md2r/dt2
dp/dt = F - F = ma, [F] = /2 =
( ) -
, -
.
,
. ( - )
27


. , .
3-
,
- ,

F1

F2


( " ",
vc).
- -
= 3 108/ = 300
000 /. : 299 792 458 / (
62 1,8 1973 ).
v1 = 8 /c, v2 = 11 /c,
0,9 .
,
xx v
,
- v.
28

:
r(t) - - .
:
r(t), v(t), a(t), ... ,
v
1. v = v + v (1)
2. r(t) (1) .
:
v
Z

dr/dt = dr/dt + v, dr = dr + vdt

v
X

Y
t = t

t
t
t
dr(t) = dr(t) + v dt.
0
0
0
r = r + vt. vt - -
.
3. , (1)
dv/dt = dv/dt + d/dt(v) = dv/dt v = cst a = a
. ,
v ,
.
4. .

29

p =mv, p = mv = m(v + v) = mv + mv = p + pv
2.
F = ma, F = ma = ma = F F = F
,
.
4 . .

( )
, , , - R:
R = mi ri / mi - i=1 i=n

R - - () ,
mi - i- ,
ri -- i- . ,
N
n
mi = m - mR = mi ri
i=1
i=1

mi
ri
R
Y

30

(*)

1. (*)

m dR /dt = mi dri/dt m V = m vi P = pi (**)

, , P, , pi,
, .
2. .
(**).
n
dP/dt = dpi /dt ; dP/dt = F.
i=1
F - ,
.
n n
m
F = Flk + Fj
k=1 l=1 j=1
Flk,
, . ,
Flk + Fkl = 0,

. ,
Fj = F = m a . ..
: ( ).
,
,
.
31

3.
F = 0
dp/dt =0 p = cst (t).
0,
, , mv
=cst, ,
.
- .

pi = cst

p1 + p2 = p1 + p2 = p1 + p2 = ... = cst.
,
:
- .
- .
- .

5 . . .


.
.

32

r2
A = Fdr
r1
A = Fs = Fs Cos(F^s) ( F = cst)

F
r
r1
r2
r s

A = F r = F () = .r( F) = F r Cos (F^r). dA


= F dr, dsdr.
F = cst A = F (r2 - r1) = F r, [] = = .
:

F
1

2
2
2
2
2
A = F dx; F = -kx, [k] = / , A = - kx dx = - kx /2| = - kx22/2 + kx12/2
1
1
1
33

(x1 = 0),

A = - kx2/2

, , v = dr/dt F = dp/dt dr = vdt dp = Fdt,
dA = Fdr = F vdt = (dp)v = (mdv)v = d(mv2/2). T = mv2/2
m, v .
.
,
dA = 0, d(mv2/2) = 0 mv2/2 = = cst
.

N = dA/dt, [N] = / = . N = Fds/dt = Fv
(, ).
.
:
dp = d(mr v) = d[mv/(1-v2/c2)1/2] = mdv/(1-v2/c2) + mv d[(1-v2/c2)-1/2] = m dv/(1- v2/c2)
()m v(1-v2/c2)-3/2(-1/c2)dv2 = m dv(1-v2/c2)-1/2 + mvdv2/2c2(1-v2/c2)-3/2.
Vdp = mv dv/(1-v2/c2)1/2 + mv2dv2/2c2(1-v2/c2)3/2 = dv2/2(1-v2/c2)1/2 + v2dv2/2c2(1- v2/c2)1/2 (1-v2/c2) = [mdv2 (1-v2/c2) +(1/c2)mv2dv2]/2(1-v2/c2)3/2 = mdv2/2 (1-v2/c2)3/2.

34

1 2. ,

2
A = v dp = mdv2/2(1-v2/c2)3/2 = (-mc2/2)d(1-v2/c2)/1-v2/c2)3/2 =
1
= mc2/(1-v2/c2)1/2| = mrc2| = (mrc2) = T2 - T1.

Tr = mrc2 = mc2/(1-v2/c2)1/2.
,
.

E = mc2,
T = mc2[(1-v2/c2)-1/2 - 1] = mc2[1 + v2/2c2 + ... -1] = mv2/2, ((1)n = 1 n ...,
1).

6
[r, x, y, z, s] = , [t] = c, [m] = , [v] = /, [a] = /, [p] = /, [F] = /2 = ,
[A] = [T] = 2/2 = = .

10-12 10-9 10-6
10-3
10-2
10-1

106
109
1012

35


10
102
103

, :
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

( ) ,
.

+++

36

A = Fds = 0, -
L
L
: Fds, F - ,
L
ds - L, F
L.

d d ds
F

.
() 1 ()
2
. , , , ,
. , ,
.
1: - , ,

F .

ds

37

dA = Fds = Fds Cos = -Fds, .


,
( ).
.

(,
)
,

.
2. : ,
. Fds A = F ds Cos/2 = 0
F = q v B Sin(B^v)
r

r
r

(B)
r

F
r

ds
r

r
r

38

F = ma
F

8 .

ds
FF

.
. ,
.
,
( ). ,
() 1 () 2 ,

A12 = A02 - A01 = ( A01U1 A02 U2) = U1 - U2 = -U.
,
:
A = - U
U = U(r) - .
. ,

-U = AO2 - AO1 = AO2 - AO1 = cst


.
1. P = mg.

39

dA = Fds = P dx = -mg dx. ,


, , g,
, x, .
h
dU = -dA = m g dx U = m g dx = m g h
0
x

g
h

1. F = - kx
dU = - dA = -Fdx = kx dx
x
0

x
x
2
U = kx dx = kx /2| = kx2/2
0
0

x,
U = kx2/2.
40


.
3. F = G M m /r2.

F = Fe

d re = d r
0

r
r
A = Fdr = e e(GM m/r2)dr = GM m/r U = - GM m/r .

.
( )
. ,
, , .
.
(
).
,
(1), (2),
,

(2 )
F2
F1 (1 )



2
2

T 2 v 2
T 1 v 1

U 2 r2
U 1 r1
(

)
. :
41

A12 = T2 - T1, v2>v1 A12 = U1(r1) - U2(r2), (r2<r1)


:
,
, .
T2 - T1 = U1 - U2 T2 + U2 = T1 + U1 = ...
(
) ,
T + U = CST = E
,
( , )
() .
- .
,
.

9 ( )

-
F = F ( r ), U = U ( r ).
dA = Fdr = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz = - dU,
, U, ,
x, y, z.

42

Fx dx = -dU|y, z = cst, Fy dy = -dU|x, z = cst, Fz = -dU|x, y = cst,



Fx = - U/x, Fy = -U/y, Fz = -U/z.
,
,
.

F = Fxi + Fyj + Fzk = -((U/x) i + (U/y) j + (U/z) k) = -(/x) i + (/y) j +
+ (/z) k)U, ((/x)i + (/y)j + (/z)k) = ,
F = -U - grad U.
- , grad - , ,
,
( ),
,
U.
,
dU = (U/x)dx + (U/y)dy + (U/z)dz
. [U/x] = /=

,
.
A12 = T2 - T1, (*)

43

A12 = Fdr = -[(U/x)dx + (U/dy)dy + (U/z)dz] = -dU


U* ,
dU* = (U/x)dx + (U/y)dy + (U/z)dz + (U/t)dt.

A*12 = -(dU + (U/t)dt).
,
. 12 ,
U*
A12 = - (dU* - (U/t)dt).

(*)
T2 - T1 = U1* - U2* + (U/t)dt (T2 + U2*) = (T1 + U1*) + (U/t)dt
,
. ,
. (
) ,
.
.

,
. ( ,
).
44

:
, -, . :
,
.

10 .

= + , m F (
).

, .

F
l
M = lF
F - , l - , M -

- (
). ( :
)
.
M = rF; |M| = r F Sin

45

O
F
M

O
M
F

r
OO


( )
F

46

OO
r
S. = 2 (1/2)rFSin

FSin

M , .
r F

M = Mx i + My j + Mz k.

= ab
c , a

= a b Sin (a^b)
,

ab = - ba

47

-c

c
a

1.
2.

b
a
ab = c

ab = -ba

3.
ba = c = -ab

ii = jj = kk = 0.
k
j
i

ik =-j, ij = k ji =-k, jk = i ki = j, kj =-i.



ab = (axi + ayj + azk)(bx i + by j + bz k) =
= (ay bz - az by)i + (az bx - ax bz)j + (ax by - by ax)k



i

ax ay az
bx by bz


a b.
= ab = i (ay bz - az by) + j (az bx - ax bz) + k (ay bx - ax by)
cx
cy
cz

48

Fx

Fy

Fz

M = rF = i (y Fz z Fy) + j (z Fx x Fz) + k (x Fy - y Fx).


M ( M2 = Mx2 + My2 + Mz2),
, r F.

11 .

( )
L = rp = m rv, L = r p Sin (r^p)

v
r
m


dL /dt = (dr/dt)p + r(dp/dt) = vmv + rF = (.. vv =0 ) = M.
(
)

49

dL/dt = M.
(dp/dt = F). ,
,
.
.

L = Li M = Mi

dL/dt = Mi = Mlk + Mj
i
l, k
j
.
l, k , j -
.
M lk = - M kl
dL/dt = M .
.

, .

( ,
, ,
) ,
dL/dt = 0 L = cst.
.
.
50

.
F = f ( r ) r/r

r/r -

dL/dt = M . = rF =

r f (r )r/r = ( rr0) 0
L =cst
,
.
,
.

pi = cst - ,
Ti + Ui = =cst - ,
Li = cst -

12 .



(
)
L = rp = m rv.

51

hg

Li

vi

L iz /Li = Ri/ri
=
= Cos i
Ri = ri Cos i

mi

Liz
Ri

i
ri

..

L i -
Li = mi ri vi = mi ri Ri.
L, v, r - ,
.
-:
.
)
, -
;
) x, y z, ,
;
)
- ,
.

52

Y
O
X

Yfmj

L z,
L i z = mi ri Ri z Cos i = mi Ri2 z.
(

)
L z = L iz = z mi Ri2 (z =cst)
Lz z z.
mi Ri2 = Ii
,
I = mi Ri2
- .
[I] = 2.
Lz = I

53

. -
-
.
vi

(t)

vi
ri

ri

O
vi i ri -

Li = mi rivi = mi ri(ri) = mi [ (ri ri) - ri (ri)] ( * )



BAC - CAB (" ")
a(bc) = b(a c) c (a b),
.
( * )
= x i + y j + z k, ri = xix + yiy + ziz, ri= x i + y j + z k.

L xi = mi [xri2 - xi (xi x + yi y +zi z)],
L yi = mi[yri2 - yi (xi x + yi y + ziz)],
L zi = mi[zri2 - zi (xi x + yi y + zi z)].
,
- x, y z.

54

I xx
I xy
I xz
2
2
L x = x mi(ri - xi ) - y mi xi yi - z mi xi zi,
I yx
I yy
I yz
2
2
L y = - x mi xi yi + y mi (ri - yi ) - zmi yi zi,
I zx
I zy
I zz
L z = - x mi xi zi - y mi yi zi + z mi (ri2 - zi2).
,
. .

,
L x = I xx x + I xy y + I xz z
L y = I yx x + I yy y + I yz z
L z = I zx x + I zy y + I zz z.
,

I xx

I xy

I xz

I yx

Iyy

Iyz

Izx

Izy

Izz

2- . -
, - . I .
, .

I xx = mi (ri2 - xi2)
,

55

dI xx = dm (ri2 - xi2) = (ri2 - xi2) (x,y,z) dV


dm = dV, - , V- ; ,
r - x2 = x2 + y2 + z2 - x2 = y2 + z2
2

I xx = (x,y,z)(y2 + z2)dV.
V
.
,
I xy = I yx = I1, I xz = I zx = I2, I zy = I yz
.

I xx

I1

I2

I1

I yy

I3

I2

I3

I zz

. L z = I. L z
L, ( ) L. (I
)
M = L/dt, L = I
M = I d/dt = I d2/dt2 = I.
.
,

dA = F ds = (ds = R d) = F R d = M d
56

2
A = M d
1
N = dA/dt = M d/dt = M
K i = mivi2/2 = mi (Ri)2/2 = (miRi2/2) 2 = Ii2/2;
K = K i = I2/2 = L2/2 = L2/2I.
. = . + ..

13
13.1
F = - m 2R

F .. = m2R (F
m2R)

= mv2/R = mv =


- r,

R
v
r

F..

F .. = -F .. = mv (F = m ..)

v
v
r
w

57

v = r = - r,
F .. = m [(r)], r = -v
F .. = m[(r)].

13.2
,
.
,
v -
v -
-
,
:
F = m n = mv2/R = m (v + R)2/R = mv2/R + 2mv + m2R
F = mv2/R - ,

Fk = 2mv -

58

= cst

Fr

F . . = m2R -
(
)


- .

a = a + 2v + (R)
a - ()

a - ( )
v = (R) -
2v -

F = F + F + F ..
,
() ,
,
.

59

14


. .
:
L = I

O F1
L
O M (F1F2)

O
F2

- , - , -
, F1, F2 -
.
1. ,
L = I
2. - ( )
F1 F2, , ,
, L
.
3. , F1,F2.
60

M = rF, dL/dt = M dL = M dt (L = Mt), M L


. , L L .

L = L + L
L -
, , , ,
.
:
L

L
L F1

L
O

M
O

O
O

F2
O

61

()
. 1905
.
. ,
:

1.

( ,
-
).
2.
(),
,

i. .
ii. = 299792458,0 1,2 / 3 108 / (
1972), 105
, 1 = 1000 .
iii. , , .
61

, ()
,
( ).
.
, -
.
,

v = v v.
,
= + v = = (?).
.
- . :


v
l

62

,
v .

.
- , ,
.
a F , , - ,
( ).
, ,
,
.
, .
,
. , ||
. - || -
, .

, ?

( ) ( )
( )
.
1. || ( )
t1- , t2 - v v
63

t1 = l + vt1 t1 = l/(c-v), ct2 = l - vt2 t2 = l/ (c+ v)


t1 + t2 = [l(c+ v) +l(c - v)]/(c2 - v2) = 2lc/(c2 - v2) = (2l/c)/(1 - v2/c2)
2. ( )
. t3 -
,
2t3 = 2l/c .
,

ct3
l

vt3

(ct3)2 = l2 + (vt3)2 t32(c2 - v2) = l2


t3 = l / (c2 - v2)1/2, 2t3 = (2l/c) / (1 - v2/c2).
, t1 + t2 2t3 ,

. .
, , ,
-

= + v = .
, .
64

1. , 1932.

,
.

2. -, 1956.
(V
20%

= 2,32 = 4,6 /).

3. . . Phys. Rev. Letters, 10, 271,


1963
12 0,5 16
. 10%
.

2 (1904)

. " ".
,
, 1, .
65

:
= cst +
( ).

x
v .
.
:
x (x, t) t (x, t)

y, y

t =0, x = 0
x = 0

y
K

y =y
z = z
K

x, x

x, x

z, z


. ct ct.
1. x
x = t, x t = 0 x = t, x - t = 0

x - ct = (x - ct)
2. x
-x = ct, x +ct = 0 -x = ct, x + ct = 0

66

x + ct = (x + ct)
, ()
,
x - ct = (x - ct)
x + ct = (x + ct).
, ,
- (
- 3- ),
,
. .
, -
,
.
( + )
2x = (x - ct) + (x + ct) 2x = x - ct + x + ct 2x = x( + ) ct( - )
( +)/2 = a, ( -)/2 =b
x = ax bct.
( - )
- 2ct = (x - ct) - (x +ct ) -2ct = x - ct - x - ct 2ct = ct( + ) - x( - )
ct = a ct - bx
x = ax b ct
ct = a ct - bx

(1)
(2)

b
:
67

1. ( 2 ) t = 0, act -bx = 0 t = bx/ac


2. ( 1 ) x = 0, ax b ct = 0 x =bct/a = vt, v= b/a -

3. ( 1 ) t = 0, x = ax, x =x/a
(1), :
x = ax b ct = ( 1.) = ax bc bx/ac =
( 2.)
= ax v bx/c = ax v (bx/c)(ca/ac) = ax v (bc/a)(a/c2)x =
= ax - v2ax/c2 = ax(1 - v2/c2).
.
3.
x = ax (1 - v2/c2)
x = ax
, .
, , ,
1 ,
x = 1 x = 1 x = x x = ax
( ),
x = a2x (1 - v2/c2).
,

68

a = 1/ (1 - v2/c2)1/2.
b, 2. v = bc/a b = v a/c
b = (v/c)/(1 - v2/c2)1/2 .
, b

(1) , (2).

x = (x - vt)/(1 - v2/c2)1/2
t = (t - xv/c2)/(1 - v2/c2)1/2.
.
.
s2 = (x2 - x1)2 + (y2 - y1)2 + (z2 - z1)2 - c2(t2 - t1)2
.

x = x - vt, t = t, y = y, z = z s2 = (x2 - vt - x1 + vt)2 + (y2 - y1)2 + (z2 -z1)2 - c2(t2 -t1)2 = s2
.
. y z ,

(x2 - x1)2 - c2(t2 - t1)2 = [(x2 - vt2 -x1 +vt1)2 - c2(t2 -x2v/c2 - t1 + + x1v/c2)2]/(1 - v2/c2) =
= [(x2 - x1)2 - 2(x2 - x1)(v t2 - vt1) + (vt2 - vt1)2 - c2(t2 - t1)2 + 2(t2 - t1)(x2v - x1v) 1/c2)(x2v
- x1v)2]/(1- v2/c2) = [(x2 - x1)2(1 - v2/c2) - (t2 - t1)2(c2 - v2)]/(1 - v2/c2) = (x2 - x1)2 - c2(t2
-t1)2.

69

,
. x = x1, y = x2, z =x3, -c2t2 = x42.

s2 = x12 + x22 + x32 + x42.

3 :

x = x2 - x1 = [(x2 - vt2) - (x1 -vt1)]/(1 - v2/c2)1/2
,
, t1 = t2
x = x/(1 - 2)1/2, = v/
x = l0, x = l
l = l0(1 - 2)1/2 l < l0
l0 , l - ,
,
( :
). .
. , .

,
t t x
70

x = (x - vt)/(1 - 2)1/2, t = (t -xv/c2)/(1 - 2)1/2


x = x(1 -2)1/2 + vt, t = t(1 - 2)1/2 + xv/c2
t = t(1 -2)1/2 + v/c2(x(1 - 2)1/2 + vt)
t(1 - v2/c2) = (1 - 2)1/2(t + vx/c2)
t = (t + vx/c2)/(1 - 2)1/2

,
: x1 = x2
t2 - t1 = [(t2 + vx2/c2) - (t1 + vx1/c2)]/(1 - 2)1/2 = (t2 - t1)/(1 - 2)1/2.

t = t/(1 - 2)1/2 .
t , t -
(
) .
. .
,
( ), - .
. .
, ,
. .
.

4 ,
vx = dx/dt, vy = dy/dt, vz = dz/dt

71

dx = (dx - vdt)/(1 -2)1/2, dy = dy, dz = dz,


dt = (dt - vdx/c2)/(1 - 2)1/2
vx = (dx - vdt)/(dt - vdx/c2)
vy = [vy(1 - 2)1/2]/(1 - vvx/c2)
vz = [vz(1 - 2)1/2]/(1 - vvx/c2).
y z - -
. , -
,
,
. ( .- relative)

p = m0v/(1 -2)1/2 = mrv, E = m0c2/(1 - 2)1/2.

p2(1 - 2) = (m0v)2 , E2(1 - 2) = (m0c2)2 1 - 2 = (m0c2)2/E2
p2(m0c2)2/E2 = m0c2(1 - (1- v2/c2)) p2c2/E2 = 1 - (m0c2)2/E2
p2c2 = E2 - m02c4 E2 = p2c2 + m02c4 .


T = mrc2 - m0c2.

72

(15461601) 3 .

1. (1609) ,
.
2. (1609) - .
3. (1618)
, .
Ti2/Tk2 = ri3/rk3
r3/T2 = cst = K -

73

A A = r

2 ,

F 1 / r2

, ,
(, , ) ()

(1 )
O

F
e

21

(2 )

= r/r

F21 = (-/r2) (r/r)


, .
1. : || = q1q2/40
2. : = m1m2

-U = Fdr = - (dr/r2)(r/r) = - dr/r2 = /r +C, (r, U max = 0 C = 0)

U = - /r
.

74

.

U .( r ) = - D e - r/r0 / r,
r<< r , r0 = 2 10-13 , D = 10-18 = 10-27
r = 2 10-15x,

U .(x) = - 5 10-13e-x x-1

0
0
5 10

5 .10

13 . x . 1
e x

1 10

1.5 10

2 10

.5
13

12

12

12
0

1
x

, , ,
.
3 ( ).
R = (m1r1 + m2r2)/(m1 + m2).
,

75

r1

r2

R = 0

m1r1 + m2r2 = 0.

r = r2 - r1 .


r2 = r + r1 m1r1 + m2(r + r1) =0 r1 = - m2r/(m1 + m2)
r2 = m1r/(m1 + m2).

.
U = U( r )
T = (m1/2)(dr1/dt)2 + (m2/2)(dr2/dt)2 =
= (m1/2)[m2/(m1 + m2)]2(dr/dt)2 + (m2/2)[ m1/(m1 + m2)]2(dr/dt)2=
= [m1m2/2(m1 + m2)](dr/dt)2 = (m/2)(dr/dt)2 , m =m1m2/(m1 + m2).
,
.
,
.
.

L = rp = cst
, , L (
, , ).
.
.
76

p = mv = mr = mr (d/dt), ( (v) r p)
ds = (1/2)r rd | :dt ds/dt = (r2/2) d/dt
r
d

r d
ds
r

L = r p = mr2d/dt =2m ds/dt


ds/dt .

L = cst ds/dt = cst ds = cst dt ds ~ dt.

,
-,
, ,
.

4 : ?

r = r
(x,y,z,t) x ~ y ~ z, r ~ .
: (
) (, ).
.
E = T . + . + U . = (m)(dr/dt)2 /2+ (mr2)(d/dt)2 /2+ U =
= (L = mr2d/dt d/dt = L/mr2) = (m)(dr/dt)2 /2+ (L2/2mr2) + U.
L , ( )
.
(m)(dr/dt)2 /2= E - U - L2/2mr2 dr/dt = [2(E -U)/m - (L/mr)2]1/2
77

.
L = mr2d/dt dt
dr = [2(E - U)/m - (L/mr)2]1/2(mr2d/L)
d = (L dr /mr2)/[2(E - U) - (L/mr)2]1/2
= (L dr /r2) /[2m(E - U) - (L2/r2)]1/2 + cst
cst (cst = 0), U = -/r d(1/r) = -dr
/r2,
= - L d(1/r)/[2mE + (2m/r) - (L2/r2)]1/2 . (*)
,
= - dx/(1-x2)1/2 = arccos x, x = 1/r.

os = [(L/r) - (m/L)]/[2mE + (m/L)2]1/2 (**)
(*) "" .
.

r = p/(1 +e cos)
(**) r
[2mE + (m/L)2]1/2 cos = (L/r) - (m/L) 1 / [(m/L) + ((2mE + (m/L)2 )1/2cos]
=
= r/L.
r = (L2/m)/[1 + L/m(2mE + (m/L)2)1/2 cos]
78

p = L2/m, e = [(2EL2/m2) + 1]
,
r(1 + e cos) = p
1. = 0 - (r = p = cst = 1)
2. 0< e< 1 (e = 0,5 ; p = 1) - r = 1/(1 + 0,5 cos)
3. = 1, = 1 - r = 1/(1 + cos)
4. e> 1 (e = 1,5 , p = 1) - r = 1/(1 + 2cos )
. .

120

90
2

2
60

1.5
150
1

(1

cos( x ) )

(1

1
0.5 .cos( x ) )

0.5

180

1
(1

30

1.5 .cos( x ) )

210

330

300

240
270
x

, , 15,
0 , .
79


, (, ) -
.
x2 + y2 = R2
(x/a)2 + (y/b)2 = 1
(x/a)2 - (y/b)2 = 1
y2 = 2px

.

v0>v

v 0= 0 B
B
v0<vk
vk<v0<v

v = vk
v0 = v

v0 = 0 - ,
( )
1. v0 < vk - . , - (vk , ,

).

2. v0 = vk - .
3. vk<v0<v - . - , - (v - ).
4. v0 = v .
5. v0>v .

80

5
(
).
E = T + U = (mv2/2) - mM/r = ( g = M/r2) = (mv2/2) - mgr
1. E<0
T + U < 0, T< -U mv2/2 < mgr v2 < 2gr, v = v1 = (2gR)1/2 (r =R -
)
. : ,
, .
F = F . mg = mv12/R ( g 10 /2, R 6,4 103 ) v1 = (gR)1/2 8 103 /c
= 8/
2. E = 0,
T = -U v = v2 = (2gr)1/2 11,2 / -
3. E> 0,
T> -U v > (2gr)1/2 ()
. E = 0 -
, .
. . >
0 .
4.
E 0 .
: , . ,
( )
42,1 /.
:
42,1 - 29,8 = 12,3 /
42,1 + 29,8 = 71,9 /.

81

6
(, .

(
...)

. ,
, .
E . = F/q E. = F/m. . F = m E .., F = m
a, , .
.
=
= .
- ,
.
.
(, )
(
)
.
( )

. ,

82


, , ,
, .
,
1.
,

. .
1
2

57,9
.

( ) ( )

88

58,6

0,38

0,055

, ,
360 - .
2.

29 1919
17

83

3. ,
( ).
.

84

5 (
)

, ,
.
,
( ).
:
( (
)),
,
(),
()
,
,
,
,
,
.


.
.
:
85

1.
,
. ( )
,
.
2.
,
. ,

.
3.
,
( ,
).
4.
,
- (,
, ...).

, U ,
( ),
= 0.
-
.
U = U

m in

x
- a

+ a

f(x) = f(0)x0/0! + f (0)x1/1! + f (0)x2/2! + ...


86

U ()
-

(

0, = 0

(0!1, k! = 12 ...k)).

U (x) = U(0) + U(0)x + U(0)x2 + ....


i)U(0) =0 - ,
.
ii)U(0) = - F(0) = 0 -
iii) U(0) = k U (x) kx2/2 - ,

F(x) = - dU/dx = - d(rx2/2)/dx = -kx
F(x) , .
.

F = ma = m d2x/dt2
U
E
T

U
x
-a

x=0


m d2x/dt2 = - kx
d2x/dt2 + 02 x = 0,
02 = k/m
[02] = [k/m] = /2, [k] = [F/x] = / = /2 [] = c-1 = /. -
, -
.

87

2 ( )

d2x/dt2 + 02x = 0 . (*)


- x (t).

. x = et, (*)
.
d2x/dt2 = 2 et 2 et +02 et = 0 2 = - 02 = i 0 x1,2 = exp( i0t)
(*) ,

1 2 d2x/dt2 = 0 dx/dt
= c1 x = c1x + c2,
x = c1x1 + c2x2 = c1 exp ( i0t ) + c2 exp (-i0t ).

exp ( i0t ) = Cos (0t) i Sin (0t)

x= c1[Cos(0t) + i Sin(0t)] + c2[Cos(0t) i Sin(0t)] = c1Cos(0t) + ic1Sin(0t) +


+c2Cos(0t) -c2iSin(0t) = (c1 + c2)Cos(0t) - i(c2 - c1) Sin(0t) = a1Cos(0t)
a2Sin(0t).

88

1 2 ,

a2

a1

a2 = a12 + a22, Sin = a2/a, Cos = a1/a


x = a[CosCos(0t) -SinSin(0t)] = a Cos(0t +
).

x = Cos(0t +)
,
0 - , - , t - ,
- , (0 + ) - , x - .
, ,
.
. - = 2,
+ 0(t +T) = (0t + ) + 2 0T =2 T = 2/0 = 1/0
( ,
).
,

v = dx/dt = -a0 Sin(0t + ), w = d2x/dt2 = -a02Cos(0t + )


, x w .
T = mv2/2 = ma202Sin2(0t + )/2
U = kx2/2 = ka2Cos2(0t +) =(02 = k/m k = m02) = ma202Cos2(0t +)/2
E = T + U = ma202/2 = cst.

89

3 (
)

.
( )
( )
. .
.
, ,
.
( )
( ).
z
R = l Sin
l

mg
y

M
x

M = rF, L = rp
xy . m - z
mg. mg R = mgl Sin .
,
,
( ).

L x = p l, p = mv = m l d/dt L x = - ml2d/dt
90


Mx = mgl Sin - ,
Mx = dL x /dt = - ml2d2/dt2

mgl Sin = - ml2 d2/dt2 g Sin = - l d2/dt2 .

(*)

, ,
Sin
g = - ld2/dt2 d2/dt2 + g/l = 0, g/l = 02
, .

T = 2/0 = 2(l/g)1/2.

(*).
.
,
. ,
ml2 = I
mg l Sin = - I d2/dt2 ( ) d2/dt2 + mgl /I = 0
02 = mg l/I, T = 2(I/mg l)1/2

91

( ) ,
.
.

:
1. , 0
2.
.

4 ( )

.
,
.
Fx = - r dx/dt = -r v,
.

[r] = [F/v] = H /v/c = /2 = /

92

,
.


( ),

( )
F ~ v .

v = (RT/M)1/2. : M = 28 /, R = 8,3 / , = 300


v 300/ 1000 /
, .
,
md2x/dt2 = - kx r dx/dt md2x/dt2 + r dx/dt + kx = 0.
-
,
d2x/dt2 + 2dx/dt + 02x = 0 (2 = r/m, [] = 1/ )
,
. .
x = e t, dx/dt = e t, d 2x/dt2 = 2 e t,

2e t + 2e t + 02e t = 0, 2 + 2 + 02 = 0,
93

1, 2 = - (2 - 02)1/2,
x1 = exp{[- + (2 - 02)1/2]t}, x2 = exp{[- - (2 - 02)1/2)]t},
(2 - 02)1/2 =,
x = c1 exp{[(- + )]t} + c2 exp{[(- - )]t} = c1e-t et + c2e-te-t =
= e-t{c1[Cos(t) + i Sin(t)] + c2[Cos(t) + i Sin(t)]} =
= e-t a Cos(t + ) = ai Cos(t + ), ai = a e-t.
.

t = 2 c-1 , a = 1, = 100 /, = 20 .

0.12075

0.15


, .

0.1

0.05

2 t.
cos( 100 t

20 )

2 = 2 - 02, T = 2/ = 2/(2
02);

0.05

0.1

0.128703 0.15

1.2

1.4

+T)

1.6

1.8

= eT ln(ai+1/ai) = T = ..

2
2

ai+1/ai = a(t)/a(t +T) = ae-t/ae-(t

,
, - .
.

94

5
( )


F = F0 Cos(t)
, .

m d2x/dt2 = -kx r dx/dt + F0 Cos(t), 02 = k/m, r/m = 2, F0/m = f0
d2x/dt2 + 02x + 2dx/dt = f0 Cos(t) (*)
(*) - ,

. :
,
.
x = a e-t Cos(t + ) (1).
,
(*).
x .. = B eit.
B . (*)
dx/dt = B i eit, d2x/dt2 = -B 2 eit
- B2eit + 02 B eit + 2 B i eit = f0 eit B = f0/(02 - 2 + 2i)
x .. = f0 eit/(02 - 2 + 2i) (2).
95

(1)

( )

y
x

z = x + i y, i 2 = - 1, Re z = x, Im z = y, |z| = (x2 + y2)1/2



2 = x2 + y2, x = Cos, y = Sin, z = (Cos + i Sin), tg = y/x.
e i = Cos i Sin
,
Sin = - 3/3! + 5/5! - 7/7! + ...
Cos = 1 - 2/2! + 4/4! - 6/6! + ...
ei = 1 + i + (i)2/2! + (i)3/3! + ... .

(i)3 = -i 3, (i)6 = - 6, ..., Im z = Sin , Re z = Cos

96

(2)

x = 02 - 2, y = 2 tg = y/x = 2/(02 - 2), = arc tg [2/(02 - 2)],


= (x2 + y2)1/2 = [(02 + 2)2 + 422]1/2
x .. = f0 eit/ei = f0ei(t - )/.

x ... = x . + . . = a e-t Cos(t + ) + [f0 ei(t - )/].
,
t = 0,
x .. f0 ei(t - )/
x = Re (x ...) = Re{f0 [Cos(t - ) + i Sin(t - )]/ } = f0 Cos(t - )/.

x = f0 Cos{t arc tg[2/(02 - 2)]}/[(02 - 2)2 + 422]1/2.

,
a = f0/ [(02 - 2)2 + 422]1/2.

(3)

.
(3),
[(02 - 2)2 + 422] = 0, 2(02 - 2)( - 2) + 82 = 0
1. = 0 -
2. -(02 - 2) + 22 = 0 2 = 02 - 2
97

(3)
a max = f0/[(02 -02 + 22)2 + 42(02 - 2)]1/2 = f0/2(02 -2)1/2
( ) <0. 3>2>1 3< 2 < 1 a max3> a max2 >a
(3)
.
max1.
, 3= 2, 2 = 1, 1 =
= 0,7.
0.826443

0.8

1
( 1

2
2

x
0.6

1
( 1

2
4

x
0.4

1
( 1

2
16

x
0.2

0.024268

2
0.1

6 .


-
.

x = a Cos ( 0t + )

: x1 = a1 Cos (0t + 1)
98

x2 = a2 Cos (0t + 2)
:
x = x1 + x2 , 1,
2, 1 2.

a
a2

2 - 1

a2

1
O

x1

x2
x

,
a2 = a12 + a22 + a1a2 Cos (2 - 1).

99

a2

a1

x1 = a1 Cos 1

a2 Sin2

a1 Sin1
x2 =
= a2 Cos2

tg = (a1Sin1 + Sin2)/(a1 Cos1 + a2Cos2)


. .
( t)
Y

x = a Cos (0t + ), y = b Cos (0t + )


OY

+ = , = 0 =

X
OX

(
t)
. x
- y - . y(x) t.

100

x = a Cos (0t), y = b Cos (0t + )


Cos (0t) = x/a 1 - Sin2(0t) = (x/a)2
y/b = Cos (0t + ) = Cos(0t)Cos - Sin(0t)Sin = [(x/a) Cos] - [1 - (x/a)2]1/2Sin
[1 - (x/a)2]1/2Sin = (x /a)Cos - y/b

[1 - (x/a)2]Sin2 = (x/a)2Cos2 - 2xyCos/ab - (y/b)2


Sin2 = (x/a)2 + (y/b)2 (2xy/ab) Cos (**)
(**)
1. = 0 (x/a - y/b)2 = 0 x/a = y/b y = bx/a -
2. = (x/a + y/b)2 = 0 y = - bx/a -
3. = /2 (x/a)2 + (y/b)2 = 1

(,
b
-/2
),
a
x

/2
( n = 2; 1.2) ,
.


.
.
x = a Cos (0t + ), y = b Cos (0t + )
t

y
/2

y
-/2
101


, (, 10%),

1 = , 2 = + , x1 = a Cos(t), x2 = a Cos( + )t
x = x1 + x2 = = a[Cos(t) + Cos( + )t] =
= a 2 Cos{[t + ( + )t]/2} Cos{[t - ( + )t]/2} =
= 2aCos(t + t/2) Cos(t/2)= ( << , / 10) =
= 2a os(t)Cos(t/2).
,
= |2 Cos(t/2)| . ,
.
: - = 2/, = 2 /
= 100 , = 10 , = 1, 62,8 ,
0,63 .

102

1.99868

2 .cos( 5 t ) .cos( 100 t )

1.99998

1
1

1.2

1.4

1.6
t

1.8

2
2


,
.

U (x) = (kx2/2) - skx3/3



U (x) = U (0) + U(0)x + U(0)x2/2! + U (0)x3/3! + ...
U (0) = 0 ( ), U (0) = F (0) = 0,
U (0) = k, U(0) = -2sk U (x) (kx2/2) - skx3/3
103

F (x) = - dU(x)/dx = - kx + skx2 md2x/dt2 = -kx + skx2


d2x/dt2 + 02x - s02 x2 =0. (*)

(d2x/dt2 + 02x = s02 x2)

2 .

x = a (Cost + qCos2t) + x1 = a Cost + aqCos2t + x1 .

(1)

q 1 - ( ).
(1) (*) d2x/dt2 + 02x s02 x2 =0. .
d2x/dt2 = a[(-2)Cost + (- 42)Cos2t] = - a2(Cost + 4qCos2t)

(2)

x2 = (a Cos(t) + a q Cos(2t) + x1)2 = a2Cos2 (t) + a2q2Cos2 (2t) + x12 +


+ ( ).
q1 x1 ,
.
x2 a2Cos2t = (a2/2)(1 + Cos2t) = (a2/2) + (a2Cos2t)/2

(3)

(1, 2 3) (*) d2x/dt2 + 02x - s02 x2 =0,

- a2Cos (t) - 4aq2Cos (2t) + a0 2 Cost + 02aqCos(2t) + 02x1 - s02a2/2


- (s02a2 /2) Cos (2t) =
= (02a - a2)Cos(t) + (02aq - s02a2/2 - 4aq2)Cos(2t)+ 02x1 - s02a2/2 = 0

1. = 0 a(02 - 2)Cos(t) = 0
104

2. 02aq - s02a2/2 - 4aq02 = 0 (0 0) 3q = as/2 a = 6q/s


3. 02x1 - a02a2/2 = 0 x1 = sa2 /2.
x
< > = < a(Cost + qCos2t) + x1> =
( )
<x> = x1, x1 = sa2/2 x = sa2/2.
.
E
(E ~ a2).
(x ~ a2). ,

<> ~ <E>,
,
, <> ~ <> ~ T, , <x> ~
T, .

10

,
,

:
f(k,,E, m, T,...).
105

.
, (!) cst, k - var
E = mv2/2 + kx2/2.
- t , ,
k = k (t)
dE/dt = mv dv/dt + kx dx/dt + (x2/2)dk/dt = v(ma + kx) + (x2/2)dk/dt =
(x2/2)dk/dt.

,
dE/dt = (x2/2)dk/dt = (kx2/2) k dk/ dt = U ( x ) k dk/ dt.

k dk / dt = (k dk / dt)0 (1 +) dE/dt = U(x)( k dk /dt)0 (1 + ).

(1)


( dk/dt 0 0). (dk/ k dt)0 - (1) ,
. (1) t t + T(k).
k.
t +T(k)
t +T(k)
E = (dk/ k dt)0 [ U(x(t))dt + ], = U dt (dk/ k dt)0 0
t
t
( 0dk/dt 0)

() k = cst, k dk/ dt - k
,
. k(t).
106

U = kx2/2
ii) x = a Cos(t + )
2
2
2
iii) U = (ka /2) Cos (t + ) = E Cos (t + ) = E[1 + Cos(2t + )]/2.
i)

t = 0

T
T
U dt = (E/2) [1 + Cos(2t + 2)]dt =
0
0
T
T
= (E/2)[dt + Cos(2t + 2)dt] =
0
0
T
= ET/2 + (1/2)Sin(2t +2) | = ET/2.
0

E = (dk/ k dt) (ET/2).


, T dk/dt k
. k T .
(k(t) = k0 + t dk/dt + t2d2k/2!dt2 + ..., t = T k k0 + T dk/dt T dk/dt k k0 = k)

E = k E/2k.
d dE = E dk/2k dE/E = dk/2k.
,

107

ln E = (1/2)ln k + cst ln E/k = cst E/k = cst.


E k.

= k/m k = m E/ = cst T = 2m/k k = 2m/T ET = cst.
:
,
- .
, ,
.

108

:
i) -
-
ii) ( )
iii) -
iv) - ( ). ( , ).
- . ( , , , , ) , , , , , ,
,... . , ,
.
. :
1. ,
2. ( )
:
2 + 16 = 18 (, )
109

22 + 2 = 22
4 : 32 : 36
1 : 8 : 9
(2 : 16 : 18).
1811 . ( ).
.

. , ,
, ,
: , . . ,
-, - -.
- -
.
Au
H
C
U235
N2 (214)

197 /
1 /
12 /
235 /
28 /

, - . - NA =
6,02204 10 23 /.
L0 = NA/VM = 6,02 1023/22,4 103 = 2,7 1019 /c-3 (1/
VM = 22,4 -
. (..): T = 273K, p = 1 = 1,01 105 ,
VM = 22,4 / = 22,4 3/ = 22,4 1033/ = 22,4 10-3 3/.
, .

110

,
,
- . - ,
, .
,
, .

1
-

2
- .


.


. ?

( )
, , . .. ,
,
,
, .
.
1902
,
111


.
( ..) , ( ..) ,
, , .
, , :
,
- .
, , .
. - -
( ).
. , , .
,
, : , , , , , .. ,
, , , - ( ..).
, .

1 . .

. . - - . . 112

. .
1.
()

2.
, ,

3.
,
.
- , .
- ,
.
- , .
:
i) -
ii)

iii) (, ).

P(Ai) = mi/(m1 + m2 + ...) = mi / mj
Ai - (, i-)
mi - ,
mj - , i-
P(Ai) - A, P - Probability
4.
113

N .
n A , A n/N ( ).
5.
( )
.
6. ,
- () - , 1,2,
... - .
() = 1 () = () + (),
, () = 0.
7.
() = lim n/N
(N )
( )
n ,
() ()
N , N .
: 6
N 10 3, P(6) = 1/6
8. , (
).
P = lim (t i / t)
(t )
ti
ti .
: Vi, Pi, Ti.
V,P,T ti , V,P,T
114

Vi, Pi, Ti, ( ).



1. 1 .
2. 0 .
3. 0 1.
4. ()
().
, 1, 6

1/6 + 1/6 = 1/3
5.
()
()


,
, .
- 6 .
6 . :
1/61/6 = 1/36

115

2
, .
- 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,
10, 11, 12. .
(,
)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

, -

1+1
1+2,2+1
1+3,2+2,3+1
1+4,2+3,3+2,4+1
1+5,2+4,3+3,4+2,5+1,
1+6,2+5,3+4,4+3,5+2,6+1,
2+6,3+5,4+4,5+3,6+2
3+6,4+5,5+4,6+3,
4+6,5+5,6+4
5+6,6+5
6+6

1
2
3
4
5
6
5
4
3
2
1
36

1/36
2/36
3/36
4/36
5/36
6/36
5/36
4/36
3/36
2/36
1/36
1

,
.

N
. :
116

n1 - a1
- a2
n2
................................
- ai
ni
n1 + n2 + ... = N - , a
<a> = (n1a1 + n2a2 + ... )/N = 1a1 + 2a2 + ... .
i = ni/N - ( ) ai a .

P = ni /N ( lim ni/N N ).
,
a (N ).
lim i = pi ( N ),
lim<a> = p1a1 + p2a2 + ... = M(a) ( N ).
( ) ,
. a, a+da, - da .
,

dP da dP = (a) da,
() - ,
(a) =dP/da, (a) da = 1 (
a) [(a)] = [da]-1, ,
- .
,
<a> = ai/N.
117


<a> = a1n1 + a2n2 + ... aini + ... + aNnN)/N = aini/ ni = (: N) = iai/i
ni = N, a i = 1, i - .

<a> = (a) a da / (a) da =
( a)
= (a) a da, (a) da = 1
,
(a)

(a)da=dP

a1

a2

da

:
+ a2
, , , ..
-
0 a1

4
( ) ,
6 N

118

x1 ... x N
y1 ... y N 3N
z1 ... z N

p x1 ... p xN
p y1 ... p yN 3N
p z1 ... p zN


q1, ... q 3N, p 1 ... p3N., d = dq1 ... dp3N.
d 6N - ( ). , , ,
,
dP = d, P = d.

. ( ),
d = 1.
( )
, 6N .

A
A. A , A - .

119

. A A , :

1. A - (
),
2. A - (
),
... .. - .
E - A , , E - A E* = E + E (E = E* - E).
5.1
, A ,
( , , ,
). , ( ).
, , - , ,
.

, 1, , , E0 , (
), . :
(E) = cst (E - E0),
- , - -
= |(0 E E0) ( E = E0)
120

E
E0

,
a
(x) = lim[e /(a) ] = lim[Sin(ax)/x] = lim[( eixtdt)/2],
a
a
a -a
-x/a

1/2

- .

1.91517 .10

2
x

174

0.5

20
20

0
x

20
20

- , . .
1. (x) = 0 x0
2. (x)dx = 1 ( , - +)
3. f(x) (x - x)dx = f(x) f(x) (x)dx = f(0).

121

5.2
A . A A . A
A . , , ,
. .
:

( , ) , , (), .
( , ,
.) :
(E) = A e E / kT, A -

(E)
A

(, ) .
,
: , ,
. , ,
.
, .
0 (E* - E) (E) - ( ). ( )
122

( )
P 0(E* - E) (E). (1)
.
0 (E* - E) = e (E*-E),

(E*- E) = (E*) E /E + ... - E/, = (/E)-1
0(E* - E) e e -E / ,
, (.(1))
Pn = cst e e E n / (En) (n dPE = (E)d).
= kT, cst=A
(E) = A e -E / kT.
:
i) -
ii) ,
,
( ).

123

1 ,

p q - , , (, )
dPp, q = A e E (p, q) / kTdpdq. (1)
E - .

E(p, q) = E k(p) + E (q) ,
E k , E .

,
.
, ,
,
(p = 105 , T = 273K), .
dPq,p = A e E /kT e E /kT dpdq = a e E /kT b e E /kT dpdq, A = ab
dPp = a e E / kT dp, dPq = b e E / kTdq.
. .

124

1.1
E = mv2/2 = m2v2/2m = p2/2m = (px2 + py2 + pz2)/2m
dPp = a exp[-(1/kT2m)(px2 + py2 + pz2)]dpxdpydpz.
dp = dpxdpydpz - .
- , .
,
P = d( )=1
+
Pp = a exp[(- 1 / kT2m) (px2 + py2 + pz2)] dpxdpydpz .
-
-
+. ( ),
Pp = a[ exp(- pi2/kT2m) dpi]3. (- , +), i = x,y z.

exp(-x2)dx = (-, +) = (/)-1/2. = (kT2m)-1,
a(kT2m) 3/2 = 1 a = (2kTm) - 3/2
dPp = (2mkT)-3/2 exp(-p2/2mkT) dp.

p = (2mkT) - 3/2 exp(-p2/2mkT).

125

1.2


pi = mvi, p2 = m2v2
dPv = a exp[(-m(vx2 +vy2 +vz2)/2kT)] m3dvxdvydvz.
a = a m3 = (2mkT) -3/2 m3 = (2kT/m) -3/2,
dPv = (2kT/m)-3/2exp(-mv2/2kT)dv dv = dvxdvydvz.

v = (2kT/m)-3/2 exp(-mv2/2kT).

1.3 vx, vy, vz

,
( ),
(2kT/m) -3/2 (2kT/m) -1/2.
,
dPv i = (2kT/m)-1/2 exp(-vi2m/2kT) dvi i = x,y z.

vi = (2kT/m)-1/2 exp (-mvi2/2kT).

126

1.4


dPv = (2kT/m)-3/2 exp(-mv2/2kT) dvxdvydvz.

, v , : , .
: ,
Z
x = SinCos
y = SinSin

z = Cos

x
d
d

127

d
d

d
d
d

Sin d


dV . , v
dV = v2(Sin) dv d d,

dPv = (m/2kT)3/2 exp(-mv2/2kT)v2(Sin) dv d d.



: 0 2, : 0
2

d = 2; (Sin) d = -Cos | = - (-1-1) = 2


0
0
0
dPv = (m/2kT)3/2 exp(-mv2/2kT) v2 4 dv.
( )
m . ( ).
dPp = (m/2kT)3/2 exp(-p2/2mkT)(4p2/m3) dp =
= (2mkT) -3/2exp(-p2/2mkT) 4p2 dp.

v = (m/2kT)3/2 exp(-mv2/2kT) v2 4,
128

p = (2mkT)-3/2 exp(-p2/2mkT) p2 4.

1.5
, ,
, .
. .
= p2/2m p2 = 2m 2p dp = 2m d dp = md/(2m)1/2
dP = 4 (2kT)-3/2 m-3/2 e-/kT 2m[md/(2m)1/2] =
= (2/1/2)(kT)-3/2 e-/kT1/2d.
= (2/1/2) (kT)-3/2 e-/kT 1/2.
1.6 ,
. .
.
v = exp(-v2/T) v2 = exp(-) 1/2
(v,) = x = 0 - 3 c 0,1. T = 0,5; 1 2.
0.65

2
x . 2
x
2
x

0.5 . 2
x

x.

0.4

x
0.2

x
e

0.6

2 .
x

0
0

4
x

129

0.5

0.4

2
x

2
x . 2
e
x

0.2

0
0

3
3

<v> = v v dv
0

<v> = 4 (m/2kT) exp(-mv2/2kT)v2vdv.


0
3/2

2
2
2
exp(-mv /2kT)v d(v /2) = (1/2)(2kT/m)2 e-y y dy = (1/2) (2kT/m)2
0
0

: mv /2kT = y, e-y y dy = 1
0
2

<v> =4 (m/2kT)3/2(1/2) (2kT/m)2 = (8kT/m)1/2.


130

( )
d(v)/dv = d[4(m/2kT)3/2 v2 exp(-mv2/2kT)]/dv =
= 4(m/2kT)3/2[2v exp(-mv2/2kT) + v2(-mv/kT) exp(-mv2/2kT)] =0.
v v.
2 = v2m/kT v2 = 2kT/m
v = (2kT/m)1/2.
, , , <v2>

<v > = v v2dv


0
2

<v2> = (3kT/m)1/2.
: k/m = R/M,
k - ( ), m -
(, ), R - (
), M - .
(
)
0.7

0.5

x
e

x.

0
0

2
x

3
3

131


d(e -/kT)/d = e-/kT/2 - e -/kT/kT = 0,
,
1/(2) = /kT = kT/2.
:
= mv2/2 = (m/2)(2kT/m) = kT .
.

<> = (2 /)(kT)-3/2 e -/kT d.


0

e - /kT 3/2 d = ( = x2) =


0

= 2 exp(-x2/kT)x4dx.
0

In = exp(-x2) xn dx
0
,
I0 = (/)1/2/2, In = [(n-1)/2] In-2, ( )
I4 = (3/2) I2 = (3/2)(1/2) I0 = = (3/2) (1/2) [(/)1/2/2], = 1/kT.
2I4 = () (kT)5/2 <> = (2/)(kT)-3/2 2I4 = (2/)(kT)-3/2 () (kT)5/2

<> = 3kT/2.

132


, .
dPq = b exp[-W (q) /kT]
, W (q) - ,
q - .
, () .
, , , . -

dq = dxdydz = dv.

dP = dN/N,
N,
dN = N b exp(-W[(x,y,z)/kT] dv
dN/dv = n - , Nb = n0 - , W U,
n = n0 e -U(x,y,z) / kT.
:
U = mgz, z -
n(z) = n0 e mgz /kT, z = 0 n = n0.

- ,

133

dN = N0 A exp(- U - mv2/2 ) dvxdvydvz dxdydz, A = (m/2kT)3/2.

.
N .
: -, -, - , 0 - 1, ...
..

. p -
, q - .
P(n) , n N . , , n , N - n - .
p...pq...q = pnqN-n
- , . n ,
()
. N n ,
P(n) = CnN pnqN-n = [N!/n!(N-n)!] pnqN-n.
.
134

.
CnN N n n , CnN = N!/n!(N-n)!. :
C23: (1,2,3) 12,23,13 -
C23 = 3!/2!1! = 3
Cnn = n!/n!0! = 1, 0!1, (Nn) CNn
1
p=q=1/2, N=4
P(n) = Cn4 (1/2) 4
n=0, P(0) = C04(1/2)4 = 4!/0!4!16 = 1/16
n=1, P(1) = C14(1/2)4 = 4!/1!3!16 = 4/16
n=2, P(2) = C24(1/2)4 = 4!/2!2!16 = 6/16
n=3, P(3) = C34(1/2)4 = 4!/3!1!16 = 4/16
n=4, P(3) = C44 (1/2)4 = 4!/4!0!16 = 1/16
0.5
0.4

dbinom ( n , N , p )
0.2

0
0
0

2
p = 1/3, q = 2/3, N = 4
135

P(n) = Cn4 (1/3)n(2/3)4-n


n = 0, P(0) = (4!/0!4!) 16/81 = 16/81
n = 1, P(1) = (4!/1!3!) 8/81 = 32/81
n = 2, P(2) = (4!/2!2!) 4/81 = 24/81
n = 3, P(3) = (4!/3!1!) 2/81 = 8/81
n = 4, P(4) = (4!/4!0!) 1/81 = 1/81
0.5
0.4

dbinom ( n , N , p )
0.2

0
0

4 ( )

. , N
, , .
,
P(n) = [N!/n!(N-n)!] pnqN-n

(1)

n - , P(n) . ,
P(n) n . , , n >> n
n << n - P(n) . , 136

P(n) n n.
(1)
lnP = lnN! - lnn! - ln(N-n)! + nlnp + (N-n)lnq

(2)

n - ,
dP/dn = 0 dlnP/dn = dP/Pdn = 0.

lnn! = nlnn - n + ()ln(2n), n>>lnn
lnn! = nlnn - n.

d(lnn!)/dn = d(nlnn - n)/dn lnn


dln(N - n)!/dn - ln(N - n).
(2)
d(lnP)/dn = - lnn + ln(N -n) + lnp - lnq = 0

(3)

ln[p(N - n)/nq] = 0 p (N n )/nq = 1, p (N - n) = nq pN = n(p + q),


p + q =1, n 0 , n =
n,
n = n = pN

(4)

n n
N , lnP(n) n,

lnP(n) = lnP(n) + (n - n){d[lnP(n)]/dn}n=n +
+ [(n - n)2/2!]{d2[lnP(n)]/dn2}n=n + ...

137

0 , (3)
d2[lnP(n)]/dn2 = d[-lnn + ln(N - n) + lnp - lnq]/dn = (-1/n) - 1/(N - n) =
= - N/n(N - n) = ( n = n = Np) = - 1/pqN
lnP(n) = lnP(n) - (n - n)2/2Npq
P(n) = P(n) exp[-(n - n)2/2Npq],
P(n) P
dP = P exp[-(n - n)2/2Npq] dn n = P exp[-(n - n)2/2Npq]
n
. P

2
ndn = P exp[-(n - n) /2Npq]dn = (I = exp(-x2)dx) = ) =
-
-
-
1/2
-1/2
= P(2Npq) = 1 P = (2Npq) .
n = (2Npq)-1/2 exp[-(n - n)2/2Npq.
, <n> = (
, ) = n,
, ( (4)).

( ) D = <n2> =
<(n - <n>)2> = Npq n = (Npq)1/2.
<n> = <x>,
n = = (Npq)1/2,
x = [(2)-1/2/] exp[-(x - <x>)2/22].

138

, n
.
- .
-
. , 50 5
, , , .
:
t
t = (<x> - mx)/(D/n),
<x> M x - xi,
D =2 = < (xi - <x>)2> = [(xi - <x>)2]/(n -1),
t , :
(n-1)(t) = (n/2)/{[(n-1)/2][(n-1)]1/2[1 + t2/(n-1)]-n/2},
(n) = un-1e-udu -

139


n = 25 (
n<30).
0.4
0.4
:

dt ( t , n )
0.2
y x . xi
7
2.949688 .10
n yi , n
5
0
5
7
t
7
30 . .
,
.
y

x1

xi

x2

, y(xi) , , , y(x). ,
. , , .
1908 . . ,
Student.

140

,V,T - , . , ,

f (P,V,T) = 0 , .
,
, ,

PV/T = cst,

cst = R = 1,01 105 22,4 10-3/273 8,3 /
,
PV = RT.
, v = V/
PV = RT,
141

V - . ,
, , = m/M, m - , M - ,
PV = m R T/M.

1 .

, .
(, )
. 1 2 , ,
= 12

(1)

. (1)
ln = ln1 + ln2

| k k ln = S S = S1 + S2.

, , . . : , .

1.
2. , ,
,
( ...).

142

2
2.1

, .


2
1

S = S1 + S2, U = U1 + U2.

S - , U - , , . S = S(U),
S/U1 = (S1 + S2)/U1 = S1/U1 + (S2U2)(U2/U1)
U2/U1 = (U - U1)/U1 = -1
S2(U2(U1)), S = cst U = cst,
S1/U1 = S2/U2 = ... ( > 2) = cst
, , S/U - (
).
(S/U)v = 1/T (U/S)v = T,
T .

143

2.2
a - , ,
, , T a
T = Aa
, A 1954 ,
T1 = 100C -
T2 = 0C - ,
T1 = Aa1, T2 = Aa2 A = T1/a1 = T2/a2
T

A = (T2 - T1)/(a2 - a1).

T2
T1
a1

a2

1954 - : 273,16K (
).
,
. . .
K

373,16

100

273,16

-273,16

.
144

i. ( , ,
)
T = Av V (T = 0, V 0 !?)
, , .
, ,
( ))
- , . .
ii. ( )


C
- 200
+20
- 110
+50
- 70
+100
- 38,86 +600

iii. ( )
T = Ar R

+ 10 + 1100
- 253( H2) + 120

,
- . .

4,2

20

145

77

81

90

G
R
+

T
T

iv. , R (
)
R e -A/T, R = A0 e-A/T

( ( < 20K), )

- ( - )

146

0
T

R = R0 e -A/T ln(R/R0) = -A/T, , (R ~ 1/G, G- ).


ln G

1/T

- .
R1

R2

RT -
RM -
R1 R2 -

G

RM
RT
RT/RM = R2/R1,
- RT. , , .. .
v. ( )

147


ET

Me2

Me1

T = cst

Tx


() , ( ) () ,
,
(T) .

-
Pt - Pt + 30% Rh

- 200
+ 350
T 1400-1600

vi. ,
.
-
.

.

148

, ,
, , , .
- , , ( ) .

1968 12 . - 273,16K (0,01)
/

1.
2.
3.

H2
H2
H2

-
-
4.
O2

5.
O2

6.
O2

7.
H2O

8.
Sn

9.
Zn

10.
Ag

11.
Au

K
13,81
17,042
20,28
54,361
83,798
90,188
373,15
505,1181
692,73
1235,08
1337,58

2.3 ( , 1686 - 1736 )


(Celsius A. 1701 - 1744) 1742 . .

149

C 100C
212F

36,6C
96F
- :100

: 96
-17,8C
0F + 0C 32F

5tF = 9tC
tF = 1,8 tC + 32F
C
F

-30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5


-22 -13 -4 5
14 23

0
32

10
50

15
59

20
68

25
77

30
86

35
95

3

, .
P = dF/dS
Dr

,
,
.

dS

, . , U , , ,
F = -U/r P = F/S = (-U/r)/S = - (U/V)S.

150

, S . .
1 = 760 . . . = 1,05 105 .

4.
. ,
U (S,V),

dU = (U/S)dS + (U/V)dV,
(U/S)V = T, (U/V)S = - P
dU = TdS - PdV
dU - ,
TdS = Q -
PdV - ( ).

Q = TdS dS = Q/T, S = k ln TdS = kT d ln

Q = dU + A, Q = U + A. (*)
, - f f
, f (
df ), (1)
(2) ( - ),
( ). ,

151

2
df = f2 - f1,
1
2
2
dQ Q2 - Q1 dA A2 - A1,
1
1

2
dU = U2 - U1.
1
, U , Q A .
dU , Q A - , . ,
, , , , ,
: dQ dA.
(*).
,
.

5 .

( , )


S
P

A
. .

, , ( ) , : , , , ,... : , , , , ,
152

, << . , ,
.
1010 /,
1020/.
:
P

0,1 =
10-10 10-101020 =
1010 ,
,
.
.
1c
t
.
:

. .



...

=U
t

.
, . , . ,
( ). ,

153

P1 V1 T1...

P2 V2 T2 ...

, . , , 10 ,
. , , .

6
F

6.1
h

A = Fh, P = F/S
A = PSh = PV.
A dA dA = PdV

2
A = PdV
1
6.2
, . .

154

< i > = [ exp(-i) i dpi]/ [ exp(-i) dpi].


-[exp(-i)] = i exp(-i), i = pi2/2m, = 1/kT, i- .

< i > ={ -[ exp(-i) dpi]/}/[ exp(-i) dpi] =


-
-

= -ln[exp(-pi2/2m) dpi]/ = - [ln(2m/)1/2]/ =


-
= 1/2 = kT/2.

exp(-x2) dx =
-
< i > = kT/2 i =1
< i > = i kT/2 - (, ).
:
,
, , =kT/2.

i = i kT/2

|NA UM = i RT/2 (UM=iNA, R=kNA) | U=iRT/2

i=3

Z
i=3+3=6

i = 3 +2 = 5
Y
i=3+2+2=7
X

155


(He, H+, ...).

-
(N2, H2, O2,...).
- (CO2, H2O, ...).
( ) , , .

7
7.1 .
, C, ,
.
C = Q/dT.
, C = dQ/dT
C = (dU + PdV)/dT = (dU/dT) + PdV/dT.
, U (V,T)
dU = (U/T)V dT + (U/V)T dV
C = (U/T)V + (U/V)T (dV/dT) + PdV/dT = (
T = cst) = (U/T)V + PdV/dT.
1. V = cst dV/dT = 0
CV = (U/T)V = (i RT/2)/T = i R/2, = 1 CV = (i/2)R .
2. P = cst
156

CP = CV + PdV/dT.
-
PV = RT PdV = RdT dV/dT = R/P
CP = CV +R = (i/2) R+ R = [(i + 2)/2] R.
= 1 CP = CV + R.
(
1814-1878).
, .
1. T = cst
dU = 0 Q = A.
2. P = cst -
Q = dU + A
3. V = cst -
A = 0 Q = dU
4.Q = cst (Q = 0) -
dU = - A
5. C = cst -
Q/dT = cst.
7.2
, C , [/K]
C = dQ/dT

157

, ,
1 .
, C , [/K ]
C = dQ/m dT
, .
, C, [/K ]
C = dQ/dT
, .

dQ = dU + dA, dQ = 0 dU = CV dT, = 1 dU = CV dT,


dA = PdV
CV dT + PdV = 0

| R CV R dT + RP dV = 0,

PV = RT PdV + V dP = R dT
( )
CV (PdV + V dP) + R PdV = 0, R=CP - CV
CV PdV + CV V dP + (CP - CV ) PdV = 0 |: CV , ( = Cp/CV = cst)
PdV + V dP + ( - 1)PdV=0, PdV + V dP = 0.
dV/V + dP/P = 0 |

lnV + lnP = cst ln (V P) = cst P V = cst, P1V1 = P2V2 = ... .

158

C = cst, C = dQ/dT dQ = C dT. dQ = dU + dA, = 1


C dT = CV dT + PdV

| R

CR dT - CV R dT = RP dV, (C - CV )R dT = RP dV,
PV = RT, R dT = PdV + V dP( )
(C - CV)(PdV + V dP) = R PdV (C - CV) PdV = (R+CV - C) PdV
( ) CP = R+CV
(C - CV) VdP = (Cp - C) PdV | : PV
(C - CV)dP/P = (CP - C)dV/V |
(C - CV)lnP = (CP - C)lnV + cst | : (C - CV)
[(C- CP)/(C - CV)]lnV + lnP = cst, nlnV + lnP = cst,
P V n = cst, n = (C- CP)/(C - CV).

10

.
, , . , , - .
, ( ,
).

P-V, , .
, .

159

P
(1) A = PV

(2)

P12

V2

V1

P
P2

(2)
A=0

P1

(1)
V12

P
P2

(2)

A=PV


P1 (1)
V1

V2

160

P
P1

(1)

P2

(2)
V1

V2

2
A = P(V) dV
1
, - .
, . ,
, ( ) ,

P
P1

(1)

P2

(2)
V1

V2


Q1 - ,
Q2 - , ( - ),
A = Q1 - Q2.
()

161

= (Q1 - Q2)/Q1.
- ,
.
.
Q1 - ,
Q2 - , -
Q2/(Q1- Q2) .

11


,
, .

Q1

Q2

. ,
, . , , 1-2-3 ,
3-4-1 .

162

V1

V4

V2

V3

2
1. Q1 = A12 = PdV = R TdV/V = RT1ln(V2/V1)
1
2. Q2 = 0
3. Q3 = -A34 = RT2ln(V3/V4)
4. Q4 = 0
Q1 = Q1 + Q2, Q2 = Q3 + Q4,
= (Q1 - Q2)/Q1 = [RT1ln(V2/V1) - RT2ln(V3/V4)]/RT1ln(V2/V1).
, 1, 4 2, 3 .
T1V1-1 = T4V4-1, T2V2-1 = T3V3-1, T1 = T2, T3 = T4 (
)
V1/V2 = V4/V3 = (T1 - T2)/T1 - .
T1 - , T2 - .
:
= (T1 - T2)/T1 .

163

:

, (
).

12

: ? , ? , ?
. (
1822 1888., )
, .

: , , ( ).

.

, ,
, ( ,
).

164

S = k ln
T = 0 , :
. 1.
= 1 S = k ln 1 = 0
lim S = 0
T0
,
0 0 .
:
dS = Q/T, lim (Q/T) = 0 lim S = 0
T0
T0
:
,
. - ?
?
, , ,

, ,
:
, ,
, .

( ). , , .
165

- -
(- ).

13 --

PV = RT - , P = 103 - 2
.
-- .
1.
2.
1.
P(VM - b) = RT, = 1, b - , .
5 10 -11 , 125 10 -33 3, NA = 6 10 23
/ b 1,25 10 -31 6 10 23 10 -7 3/.
b , , b = 3,86
10 -5 3/. b
2.

. , - . , ,

_
+

_
+

(P + P)(VM - b) = RT

( --) ,
166

.
. ,
F 1/V2

| :S

P = F/S 1/SV2 P = a/SVM2 = a/VM2, [a] = 6/2 = 4/ 2. a .


, a = 0,135 4/ 2. --
:
(P + a/VM2)(VM - b) = RT.

VM = V/ (P + a2/V2)(V - b) = RT.

14 -

-
.

U(T,V) -

, , . :
( ),
. , .

167

, , .
T = cst
.
- ( 1852-1862).


(1)
P1
A1 = P1V1(U1)

(2)
P2
A2 = P2V2(U2)

, P1 P2 .
, , .
( ). (1) (2) . T1 T2 . ,

A = P2V2 - P1V1.
, ,

U2 - U1 + A = 0 U1 - U2 = A,
U1 - ,
U2 -
,
A - .
,
U1 - U2 = P2V2 - P1V1 U1 + P1V1 = U2 + P2V2 = cst
, (U + PV) - . U + PV = I, I - .
.
168

(1) , ,
. T2 - T2 = T ,
. ,
P1V1 = P2V2 U1 = U2.
- , , ,
U = CVT. !
.
i.
ii. , ,

P1 >> P2
P1 >> P2

...
- .
I= I (P, T) = cst -
dI(P,T) = (I/T)P dT + (I/dP)T dP = 0

dT/dP = - (I/P)T / (dI /dT)P.


d T/
P , - , .
(I/T)P = (U + PV)P/T = (U/T + PV/T)P = CP,
169

(I/P)T = (U + PV)T/P = 0 + V + P(V/T)T.

dT/dP = - [V + P(V/P)T]/CP.
--,
dT/dP = {[b RT/(V - b)2] - 2a/V2}/CP(P/V)T T/P.
1. T > 0 T2 > T1 -
2. T < 0 T2 < T1 -
3. T = 0, T = Ti - , Ti - .

100-200 ,
.
.
:
1. -,
U(V) , - -.
2. -
().
3. -.

170

, , , . , , -
.

. , , , ,
(
).
( ). , , , . - .
,
1.
.
2. , .
3. ,
- .
, -.

- ,
. ( ,
.) ,
: , ,
171

( ,
). :
1. - .
2. -
.

1.1
D - ,
. ,

S
r2
r1

D = r1+ r2

D ,
S = D2/4 = .

1.2

, , , .
. <v> -
, -
,
172

<v> = /, 1/ = = <v>/,
- 1 .

d
<v>

,
(, ). ,
<v> >> d, d - . ,

(*) d2<v> ( , 3/).
. (*) , n ( , -3
),
nd2<v> -
, .
.
( )
= 2 d2 <v> n., =<v> =<v>/, .

= <v>/ = 1/2 d2n.


: P = nkT n = P/kT = kT/2 d2P T/P.
173

2 .

( ..).
, , m1 = m2 = m d1 =
d2 = d. .
:
, .
,
. ( )
N dn /dz,
N , , dn/dz -
z. , D -
N = - D dn/dz S ([N] = c-1, [dn/dz] = -4, [S] = 2 [D] = [2/]).
S - , .
, S
:
n<v>S/6.

N1 = n1<v>S/6, N2 = n2<v>S/6.
( )

174

z- z+
z
0
n1

n2

, S,
- . ,
S z z
n1 = n(z-), n2 = n(z+)

N = N1 -N2 = <v>[n(z-) - n(z+)]S/6,
,
n(z-) - n(z +) = n(z) - dn/dz - n(z) - dn/dz = -2dn/dz
N = -<v>S dn/dz/3 = -DS dn/dz D = <v>/3.

J = N/S
J = -D dn/dz
J - , , . m0 - Jm0 = M
- .
nm0 = Nm0/V = M/V = - .

M = -D d/dz.
175

, - ( ).

3 .

( ). - . .
,
,
E = i kT/2.
( ) ( z)
, , . :
Q S t dT/dz , Q - (),
q S dT/dz, q=Q/t - , (/ = ),
q dT/dz, q=Q/t S - (/ 2 = /2).
, ,
q = - S dT/dz, [] = / .
,
S. :
N = n<v>S/6.
, .
, E = i kT/2,
176

,
q = N<E1> - N<E2> = N (<E1> - <E2>) = (ikT1/2 - ikT2/2)n<v>S/6.
E1

E2
z- z+
0

T1

z
T2

T1 = T(z-), T2 = T(z + ) T1 - T2 = T(z-)

- T(z + ) = T(z) - dT/dz T(z) - dT/dz = -2dT/dz.

, .
q = -(1/3)n<v>S(ik/2)dT/dz, i k n /2 = i n k NA/2NA = (iR/2)n/NA = Cv n/NA =
Cv N/VNA = Cv m/VM = cv .
i - , k - , n - , M , m - , NA - , R - , Cv , cv = v/M - , - .
,
q = - (<v>cv/3) S dT/dz = <v>cv/3.
,
.

177

4 .


. ,

z
z
z

K1
K2

u1
u2

m = m1 = m2

u1, u2 - , K1, K2 - . -

K* = - St du/dz , ([K] = /, [] = /2 = ) K=K*/t


K =- S du/dz, ([K] = /2).
- , . . S

N = n<v>S/6.
, , , ( - - ). , S
K=Nmu=n<v>Smu/6, K1 - K2 = K = N (mu1 - mu2) = n<v>Sm(u1 - u2)/6.

178

z
u(z+)

u(z-)

K = n<v>Sm[u(z-) - u(z+)]/6 = - (1/3)n<v>Smdu/dz.


nm = Nm/V = M/V= (m - , -, V - )
K = - <v>Sdu/3dz
= <v>/3.


( )

N,-1

q, /

K, / = //

dn/dz, -3/

dT/dz, K/

du/dz, //


()

(D)

()

()

5
(
, ) z
E. jz - , z .
jz
[jz] = /2. q - , N - ,
,
jz = Nq.

179

jz E.

jz = q E.

(1)

q
.
N = n<v>S/6 jz = Nq = q nq <v> (N = nq<v>). (2)
(2) 1/6,
.
<v> .
.
2-
mdv/dt = qE, - v = qEt/m + v0.
. v0 = 0 , , t = - , v <v>
<v> = qE/m.
(1) (2)

q E = q nq <v> = q2nqE / m.
,
q = q2nq/m.

= /<v> = 1/2d2n<v> ,
q = q2nq / m2d2n<v>,
n - , , nq - . .
180

1.1

. , , ,
- .
.
, , . , ,
(, ), , . ,
.
v = v(x,y,z,t), P = (x,y,z,t), = (x,y,z,t).
, (, )
(x,y,z) t , .
, .
. , . 181

()
.

= (V/P) - , . = - V/VP, -1.

H2SO4
C2H5OH
Hg

tC
0
20
20

P,
1-16
1-50
1-10

, 10-6 -1
302,5
112
3,91

1.2
V0,
m = dV. (1)
V0
f - , V0, df -
( (+) (-) ).

182

v - ,

df

dV0 = v df, dm = dV0 = v df, m = v df.


f

(2)

m - V0 ,
f - , V0. (2) , .
(1) ,
dm/dt = d[ dV]/dt.

d[ dV]/dt + v df = 0
V0
f
-
3
( g ds = div g dV), div g = g i /dxi, g i -
s
V
i =1
, xi - .)
v df = div (v) dv
f
V0
d[ dV] /dt + div (v) dV = [/t + div (v)] dV = 0
V0
V0
V0
V0 - ,
/t + div (v) = 0.
. . v = j -
, [j] = /2. ( : , ..).
183

1.3

P = dF/dS
| d/dx
dP/dx = dF/dV = F. ..
F.. - , ,
F.. = Fxi + Fyj + Fzk = (P/x) i + (P/y) j + (P/z) k = grad P.

F.. = grad P.
,

dv/dt = F.. - grad P,
v - , , :
dv/dt = F.. - grad P + g.
.
1.4
.
.
. , . .

184

S1

v1

S2

v2

:
S v = cst
, , .

S1v1 = S2v2 = ... = Sivi = ...

, . ,
.
.
S1 S2 . t
l1 l2.

185

l1

S1
h1

l2
S2 h2

h1 h2 - .
S1v1 = S2v2, S1l1/t1 = S2l2/t2,
t1 = t2 S1l1 = S2l2 V1 = V2.
, S1,S2
.
1.
K1 = m1v12/2 = V1 v12/2, K2 = V2v22/2
2.
W1 = m1gh1 = V1gh1, W2 = V2gh2.

V1 V2
E = E2 - E1 = V2v22/2 + V2gh2 - V1v12 - V1gh2.
. 0 (
). .
A = P1S1l1 - P2S2l2 = P1V - P2V, E = A
v22/2 + gh2 - v12/2 - gh1 = P1 - P2.
, .
186

v22/2 + gh2 + P2 = v12/2 + gh1 + P1.


,
v2/2 + gh + P = cst. (1)
S 0.


(1),
.
.
.
h1 = h2 ( )
v12/2 + P1 = v22/2 + P2.
, v1 > v2, P1<P2.
:

P<P

100 . .,
7,6 .

3
.
():
,
, .
:
187

(. ,
1842-1912).

Re = v l /, [] = = / .
- , v - , -
, l - .
Re, ( ) . Re = 1000. () .
.
= / Re = vl/, [] = 2/.
4
.
.
.

r
l
(1)

(2)

. , ,
.
, .
1. .
(P1 - P2) r2

188

2. .
().
F = K/t = |dv/dr| S = - 2 rl dv/dr.
r . 0 ( ,
).
(P1 - P2) r2 + 2rl dv/dr = 0
dv/dr = - (P1 - P2) r/2l.
.
dv = - (P1 - P2)/2 l rdr,
v = C - (P1 - P2) r2/4l

(*)

C
v = ( r=R) = 0, 0,
C = (P1 - P2)R2/4 l

(1).

(1) (*) .
v = (1 - r2/R2)(P1 - P2)R2/4 l.
v r2 , , v(r) - . r = 0
v = v(0) = (P1 - P2) R2/4l v( r ) = v(1 - r2/R2).

(2)

(Q) - ,
S.

189

dS
R

r
r +dr

( ) 1
dS
(v = l /t).
: dQ - , 3/, ( , ), - 3 / 3 = /, - .
dQ = dS v(r) = 2rdr v(r).
v (r) (2)
dQ = v (1 - r2/R2) 2rdr
R
R
2 2
2
4
Q = v 2 (1 - r /R )rdr = 2v [(r /2) - (r /4R2)] | = vR2/2 =
0
0
=v S/2.
v (2)
Q = (P1 - P2)SR2/8l.
. S = R2

Q = (P1 - P2) S2/8l.
,
Q (P1 - P2)/l.
190


dK = dm v2(r)/2
dm = dV, dV = dS v (r), dS = 2rdr dm = v (r) 2rdr
dK = v3rdr.
(2)
K = (P R /4l)3 (1 - r2/R2)3 rdr

([K] = /).

,
A = P dV.
(
) ,
dV = v 2rdr ([V] = 3/), A = 2 P vrdr =
= P2 R2/2l (1 - r2/R2)rdr.
. (. , 1802 - 1870, )

,


.
(). ,
, .

191

1 .


.
, .
() . :
. () ,
. ,
- .
. .
( ) 10, 0,1
= 106 , 105 . , ( ).
1.1
(
), , .
. .
:
- - .
- - -
.
192

- -
.
- -
.

.
. .
, , , .
. .

193

1.2

12

12

, ( ) . ,
. : - - .

8
12

- ,

300 - < 900


- Fe
- Fe
900

194



Fe
aFe

900

T,C

900

T,C

. .
,
,
V = a3,
V - .
= m/V = m/a3 = nM/Na3
m -
M - ( )
NA - , M/N
n - , ( ).
:
= nM/kNAa3 a = (n M/k NA)1/3,
k = 1.
n .

195

,
.
1/8
, , 8 , n = 1.
- . n =
2. (.. - Fe) .
a3 = n M / k NA 2 56 10-3/16,0210237,88103 210-29 3
a 0,28710-9 = 0,287 = 2,87 A.
, - .

- Po -

Fe
W
Ar (T = 4,2 K)
Kr (T = 58 K)
Xe (58 K)
Ti
Be

(

)
-
2,87

-
3,16

- 5,26

- 5,72

- 6,20

- 2,95

- 2,29

196

2 -


.
:
,

a1 R
a2

R - , ai - ( - ).
R = n1a1 + n2a2 + n3a3.

(1)

ni - .
:
, (, )
.
:
-
R (1).
,
, . ,
, .
()
, ,
.
:
, , , , ,
.
197

. , , ,
. - : (
)

.
- - ,
, ,
.
.
- ,
.
- .
,
, , , : , , .. .

k =2/, p = k =2/ , = h = hc/.
- , k - , p, - , =
h/2 - .
: , .
.

198

. . .
1. ( )


t

, 1

, a b c, t -

2.

m, m

= = /2, /2, a
b c, m - , mb - ( ), b - , 2 .
3. ( )
199

, = = = /2, abc. 0 - , 0v
- -, 0b - - , 0f - . b - , f - , 4 .
4. ( )

b = ac. q, qv. q - , 2
.
5 ()

- , , rh, rh - , 1 .
200

6.

, h, h - . - , 1 .
7.

c - , cv - -, cf - - , 3
.
, ,
.
.

201

t
m
o
q
rh
h
c


1
2
4
2
1
1
3
14

, , , a, b, c
, a, b, c
a, b, c
a, c
, a
a, c
a


6
4
3
2
2
2
1

.. (1853 - 1919) ,
:
c
36
q
68 ()
h
27
rh
25
o
59 ()
m
13
t
2

230
230 , .

()
. .
:
= ikT/2, i=3, U = NA 2 3 kT/2 = 3RT.

202

, NA, , , . ( 2)
,
, ,
.
= dU/dT = 3R = 8/313 = 25/K .
C
3R

- . , - .
, -
,

Cv, /
25
Xe
Ar
C ~ T3
85

T,K


Cv 234 (T/ D)3nk.
- , n - . D, 203

, .

Fe

Cu
Ag
Au
Zn

D, K
420
1860
315
215
170
234

T,
1530
1083
960,8
1063

.
, ( , , ).
, .
- :
v = 2/2 (kT/F)n k.
F - - . , Cv
~ T,
, .

204

. , . .

. ,
.
, . , () . (, , ) .
( ),
.
. (
) ,
.
.

205

()

1.

- . ?

, , : A B ,
A , B
C .

+ -
. , ,
.

( ) (
, ) .

.
. .

206

,
.
.
.
.
:
() ,
e = 1,6 10-19 . , , , -
F = k q1q2/r2.
. ,
, ,
.
. .
. .
1
+
e = r/r
F12

2
+
r
r

F21

F12 = k|q1q2| (r/r)/r2


F12 , 1 2 , e = r/r , .
2.
,
( ), :

207

: , ( ) , .

,
, .


F = k q1q2/r2 (q1 =q2 = q, k = 1) F = q2/r2.
k = 1 , 1.
( ) .
[q] = [Fr2]1/2 = ( 2)1/2 = ( 3/2)1.2 = 1/23/2-1 = 1
.

208

1
.

-- .
. --
B = k1i l/r2.
,
, dl . 1 , .
.
F = k2 l B i.
,
dl . dB . .,
(l = r),
F = k1k2 l2 i2/r2 = ki2, k = k1k2 = 1 [i] = [F]1/2 = 1/2 = 1 - .
.
(+ 3
) .
.
, , , 2 1 1 .
,
[q] = [it] = 1/2 [q / q] = 1/2/1/2 = /.
, ,
(
).

209

q = q/c F = q1q2/r2 = c2qM1qM2/r2.


,
F = c2 q1q2/r2.
( + )

1 (
).

1 , 1
2 10-7 .

-7

F = 2 10
1

( --) ,
F = k i1i2 l2/r2.

2 10-7 = k 1A2 12/ 12.
k () : k = 0/2 0 = 4 10-7 /A2.
, 1A ,

210

B = F/ i l /A, /A = (), = BS 2.
2 = (), = L i L = /i /. / = (), 0 [0] = /2 = 2/ = / = /. 0 .
0 = 4 10-7 /.
[i] = 1A, q = i t A c . , =
().

F = k q1q2/r2.
q1 = q2 = 1 , k 1,
()
= 1/40 F = 1/40 (q2/r2).
0:
[0] = [q2/Fr2] = 2/ 2 = 2/ = / = /.
0:
,
, 1 9 109 .
9 109 = 1 2/40 1 2 0 = 1/49109 = 8,85 10-12 /.
0 . 0
. .
(SI) ! SI System International of Units.

(00)-1/2 :
[(00)-1/2] = /, (00)-1/2 = 3 108 /. , = 3 108 /
. ( )
.

211

3. .

3.1 (1800.)

Cu

Zn

H2SO4


H2SO4 2H+ + SO4- -.
SO4- -,
Zn SO4 Cu SO4.
Zn (!) , ,
, - .
.
3.2 -

- , , CuSO4 - (Cu),
ZnSO4 (Zn).

212

Cu +

Zn

ZnSO4

CuSO4

.
- 1
/.
(Cu, Zn, ).
.
?
Zn: , , , .
Cu: , , , .
,
. ,
Zn = - 0,76
Cu = + 0,34
____________
= 1,10 .

, , . ,

213

- , ( ) .
.

.
.
Ag47102. .
1 3
n = 5,86 1022. Q = 5,86 1022 1,6 10-19 = 9,4 103 .
, 1 3 .
Q. = 9,4 103 47 = 4,4 105 .

, ( - ) .
, 1836 (,
),
. , .

5.1. (1997-1913)

( ) . ( ) (
). , ,
.

214

+
,
d
V =0

V = cst

, .
.
F = qE = q/d mg = q/d.
, . -
.
q1, q2, q3,q i, q j,
, ,
q i = e n i,
en1, en2, en3, , en i, , en j, .
n - , .
q i q j .
, , . ,
.
E = 4,774 10-10 . .
( : .. , 1946 )

215

e = 4.803 10-10 . .
,
SI
e = 1, 60217733(49) 10-19 .

5.2
(1916.)

, . L =
500 , v = 300 /, L - , v .
, .
, e/m. , .

216

5.3

80

( Hg200 ) B
F


, (
), . , .
F = q (vB)

, , , .

,
, , . ?
, .
, , ( ) .

, . .

217

+Q
q1 - F1 , q2 - F2 ,

, ,
F1/q1 = F2/q2 = = cst = E.
E
.
[E] = / = / = / = /.
:
F = q1q2e/40r2.
q1 ,
E = F/q1 = q2/40r2.
2 , , , ,
E = qe/40r2 = qr/40r3.

E = Ei.

, .

218

,
.

Q . (
).

- . = (r, t),
( , -) .
z

dl, dq
y

x
= dq/dl dq = dl [] = /
q = (r) dl(r), = cst q = dl = L = q/L
L
L
,
-

219

= dq/ds, dq = ds [] = / 2
z
ds, dq
r

q = ds, = cst q = ds = s = q/s


s
s
,
-
= dq/dV, dq = dV [] = /3
z
r

dV dq,
y

q = dV, = cst q = dV = V
V
V
, ,
ds, dl, dV , . ,
. ,
.

220

z
A
Y

y
l

dV
+ dq
x

dE A(x, y, z) = dq(x,y,z) e/40 l2(x,y,z) = (x,y,z)dVe/(40l2(x,y,z))


EA = dVe/(40l2).
V
. .
, ,
. -
, , x. .

q,

dx, dq

x2

A
x1

dEA = dq/40x2 = dx/(40x2).


x2

221

= dx/(40x2)
x1
= (x)
= cst(x),
x2
x2
2
EA = (/40) dx/x = (/40)(-1/x)| = (/40)(1/x1 1/x2).
x1
x2
, E,
, ( ).

8.1.

.
, ,
. ,
, (
, ) .
,
+
++
+
+

,
W1/q1 = W2/q2 = =

222

.
: [] = ().
,

. , .
x
x
dW = - dA = - Fdx, F = qE W = - F dx = - q E dx.

.
E = -d/dx,
x
x
x
W = q d dx/dx = q d = q | = q(x) + q() = [() = 0] = q

W = q = W/q.
, . .
Ey = -d/dy, z = - d/dz E = Ex i + Ey j + Ez k = - (i d/dx + j d/dy
+ k d/dz) = - (i d /dx + j d /dy + k d /dz) =- .
-

= - ( i d /dx + j d /dy + k d /dz).

223

8.2

, ,
, ,
. ,
U = 1 - 2, = 2 - 1,
(2)
2

q
q
(1)
1

q
q

= W/q, W = q = cst.
() 220 .


E dl , ( E dl = E dl Cos E^dl)
L
E L.
.
, 0 .

E dl = 0
L

224

dl

2
1
E dl + E dl = 0 .
2

E dl = q F dl = q dA = 0,
L
L
L
,
.
F dl = Fx dlx + Fy dly + Fz dlz.
L

225

E
dl
dl
L
dl

dl
, E
dl . .
.

E = q/40 r2 ( r = x),
= - E(x) dx = - q/40 dx/x2 = q/40x + ( = 0).
:
x
x
= - E(x) dx = - q/40 dx/x2 = q (1/x 1/)/40

,
= q/40r.

, ,
.

226

dV,
dq

dA = dq/40r = (dq = dV) = dV/40 = (1/40) dV/r.


,

A
r = r2 r1

r2
r1
y
x

r = r2 r1 -
A, .
E , /x, /y, /z E = . , , E ,
.

227

,
. , . ,
, ,
, , .
S

e
qi

q1
n
q2

q3

dS

q4,
r

d dS
dE = EdS E = EdS
S
E = Ee, dS = dS n, q = qi, q = dV.
.
E dS = q e dS n/40r2.
en = 1

228

E = EdS = qdS/40r2 = (q/40r2) dS = q/0.


S
S

E dS = q/0.
S
, ,
,
( , SI).
. , , .
:

E dS = q/0
S
S ,
E dS = 0 E = 0
S
(,
)
.
: .
:

.
:

229

.
n


. , ,
, , , ,

Q = S.


= + +
S . 1 2
,

230

( ).
, EdS 0 ( E dS). , . E = cst, E n = E, ,
E n dS = E dS = 2ES.
2S
2S

2E S = S/0 E = /20.
,
- , (
)
2E
E
+
E k = 2E = /0.

10 -, E

10.1 -

a ,
da = a dS , a = a dS
S

231

a a S. dS n dS,
dS
n
dS

a
div a = ax/x + ay/y + az/z.
,
a = (i/x + j/y + k/z)(axi + ayj + azk) = div a.
,
a dS = div a dV.
S
V
V S .
E dS = div E dV.
S
V
.

n
Q = qi = dV.
i=1 V

232

div E dV = (1/0) dV
V
V
(div E - /0) dV = 0
V
, ,
,
div E = /0.
.
. : .
10.2 E ,


E dl = 0
L

,
dS
n
S

dS

L
dl

el

dl = dl el

a ( ):
a dl = rot a dS
L
S

233

dl e ,
L . (,
, n).

E dl = rot E dS.
rot E

rot E = E =

/x /y /z
Ex

Ey

= i (Ez/y - Ey/z) +

Ez

+ j (Ex/z - Ez/x) + k (Ey/x - Ex/y).




/x
j

/z

/y
i

,
rot E dS = 0,
S
S ,
, ,
rot E = 0.

234

, E = - , ,
rot () = 0,

, ( ), .
: .
div E = /0
rot E = 0.

11

(
) . .
, ,
. .


.
1

235

2 ( ?)
.
, ,

++

---

. . :

. ,
,
! - , , , , ,
- -..

236

( ,
: ) ( )
. ,
, . , , (Li, K, Na, Rb, Cs)
,
. .
, n, 13
n, 1022 -3 4,7
2,65
1,4
1,15
0,91
8,47

Li

Na

Rb

5,86

5,90

17

13,2

Ag

Au

Fe

Zn

Cs

Cu

1897 ( )
(
, ).

237

1900 -

.
.
.
,
.
, .


dt/ , - (
), dt .
- .
()
,

( ).

.

, (,
, ), , .
E , . . ,
, .

238

E
_
_
_
_ E
_
_
_

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

= .
, ,
. :
,
. :
E = - , Ex = -/x, Ex = 0 /x = 0 = cst.
.
1 2 . . () .

. , , .

239

.
.
+

_
+
+
+
+
+
+

_
_
_
E

_
_
_

, ,
.
( )
.

Q1/U1 = Q2/U2 = = C Q = CU.
. - , () . , , ( ) .
C / =
, = 1, = 1,000594.
[C] = [Q/U] = / = (), 1 , 1 1 .

240

3 --

() 80
( ) 1929 --.

. , .
( )
. , .
, .

++

+
+

+
+

--.
1

4
5

- U +
3

241

1 - . , . . r = 5 . ,
( )

()


. 3 106 / = 3 /,
, , ...
E = /r = E r = 3 106 5 = 15 106 = 15 .
= 34 .
(
).
( )
, . (
)
.

.
( ). .
20 40 / (: 6 / = 1,6 /, 20
/ = 5 /, 60 / = 15 /). , ,
.

242

,
!! . ,
1022 -3, ,
( , .)
102 107 -3. . , , .
: ,

+++++++++++++
______________
++++++++++++

243

, . ,
.
, ,
(, ) . , . .

_
+
+


.
. , , .
, , , . , , .
,
.
, .

244

. , (). , .

+
+

.
:
( ). H2, O2,
N2, .., - .
:
- .

245

( ) , , .

, (+q, -q) ,
,
(,
).

Z
r >> d
P(x,y,z)
r+
+q

r
r_

d/2
d

Y
d/2

X
-q

Z
z-d/2
r+
+
z + d/2

r_
_
y

246


(r) = |q|/40 r(), r2 = x2 + y2 + z2, r_2 = y2 + (z + d/2)2,
r+2 = y2 + (z - d/2)2.
+q: z = d/2 r+2 = x2 + y2 + (z d/2)2
q: z = - d/2 r_2 = x2 + y2 + (z d/2)2.
+ = q/4[(z d/2)2 + x2 + y2]1/2, _ = - q/4[(z + d/2)2 +x2 + y2]1/2.
d ,
(z d/2)2 = z2 z d + d2/4 z2 z d,
r2 = x2 + y2 + z2 z d = r2 z d = r2(1 z d/r2)2.
P = + + _ = (q/40)[(r2 z d)-1/2 - (r2 + z d)-1/2] =
= (q/40r)[(1 z d/r2)-1/2 (1 + z d/r2)-1/2].
(1 z d/r2)-1/2
(1 x)-m = 1 m x x << 1.
(1 z d/r2)-1/2 = 1 z d/2r2 .
P = (q/40r)[1 + z d/2r2 1 + z d/2r2] = q z d/40r r2.
z/r = Cos , p = q d P = p Cos / 40r2.
z
P(x,y,z)
z
d
r

247

d , ,
.
- :
~ 1/r2
- ~ 1/r.
-.
p = q d P = p r Cos/40r3 = p r /40r3.
, x, y z.
= p z/ 40r3 E = - = - (i/x + j/y + k/z),
Ez = (-p/40 ) (z/r3)/z = (-p/40)(1/r3 3z2/r5),
Ey = (-p/40)(z/r3)/y = 3zy/r5,
Ex = (-p/40)(z/r3)/x = 3zx/r5.
. ,
(z/r3)/x = [z (x2 + y2 + z2)- 3/2]/x = z (- 3x)/ (x2 + y2 + z2) 5/2 = -3xz/r5.
E
E = (p/40)[3zxi/r5 + 3zyj/r5 + (1/r3 3z2/r5)k]
Ex

Ey

Ez.

, .

,
p = q d.

248

,
. .
,
, pi , V
P = (1/V) pi.
. pi - , q d - ,
P . . .
[pi] = , [P] = /2.

He

Li

Ne

Na

Ar

,
. .

0.66

0.21

12

0.4

27

1.6

, , .
H Cl

H2O
H
O
p

Cl

H
H

249

0E
D0 = 0 E, [D] = / = /2.
, ,
D = 0E + P,
D , - .

( ,
,
).
(
), .
, ( ),

P = 0 E,
. - ,
D = 0E + 0 E = (1 + )0E = 0E, = 1 + .
,
Dx, Dy, Dz , Ex, Ey, Ez , .
D = {Dx, Dy, Dz}.
Dx = xx 0Ex + xy 0Ey + xz 0Ez
Dy = yx 0Ex + yy 0Ey + yz 0Ez

250

Dz = zx 0Ex + zy 0Ey + zz 0Ez.


D0x

D0y

Doz

(E) lm ( ).

(, ,
).
11 12 13
21 22 23

lm =

, x 1, y 2, z 3

31 32 33
D i = 0 ik E k
k
k, i = (1,2,3 x,y,z).

Dm = 0 i k El .
. D E .
.
, ,
.
1

U = 1 - 2

U
S

C0, q

2 = 0

d
d

251

, d<< S. d , S , - , (, = / 0).
U.
U = 1 - 2 = E dx = / 0 dx = d/ 0, = q/S U = qd/S0,
C0 = q/U = 0/d.
q
. . ,
. q ( )
Q = C1U1 = C0U C1/C0 = U/U1 = E /E1 = .
( ), .
.
.


Ba Ti O2

1.000594

5-10

81

6000-7000


C = C1 = C0 = 0 S/d.
: Ba Ti O2

252


~ 10

120

.
( ).
.

~ 1/T , . ,
- .
.
.

,
.
.

253

, .
A = - W, = - A/q = W/q, - A = - q = W, - W = -(W2 W1) = A21 = = - A12/
,
. q1 ,
= q1/40r, W = q = q1 q / 40r.
.

q1
r12

q2

1 2
W12 = q1q2/40r12.

. i j
W ij = qiqj/40rij.

,
W = (1/2) qiqj/40rij = qi j/2

254

,
. , (, ).
qi dqi, dqi = i dVi, d = dqi/40r,
= dV/40r
( j )
, j ,
i .
dW = (1/2) dqi dj, ,
W = (1/2) dqi dj = (1/2) idVijdVj/40r.
(i, j)
(i, j)
i , j
.
W = (1/2) dV
V
:
q = dV , . , WV .
Ws = dS
S
W = WV + WS.
, .
,

w= dW/dV = /2.

255

.

U = E d, E = /0 = q/S0 q = S 0 E = S 0 U/d.
W = Uq/2 =( ) E d S 0 = (S d = V) = 0 V E2 w = W/V = 0E2/2.

, ,
W = dW/dV, dW = w dV
W = w dV = 0E2 dV/2.
V
V

, .
W = qi j/2 = /2 qi = Q/2.

256


( ) .
.
1.
2.
?
. , , , , , . . ,
i = q/t, [i] = / = .

i= dq/dt, q = i(t) dt.
. ,
, .
() , ,
j = q/St.

257

,

S = n S, v = l/t

S
S
n
l

l
( ) . , S , ,

N = n S v t (v t = l).
n ( ).

q = qe N = qe n S v t .
,
j = q/St = qe n v, j = qe n v.
,
J = i/S, i = q/t j = di /dS, i = j dS.
S
,
.

258

. , , .
.
+

= 2 - 1, U = 1 - 2, i ~ U, i = GU = U/R, [G] = , [R] = .


.
( ). , .

R l/S, R = l/S = (1/) l/S, [] = , [] = ( )-1.


- , - . 20.


(, Cu - 58.8%, Ni 40%,
Mn 1.2%)

, 10-9

17

98

16

440

259

R = l/S = U/i i/S = U/l j/ = E j = E.



j= E.
j, E .

, .
j = env, j = E env = E, = env/E = en. = v/E, [] = 2/ .
-
. v (v) () () . (, ( ) , E .
En

E
. , ,
, .

260

( , ),
, , , , .

-. () . .

e
_

e
_

r
+

. , R ,
.

261

E = A/q A = e q.
e ,
.
A = e i t (q i t).
.
Q = AR = U q = U i t. U = i R AR = i2R t.
. .
A = Qr + AR
A
A = e i t.
Qr , ,

Qr = Ur q = r i2 t.
AR (, , ..)
AR = UR q = R i2 t.

e i t = r i2 t + R i2 t i = e/(R + r).
. . , R = 0 i.. = e/r.
. .
.

262

r<<R U R e = cst(i)

UR

i

. ,
: .

r >> R i = cst

UR
.
: .

U1, R1

U2, R2

i
U

.
.
i

263

U = U1 + U2 + , U = i R i R = i R1 + i R2 + = i Ri
R = Ri.
.

i1

R1

R2

i2

R3

i3

i= i1 + i2 +

(i = U/R) U/R = U/R1 + U/R2 +

1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + = 1/Ri R = ( 1/Ri)-1.


.

264

U1
C1

U2

C2

.
.

U
C

,

+
Q

+ _
Q

U = U1 + U2 + (U = Q/C) Q/C = Q/C1 + Q/C2 +


1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + = 1/Ci.

.

Q1
Q2

C1

C2

265

, . ()
.
Q = Q1 + Q2 + (Q = C U) C U = C1 U + C2 U + .
C = C1 + C2 + = C i.

.

_ e 1 + _ e 2 + .
r

_ E +

r.

( ) (
)
r. = ri, I = E/(R + r.).
E = IR + I r. = IR + I ri = IR + ei.
R<< ri E = ei. e1 = e2 = = e E = ne.

266

I 1 _ e1 +

E +

I 2 _ e2 +

I
R

( ).
I = E/(R + r.), r = ( 1/ri)-1.
R<<r. E = I/ ( 1/ri) = Ii/ ( 1/ri) = ( ei/ri)/ ( 1/ri).

E = E + ( ei/ri) R.
,
ei = e, ri = r E = e ( ).
,
r. = r/n (n , ).
:

267


R
R
C
C
E
E


.
.
.
.

ri
( 1/ri)-1
( 1/ci)-1
ci
ei, (R )
( ei/ri)/ (1/ri),
(R )

()

I1

R1
rr

I2

R2

I
R5
I4

R4

I3

R3

. .
. (
, 0,
).
U1 + U5 + U4 = 0.
2.
U5 + U2 + U3 = 0
, (), .
. , R5 .
() . R5 268

,
.
R1, R2 R3, R4. 1. 2.
U5 = 0, U1 + U4 = 0, U2 + U3 = 0 U1 = - U4, U2 = - U3
U1/U2 = U4/U3.
U1 = I1R1 U3 = I2R3
U2 = I1R2 U4 = I2R4
R1/R2 = R4/R3.
R3 = Rx

R4 =

,
.

Rx = R4 (R2 / R1).

.
( ).
.
.

R1

R2

269

. ( ).
UR2 = U0(1 e A t).
t= 0 UR2 = 0, t UR2 U0.
UR1 = U0 e -A t.
t = 0 UR1 = U0, t UR1 0.

, ,
,
.

,
. , V .
.

,
()
.

j(t)
S
V

270

, ,
i = - dq/dt, q = dV, i = j dS, - d/dt = j dS
V
S
S
- d/dt dV = j dS
V
S
- ,
j dS = div j dV div j dV = - d ( dV)/dt
S
V
V
V
( div j + d/dt) dV = 0
V
,
div j + d/dt = 0.
. .

, ,
.

271

()

.
, , ( )
, .
, , . . .

I1

I2

I1

I2

( , , , , 1775-1836) , F ,
,
F 1 2 / r.

272

(
) .
. ( , , 1777-1851).
N

. . ,
, ,
. , , ,
: .
, ,
dF ~ i B dl

dl
i

i dl

F1/(i dl)1 = F2 /(i dl)2 = = Fi / (i dl)i = cst = B.


F , , (i dl) , b ,
, :
[B] = [F/idl] = / = .

273

B . , dF, B dl , dl , dF
dl . , dl
, , . ,

F ~ (dl B)

B
dF

dl

dl

dF


dF = i (dl ).
dl B , dF .
B
B = Bi

, .
2. --

.
: , dl i .

274

dl

dB

dB ~ i dl f()/r2

A dB

, , ( dl )
, . dB
. ,
dl, r, dB.

dB ~ (dlr).

dB.

C
dl
r

A
dl

dl

dB
dB


dB = (/4)i dlr/r3, r/r (er) .

275

dB ~ dl i f()/r2.

dB ~ dlr.

0/4.

AB
C , --.
I

dl

r0
d

B
dB = (0 4) I (dl r)/r3, dl r = dl r Sin

dl
dl

r d
r

276

dl/ r d = 1/Sin dl = r d / Sin , r0/r = Sin r = r0/ Sin


dl = r d / Sin = r0 d /(Sin )2.
. (
dl ). --
.
dB = (0 /4 ) I Sin d/ r0.

2
2
B = 0 I /4r0 Sin d = (0I/4r0) (- Cos )| =
1
1
= (0I /4r0)( Cos 1 Cos 2).

1 = 0, 2 = B = 0 I / 2 r0.
. (1774-1812),
(1791-1841) (1749-1827) . .
, , .

4 ()

,
.

277

, .
B
B
I

.
, ,
( ), . .
, (
) ,
().
. .
N


B dS = B.
S
B S .

B = B dS.
S

278

, . , 0 , , .

E dS = En dS

B dS = 0 (B = 0)
S
-
B dS = div B dV = 0.
S
V
, ,
,
div B = 0.
.

279

( )
B dl.
L
L ( , ) , dl , dl B.
B

dl

dl
r

L
B dl = Bl dl

, . B dl . , .
B dl = (0 I el/2r) dl = 0 Idl/2r (dl = dl el, el el = 1).

B dl = (0I/2r) dl = 0I.
L
L=2r

( B)
L . .
, , ,
, 0 = 4 10-7 /.

280

,
J = di/dS i = j dS
j

dS

B dl = 0 j dS.
L
S

rot B dS = 0 j dS
S
S

S
L

,
,
(rot B - 0 j) dS = 0 rot B = 0 j.

div E = /0, div B = 0, rot E = 0, rot B = 0 j.

, ,

281

d
l
d << l
2

, ( ) ( ),
.

B dl = 0 i k.
L

.
,
2
2
4
3
B dl = B dl Cos 90 = = 0, (B 0) dl = 0
1
1
3
2

282

4
4
4
B dl = B dl = (B = cst) = B dl = BL.
1
1
1

, . N ,
,
BL = 0 N i B = N0 i/L = 0 n i.
n ,
( ).
,

D
d
D<< d
D << d, .

.
(
,
..). ,
( ) -
dB = (0/4)i dl Sin /r2,

283


i = j S, j = q n v i = q n v S i dl = q n v S dl = q n v V.
j , S , n
(n = N/dV N = n dV), v , qe , V (dV) ( ), N .
N = 1.
B = (0/4) N qe v Sin/r2.

B = (0/4) qe(vr)/ r3.

,
.
. .
FE = q E
. .
F = i(lB), F = i l B Sin, i l = j S l = q n v V = q v N
(i = j S, j = q n v, n V = N = 1).
F = q v B Sin, FB = q(vB)
B^l = 0
v= 0
q=0F=0
B

284

,
F = FE + FH = qE + q(vB).
- (1853-1928).

285

,
( ) . .
- ( ), . ,
.
, , ,
.

.
. . ( , ). , ,
.
dl
R
r

dB

i
dB
dl r

286

( )
dB --.
dB/dB = R/r, dB = (0/4) i dl r Sin (dl^r) /r 3.
dB = dB R/r = (0/4) i l dl/r3.
,

B = 0 i R2/ 2 r3.

n
S

n
i

pm = iS, pm = i S, S = S n, [pm] = 2
B = 0 i S / 2 r3 = 0 pm /2 r3.
p m
, , .
( ) ,
( ) .

.
( ).
, ( ) ,
.
, (pm ),

287

pm ,
V
V.

J = pm / V -
V

V , . . , V .
, () , , ,
B = B + B .

. (
)
H = B/0 B = 0 H, [H] = / = / = /.
--
dH = i (dlr)/ 4 r3.
,
H = pm/ 2 r3.
H . H J
- . ,
B = B + B = 0 H + 0 J.

288

H J . ,
J = H.
, .
, . ( )
B = 0 H + 0 J = 0 H + 0 H = 0 (1 + ) H = 0 H.
= 1 + ,
.
. ( ) , .

3 ( H)


dF = i (dlB) dF = i 0 (dlH).
--
B = (0/4) i (dlr)/ r3 H = i (dlr)/ 4 r3.

B dl = 0 Ii H dl = Ii.
L
i
L
i

div B = 0 div H = 0
rot B = 0 j
rot H = j

289

rot B = 0 (j), j= j + j, j= rot J,


rot B = 0 (j+ rot J) rot [(B/0) J] = j.
B = 0 (J + H) H = (B/0) J rot H = j.
,
.

4 , ,

. .

[ = - 1] 10 6,
< 1, -

[ = - 1] 10 6,
> 1, -

- 0.0062

()

1.8

- 0.063

21

- 5.3

300

- 50

2500

- 9.0

-26
- 170

)
-

290

(- 3400

( )

[ = - 1], >>1,

200
500

600

10000

8000

100000

800000

-
-

96.7%Fe,
3.3% Si
22% Fe,
78% Ni
79% Ni, 5%Mo,
16% Fe

, -
, .
, , 8-10 , .

,
. , , ( ), . (. 1831), . . , .

291

5.1

, : ,
, ,
B
n

Ei

i
Ei

,
Ei ~ d/dt (Ei = f d/dt, dB = B dS).
Ei ,
( f ).
( ) . . .
[d/dt] = / = 2/ = / = / = ,
. ,
f . , .
1, 1 1 , |f| = 1. f ,
. B i ,
, f = - 1 .

292

B
i

,
Ei = - d/dt.
5.2

i1
B1 , ( B1 )
i2 . . ,
. , .
i1 B1 i2 B2 .
i - . ,
B ~ i ~ i, d = L di, [L] = / = ().

E s = - d/dt = - L di s /dt.

, <1 , , . , J = H .

293

,
. (
).
6.1

r v . .
pme = i S, S = S n, S = r2, i = q / t = q / (2 r/ v) = q v/ 2 r
pme = q v r / 2, p = q v r n / 2.

L = p r = m v r ( p ). L = m (rv)

pme
i

L
n

n
v
rv

294


Pme / L = q v r n / 2 m (rv) = q /2 m.
. :

pme / L = q /2 m, q = - e, m = me pme / L = - e / 2 me.
e/2 me = 1.6 10-19 / 2 9.1 10-31 = 8.8 1010 /.
, ( )
e/me = 1.8 1011 /.
, e /2me , = 1.06 10- 34 , .
e /2me = 1023 /.
.
, (
- ),
.
6.2

,
, .
Ei = - d/dt = - d(BS)/dt.

295

, ,
( ), r .
E ( )
E = Ei / 2r Ei = 2r E, Ei = - r2 dB/dt.

E = - r dB/2 dt.
,
, M , .
M = F r = - e E r = - e (- r dB/ 2 dt) r.

.
dL/dt = e r2 dB/2 dt d(L - e r2 B/2)/ dt = 0 L ( e r2B/2) = cst.
. L0 ,

L - L0 = L = e r2B/2.
L ,
.
6.3

pm

Pme/L = - e/2me, pme = - L e/2me.
,
pme = - L e/2me = - (e/2me)(e r2B/2) = - e2 r2 B/4 me.

296

( ),
. -, , , ( !)
. .
, ,
.
, ( )
.

7 .

7.1

(, )
, , . , , J 0 .

B 0

B = 0

J=0

297

B = B + 0 J.
, . .
.
7.2

, , ( ).
, .
.
. .
.
(1922.).
.

()

:
0 z max , , - + . ,
. ( -

298

),

. B

20

Ca

4s2

21

Sc

22

Ti

3 d1 4 s2

3d2 4s2

23

3d3 4s2

24

Cr

3d5 4s1

25

Mn

3d5 4s2

26

Fe

3d6 4s2

27

Co

3d7 4s2

28

Ni

3d8 4s2

29

Cu

3d10 4s1

30

Zn

3d10 4s2

36

Kr

3d10 4s2 4p6 (18 )

, , - - ( ),
(-) , , . , , , . .

299

8. .

(
, ).
, ( ) -
. , . , .
( )
,
. ,
, .
, , , . ,
, , .
( )
. , !

. ,
,
.
.

300

, , -
.
.

( ) . , , .
()

301

.
. . - - . .

,
, , .
. , - . , , , .
i
1

3
2
,
H dl = i.
L

302

N i.
, .
Hl dl = H1 dl + H2 dl + H3 dl = H1l1 + H2l2 + H3l3 = N i.
L
l1
l2
l3
( )
= BS = 0 HS H = / 0S.
( ) . ,
l1 / 10 S + l2 / 20 S + l3 / 30 S = N i
= N i / [l1/10S + l2/20S + l3/30S].

= ( ik) / (1/0) lm/Smm
( ) .
. Em = ik, - (),
Rm = l / 0S ,
.
m = Em / Rm, [m] = , [Em] = A, [Rm] = /.
,
, (
) .

303

1 .

, ( )
. -
.

304


.
, .
. : ?
. , .
L
i


. ,
, . .
dA = dq = Es i dt = - L i di ( = Es, dq = i dt, Es = - L di/dt)
A = -L i di = -Li2/2, W = L i2/2.
R , .
.
= N = n l B S = n2 V 0 i (N = n l, = BS, B = 0 n i)
i = B/ 0 n. (1)

305


= L i L = /i = n2 V 0. (2)
(1) (2)
W = V B2 / 2 0.

w = W/V = B2 /2 0.
w [w] = /3. B =
0 H
w = 0 H2 /2 = B H / 2.
, ,
, . :
, - ,
.
( ) - -e,
.

dl, de

. .
. E* () . dl
( ),
E* = de/dl de = E* dl

306

e = E* dl.
L
(Ei = - /t, e=Ei),
/t = - E* dl
L
, .

.
( dS)t = - E dl
L
El E* ( * ) l,
/t > 0 El dl < 0.
. , .

E dl = rot E dS (B/t) dS = - rot E dS rot E = - B/t.
L
S
S
S
, ,
. , rot ,
.
. ,
:
div j = - / t ,
Ei = - d/dt ,
rot E = - B/dt .

307

2 .


rot E = j
( ) . H .
( ) . .
R
B, i

i = cst
B = cst

+ E -

,
. ,
.
E
+

,
.
( ), ,
.
. . ( ),

308

- .
, ,
. ,
, ,
(
).


. , , .

.
.
E = /0 = 0 E = D, q = S = DS.
i = dq/dt = d(DS)/dt j = i/S = dD/dt, dD/dt = j.
, .
j = j + j.
, , : ,
. . . ,
.

D/t < 0 D ,
H

309

D/t > 0 D ,
H

D , .
rot H = j.
H, , ,
,
rot H = j + D/dt.

, , .
1864
.
1873 .
. . ,
, , ,
: . ..
.

. , .
div D =

div B = 0

rot E = - B/t

rot H = j + D/t

310

.
Dx/x + Dy/y + Dz/z = , (1)
1
2
3
Bx/x + By/y + Bz/z = 0, (2)
4
5
6
(Ez/y - Ey/z ) i + (Ex/z - Ez/x) j + (Ey/x - Ex/y) k =
7
8
9
= - (Bx i + By j + Bz k)/ t , (3,4,5)
(Hz/y - Hy/z) i + (Hx/z - Hz/x) j + (Hy/x - Hx/y) k =
10
11
12
= jx i + jy j + jz k + (Dx i + Dy j + Dz k)/t. (6,7,8)
: 12 ( ),
8
E, D,
B, H. , .
D = 0 E, B = 0 H, j = E,

div j = - / t.

B H .


. , , .

.
,

311

1 .


div E = /0, rot E = - B/t,
div B = 0 (div H = 0), rot H = j + D/t
. .
div E = 4, rot E = - H / ct
div H = 0, rot H = E / ct + 4j /c
. .
div E = 0

(1), div H = 0

rot E = - H/ct

(2)

(3), rot H = E / ct

(4).


312

E = - grad (rot grad 0).


,
H = rot A

(5).

(5) (3)
rot (E + A/ct) = 0.

( ) ,
E + A / ct = - grad .
,
( ) , - ,
.
, , E
( ) ,
E = - grad - A / ct

(6) .

( )
.
B H. (5) (6) (4) .
rot rot A = - 2A / c2 t2 - (grad /t)/c .

rot rot A = grad div A - A

( = = div grad),

.
A- 2A / c2dt2 = grad (div A + /ct) - 4j /c.
313

(7)

(6) (1)
div (- grad - A /ct) = 0 - - div A/ c t = 0.

(8)

- , , , . ,
div A + /ct = 0.
(7)
A - 2A/c2 t2 = 0 ,

(9)

(8)
- + 2/c2 t2 = 0 . (10)
(9) (10)
, j .

- 2 /c2 t2 =
(),
. (9) (10) ,
( ),
= 0, A = 0 , , - 2/c2t2 = 0.
. .

314

2 .

2.1

- (
) (E, H, w, S, I, ...) .
() . .
x = 0 = (0, t) = a Cos (t + ).
. ( ). v
,

(x t)

x=0

x = x1

, ,
, ,
x t, . x = 0
x1 . x1 , x = 0 . x1
(x1, t) = a Cos [ (t - ) + ],
= x1 /v x/v , x ,
315

(x, t) = a Cos [ (t x/v) + ].

(*)

( x) .
.
(*),
/v = / = 2 / = 2 / = kx , [k] = 1, (v = , = 2).
kx, k, k ,
(x, t) = a Cos (t kxx + ).
.
. , x -, .
(r, t)
r
l

l = r Cos = r n

n
x

(r, t) = a Cos [ (t - l/v) + ] = a Cos (t k r n + ) =


= a Cos (t kr + ), ( = l/v, k = kn).
n l (
) .

, ,
k = 2 / , k = 2n / .

316

2.2

. , =
cst ( = cst). 0 .
d(t kx + ) / dt = - k dx / dt = 0 v = dx/dt = /k = = /T.
, , , ( ) .
. ,

<v> = <>/<T> = <>/<k>.
,
.
( , )
v = d/dk = v dk.
. , (k)
<v> = /k, v = d/dk.
, -
, , ,
.
, .
. , , .
.

317

cos(

1.5 ) .cos( 40 )

2 2

. .
.

2.3

(*) ,
.

a = a0 e - x.
1.5
1
e

2.478752 .10

0
0

4
x

6
6

(x, t) = a0 e - x Cos (t kx + ).

318

.
(
)
.
.
.
. r -,
(r, t) = (a/r) Cos (t kr + ).
a , , , , .

.
. ,
(x, t) = a Cos (t kxx + ).

2 / x2 = - kx2 a Cos (t kxx + ) = - kx2
2 / t2 = - 2 a Cos (t kxx + ) = - 2 .

2 / x2 = kx22 / 2t2, k/ = 1/ = T/ = 1/v
2 / x2 = (1/v2)2 / t2.
.

319

= (1/v2) 2 / t2 ( = 2/x2 + 2/y2 + 2/z2) .


( )
rot E = - B/t, B = 0H, div B = 0
rot H = D/t, D = 0E, div D = 0.
x

y
x
,
0
0
0
0
i ( Ez/y - Ey/z ) + j (Ex/z - Ez/x) +k (Ey/x - Ex/y) =
= - (Bx i + By j + Bz k) /t,
0
0
0
0
i (Hz/y - Hy/z) + j (Hx/z + Hz/x) + k (Hy/x - Hx/y) =
= ( Dx i + Dy j + Dz k) / t,
0
0
0
0
Bx/x + By/y + Bz/z = 0, Dx/x + Dy/y + Dz/z = 0

320

Ez/x = - By/t
Ey/x = - Bz/t

(1)
(2)

- Hz/x = Dy/dt
Hy/dx = Dz/t

(3)
(4)

- Bx/dt = 0, Dx/t = 0, Bx/x = 0, Dx/x = 0 Bx, Dx = cst(x, t).



. , y, z , x. E H ( x ).
E, D, H,
B. (3) x, Dy Dy =
0 Ey
2Hz/x2 = - / (Dy/t)x 2Hz/x2 = - (0Ey/x) /t .
(2) Bz Bz
= - 0Hz
2Hz/x2 = - 0 ( - Bz/t)/t = - 0 (- 0H/t)/t
2Hz/x2 = 00 2Hz/t2.

[c] = [(00) 1/2] = ./, c = (00)- 1/2 3 10 8 /.
= 3 10 8 / . . E Ey. , z, y .
2H/x2 = 2H/c2t2, 2E/x2 = 2E/c2t2.

(**)

1/c2 = T2/2 = k2/2 , (**) :


E = Em Cos (t kx + 1), H = Hm Cos (t kx + 2) .

321

, .
30

10 .sin ( x )

1 .x

30

20

x
3 .sin ( x )

10

10

15

20

20

, E, H x .

4.1



w = wE + wH = 0E2/2 + 0H2/2.
,
E0 = H0.
(2) (3) 3

- E k = 0 H

322

- E 0 = k H
=
E2 0 = H2 0 E0 = 0.

w = 00 HE/2 + 00 HE/2 = 00 EH = EH/c.
, , E
H , . ,
( x) ,

w = (EH) / c.

S = c w = EH.
S . .
, E 1/r H ~ 1/r S~1/r2. . [w] = /3, [S] = /2. S ,
() .
, .
4.2

. , v < c ( v = c) . v .
E2 = m2c4 / (1 v2/c2) 1 v2/c2 = m2c4 / E2,
p2 = m2v2 / (1 v2/c2) = m2c2[(v2/c2 - 1) + 1] / (1 v2/c2) =
= m2c2[( - m2c4/E2) + 1] / (m2c2c2/E2) = (E2/c2) (1 m2c4/E2) =
323

= E2/c2 - m2c2 p2 = E2/c2 - m2c2. m = 0 p = E/c.


, , . .
p. = w/c = EH/c2 = S/c2, p. = S / c2.
, .
, : , , , . ,
.

1.

, - , ""

- 21
10 6 F
10 29
- 10
(F ()?
, 1F =
: 1980-1990 .
10 15 )

. -
X-3
- E~1015
( X-3
)

1988
-1 (

324

2.

).
.

, 1,2357 . : -,

,
.
50- , ,
.



10 - 16
.

.

325

0,067F

10 24

3.


10 13 100F -0,1 1021(1=10-10 10 19
- -10 - 11
= 10 5 F)
( ).
:
-
() - - ,
27
Mg 9,5
-

0,834

1,015

27

Al

27

4.

5.
6.

6.

6.

Mg - + 27Al +
.
10
10 - 8

11

.
108 - -10 7

.
~10 - 7
- .

.
~10 - 7
. , .
.
~10 - 6
-
326

- 0,1-100

10191016

100 3900 ~1015

3900 =
~ 1015
= 0.39
(1 =
=10 6 =
= 10 4 )
0,5461 ~1015

0,76

~1015

~10 - 5

7.

8.

~10 1
.
.
: ()
.
.
1- <10
.

9.

1-20

10131014

21

109
=
1

1,5-5,5

100-10

10.

.
.

102-103

200-600

100

11.

104-107

10-104

10410

16 000 .

,
E( H) = E0( H0) Cos (t kx + )
E, H, E0, H0
. [E] = /, [H] = /.
- ( ) = 2, [] = /.
t ,
k k= 2/, k* = 1/
k* - , -1
327

- ,
.
(
) :
E, , , , k, k*, , *, ... .

E = h = = h c / = ..., = h/2, * = 2.
= 0,5 (
),
1.
2.
3.
4.

= 0,5 10 6 = 0,5 10- 3 = 500 = 5000


k* = 2 10 6 - 1 = 2 104 1
= 3 10 8 / 0,5 10 6 = 6 10 14
= h c/ = h = 4,26 10 19 .


,
() . 1 , ,
, , 1 .
1 = = = 1,6 10 19 1 = 1,6 10 19
1 = 1 / 1,6 10 19 = 6,25 10 18 .
= 4,26 10 19 / 1,6 10 19 2,7 .
.

k*

- 1

2 10 - 6

0,5

500

5000

4,26 10 - 19

2,7

6 10 14

2 10 4

328

7 , -

( . 1601-1675). ,
( ()
( ,
)).
. (. 1629-1695 - ). , .
. ,

1
2


, . , .
- (. 1788-1827).
.
= (a/r) Cos (t kr + ).
, .

329

dS

P , ,
. = , d = dE.
dE = [() a0dS/r] Cos ( t kr + ).

t + - (
r = 0 ),
dS ,
k ,
r dS P,
- , , dS,
() , , n,
dS, dS P r .
E P
() dE
S.
E = [() a0 / r] Cos ( t kr + ) dS.
S

330

, , E
( , E ) . E
E = E0 e i (t kr),

(1)

( )
Re [E0 e (t kr)] = E0 Cos ( t kr).
E

E = Ey + Ez.
E0 , ,
E0 = b e - i E02 = b2 e 2i.
b2
b = b1 + i b2, b2 = b12 + b22 b2 = b12 b22 + 2i b1b2.
b1, b2 ( ). (1).
E = Re {(b1+ib2)[ Cos ( - kr + t) i Sin (- kr + t)]} =
= Re [b1 Cos (t - kr) + i b2 Cos (t kr) i b1 Sin (t kr) +
+ b2 Sin (t kr)] = b1 Cos (t kr) + b2 Sin (t kr).
Ey = b1 Cos (t kr), Ez = b2 Cos ( t kr).

(2)

E . (2) ,
331

Ey2 / b12 + Ez2 / b22 = 1.


. E ( ) .
, . ,
. . .
b1 = b2 = b. .
i.

Ey2 + Ez2 = b2

Ez

Ez

b2

b
Ey

- b1

b1 Ey

- b2

ii. Ey = 0 E = Ez = b2
iii. Ez = 0 E = Ey = b1.
, ,
E ,
B , . ,
.
. . , .
, : ,
, ...

332


(
), ,
.
10 8 .
, (, E )
, . , ,
.
9.1 (. , 1781-1868, 1815 )

(n1< n2)

n1

+ = /2.
(1637),
Sin /Sin = n, n = n2/n1,
333

n
Sin / Sin = Sin / Cos = tg = n.
. ()
( ). ( ).
,
. - .
.

9.2 . (. , , 1775-1812,
1811)

,
.
,
. , ,

334

. :
) -
. .
) - ,
.
.

E0

E||

. . , .

. ,
.
, .
E .

335

A1

A2

E0
E

E0

A2
E||

A1 (), A2 (). E0 ( ).
E ( ), .
E|| = E0 Cos .
( )
E2 = E02 Cos2 .
,
E2 2 = .
I ,
[ I ] = [ EH ] = /2 = / 2,
, .
I = I0 Cos2
. I0 ,
I . I () 336

, .
, ,
, ( ).
( , , 1625-1698 .) .
( CaCO3)

CaCO3 A

B
, , . ,
n = 1.6585, n = 1.4863
. ( AB) , ,
.

10

. .
(r = 0). .
E1 = E01 Cos (t + 1), E2 = Cos (t + 2).
. E1 E2
. .
337

E1 = E01 exp (t + 1), E2 = E02 exp (t + 2),



E = E1 + E2 = E01 exp (t + 1) + E02 exp (t + 2).
.
:
. , .
E0 eit exp (i) = E01 eit exp (i1) + E02 eit exp (i2)
E0 exp (i) = E01 exp (i1) + E02 exp (i2)

E0 exp (- i) = E01 exp (- i1) + E02 exp (- i2)


E02 = E012 + E022 + E01 E02 exp[- i (2 + 1)] + E01 E02 exp[ i (2 + 1)].

E02 = E012 + E022 + 2 E01 E02 Cos (2 - 1).

I = I1 + I2 + 2I1I2 Cos (2 - 1).

I (I1 + I2)2 = (1 = 2, I1 = I2 = I) = 4.
, ( ,
)
( ), :
/. 2
2 - 1 = . Cos = 1 =0 + 2k
338

= 2/ 2k = 2/ = k = 2k /2.
. k
. .
. , Cos = - 1 = +
2k = (1 + 2k)
= 2/ 1 + 2k = 2/ = (1 + 2k) / 2.

11 (. , 1773-1829, 1807)

S2

k1

S1

k2

D
S , S1 S2 ,
, . : ( ) , .
.
E1 = E01 Cos (t k1r + 1), E2 = E02 Cos (t k2r + 2).
1 = 1 k1r, 2 = 2 k2r. |k1| = |k2| = k, ,
,
339

= 1 - 2 = (k1 k2)r + (2 - 1)
k1 k2 , k = k1 k2 .
( x ) ( ,
x, ,
).
k
k1

k = 2k Sin(/2)
k2

x
x

min

max

min

k,

max

x ( ) .
2,
k x = 2, 2k Sin (/2) x = 2 x = / k Sin (/2) =
/ 2 Sin (/2) = ( - ) = /.
D = 1 , d = 1 , Sin d/D = 10 3
. , , = 600 .
x = / = 0.6 10-3 / 103 = 0.6 .
, , ,

= x.
(2 ) . , (
, , , ). 340


,
. .
x
A
r2
S2

r1

O2
O

S1

O1

d/2

A
r12 = D2 + (x + d/2)2, r22 = D2 + (x - d/2)2.

r12 r22 = 2xd, r1 + r2 2D = r1 r2 = x d / D.
, A ,
.
Sin d / D = x .
, ,

= 2 / = 2x / .
,
, I1 = I2 = I
I = 2I [ 1 + Cos (2x/) ].
341

. x .

12

, , , ( ) . .
1

() d , n , S .

n1 1

O
A
A

D
B
B

n 2 =n > n1
C
,
P , . P .
= SACBP SDP.
DA, DB, OA, OB ,

342

ACB = AC, AC = d Cos .


, , ,
n .
n1 = 1 .
= 2 d n Cos .
, , ,
. .

n1
n2 > n1

, , .
,

= (2 d n Cos ) + / 2.
2

. , .
343

1
S1

d tg

S2/2 = d/Cos

= n S2 S1
S1 = 2 d tg Sin , S2 = 2 d n / Cos . (Sin /Sin = n
Sin = n Sin ( ).
= 2 d n (1 Sin2 ) / Cos = 2 d n Cos .

1.
= 2 d n Cos + /2.

n Cos = n (1 Sin2 )1/2 = (n2 n2 Sin2 )1/2 = (n2 Sin2)1/2.
= 2 d ( n2 Sin2 )1/2 + /2.
, .
13

1- . ,
344

,
.
,
.
2- . ,
.
,
,
.
1. (. , , 1787-1826 .) ( ).
2. ( ., , 1788-1827.)
, .
.
-
,
. ,
, .

r + 4/2
r + 3/2
r + 2/2
r + /2

O
a

P
b=r

( ) ,
() P ,
345

S.
SP, , () P
,
rm = b + m / 2.
, () P ( /2 )
, . ,
-
E = () a0 Cos (t kr + 0) dS / r
S
,
E = K(r) exp (- i kr) dr, K ( r ) = () exp [ i ( t - 0)] a0 dS / r dr.
S
. . , K .
r + m / 2
*
Em = e i k r dr = [Km (-) / ik] { exp [ - ik (r + m/2)] exp [ - ik (r + (mr + (m-1)/2
1)/2]} = [( - 1 )1 e i k r / ik] {exp[ - mik/2] exp [ - (m 1)ik/2]}.
,
Re e m i k / 2 = Cos ( - m k / 2) = (k = 2 / ) = Cos ( - m) = ( - 1 ) m.
Re e i k / 2 = Cos (k / 2) = Cos = - 1.

Em = ( - 1 ) m + 1 2 e i k r Km / i k.
. m 346

( , ).
.
. m
E = + ( E1 + E2 + + Em).
. m + 1 .
, . . , , , - .
E = - (E2 + E3 + + Em + E m+1).

2E = E1 Em-1, |E m| |Em+1| E = (E1 + Em) / 2.


, m .

14 .

P
S

1. , ( m = 1) .
P ( ). ( ), .
347

1.

2.

3.

2. (m = 1 2 ).
, .
3. . ,
.
. :
m ,
m - .
, .
, . D , a b P . S P ,
.
OSA . h = OF
SP .

348

A
E
S

h << a, b
h
F

(D/2)2 = a2 (a h)2 2 a h = 2 a OF, (D/2)2 2 b OE


OF = D2 / 8a, OE = D2 / 8b EF = OF + OE = D2 (1/a + 1/b) / 8.
EF /2 , , . m , D/2 = R m m
.
m = EF / (/2) = D2 (1/a + 1/b) / 8 (/2) = R m2 (1/a + 1/b) /
R m2 = m / (1/a + 1/b).
= 0.6 , m = 1, a = b = 1 R m = 5.5 10 5 = 55 . a = b
= 1 Rm = 5.5 10 4 = 0.55 .
( ) S (a ).

349

a >> b,
R m2 = b m .

15 .

, , , - ( ).


.
.

350

O x

dx
x Sin

, , b ,
( ).
.
-.
b/2
E = E(x) / E0 = e i k x Sin dx.
- b/2
E0 , . , ,
dE = E(x) dx /0, E = Re e i k x Sin .
( ).
b/2
b/2
i k x Sin
i k x Sin
E = e
dx = (e
/ i k Sin ) | = b (e i - e i ) / 2 i ,
- b/2
- b/2
= (k b Sin ) / 2.

351

e i - e i = 2 i Sin E = (b Sin ) / .
E0 = E0 b
E = E0 Sin / , I ~ E2 E2 = E02 (Sin / )2 I = I0 (Sin / )2.
I , ,
. . ,
( I0 ). ,
, .
4

2.2726
sin ( )

10
0.999982

sin ( )

2.572646 .10

10

10

2
10

0.5

10
10

10
10
1
sin ( )

0.5

sin ( )

0.217229 0.5

352

10
10

10
10

sin ( )

0.5

5.072126 .10

10
10

10
10


, , ,
.
[(Sin / )]x = 2 Sin ( Cos - Sin ) / 3.
1. Sin = 0, 2. Cos - Sin = 0 = tg
1. a. = 0 (k b Sin )/2 = 0 Sin = 0 = 0
b. = m k b Sin = 2 m (.. k = 2/) b Sin = m. .
2. = tg ,

10

10

tan( )

10

10

10

10

10
10

353

sin ( )

0.5

5.072126 .10

10
10

10
10


.
, .

-3

- 3/2

-2

3/2


(2k + 1)/2 b Sin/ b Sin (2k + 1)/2.
k = 1,2, ( ).
b Sin = (2k + 1)/2.
,
. , , ,
.

= k R = 2 R / .
R , .
354

16

. . 1920 (),
1947 ().
( ) (
). (
)
. . 1960 .
16.1


, ,
.
, ,
, :
. ( B, H
) .
.
, ( ), , , ( ).
1
2

355

n0 ne.
d , ,
L0 = d n0, Le = d ne, L0 Le = d(n0 ne) = .
( )
.
= 2 / = 2 d (n0 ne) / .
, , . (
),
( ~ 10 8 ).
~ 3
l = c = 3 108 10 8 = 3 .
(
), .
() ,
( )
,
.
0 e .
.
16.2

, : , , , . :
L light
A amplification by
S stimulation
E emission of
R radiation
356

( 1961 ).
.

E4-
E3

E 2, 2
2 = 0,6943
h
2 = 0,6929 -

E1

. ( ) , , , , , , .

( ) , . 1 2
.
( , , , , , ,
-)

357

2 20
E 3, 4

0,1-2

10 8

E2
10 3
E1

, , , 3,4
, 2 .
, 2 , 2 1
. ,
.
,
.

16.3

, :
,
, ,

, ( ).
358

, . , , ,
. .

. , ( )
( ) . .
16.4


, ( ),
. ( ),
, () . ,
. . , 359

.
.
, , , , ,
.

, ( )

,
. ,
: (,
).
, . - .

360

,
. : - ?

1 .

,
( ). , .
.
, . , . , , ,
. ,
, . .

.
(, ), , . : .
, . , .
361

. .
, .
w ( ), / 3. , .
, ( )
.
w = dw / d, w = dw / d, w = dw / d
- .
, ( 1
) ( 1 , 1 , 1 , ).
, , , ( ). .
[w ] = / 3 , [w ] = / 3 , [w ] = / 3 .
.

w = w d = w d = w d
0
0
0

w d = w d = w d.
,
. . d, 362

dt dS d
+ d.

dS

dS Cos

dS

d = E dS Cos d d dt
= d = E dS Cos d d dt.
E - (). ,

:
. , , .
dS d
I

E, (1 A)I
d

dS


dI = dI,A + dE.
363

I ,
I, A ( ),
( , ).
.
a.
dI = I dS Cos d d dt.
I - ( , ).
.
dI, A = (1 - A) I dS Cos d d dt.
- , (1 - ) .
.
d = E dS Cos d d dt.
( ), , ,
,
I = (1 - A)I + E A I = E.
, - ,
I -
= / I
( , , 1859 ). .
364

.

[E] = [I] = / 2 . (/) = / 2 = / 2.
, . . ,
1 , .
, , .

2 -.

(, 1879) . .
E ~ T4 , E = T4, = 5,64 10 8 / 2 4.
. , ( )
w = 3 F(/T),

, , , 365

. , .

w = w d = 3 F(/T) d = (x = /T, = x T, d = t dx) =


0
0

4
= T x3 F(x) dx = T4
0
- (. , 1844-1906, -).

, ( , , , ).

366

0.822587
3

0.8

1.2
e

1
0.6

x
1.5
e

x
x

0.4

2
e

3.312996 .10

253

0.2

0
0

1
x

2
2

x-

,
. , ,
(
). .

.
w d = w d w = w d/d, = c/ - c d/2,
d = cd/2 w = 3 F(/T) d/d = c4 F(c/T) / 5.
, 0 , .
- 5 c4 F(c/ T) c5 F(c/ T) / 7 T = 0
5 F (c/ T) = - F (c/ T) c / T . (*)
.
, 367

, (*) .

c / m T = cst m T = cst = b.
, b (
).
b = 2,90 10 3 .
m T = b . , ,
, , .

3.1 -,

. ,
. .
wy = 8 2 kT / c3 w = 2 kT / g2 c3 w = 8 kT / 4.
kT ,
w = 8 2 <> / c3, <> = kT.

w = (8 3 k/c3)(T/) = 8 3k F(/T) / c3.
, ,

4
3
w = w d = 8kT d/ = 8kT( - 1/ ) | .
0
0
0
368

3
x

3
2

1
e

1
x

6.365154 .10

138

0
0

2
x

3
3

-
( x ).
, ( ). ,
. . .
. , ( ),

.
, . , . ,
, , , , , .
. .
() ,
= exp ( - ), = 1/kT

<> = exp(- ) d / exp(- ) d = - d [ln exp( - ) d] / d =


0
0
0
369


= -d[ ln(- 1/ exp() | ] / d = - d[ln(1/)]d = 1/ = kT
0

.
3.2

, , 0 - ,
= 0n, . . .
<> = n 0 exp( - n0) / exp ( - n0) = - d[ln exp( - n0)] / d =
= d[ln(1 exp( - 0) = 0 / [exp(0 1)] . <> = 0 / [exp(0/ 1)].

n 0
exp( - n0) = 1 + exp(- 0) + exp (- 20) + = 1 / [1 exp( - 0)]
exp( - 0).
-. , .
w = 8 2 <> / c3 = (8 2 / c3)[0 / exp(0/kT) 1].
~ 3 F (T/), 0 h
.
0 = h , [h] = .
370

h ,
,

h = 6,6 10 34 .
,
w = 8h3 / c3 [exp (h/k) 1].

.
3.3

1. h/kT << 1,
exp (h/kT) 1 1 + h/kT + - 1 = h/kT w = 82 kT / c3.
-.
( )
2. h/kT >> 1,
w = 8h3 exp(- h/kT) / c3.
( ) .
3.
w = [8h3 / c3(exp(h/kT) - 1)] = (8h/c3) [32 / (exp(h/kT) 1)] = 0
3(exp(h/kT) 1) = h exp(h/kT) / kT.
h/kT = x.
3(e x 1) = x e x.
,

371

xm = hm/kT = cst = 4,965.


,
hm/kT = h c/m kT m kT / h c = C = 0,2014
m T = h c C/k (c ).
: m ( ) m = 5000
= 5 10 7 , ( ) T = 6000 K. ,
, k = 1,38 10 23 / ,
= 3 10 8 / h = 6,6 10 34 . ,
h/2 = 1, 05 10 34 / .
, .


. ,

, . ,
.
1. .
. .
2. - (- - +) - - +.
3. .
,
. , .
372

E / m0 c2, m0c2
8 10 14 = 5 10 5

1,5

1,0

0,5

10

100

1000

E / m0 c2

, 1 ,
1,6 , 2 , 3,1 , -
10 4 .
4.1

.
1. (1887) ,
.
2.
2. , , ( 1839-1896) ,
, . k , ,
.

373

k,
.
.
1

10 3

, . .


1. ,
.
2.
.
3.
4. ,
( )
.
:
,
-

, ,

mA

+
374

,
. , , .
-

()

I
2 > 1

375

. , , .
( )
,
. .
1. ,
.
2. .
. (, )
t = A / P.
.
Na

Cu

Fe

Zn

Cs

A ,

4,4

4,31

4,5
max

3,74

1,81
min

2,35

n = 100 . ,
, , , R = 10 ~ 10 16 2 ( ~
10 - 8 ).

S
R

376

/ S = (r/R)2, ,

P = P (r/R)2 A = P t = P (r/R)2 t.

2 = 2 1,6 10 19 . t = 3 10 3 .

( ).
1. .
2. ,
.
3.

, . > < .
4. , = 3 10 8 /
t = R / c ~ 10 - 10 .

.

,
h - A = K max = mv2 max /2.
.
,
,
h = K/

K max

377

.
Kmax = 0 h = A = e U, , U , .
h = e U / ( U / ).
, . : Na
= 2,35 = 2,35 1,6 10 19 = / h = 5,6 10 14 .
,
, .
, , .
, (,
) , , , . ,
.
4.2 (. , 1927)


.

( )
, p, h
, p, h

m02c2

Ee, pe

378

.
( , ) ( ). , (
, (
)).

-
- .
p = p + pe
h + m0c2 = h + c(pe2 + m02c2)1/2.
m0c2 , c(pe2 + m02c2)1/2
.
, h/c = E/c = p
.
p = p + pe
p + mc = p + ( pe + m2c2)1/2.
, p - p
pe = p - p
( pe2 + m2c2)1/2 = (p - p) + mc.

pe2 = p2 2pp Cos + p 2 ( = p^p)
pe2 + m2c2 = p2 2pp + p 2 + 2mc (p - p) + m2c2.

p - p = pp (1 Cos ) / mc, (p - p) / pp = 1/p - 1/p = (1 Cos ) / mc.
379

p = E/c = h/c = h/ - = h (1 Cos ) / mc.


= 0 = . = /2 . , (
,
), , . h/me c = 2,2 10 - 12 = 2,2 = 0,02 .
(). h/mH c = 10 15 = 1F =
10 3 (mH = 1836 me).

= + = + h (1 Cos )/mc.
= h/mec ,

.
.
( 1922 , 1927
)

- (
)

380

, 2p2 , .
( ), .
2

(x

5)

0
0

5
x

(x

5)

2
e

(x

3)

(x

5)

2
e

(x

2)

10
10

0
0

5
x

10
10

0
0

5
x

10
10

381

(x

5)

2
e

(x

1)

0
0

5
x

10
10

(
- , = 0,71 ). , .
, = 0.
, , = 45. , = 90 = 135 ( ),
.
,

1. ( = 0,71 , = 0,02 ).
2. ,
. -

Li
K 2s1
B

K 2s12s22p1

-
-

3

5

Al

K L 3s13s23p1

13

Ca

K L M 4s1 4s2

20

Cu

KLM3d1-94s14s2

29

382

. 3d
4s . ,
.
,
.
,
( ), () .

383

1 .

1.1 .

,
, , (, ). .


( )
, , .
.
,
.
384

n = n(), n = n~ = ().
,
()
n (). .

F = - e E.
. .
F = - e E0 Cos (t - ).
,
,
md2x/dt2 + kx = F.

d2x/dt2 + 02x = - (e/m) E0(k) e it, E0k = E0e i .

x(k) = x0(k) eit.
,

- 2 x0(k) e it + 02 x0(k) e it = (- e/m) E0(k) e it


x (t)

x (t)

E (t)

x (t) = (- e/m) E (t) / (0 - ).


385

,
. E (t) , . , .
p (t) = e k x k (t) = (e k = - e) = - e x k (t) = (e2/m) E (t) / (0k2 - 2).
P (t) = n p (t), n
.
P (t) = 0 E (t), = P/E0 = n p/ 0E (t) = n2 = 1 + =
= 1 + (e2 / 0m) n k / ( 0 k2 - 2).

, .
1.2 . . .

( , ).
,
, ( ) . ,
.
:
. - .
.
. . .
. .
.
. . ,
.
386

1 = 6563

2 = 4861

3 = 4340 4 = 4102 5 = 3646



. ,
, * = 1/ .
: . .
*, 1. * ,
82258,271

97491,282

102822,843

105290,584

15232,975

20564,576

23032,317

5331,528

7799,309


2 1 = 15233,01 = 5, 2 + 8 = 102822,80 = 3,
6 5 = 5331,60 = 8
,
.
, .
(
5- ).
,
387

Ti = Tk Tm = T0 ( k2 n2),
= = 1/,
1/ i = 1/ k - 1/ n = 1/0 (1/k2 1/n2) 1/ = RH (1/k2 1/n2).
.
k = 1, n=2,3,4, - (1916.)
1/ = RH (1 1/n2)
.
k = 2, n = 3,4,5, - (
1885.)
1/ = RH (1/22 1/n2)
.
k = 3, n = 4,5,6, -
( 1908.)
1/ = RH (1/32 1/n2)
.
k = 4, n = 5,6,7, - (1922)
1/ = RH (1/42 1/n2)
.
k = 5, n = 6,7,8, - (1924.)
. . . RH
. , , , , ,
, .
388


E = h = h c/ = h c Emn = h c (m* - n* ) =
= h c (1/m - 1/n) = Em - En,

, . : ,
, . (
, , 1913)
.
1.
.
2. .
,
( , , ) :
h = = E1 E2.
( ) .
(
),
(
, ). , , .
, (
) , .

2 -

, .
, , .
389

,
, . ,
, , ( ) . : , . . .
K

A
V

< 0.5

p = 1

( ) K ,
KS SA , S , A , . SA .

I,

.

I~U 3/2
U

4,9 9,8 14,7


390

U,

- ( , ,
). .
, ,
,
, . ( ,
) . ,
""
= 253,7 .
( ) .
, ( ) , , ,
.

He

Ne

Ar

Xe

Rn

Li
Na
K
Rb
Cs
( )
, .
( ,
, ).
:
391

E
k=4
k=3

..
()

k=2

n=4
n=3
n=2


()

n=1
( )

()

(n=1) .
, , ,
.
, , , . , .
, .

3.1


En = n = n h .
392

,
,
En = p2 /2m + m(q)2/2 = n .
p , q , - .
.
p2 /2mn + mq2/2n = 1.
p q
a2 = 2n/n, b2 = 2mn
p
S = p dq
b
dq

. .
a
a
x /a + y /b = 1 y = b (1 x /a ), S = f(x) dx = 2 [b2(1
-a
-a
a
a
2 2 1/2
2
2 1/2
2
2 1/2
2
1
- x /a )] dx = 2b/a (a x ) dx = b/a[x(a x ) + a Sin x/a]| =
-a
-a
2

ba (Sin 11 + Sin 1(-1)) = 2ba Sin 11 = a b.


393

p q .
Sn = ab = 2 n.
, , n .
.
( )
p: (p = m dq/dt)

( )
M (M = rp)
(M = mr2 = I)
-
r
p (p = mr)

, , ( ). .
Sn = p dq = 2 n.
, , ( ), , , . ,
, M = cst,
p dq = M d = M 2 2 M = 2 n M = n n= 1,2,3, .
.
M = me v r = n v = n / me r (*)

394

v
r
d me

3.2

, ,
(*) .
mv2/r = e2/40r2 (n/m)2m/r = e2/40 r = 40 2n2/e2m.
n = 1 ( ) r1 = 5
10 11 = 0,5 .
r B = 0,529 .
. , , 0 .
E = E - E = mv2/2 - e2/4 0 r.

.
mv2/r = e2/40r2 mv2/2 = e2/8 0r, E = e2 /80 rn - e2 /4 0 rn =
= - m e4 / 2 (4 0)2 2 n2 = R*H (-1/n).
n
k
E k - En = R*H (1/n2 - 1/k2) = = h = hc/
395

k
n
k>n
1/ = m e4 (1/n2 - 1/k2) / 2 (40)2 2c 3 = RH (1/n2 - 1/k2).
RH = 107 1 = 10 5 1 .
, , , . : R = 109678 1.

4.1 -

""
( ., 1923-1924) :
n,
-, ,
, . . , .
2R / = n (*)
, ( ) ( ), .
.
p = E/c = h / c = h/ = k, 2R/ = k R = n.
k R = n
396

k R = n p R = n M = n.
-.

.
e = h/p = h / mv 2 10 12 = 0,02 , rB / e = 0,53 / 0,02 26.
26 , ,
.

, ,
, . :
~ 0,02 . .
. .
. . 1927-1928 .
,
. . ,

~ e i (kr - t).
, - ( ) : , , .
, ,

p = k.
, , , . .
397

4.2

(,
1926.) ,

= C e i (kr - t). /x = C i kx e i (kr - t) = i kx, (kr = kxx + kyy + kzz)
2/x2 = - kx2 , 2/y2 = - ky 2, 2/z2 = kz2
(2/x2 + 2/y2 + 2/z2) = - (kx2 + ky2 + kz2) 2 = - k2.
p = k k = p/ 2 = - p2 / 2 (*).
/t = - i, = = / /t = - i / (**),
(*) (**)
2 / (/t) = p2 / i 2 = (p2 / i ) /t.
-
, = p2/2m,
2 = (2m /i ) /t | i ( - 2/2m)2 = i /t.
.
(
).
.

, .
[22/m x2] = .
- ( ),

i /t = ( - 22 / 2m + U (r)) .
398

( ),
.

(r, t) = (r) e

- it

( )
i ( - i) (r) = ( - 22/2m + U(r)) (r) ( = )
(r) = ( - 2 2/2m + U (r)).
,
, -
- 2 2/2m + U(r) = i /t.
-

- 22/2m + U(r) = .
4.3

, ( -
) .
2

cos(

1.5 ) .cos( 40 )

2 2
0

399

, , . . . () ,
-
. .
(1768-1730 - ) - <t< ,
, f (t) ,

|F (t)| dt
-

F (t) = a0/2 + [a k Cos(k t) + b k Cos(k t)] = C k e i k t.


k=1
k=-
f (t) . -.

a k = (1/) f (t) Cos (k t) dt, k = 1,2,3,...


-

b r = (1/) f (t) Sin(k t) dt,


-

C k = (a k i b k)/2 = (1/2) f (t) e i k t dt


-
t , k .
, , ( k ).
a Cos[2(t x / v())].
400

a > 0, x = 0 t = 0 ( ).
0 , .
d[2 (t x/v)] / d = 0 t x d(/v) / d = 0 t = x d(/v) / d
1/v = d(/v) / d, (t = x / v).
,
Wk = E U = mv2/2 1/v = [m/2(E U)]1/2.
,
E = h.
d(/v) / d = [m/2(h - U)]1/2.

/v = (v/2)1/2 2/h (h - U)1/2, v = h / [2m(h - U)] 1/2 =
= / [2m( - U)]1/2.
. ,

= e - it = e i E t / .

2 + 2/v2 = 0.
.
2 + 2m( - U) / 2 = 0.

401

e i t, e i
t
= , /t = - i t = - / i t. .
2 + (2m/)(- /i t) 2mU/2 = 0
i /t = - 22 / 2m + U.
, .
, (-) . , -
, "" .


i /t = - 2 2 /2m + U (r) .

= - 22 / 2m + U (r),
, ,
i /t = .

U (r) = - qe2 / 40 r.

402


,
-, , ,
(
). , . .

.
5.1

z = r Cos

r
y y = r Sin Sin

x = r Sin Cos

( ) , ,
. :
1.
0<r<

z
r

y
x

r2 = x2 + y2 + z2 = cst

2. z

403

r
y

Cos = z /(x2 + y2 + z2)1/2 = z/r = cst

3. , z

0 2

tg = y/x = cst

y
x

(, )
x = x (q1,q2,q3), y = y (q1,q2,q3), z = z (q1,q2,q3), (*)
(q1 = r, q2 = , q3 = ). . .
ds2 = dx2 + dy2 + dz2 = hij2 dqi dqj (*)
i,j
hij , . (*), .
404

dx = xdq1/q1 + xdq2/q2 + xdq3/q3, dy = ... , dz = ... .


(**) , , ( ),
hij = 0 i j .
(xdq1/q1 + ...)2 + (ydq1/q1 + ...)2 + (zdq1/q1 + ...)2 = [(x/q1)2 +
(y/q1)2 + (z/q1)2] d2q1 + ... = h12 d2q1 + h22 d2q2 + h32 d2q3.
h12 = hr2 = [(r Sin Cos )r]2 + [(r SinSin)/r]2 + [(r Cos)/r]2
= Sin2 Cos2 + Sin2 Cos2 + Cos2 = 1.
h22 = h2 = (x/q2)2 + (y/q2)2 + (z/q2)2 = r2 h = r
h3 = h2 = r2 Sin2 h = r Sin.

ds = hi dqi.
(
)
dij = dsi dsj = hi hj dqi dqj.

d = ds1 ds2 ds3 = h1h2h3 dq1 dq2 dq3.

= a1/s1 + a2 /s2 + a3 /s3 = ai /si,
ai , qi = cst, dsi = hidqi
(, ).
, ,
405

.
= [ (h2h3/h1q1) / q1 + (h3h1/h2 q2) / q2 +
+ (h1h2 /h3q3) / q3.
,
= (r2 / r) / r2 r + (Sin / ) / r2 Sin +
+ 2 / r2 Sin2 2.
5.2

.
= (r, t) () ()
cst
(r, t) = (r2 / r) / r2 r.

,
= (r) exp (- i Et/)
2m (E + qe2/ 40r) / 2 = - (r2 / r) /r2 r.

(r2 /r) / r2r = (r / r + r2 2 / r2) / r2 = r / r r +
+ r(/r) / r = 2(r) / r r2.

406

d2 (r ) / r dr2 = - 2m (E + qe2/ 40r) / 2.



e2 = qe2 / 40, r = 2 / me2 = r , E = me4 / 22 = ER .
r , ER .
me2 d2 (2 / me2) / 2 d(2 / me2) = ( - 2m / 2) (me4 / 22 +
+ e2 m e2 / 2) .

d2() / d2 = ( + 2/) .
= f. .
d2f / d2 = - ( + 2/) f.
f () = e - g ():
d2f/d2 = d(d(e - g ())/d) / d = e - ( d2g/d2 - 2 dg/d + 2g)
d2g/d2 - 2 dg/d + (2/ + +2) g = 0.
.
2 = - ,
d2g/d2 - 2 dg/d + 2g/ = 0. (*)

k
g () = a k dg/d = k a k k-1,
k=1
k=1

2
2
d g/d = k(k-1) a k k-2.
k=1
407

(*). k
k+1 .

k-1
k-1
k (k+1) ak+1 - 2 k a k + 2 f k k-1 = 0
k=1
k=1
k=1

[k (k+1) a k+1 - 2 k ak + 2ak] k-1 = 0


k=1
0 , ,
k>1 . .
ak+1 = 2 (k 1) a k / k (k+1).
5.3

a1, , (*) , - .
,
k .
= [k (k+1) ak+1 2 a k] / 2 k a k
= - 2 = {[k (k+1) ak+1 2 a k] / 2 k a k}2.
k . k , g ()
( ). k>>1
ak+1 2 a k /k = k ak+1 / 2a k = - 2 = - (ak+1/2ak)2 k2.
, = 1/n ( , ), k=n , 0 n- . ,

408

f (g) = e

g () = e
a k ,
k=1
-

0 . , = 1/n
- = 1/n2, n = 1,2,3,... .

E = ER = - ER / n2 = - me4 / 22 n2.
, . = 1/n
n = f n () / n = e

- / n

g n () / = e

n
n
k
a k / , (g n () = a k k).
k=1
k=1

-/n

1. n = 1 ( )
g1 = a1, 1 = a1 e - , a1 = 1 1 = e - .
( , , ),
( ),
.
2. n = 2
g2 = a1 + a22 = - 2/2. [a2 = 2(k/2 - 1) / k(k+1) = (k=1) = - 1/2].
2 = ( 1 - /2) e - /2.
3. n = 3
a2 = 2 (k/3 - 1) / k (k+1) = (k=1) = - 2/3,
a3 = 2 (k/3 - 1)(- 2/3) / k (k+1) = 2/27,
409

g = a1 + a2 2 + a3 3 = 2 2 / 3 + 2 3 / 27,
= (1 - 2/3 + 2 2/27) e - / 3.
n () n = 1,2,3 ,
0.2

0.1

. 2
e
2
2

2 .

2 .

27

.e 3

10

15

20

25

30

0.1

0.2
0

30

, = 1 .

6 -

6.1 -

, -. (1927) , ( -
) ( ) . , .
,
. ,
- . .
410

- , "" . -
.
, . , .
, 1834 , : " , , ;
, , .
, ,
, ,
, , ...
... . ... ,
, , ... ." , 1908 , : " ( , ..),
, , , , ... ". "" " ".
,
, . .
-, , ,

I (0 ,
, .. ..)
, . , ,
= C exp[i (kr - t)],
.
, ,
.

411

(1)
(2)
(3)
()
(1) (2) , , ( ,
). (1) . , . (2) , . . (3) . (
) . (, ,
( )
).

I1 ~ E12, I2 ~ E22, E2 = E12 + E22 + 2E1E2 Cos , = 1 + 2 + 12 Cos.

I ||2 , ||2 = | e it + |2 = | e it|2 e 2 = e 2.


* = e it + e - it + = e 2.
( ) () ,
412

, .
,
(1926.) ,
(x,y,z,t) ( , - ) , ||2 *
. t
x, x + dx; y, y + dy; z, z + dz
P = ||2 dx dy dz = ||2dV.
dV .
( = 1),
||2 dV = 1.
( )
,
<x> = ||2 x dV / ||2 dV, <x> = ||2 x n / ||2.
6.2

, ()
(r, t) . , , . :
(. ) .
(r, 0).
1. , 0
, ( t = 0)
.
2. ,
, ,

t = 0.
413

( )

,
. (
).
p = k = h /

x

1. - .
2. (
, ).
: ,

p = h / p ~ h/x,
p = h/ !!! p ~ h p x ~ h.

414


. -,
p , p ,
p x h . (*)


p = E / c = h / c.
(*)
h x /c h t 1 t 1.
, - , ( ) , . : "
( ),
, , , ,
. .
.
, , ".

415

, 3, , .
. . , . .
1. .
E = Ei .
.
2. .
E < E.
n = 0,91 1022
3. n = 24,7 1022 3.
? .
.
416

1. () . NaCl, Li F, K J .
.

Ec, 10 18 Li
/

Na

Rb

Cs

1,68

1,49

1,32

1,26

1,20

Cl

1,38

1,27

1,15

1,11

Br

1,32

1,21

1,10

1,06

1,23

1,13

1,04

, 1 NaCl:
E = Ec NA = 1,27 10 18 6,02 10 23 = 750 .
2. () ,
. (
).
700-1200
/.
3. ( ) --. , , Hg2, Ar, CH4 .
8 /.
4. 1-2 . , . , .
- . (417

,
.
, =0
( )).
5. .
, :
10 13 (1 F), 105


( )
: 13,59 != 2 10 18
/ = 1200 /. 2 ,
.

.. .. (1913.)
:
.
,
()

d Sin

, 2 d Sin ,

418

2d Sin = n .
- .
(,
), . , .
, .
-.
,
. - . G
G = k1b1 + k2b2 + k3b3.

( )

d Cos = d n

d Cos = - d n
( ) ,
K = k - k
. ,
,
d Cos + d Cos = d (n - n).
n, n - k, k.
d(n-n) = m.
419

2 /

dK = d (k - k) = m 2 ,
, d = R
R(k - k) = 2m exp [i (k - k)R] = 1.
, k = k = k

K/2 = k Cos = k Sin K = 2 k Sin


d 2k Sin = 2m 2d Sin = m.
, .

, ,
( , )
U(r) = U (r + R).
( ) 10 8 .
420

U(r)

R
e


-2 2/ 2m + U (r) = E.
( )

nk (r) = U n k (r) e i kr.
,
U n k (r) = U n k (r + R).

- 2 2 / 2m x2 = E (r).

= exp (i k x) / V
- 2 (i k)2/ 2m = E 2k2 / 2m = p2 / 2m.
, ,

421

E = 2 k2/ 2m = p2 / 2m.
. E (k)
"" . - .
,

k
, . E(k) . k = K .
E

K/2

422

( k=K/2 ) ( k ). ,
, , (
. ( )

k
-3K/2 -K -K/2

K/2 K 3K/2

"", , ,

, .
,
(, )
,
.

423

1 .

1.1

,
10 -22
(, - ) .
1.
2.
3.
4.

-
-

. ...

200 .

- - -, ,
.
A = N + Z.
424

A , N , Z .

Z

X 42He + Z 2A 4X.

He .

234

U 90230Th + 24He.

92

- .
( , )
238U 232Th.
-, 4 9 ( ).
- ,
(A cst)
).
i.
-
Z

X-Z+1AX.
+

ii.
Z

X+Z-1AX.

iii.

-
( -, -). , , .
:

3
3
1 H 2 He ( ),
12
+
11
11
6 5 B ( ),
20,4
425

-
Be 37Li
53,6 .

Z = cst, A = cst, N = cst. , -


. Z 1.

X e = Z 1AX.

- . .
. A,Z,N = cst.
( ).
235

U 82207Pb.

92

A = 237 207 = 28 . , Z = 92 82 = 10 . . 13 .
82207,206,208Pb, .
5 10 3 (, , , , ) 7 10 5 . , 10 12 , , , .

92

235

231
5

Th

Fr

Pb

Pa

Ra

Bi

Ac

Rn

7 10

227

Th

215

Po

207

Tl

- At

82

211

Po

426

5 10 3 c

Pb

. 1 = 1 ()
.
1 () = 3,7 10 10 , 1 () = 106 .

1.2

N ( ). . t, N
t

t + t -

N
N - N t, N<<N.

, , - N,
, .


dN = - N dt |
lnN = - t + lnN0 N = N 0 e - t.
N , , t , -
[] = 1.
, , .
N = N0 / e e 1 = e - t t = 1 / = .
- , , 1/ .
. .
N = N0/2 2 1 = e - t t = T = ln 2 / .
, .

427

, , .

E p = E (Z,A) E (Z 1, A 1)
E. n = E. (Z,A) E. (Z, A 1).

.

E. (Z,A) = Z M p + N M n M (Z,A)

(*)

M E = mc2 , ,
( )
. .
, .(Z,A)
. ( ) , . ( , )
. (Z, ) = . (Z, ) ., . = . + . > (1)
= + 1, = + 1. (2,3)
. (1,2
3) (*)
E. = Z (p + 1) + N (n + 1) (. + A) =

(**)

= Z p + Z + N n + N - . A = Z p + N n - . = . - .
428

p, n, ., . , , , .
( ) .
, ,
. ()
(- ) . . ... .
.
- ( )

. , -

= 938,2796 = 1,00722764 ...


n = 939,5731 = 1,008655 ...
= 4,001506 ...

A p = 1, A n = 1, A He = 4 ....
(**).
.
p = 1,0073 1 = 0,0073, n = 1,0087, = 0,0015 ...
E . He = (2 0,0073 + 2 0,0087) 0,0015 = 0,0305 ...

1,66 10 27
1 ... =

931,4 10 3 E .He 30 .

429

Fe


() .
( )
. = . + Z m + / 2.
, , - . m . , (
) - 2 .
, .
( ) .
,
( )
4
7
12
39
56
138

Ba 92235 U 94239Pu
2 He
3 Li
6 C
19 K
26 Fe
56

E. /A, 7.07

5.61

7.68

8.56

8.79

430

8.39

7.59

7.55

. , R ~ A 1/3 , R = r0 A
1/3
, r0 = (1,2 - 1.5) 10 13 . RH = (1.2 1.5) F, RU = 1.5 238 1/3 = 9 F.

3.1

. 1938 . . ,
Ba La ). (.
), .
:
/
-

,

231
1.
Pa5,4

232
2.
Th- 5,1

233

3.
4.

U-

235

U
237

5.
6.
7.

Np
238

U
239

Pu

6,6

6,4

5,0

4,9

6,4

431


235

92

U + 01n 14055Cs + 3794Rb + 2 01n.

, , . 235U .
. E = 3kT/2 = 0,04 ,
- 0,020,03 . . : E = 1 , T = 2E/3k = 8 10 9 K. : E = 0,02 , T ~ 2 10 2 K.
0,02 ? ,
, .
, , 12. , , .
,
3.2


ii.

i.
235

iii.
238

f p

iiii. p

432

- ( ,
- ), -
1,1 ( 238U ), p ,
, f , , , . p
f .
(
), (, )
k = pf.
, k 1 . k < 1 .
, k = 1, , k > 1 . k
. .

12

18(1)

(2)

H2O

D2O

Be

114 19
35
86

112

Cd

10

56

Fe

207

Pb

. . 10 7 .
, 10
( ), k 1 1,00000001
( ). k . , .
,
. , . , .
0,1 ,
433

9 ( 9
).
200 = 3,2 10 11
, 1 10 6 / 3,2 10 11 = 3 10 15
.


()

434

,
( 98 ).
1954 .
3.3

()
. 10 8 .
2

d + 13H 24He + 01n.

.
(
), . , , .
1. .
2.

, , , (+1).
. :
89

Sr 4,6% - 53

38

90

Tc 6,2% - 106

43

137

55

Cs 6,2% - 33 .

, .
.
435

3.4

( , )
4-10 600-900 . .
0,5% 10-20
1 20-40 % .
. , 0,6-0,8 . , . 2,3 . 300-600 . , .
.

436

437