You are on page 1of 25

28 March 2005

Attemperation Frustrations

Steam Attemperation Valve and Desuperheater


Driven Problems on HRSGs

Main and Reheat Steam Attemperation


Turbine Bypass Operation

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

28 March 2005

Interstage Steam Attemperation


Process is controlled by inlet
steam temperature to turbine
Pro
Decreases potential for
moisture content at turbine
inlet
Decreases temperature in
superheat/reheat tubing

Control temp

Control temp

Con
System response is slow
and can cause cycling
swings
Water carryover into the
tubing possible
Thermal cycling of tubing
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

Problems on Main and Reheat Steam


Attemperation

Superheat and reheat tube failures


Main/Reheat steam header failures
Poor spray water control and thermal cycling
Failure of spray probe components
Plugging and blockage on spray valve and nozzle
Leaking spray valves
Steam leakage from flanged connections on main
steam line
Broken liners
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

28 March 2005

Steam header and tube failures

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

3/28/2005

Cumulative failures of SH tubes

Increased superheat tube failures


with years of operation
80

60

40

20

0
0

10

Unit age, years

Downloaded from APTECH web site


2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

28 March 2005

Fundamentals of steam attemperation


The smaller the water droplets, the greater the
surface area of the liquid and the faster the
droplets evaporate.
Spray nozzles generate a distribution of droplets
with different sizes (Sauter number)
Both primary and secondary atomization break
water droplets apart
Aerodynamic forces exceed surface tension forces
break apart water droplets (Weber number)
Distribution of the water into the steam
Time for steam to evaporate
3/28/2005

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

Fundamentals of steam attemperation


Spray basic atomisation shape / Formen des Strahlzerfalls
1. Rayleigh Regime

v amb

2. First Wind-induced Regime

v water (Velocity)

v water - v amb 0

v water - v amb 2 m/s

Breakup way out of jet outlet


Capillary + Viscosity Forces are
dominant
Aerodynamic Resistance is small
Droplets larger than jet diameter

Breakup closer to the jet outlet


due to higher relative motion, gives
additional aerodynamic Resistance
Droplets are equal to jet diameter

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

28 March 2005

Fundamentals of steam attemperation


3. Flapping Jet

4. Spray Jet

v water - v amb 10 m/s

v water - v amb 50 m/s

Breakup closer to the jet outlet


Increasing of relative velocity
Superposition of "O-mode"(dilatation)
and "1st-mode"(sinusoidal flapping)
gives Instabilities
Droplets smaller than jet diameter

Breakup near to the jet outlet


High relative velocity
Increasing of shortwaving disturbance on
the surface due to the aerodynamic forces
Droplets very much smaller than jet
diameter

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

3/28/2005

10

Water droplet size distribution by different


nozzle designs

% Volume

15

10

0
19

35

63

114

205

370

668

1207

Droplet diameter, microns

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

28 March 2005

Spray distribution into the steam

FC 526.07

3/28/2005

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

11

Evaporation of water in steam


Steam/Water Temperature Gradient vs Time
1000
900
800

Deg. F

Finite amounts of
time are required to
heat the water and
boil the water off
As the water
evaporates, steam
temperature
decreases, reducing
driving forces
The largest water
droplets will be the
last to evaporate,
and an exponential
increase in
evaporation time
can occur

700

Steam Temp
Water Temp

600

Initial heating

Boiling

500
400
300

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

10

12

14

16

Time

3/28/2005

12

28 March 2005

Traditional venturi nozzle


Fixed orifice
nozzle
Venturi tube
for mixing and
thermal
sleeve
protection
Used on base
load drum
boiler and
supercritical
units
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

Variable Area Probe


Style Desuperheaters

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

13

Typically flanged to the


main steam piping.
Multiple nozzles are
exposed as the valve
plug opens
Spray water nozzles
and valve are immersed
in the steam line
Nozzles face
downstream and inject
water with the steam
flow
Most common
desuperheater in CCPP
steam attemperation
3/28/2005

14

28 March 2005

Spray Ring Desuperheaters

Normally applied in
large mass flow
systems
Individual streams
break into small
droplets
Liners are often
used when steam is
attemperated close
to saturation.
Fixed orifice,
rangeabiltiy is
limited to between
3:1 and 5:1

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

15

Spray Nozzle Desuperheaters

H2 0
SH
STEAM
H2 0

Applied in large and small


mass flow systems
Liners are often used because
of directed water jets.
Nozzles can be designed to be
serviceable.
Nozzle can take higher
DS STEAM
pressure drops than spray
ring.
Fixed orifice, rangeabiltiy is
limited to between 5:1 and
15:1

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

16

28 March 2005

Spring Loaded Spray Nozzle

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

17

Spring Loaded Spray Nozzles


Spring loading increases the minimum discharge
pressure before injecting water into the steam
Provides a higher water velocity discharge into the
steam flow
Provide a very thin sheet injection at low flow rates
Can be provided in multiple point entry injection or
single point middle injection
Places the critical control valve outside the steam
flow environment.

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

18

28 March 2005

Nozzle Spray Patterns, High Speed


Photography

Spray nozzle

Whirl nozzle

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

Spring loaded nozzle


3/28/2005

19

Problems seen on Spray Control Probes


Lack of throttling control, stair step
flow response
Cracked extension pipes
Missing and damaged nozzles
Fracture of tack weld and loosening of
lower housing
Wear on the valve trim
Sticking/galling with trash sensitivity
Leakage in the closed position
Damaged upstream Spray water
Block Valves
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

20

10

28 March 2005

Problems seen in the field on Spray Probes

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

21

HP and HRH Attemperator Steam Solutions


Separate spray water control and spray water
injection functions
Location is the Key to low thermal stresses
Simplify components in high temperature transition
zones.
Use high temperature components in high thermal
shock zones.
Provide thermal isolation for spray water headers to
steam headers.
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

22

11

28 March 2005

Spray Nozzle Design


Thermally isolated spray
water housing and header
Spring loaded spray nozzles
for fine atomization
High temperature spring and
nozzle materials
No welding to retain
threaded components.

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

23

Cure for poor atomization, desuperheater


design
Variable orifice nozzle for best
primary atomization
Increase steam velocity with
liner to increase velocity at
water injection and protect
steam piping
Spray nozzles create back
pressure to spray water valve
Over-travel nozzles for
passing contamination

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

24

12

28 March 2005

Multiple Spring Loaded Nozzle Assembly


Multi-nozzle design
Variable geometry spring
loaded nozzles
High capacity
Nozzle rangeability 50:1
or more.
System rangeability
limited water control
valve and steam flows
Used for superheater &
reheater applications,
turbine bypass, aux.
steam applications
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

25

3/28/2005

26

Direct Probe
Replacement
Remove the
water control
valve from the
high temp. steam
Multiple spring
loaded nozzles
No piping
modifications
required
Multistage
characterized
water control
valve
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

13

28 March 2005

Superheat water spray valve operating


pressure differentials
3500

3000

2500
~700 psid
Pressure [psig]

2 x 500 MW units
Fixed speed
motor driven
feedpump
Operation in 1x1
and 2x1 results in
variable steam
turbine pressure
with fixed water
pressures

2000

~1500 psid
~2000 psid

1500

1000
HP Feedwater
Pressure

500

HP Steam
Pressure

0
10 Days of Data (10 min intervals)

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

27

Valve Solutions to solve the spray water


control problem
High Rangeability
Multistage design
Highly characterized
for spray
applications,
generally modified
equal percentage
Provide a tight
shutoff design, FCI70 Class V.
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

28

14

28 March 2005

Velocity control customized


characterization
% Flow
100
90
80
Linear
70
60
Modified Linear
50
40
30
20
Modified Equal %
10
0
0

10

20

30

40

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

50
% Stroke

60

70

80

90

100
3/28/2005

29

Clogging and Filtration Recommendations


Temporary filters may be needed during plant
commissioning
100 micron filtration recommended on many
designs
Separate strainers for at least several months of
commissioning
Use spray water valve trims as back-up protection
devices
Partial clogging of nozzles can cause directed water
flow at steam pipe walls.
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

30

15

28 March 2005

Water injection directly downstream of elbows


or valves
Non-uniform
steam velocity
profile
generated
Water
distribution is not
uniform
Water is carried
into pipe wall
and drops out
Pipe cracking
can occur
Overall steam
velocity an issue
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

31

Improper Piping Design

Increase distance from the elbow to the water


injection point
Add flow straighteners to the piping to obtain a
more uniform flow regime

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

32

16

28 March 2005

Installation recommendations

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

33

Drain issues
Improper draining causes:
Water hammer
Thermal shocks and gradients

Check location and size of drains


Use the drains more aggressively during start-up
Sizing drains for not only condensate formation but
also for leaking spray valves
Drains cant be sized for open spray valves

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

34

17

28 March 2005

Turbine Bypass
Valve
Applications
Combined Cycle
Power Plant

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

35

HP to CRH bypass system and adverse affects


on HRSG life
HP steam valve leakage and overheating of CRH
headers
Operation of the water valve without steam flow
Isolation of the bypass steam valve
Continual operation of the bypass system

HP spray water valve leakage and water collection


in the downstream pipe.
Water carryover into the HRH tubing
Water-hammer

Poor HP steam bypass control results in pressure


fluctuations causing drum level changes and alarms
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

36

18

28 March 2005

HRH to condenser bypass system and affect


on HRSG life
Poor HRH steam bypass control results in pressure
fluctuations causing drum level changes and alarms
Poor HRH bypass operation can cause unit trips
Operation/leakage of the water valve without steam
flow can cause water-hammer
Operation near saturation during desuperheating can
cause loss of spray water control
High condenser enthalpy can cause unit trips system

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

37

Turbine Bypass System issues


Use high integrity turbine bypass systems
Use same high integrity desuperheating systems as
used on HP and HRH steam attemperation
Use proper sequencing of steam and water valves
to prevent water hammer and thermal shock issues
Use feedforward control logic for both unit trips and
for spray water desuperheating control
Proper design of piping systems for distances for
desuperheating
Proper draining of the turbine bypass system
downstream of the bypass valve
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

38

19

28 March 2005

High Integrity Bypass Systems

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

39

3/28/2005

40

Desuperheater with flow conditioning


and pressure reduction
Variable area Nozzle
Desuperheating after
Pressure Reduction
Nozzles configured to
give even cross section
distribution
Water injection at high
velocity and turbulence
points in steam flow
Steam flow acts as
thermal Shield
Quick Change Nozzle
Assy
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

20

28 March 2005

Sequencing of Steam and Spray valves


Water valves need to be interlocked to prevent
opening if the steam valve is closed.
Opening
Open steam valve
Once steam valve closed limit switch has cleared,
signal water valve to open
Review systems for minimum recommended flow

Closing
Bring steam valve to recommended minimum lift and
hold
Close water valve
Close steam valve
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

41

Water Injection Control on Bypass Systems

Temperature Control
Temperature measurement and feedback controls
amount of water injected.

Feedforward Control
P1/T1 and Valve Position Control for estimating
steam flow
P1/T1/P2 measurement for estimation of steam flow
using the dump tube as a flow meter

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

42

21

28 March 2005

Temperature Control

3/28/2005

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

43

Enthalpy Control Using Backpressure


for Flow Measurement
HRH
Trh

Prh

Fw = f(Pdump, Tw, Trh)


Tsw

Fw =f(p)

Trh = Steam Inlet Temp.


Tsw = Spray Water Inlet Temp.
Pdump = Dump Tube Press.
Fw = Water Flow

Steam
Control
Valve

Spray
Water
Valve
Pdump

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

44

22

28 March 2005

Feed Forward Enthalpy Control Using


Valve Position for Flow Estimation
HRH

Trh

T = Temperature
P = Pressure
F = Flow
h = Enthalpy
Yst = Valve Stroke

Prh

hrh=f(p,T) Fst=f(Yst,p,T)

Fw=Fst

Fw =f(p)

Steam
Control
Valve

hrh-hdes
hdes-hw
Spray
Water
Valve

Yst

pdump

3/28/2005

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

45

Temperature vs Enthalpy Control


Longer straight
distances and
distances to
condenser on
temperature control
More potential for
oscillation with
temperature control
Lower steam
discharge enthalpy to
condenser with
enthalpy control

2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

46

23

28 March 2005

Desuperheating Distances,
Recommendations (rules of thumb)
Distance to first elbow
0.1 seconds at maximum steam velocity for most
desuperheaters
0.05 seconds for steam assist

Distance to Pipe Spec Change


16 ft (5 m)

Distance to Temperature Sensor


0.2 seconds at maximum steam velocity for < 15% water
injection
0.3 seconds at maximum steam velocity for > 15% water
injection.
Temperature set point 18 F (10 C) above saturation

The above values can change based on steam SH, water


steam ratios, required accuracy, and desuperheater type.
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

47

HRSG and Plant Upgrades


Most HRSG and CCPP plants were designed for
base load operation
Most CCPP are in high cycle operation due to the
high cost of fuel and cycling load demands
Replacement and upgrades of attemperation
hardware can reduce thermal cycling and other
problems seen at plants
Separation of the water control function from high
temperature steam will improve service life
Steam attemperation and turbine bypass systems
are integrated units that need to be designed to fit
specific piping systems
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

48

24

28 March 2005

Publications/Helpful References
Attemperators, Combined Cycle Journal, 1Q 2005
Advances in Desuperheating Technology for
Reliable Performance of Combined Cycle Power
Plants, Proceedings of PWR2005, PWR-200550108
Polished Performance, Refined HRSG Designs and
O&M Practices Boost Plant Performance, Power
Engineering, February 2005.
Avoid Desuperheater Problems with Quality
Equipment, Proper Installation, Tight Process
Control, Combined Cycle Journal, Fall 2004
2003. CCI Control Components Inc. CCI is the Valve Doctor . All rights reserved. P102

3/28/2005

49

25