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Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme Month 17

Lesson 62.

The Alphabet
v[R - ivcar>

A) Evolution of Sound.
As Sadhakas, let us introduce ourselves to the world of sounds.... zBdp , The cause of the
world of things.... AwRp .... is prmeZvr. In the context of sound, prmeZvr is zBdn! , The
entire world is said to be born of zBd ... zBda_av , Evolution is the result of the self

movement SpNdn of Shiva-Shakti. The line of evolution is from the subtle to the gross. There
are five stages to the emanation of sound.

1. The first is pra which is absolutely supreme and subtle. This can best be described as
the storehouse from which inspirations would first emerge.

2. The second is pZyNtI which is less subtle but is still undifferentiated. This would be the
inspiration that would eventually give rise to a thought or an idea.

3. The third is mXyma which is grosser and undifferentiated, though not articulate. This is
actual thought process which goes into concretizing the idea.... a plan of action.

4. Articulate sound is called vEorI which further takes two forms: subtle and gross. It is
from that that all the letters v[R, words pd and sentences vaKy are manifested. The
subtle forms of these letters are the mantras. The gross takes the form of the
language we use.

v[R> is that form of sound which cannot be broken up further into smaller parts. It is

therefore also called A]rm! , n ]rit #it A]rm! , nad or Xvin ....sound .....can never be

destroyed. That A]rm!, when it is in a written form is called the v[R> , Over a period of time
both words have now become interchangeable.

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A]r s, when put together to intelligently express thoughts and feelings is called the pd , A

group of pd s form a vaKy ; and vaKy s put together so that another may understand what one
wishes to express, then becomes language _aa;a , The Sanskrit script, is called devnagrI ,
B) v[aR>

Let's go over the list of v[aR> again. The divisions that you see below have been made by Panini
and described in his 'Ashtadhyayi.' We need to study this so that we are better able to
understand how Panini worked at his grammar.

Svra>

A , #, %, \, l& (SvSvra>) are pronounced in one matra ( a measure of time almost equal to
one second )

Aa , $, ^, \&, ,@ , @e, Aae, AaE (dI"RSvra>) are pronounced in two matras

A3 , #3, %3, \3, l&3, ,@3 , @e3, Aae3, AaE3 (PlutSvra>).... used when calling out to someone and
take more than two matras to be pronounced.

Ayaegvaha> so named by Panini.


A< (AnuSvar)
A> (ivsgR>)

(I've spent about a trillion hours trying to find a symbol that looks like two smilies put
together, one on top of the other, the top looking like a smile and the one below looking like a
frown in the place of the visargas for the four alphabets listed below. Sorry. Don't have the
software to create an image even. But I'm sure you'll be able to figure out what I mean. If any
of you has; and can create an image, please will you send it to me at 'Queries' so that I may
replace these four visargas with those? )

: k : o (ijamUlIy>)
:p

: ) (%pXmanIy>)

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Vynain

vgIRyVynain
1

ku #it pai[in>

(kvgR)

k!

o!

g!

"!

'!

cu #it pai[in>

(cvgR)

c!

D!

j!

H!

|!

qu #it pai[in>

(qvgR)

q!

Q!

f!

F!

[!

tu #it pai[in>

(tvgR)

t!

w!

d!

x!

n!

pu #it pai[in>

(pvgR)

p!

)!

b!

_a!

m!

(Secret revealed: It is good to remember the above 25 Vynain column-wise too. For example

k! c! q! t! p! etc. )
AvgIRyVynain

y!, r!, l!, v! (ANt>Swa>)


z!, ;!, s!, h! (%:ma[>)
! ]!

! ]! and are not included in Panini's work, who dealt with only the language in use and not
what is originally in the Vedas. But we shall keep them in anyway.... just so that we do not
forget them.

%Ccar[m!

Your teacher will help you pronounce the Svra>, Ayaegvaha>, and the Vynain ,

I'll just supply a table that you can refer to. The beauty here is that this classification works
in various ways. It helps making and breaking sandhis, writing out words with Anunaisk s and

understanding the relationships of each "family group" ... how one letter can be substituted for

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another and ideas like that. For example, you would have often seen both tt! and td!. It also
helps us understand why Parama Poojya Swamiji pronounces yMbk< yjamhe the way He does.

v[aR>

%TpiTtSwanain

SwanjNyv[Rnamain

A Aa A3

k{Q

k{Q(>

talu

talVy>

mUxaR

mUxRNy>

dNta>

dNTy>

AaE:QaE

AaE:Q(

kog"'
h ivsgR (>) ]
# $ #3

cDjH|
yz

\ \& \3

qQfF[
r;

l& l&3
twdxn
ls

% ^ %3

p ) b _a m
%pXmanIy> (: p

:))

( actually the two smilies I've


mentioned earlier)

' |[nm

naiska

@NKp{Q#

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Anunaisk>
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@ @e

k{Qtalu

k{QtalVy>

Aae AaE

k{Qae:Qm!

k{Qae:Q(

dNtae:Qm!

dNtae:Q(

ijamUlIy> (: k : o)

ijamUlIm!

ijamUlIy>

AnuSvar>

naiska

( smilies again.)

] is a v[R> that has been given a position of equal standing in the v[Rmala in the Vedas.

Sanskrit grammar, whether modern or classical, visualizes it as k! + ;! and you will therefore
find it in the dictionary in the k! section.

However, we have retained all the v[Ra> that are in the original v[Rmala ,
This has an important effect on pronunciations.

The ivsgR carries forward the sound of the letter just before it.

v[R> is pronounced v[Rh, v[Ra> is pronounced v[aRha, v[ER> is pronounced v[ERih


gu> is pronounced guhu and so on and so forth.

When the ivsgR is followed by a k!, o!, p!, or a )!, the ivsgR is forcefully expressed. Going by
this, if the ivsgR were to be followed by ]!, which, according to grammar a k! + ;!, the ivsgR
should have been forcefully expressed. But it is not. In this case, the ivsgR does what it is
supposed to do....it carries forward the sound of the letter just before it.

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C) Maheshwar Sutras.

maher-sUai[
mhi;R> pai[in> s<SktVyakr[Sy xanacayR> , pai[ne> pUvRmip Aneke vEyakr[a> Aasn! , ikNtu te;a< Nwe
A*Tve A}ata> AlBxa , l_ymane;u Nwe;u mhamune> pai[ne> Nw> acIntm>,

pai[in> baLykale mhamNdbui> AasIt! #it mNyte, Baalk> s> iv*ajRnay kmip AacayRm! %pagCDt!,
ikNtu Aicr< s> AacayRg&hat! in:kaist> A_avt!, ten Apmanen AtIv du>iot> pai[in> Ar{y< gTva

kQaera< tpSyam! Akraet!, t ANye kecn ispu;a> _agvt> zrSy %pasna< kuvRiNt Sm, te;a< sveR;a<

tpSyya sNtu:q> mhadev> Aaiv_aRy sveR_y> vryacnay Akwyt!, Tyek< tpSvI SvkIy< mnaerw< Nyvedyt!,
sveR;a< mnaerw< @ksawR< pUriytu< mher> ctudRzvar< fmm! Avadyt!, pai[in> ctudRzvar< fmnad< uTva

ctudRz sUai[ Arcyt!, Tyek< nad> A # % [! #Tyaid sUpe[ tSy k[Rkuhr< iv:q>, tain sUUai[
maher-sUai[ va kWyNte, @tain sUai[ Vyakr[Sy AaidsUai[ mNyNte,
1. A # % [!
2. \ l& k!

3. @ Aae '!
4. @e AaE c!

5. h y v r q!
6. l [!

7. | m ' [ n m!
8. H _a |!

9. " F x ;!
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10. j b g f d z!

11. o ) D Q w c q t v!
12. k p y!

13. z ; s r!
14. h l!,

Panini has based his entire grammatical work on these sutras. To avoid a detailed recital of the
letters, he used what is called the Tyahar . It is very much what you would see advertised in a
shop window " A-Z available here." Rather than list what he has, the shopkeeper, in his A-Z,
has conveyed the fact that he stores all that you need.

Similarly, when Panini wished to list only the Svra> , he just said Ac! and no more. Look at the

sutras again. Which sutra has the A ? The first. Which sutra ends in c! ? The fourth. Ignore
every v[R with the hlNt . They are called #t! v[aR> and are only indicatory letters which
disappear the minute the purpose of indication has been fulfilled.

List all the letters that are in the four sutras and hey presto, you have a list of all the Svra> !
Let's take another example. Hz! would be all the v[R s in the 3rd and 4th column. Gottitt??

The peculiarity of the Tyahar s is that they can start from any v[R, They may begin with a v[R
coming from the middle of the group, but they must end with an #t! v[R>,

Panini then worked on 41 such Tyahar s in his A:qaXyayI. [! comes twice as an #t! v[R>,

Whenever you have to choose the first, (1) will be written against the Tyahar . Whenever you
have to choose the second, (2) will be written against that Tyahar. Shall we try work with

Tyahar s as a home assignment? Please refer to Lesson 62 A.

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D) gu[ ,v&i, dI"R, sMsar[ changes.

You would have heard of suNdrm! and it's relative saEdyRm! . It is apparent that the % and AaE are

connected. What has happened here is a v&i . It is often difficult to remember these terms.

gu[ ,v&i, dI"R, sMsar[, So here is a list you can refer to when foxed by sandhis. The idea is
to see the correlation amongst alphabets.

Svr

\&

l&

@e

Aae

AaE

Aa

dI"R
gu[

Aae

Ar!

Al!

Aae

v&i

Aa

@e

AaE

Aar!

Aal!

@e

@e

AaE

AaE

y[! siNx>

y!

v!

r!

l!

Ayaid siNx>

Ay!

Aay!

Av!

Aav!

y!#

v! %

r! \

l!l&

Aa

sMsar[

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Lesson 62 A B

Exercises with the Maheshwara-Sutrani


Worksheets

List all the v[aR> in the Tyahar s below.


1. A[! (1)
2. Ak!
3. #k!

4. %k!
5. @'!

6. Ac!
7. #c!

8. @c!

9. @ec!

10. Aq!
11. A[! (2)
12. #[!

13. y[!

14. Am!
15. ym!

16. |m!

17. 'm!
18. y|!

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19. H;!

20. Az!
21. hz!

22. vz!

23. jz!
24. Hz!
25. bz!
26. Dv!
27. yy!
28. my!

29. oy!
30. cy!
31. yr!

32. Hr!
33. or!
34. cr!

35. zr!

36. Al!
37. hl!

38. vl!
39. rl!

40. Hl!
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41. zl!
You do not need answers for this worksheet, do you? That's why the lesson is named 62 A B.

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Lesson 63

Vyn-siNx>
Vyanjan Sandhi.
"Sandhi's not my cuppatea," was my refrain. till I realized that a sandhi was exactly what I
had done with both, 'Sandhi is' and a 'cup-pa-tea.'
O.K. so if it is such a common thing in speech, couldai find egzamples a plenty? Butsurely you
betcha bottondollar I could! Not only in English but in every language as well.
Just have a look at this.
Shuddup = Shut up. ( Vocabulary of the Younger Generation, not mine.)
An example of Hla< jzae=Nte,

It's just that us Indians love to study and have therefore made a science of something as
natural as sandhi. What happens is that a student who studies the science first becomes quite
dizzy with all the information, so I have here tried to provide the smelling salts.
It's not so bad.. I've survived and so will you. Let's tagjust one
stepatatime.
Is the combination of a consonant with another consonant, a vowel
To make Vyn-siNx> easy to memorize and recall at a later date, let's go over how the
consonants are classified again.

E"o

Fo>

G"o

H"o
Mo>

V"o

W"o

The shaded consonants are the kQaer-Vynain , The hard consonants.


The rest are m&du-Vynain , The soft consonants.
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Please note that for our grammar study, we will work with the consonants specified by Panini.
Make sure that you are familiar with lesson 62. It will help you tremendously.
Sandhi is a vast topic of study. Rather than do the whole lot, it seems practical to just go over
a few. (To give you an idea, we categorized sandhis into 40 sections of which we plan to do just
9). The table given below gives you examples of the ones you will see most often. Use it as a
guide while you are studying specific details of the sandhis given after the table on page 8 of
this lesson. There are plenty of examples, especially from the Bhagavad Gita, for you to work
with.

1.
a

Vyn-siNx>

kayRm!

%dahr[m!

Name of the
sandhi

Effect

Example

uTv
(Stae> una u> )

s! / tu

in close
proximity

with z! / cu
Concrete
examples

cu(ywas(m!

..respectively
)

s!

c!

mns! + clit =

s!

z!

Zz

rams! + zete =

t!

c!

Cc

st! + cirm! =

d!

j!

Jj

st! + jn> =

n!

j!

zaigRn! + jy> =

Level 1 - Month 17 Lessons 62 - 64


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z!

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mnlit,
ramZzete

sCcirm!,
sJjn>,
zaigRy>

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b

zZDae=iq

Hy!

first four of a vgR

followed by z!

z! optionally

converts into

D! if it is a t!
/ d! converts
into c!

concrete
examples

2.

t!

CD

Imt! + zrama>
= ImCDrama>

:quTv
:quna:qu>

concrete
examples

s! / tu

in close
proximity

;!

with ;! / qu

qu ( ywas(m!

s!

:;

rams! + ;:Q> =

s!

q!

:q

rams! + qIkte =

..respectively
)

ram:;:Q>

ram:qIkte,

3.

t!

q!

tt! + qIka =

;!

:q

#;> + t> = #:q>

;!

:q

k;! + t> = k:q>

;!

:[

k;! + n> = k:[>

tIka

jzTv

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a

Hla< jzae=Nte,

Hl! ( all the

corresponding

m&du Vyn

jz!

This generally
happens between
two different
words.

AnunaiskVynain y!

Concrete
examples

k!

gI

vak! + $z> =

c!

Ac! + ANt> =

q!

Aa

fa

;q! + Aann> =

t!

Aa

da

@tt! + Aaday =

t!

dI

jgt! + $z> =

t!

x!

}anat! + Xyan< =

a m&du Vyn

corresponding

x!

Bx!

Hla< jz! Hiz,


This generally
happens in the
middle of the
word.
Concrete

consonants minus
the

any Svr or a

r! l! and v! )

Hl! ( all the

consonants minus
the

AjNt>

;fann>

@tdaday
jgdIz>

}ana(an<

jz!

AnunaiskVynain

y! r! l! and v! )
_a!

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vagIz>

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l_a! + x> = lBx>


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examples

x!

x!

Hl! ( all the

kQaer Vyn

corresponding

bui>,

cTvR

4.

oir c,

consonants minus
the

vgR> + z! ;! s! )

r! l! and v! )

Concrete
examples

taeilR

d!

cr! ( first

five of each

AnunaiskVynain y!

bux! + ix> =

s!

Ts!

Aapd! + su =
AapTsu

d!

t!

Tt!

Ded! + ta = DeTta

d!

t!

Tt!

_aed! + ta = _aeTta

tu

l!

tvgR is

n!

l!

replaced by l!

n! is replaced
by a nasal l!,

concrete
examples

t!

l!

l!

n!

l!

nasal l!

dENyat! + lae_a> =
dENyaLlae_a>

avan! + l_ate
=ava~Ll_ate

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AnunaisksiNx>

yrae =nunaiske

=nunaiskae va,

yr! includes all the

(|! , m!, '! , [! ,

occurring at the end

n! )

Is replaced
by its own
corresponding
nasal,
optionally.

t!

m!

Nm!

consonants

excepting h!, yr!

followed by a
nasal

of a pd

Concrete
examples

aexat! + maeh> =
aexaNmaeh> /
aexad! maeh>

Tyye _aa;aya<
inTym!

concrete
examples

7.

yr!

Tyy ending in

d!

Tyyanunaisk>

m!

m!

is replaced by
its own
corresponding
nasal,
compulsorily

Anunaisk>

icd! + mym! =
icNmym!

AnuSvar

No need for a
tabular note. All
details at the end
of this Sandhi
chapter.
Reminders

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hirm! +vNde =
hir< vNde

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m!

nZDVyzan!

n! occurring at the
end of a pd

followed by a

Dv! (D! Q! w! q!

paQm! +pQit =
paQ< pQit

is replaced by

t! ) and then by
an Am! ( Svra> +

h! , y! v! r! l! ,
+ Anunaiska>,

concrete
examples

n!

c! / D!

z!~ / z<!

tan! + c = ta~~ /
ta<

n!

q! / Q!

;!~ / ;<!

tan! + Qaran! =
ta~~:Qaran! /
ta<:Qaran!

n!

t! / w!

s!~ / s<!

ASman! + tary =
ASma~Stary /
ASma<Stary

A;vad>

zan!
This rule does not
apply to zan!

siNx> n _avit

zan! + tnaeit =
zan! tnaeit,

1) uTv siNx>

a) (Stae> una >)


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s! and a v[R belonging to tu, in close proximity with z! and a v[R belonging to cu are replaced by
z! and a v[R belonging to cu,

Whenever there is a combination of s! or t! vgR (t!, w!, d!, x!, n!) WITH (either before or after)

z! or with the cvgR ( c!, D!, j!, H!, |! ) the s! changes into z! and the t vgR changes into its
corresponding c vgR (ywas(m! .that is respectively.) ,

amat! + cilt> = amaCcilt>,


sd! + jn> = sJjn>,

tan! + jyit = tayit ,


Here are a few examples:

1. n ih pZyaim mmapnu*aa-

*CDaekmuCDae;[imiNya[am! ,
AvaPy _aUmavspTnm&m!

raJy< sura[amip caixpTym! . gI0 2-8.


mmapnu*a-*CDaekmuCDae;[imiNya[am!

mm Apnu*at! yt! zaekm! %t! - zae;[m! #iNya[am! ( To figure out why z! has become D! , look at
the next sandhi zZDae=iq ,)

2. }an< te=h< siv}animd< vyaMyze;t>,

yJ}aTva neh _aUyae=NyJ}atVymviz:yte . gI0 7-2 .


yt! }aTva n #h _aUy> ANyt! }atVym! Aviz:yte

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3. AayaRTpZyit kidenmayRvdit twEv caNy> ,


AayRvCcEnmNy> z&[aeit

uTvaPyen< ved n cEv kit! . gI0 2-29 .


AayRvCc = AayRvt! c

4. eyae ih }anm_yasaJ}ana!yan< iviz:yte ,

XyanaTkmR)lTyagSTyagaCDaiNtrnNtrm! . gI0 12-12 .


A_yasaJ}ana!yan< = A_yasat! }anat!
b) zZDae=iq ,
Fully stated, Hy> z> D> Aiq , Here, in this sutra, the Hy> is drawn from a previous sutra. If

Hy! (first four of a vgR ) is followed by z! then that z! is optionally replaced by D! ,

If the z! is followed by Aq! , then if the Hy! v[R is a d! , it will be converted into a j! (Stae> una

u> ) and then that j! is converted into a c! (oir c ....Refer to Sandhi No. 4 ). If it is a t! ,
then it is replaced by c! (Stae> una u> ) ,

In tu + z! , the tu changes to cu and the z! changes to D! OR remains z! ,

Imt! + zram> = ImCDram> ,


mht! + zkqm! = mhCDkqm! ,

1. n ih pZyaim mmapnu*a*CDaekmuCDae;[imiNya[am! ,
AvaPy _aUmavspTnm&m!

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raJy< sura[amip caixpTym! . gI0 2-8 .


mmapnu*a-*CDaekmuCDae;[imiNya[am!
mm Apnu*at! yt! zaekm! %t! - zae;[m! #iNya[am!
This could have been written as

mmapnu*a-*CzaekmuCzae;[imiNya[am!
2. eyae ih }anm_yasaJ}ana!yan< iviz:yte ,
XyanaTkmR)lTyagSTyagaCDaiNtrnNtrm! . gI0 12-12 .
TyagaCDaiNt = Tyagat! zaiNt

2) :quTv siNx>
:quna:qu>

Fully stated, Stae> :quna:qu> , Here, in this sutra, the Stae> is drawn from a previous sutra.

s! and a v;R belonging to tu, in close proximity with ;! and a v[R belonging qu are replaced by ;!
and a v[R belonging to qu ,

Whenever there is a combination of s! or t vgR (t!, w!, d!, x!, n! ) WITH ;! or with the q vgR

(q!, Q!, f!, F!, [! ) the s! changes into ;! and the t vgR changes into its corresponding q vgR ,
rams! + ;:Q> = ram:;:Q> ,
#;! + t> = #:q> ,

iv;! + nu> = iv:[u> ,


k;! + n> = k:[> ,

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3) jzTv siNx>

a) Hla< jzae=Nte ,
Fully stated, pdSy ANte Hla< jz> ,

Whenever there is a combination of Hl! ( all the consonants {minus the AnunaiskVynain }, y! r!

l! and v! ) WITH any Svr or a m&du Vyn, it changes into its corresponding jz! ( the third v[R

of each vgR ) , This happens only if the sandhi taking place is between two different words. If
the sandhi is in the word itself then Hla< jz! Hiz is followed. (Basically it is the same sandhi
but given a different name.)

h! having the same place of utterance as k vgR (k{Q ) will be replaced with that corresponding
v[R ,

z! having the same place of utterance as c vgR ( talu ) will be replaced with that corresponding
v[R ,

;! having the same place of utterance as q vgR ( mUxaR ) will be replaced with that corresponding
v[R ,

s! having the same place of utterance as t vgR ( dNta> ) will be replaced by that corresponding
v[R ,

idk! + AMbr> = idgMbr> ,


1. n ih ih pZyaim mmapnu*aLevel 1 - Month 17 Lessons 62 - 64
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*CDaekmuCDae;[imiNya[am! ,
AvaPy _aUmavspTnm&m!

raJy< sura[amip caixpTym! . gI0 2-8 .


mmapnu*a*CDaekmuCDae;[imiNya[am! ,

mm Apnu*at! yt! zaekm! %t! -zae;[m! #iNya[am! ,


2. mnu:ya[a< she;u ki*tit isye ,

yttamip isana< kiNma< veiTt tTTvt> . gI0 7-3 .


ki*tit = kit! ytit
3. AayaRTpZyit kiden-

mayRvdit twEv caNy> ,


AayRvCcEnmNy> z&[aeit

uTvaPyen< ved n cEv kit! . gI0 2-29.


kidenm! = kit! @nm!

AayRvdit = AayRvt! vdit

4. yTkraei; ydZnais yJjuhaei; ddais yt! ,


yTtpSyis kaENtey tTku:v mdpR[m! . gI0 9-27 .
ydZnais = yt! AZnais

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yJjuhaei; = yt! juhaei;


mdpR[m! = mt! ApR[m!

5. eyae ih }anm_yasaJ}ana(an< iviz:yte ,

XyanaTkmR)kTyagStyagaCDaiNtrnNtrm! . gI0 12-12 .


}ana(an< = }anat! Xyan<
b) Hla< jz! Hiz ,

Whenever there is a combination of Hl! (Vynm!) WITH any Hz!

(m&duVynm! ) it changes into its corresponding jz! ( third consonant) , This generally happens
in the middle of the word.

bux! + ix> = bui> ,


l_a! + x> = lBx> ,

4) cTvR siNx>
oir c ,

Fully stated, oir pre Hla< cr! , Here, in this sutra, the cr! (first consonant of each vgR> + z!, ;!,

s!) is drawn from a previous sutra.

Whenever there is a combination of Hl! WITH a kQaer Vyn ,


it changes into its corresponding cr! ,

Aapd! + su = AapTsu ,

1. AayaRTpZyit kidenAayRvCcEnmNy> z&[aeit


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uTvaPyen< ved n cEv kit! . gI0 2-29 .

AayaRt! + pZyit = AayaRTpZyit , ( t! does not get converted into d! because it is followed
by a kQaerVynm! )

2. yTkraei; ydZnais yJjuhaei; ddais yt! ,

yTtpSyis kaENtey tTku:v mdpR[m! . gI0 9-27 .


yTkraei; = yt! kraei;

yTtpSyis = yt! tpSyis


tTku:v = tt! ku:v
3. eyae ih }anm_yasaJ}ana!yan< iviz:yte ,

XyanaTkmR)lTyagSTyagaCDaiNtrnNtrm! . gI0 12-12 .


XyanaTkmR)l = Xyanat! kmR)l

5) taeilR

Fully stated, tae> ( ;q(Nt tu ) il ( lkare pre ) prsv[R> ,


A consonant of tvgR followed by l! is replaced by one homogenous with the latter - prsv[R - in
this case, l! ,

dENyat! lae_a> - dENyaLlae_a> ,

Aa_auvnaLlaeka> - _auvnat! Llaeka>,


n! is replaced by a nasal l! ,

ava~Ll_ate }anm! - avan! l_ate ,


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1. mUF jhIih xnagmt&:[a< ku sui< mnis ivt&:[am! ,

yLl_ase injkmaeRpaTt< , ivTt< ten ivnaedy icTtm! , (_aj gaeivNdm! - 2)


yLl_ase = yt! l_ase

6) AnunaisksiNx>

a) yrae =nunaiske =nunaiskae va ,

Fully stated, pdaNtSy yr> Anunaiske pre Anunaisk> va ,

yr! includes all the consonants excepting h! ,

yr! occurring at the end of a pd followed by a nasal ( |! , m! , '! , [! , n! ) is replaced by its own
corresponding nasal, optionally.

aexat! maeh> = aexaNmaeh> / aexad! maeh> ,


@tNme s<zy< k&:[ = @tt! me / @td! me ,
idk! + nag> = id'!nag> / idGnag> ,

r! remains as it is, it has no corresponding nasal.


punr! maeh> - punmaeRh> ,

1. ySmaNnae ijte laekae laekaNnaeijte c y> ,

h;aRm;R_ayaeegEmuRKtae y> s c me iy> . gI0 12-15 .


ySmaNnae = ySmat! nae

laekaNnae = laekat! nae


b) Tyye _aa;aya< inTym! . ( vaitRk )
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The rule yrae =nunaiske =nunaiskae va is compulsory if the Tyy that is added ends in m! ,

ikyt! + mam! = ikyNmam! - of little value.

7) AnuSvar siNx> ,
a) mae=nuSvar>,

Fully stated, m> AnuSvar> hil pre - ( hil is drawn from a previous sU ) - m!, at the end of a pd
is :

1 ) replaced by an AnuSvar if it is followed by a consonant.

2) when it appears at the end of a pd or at the end of a sentence, it remains as it is.

1. mUF jhIih xnagmt&:[a< ku sui< mnis ivt&:[am! ,

yLl_ase injkmaeRpaTt< , ivTt< ten ivnaedy icTtm! , (_aj gaeivNdm! - 2)


2. ik< td! ikmXyaTm< ik< kmR pu;aeTtm ,

Aix_aUt< c ik< aeKtmixdEv< ikmuCyte . ( gI0 8-1 )


b) va pdaNtSy ,

At the end of a pd, the AnuSvar can be replaced by an Anunaisk v[R which is homogenous to
the v[R which follows it.

ik< kraei; / ikraei; , cN< pZyit / cNMpZyit ,


c) napdaNtSy Hil ,

n! and m! not at the end of a pd are replaced by an AnuSvar when followed by Hl! - yza<is ,
d) AnuSvarSy yiy prsv[R> ,

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When AnuSvar is followed by a yy! v[R it is replaced by an Anunaisk which is homogenous to the
latter. pj> , sit> , k{Q , kaNta ,

8) nZDVyzan! , (Cracked it!!!! Here's why it is kiSm<it! and not kiSmit!

!!!!)

n! occurring at the end of a pd is replaced by if followed by a Dv! and then by an Am! ,

This rule does not apply to zan! ( an avyaya meaning "tranquil") , ( Please have a look at the
table for clear examples.)

Aanunaisk> pUvRSy tu va ,

The v[R preceding is optionally nasalised.

AnunaiskaTprae= nuSvar> ,

When it is not nasalised an AnuSvar is added.


Thus

kiSmn! ict! = kiSmr! ict! , nZDVyzan! ,

= kiSm~~r! ict! , Aanunaisk> pUvRSy tu va ,

or = kiSm<r! ict! , AnunaiskaTprae= nuSvar> ,

This r! is replaced by the ivsgR and later by s! , Then the siNx> rules are followed to give
either a kiSm~it! ,
or a kiSm<it! ,

Similarly, _avan! crit = _avar! crit


= _ava~r! crit / _ava<r! crit
= _ava~rit / _ava<rit ,

a[a<STyKTva - a[an! TyKTva . gI0 1-33 .


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}avada< _aa;se - }avadan! c . gI 2-11 .


But not in the case of zan! it:Qit ,

1. AzaeCyanNvzaecSTv< }avada< _aa;se ,

gtasUngtasU< nanuzaeciNt pi{fta> . gI0 2-11 .


}avada< = }avadan! c
AgtasU< = AgtasUn! c

***
You may not require to know any more sandhis than the ones listed in this lesson. If you do
come across undecipherable ones, please write. We'll respond to individual requests.

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Lesson 64.

smas-ivcar>
Samas Vichar.
A long long time ago, everything that needed to be passed from generation to generation
was done in the form of verse. Verse was the only means of ensuring that knowledge was
protected. It may have been years since we've left school, but who has forgotten 'Jack and
Jill'? Prose, on the other hand, has been relegated to the back alleys of our mind.

In the midst of all this poetic creativity, a natural problem reared its head. Sanskrit is the

only language in the classical world which makes use of Tyys. The use of Tyys helps every

single word to have an identity and a meaning of its very own. But fitting the word + Tyy into
a metre in verse form was a difficult task indeed. "What to do?" asked a poet. "No problem!
Let's create a shortcut," said another. And smas came into being. smas, s m s was the
original SMS Short Message Service. Be proud guys, we created it!!!!!!
I kid you not. There does exist such a verb: Ah< smSyaim does indeed mean 'I am creating a
synopsis. or in our layman terms a shortcut.'

smas allows a person to string two words together to form one single word. And "ishortcut

ishtyle" the first word is written without an appropriate Tyy. For example instead of saying

ra}> pu> I'd say rajpu> and still make complete sense.

Why does Devdas have to romance his love with a long drawn out, "You have such a beautiful
face just like the moon!" All he'd do is say "Aiy cNmuio" Devdas too, by the way, is a smas

word. devSy das> , devdas> , The difference between a siNx> and a smas> would be that in the

former, two letters combine to form a single whole letter or a conjoined letter( either in the
middle of a word or between two words to form a single word) and in the latter, two words are
placed side by side (without the need for a siNx> to take place) to form a single word.

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In a smas: , the smStpd is the compound word devdas> , ivh is when you break it up into
its components.. devSy das> ,

Naturally, it is with time that you will figure out in which combinations these work out, for

example dasdev> would not be correct. And it is with time that you will figure out which words
can be made a smas of. For example, vnaPt> is allowed and NOT vnaPtvan! , Not to worry.
In this case at least Time will wait for the Sanskrit enthusiast!

Note:

This lesson is to help you figure out what smas words mean whenever you come across them in

your course of reading. You also now have the wherewithal to form your own combination words
intelligently.
Another thing to remember is that people are all made differently. Many a time you will find
that someone may have formed a smas in one way and you may prefer another. Both may be
correct. So just relax and enjoy learning something new.

smas can be divided into 6 classes according to the sense that they convey when dissolved.
Nae igurip cah< md!gehe inTymVyyI_aav> ,
tTpu; kmRxary yenah< Sya< bhuIih> .

For our convenience, I have divided them into 9 groups. I have been better able to retain the
information with a wider classification like that.
1. AVyyI_aav> A word which conveys a meaning, is a part of the smas which, after the
combination of the two words, becomes an AVyy , For example:

add su to indicate saE_aaGy 'lots of goodness.' sumlm! = mlana< sm&i> lots of


auspiciousness.

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2. tTpu;> In this smas, the second word of the smas is given importance. For example:

devdas> = devSy das> , The first part of the word is simply an apt description of the
second. We are talking about the das> here and not the dev> ,

3. kmRxary> In this smas, one word is an adjective of the other. It is a part of the tTpu;>,
but we shall list it separately for convenience's sake. For example: nIlaeTplm! = nIlm!

%Tplm! ,

4. igu> In this smas, which is a part of the kmRxary>, the first word is a number; how
many in a collection of things. For example : pvqI = pana< vqana< smahar> ,
5. N> Be sure to look out for the c between words in the ivh> of this smas> !!! For
example: hirhrgurv> / hirguhra> = hir hr gu ,

6. bhuIih> When two words are put together to imply something totally different, bhuIih>
is what you see. For example: cNmaEil> = cN> maElaE ySy s>, Here, we are neither

giving importance to the moon or to the forehead but the Person who is adorned so:
Shiva.
7. Aluk!smas> is not really a different smas> , Whenever, two words are put together
and the iv_aiKt of the first word remains intact, then smas> takes place. Depending
on the smas> itself, it can be any of the above smas> s. For example: yuixi:Qr> = yuix

iSwr> ,

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8. n|!smas>

is not really a different smas> , Whenever you wish to convey 'the

absence' of something, this smas> is used. For example: Aiv> = n iv> ,

9. %ppdsmas> see how the noun is described here.. A_ayr> = A_ay< kraeit #it ,

smas> is a vast topic. Sorry, I made a mistake, a VAST TOPIC. We need to be practical

about such things. We can't handle it all at this stage. Let's go over a few details to help us
decode what we may most often come across. A tabular column will help.
1. AVyyI_aavsmas> ,

You will recognize the AVyyI_aavsmas> in words

1. Where the first part of the word is an AVyy or a inpat ( inpata> are particles which
possess no gender and number and the case termination after which is dropped or
elided. For example cady> (c and others) and ady> ( and others)

2. The second part of the word is a noun (s}a ).

3. The combined word is an AVyy and is npu<. @kvcnm! ,

4. The combined word smStpdm! is different from the ivh> , because the conveys a AVyy
special meaning to the noun.
Addition of AVyy to

smStpdm!

ivh>

Aixhir

hraE #it

%pk&:[m!

k&:[Sy smIpm!

ins! or inr! absence

injRnm!

jnanam! A_aav>

Anu behind/ following

Anurwm!

rwSy pat!

mean

Aix
%p

in, on
closeness

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it

every

ywa in that manner

itidnm!

idn< idnm!

ywaziKt no spelling error

ziKtmnitMy

here. There is no visarga. All


these words are AVyy s
remember?

with/ resembling

Aa beyond / upto

sjnkm!

jnken sh / jnkSy sad&Zym!

Aaihmalym!

Aa ihmalyat!

AamuiKt
Aabalv&m!
bih>

bihmaRmm!

outside

Anu near/ towards

AnukUlm!

it a) away from

itkUlm!

(opposite of the meaning


in the above row)
b) repetition

( cIndez> )

A muKte> ( muiKt tk, muiKt ke


pUvR )

a life span ( !! )

amt! bih>
towards the bank
against the bank

itidnm!

idne idne

su abundance, prosperity

summ!

ma[a< sm&i>

dur! adversity, poverty

duyRvnm!

yvnana< Vy&i>

Ait destruction, end of

Aitihmm!

ihmSy ATyy>

Ait inappropriate

Aitinm!

ina sMit n yuJyte

#it utterance of sound

#it hir

hirzBdSy kaz>

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Aa a) starting from
b) uptil

a) AajNm

b) Aamr[m!

a) jNmn> Aar_y
b) mr[pyRNtm!

2. tTpu;smas> ,

tTpu;smas> is that smas> wherein the first word-part's iv_aiKt-Tyy is dropped. Depending
on which iv_aiKt-Tyy that first part would have taken if broken into it's ivh> , the

tTpu;smas> is given that particular name. For example: itIyatTpu;> ,

Go over the short explanation of tTpu;smas> at the very beginning of this lesson.
Note: The word tTpu;> itself will help you remember what smas> this involves. tSy pu;> =

tTpu;> !!

itIyatTpu;>

smStpdm!

ivh>

zr[agt>

zr[m! Aagt>

du>oatIt>

dU>om! AtIt>

k&:[ait>

k&:[m! Aait>

amaPt>

am< aPt>

zaekpitt>

zaek< pitt>

me"aTySt>

me"m! ATySt>

_aymapNn>

_aym! AapNn>

amgmI

am< gmI

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t&tIyatTpu;>

ANnbu_au]u>

ANn< bu_au]u>

ba[aht>

ba[en Aaht>

of!ght>

of!gen ht>

izvaat>

izvya at>

izvat>

izven at>

iv*ahIn>

iv*ya hIn>

}anzUNy>

}anen zUNy>

mat&sd&z>

maa sd&z>

ipt&tuLy>

ipa tuLy>

hirat>

hir[a at>

tTk&tm!

ten k&tm!

kaildasrictm!

kaildasen rictm!

maspUvR>

masen pUvR>

at&sm>

aa sm>

xaNyaenm!

xaNyen ^nm!

xaNyeivklm!

xaNyen ivklm!

vaKklh>

vaca klh>

Aacarkuzl>

Aacare[ kuzl>

zkRraimm!

zkRrya imm!

gufyuKtm!

gufen yuKtm!

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kunZl][m!

kunen Zl][m

masavr>

masen Avr>

And that is the sole reason why you cannot have d{fetaiftvan! as a t&tIyatTpu;> , taiftvan! is a
Present active participle and doesn't fit with the rules stated above. Instead, you may have a

d{ftaift> , Gottit?

ctuwIRtTpu;>

smStpdm!

ivh>

ku{flihr{ym!

ku{flay ihr{ym!

yUpda

yUpay da

kuM_am&iTtka

kuM_aay m&iTtka

ijawR>

ijay Aym!

DaawaR

Daay #ym!

izZvwRm!

izzve #dm!!

_aUtbil>

_aUte_yae bil>

gaeihtm!

gve ihtm!

for eg: sUp>

for eg: yvagU>


for eg: duGxm!

Note:
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The compound gudi][a cannot be separated into gurve di][a , The ivh> has to be gurae>

di][a ,
pmItTpu;>

Exceptions

;:QItTpu;>

smStpdm!

ivh>

caer_aym!

caerat! _aym!

v&k_aIit>

v&kat! _aIit>

Vya_aIt>

Vyaat! _aIt>

Ayzae_aI>

Ayzs> _aI>

amingRt>

amat! ingRt>

AxmRjuguPsu>

AxmaRd! juguPsu>

SvgRpitt>

SvgaRt! pitt>

papmuKt>

papat! muKt>

AiNtkadagt>

AiNtkat! Aagt> ( AiNtk)

dUradagt>

dUrat! Aagt> ( dUr)

StaekaNmuKt>

Staekat! muKt> ( Staek)

smStpdm!

ivh>

rajpu;>

ra}> pu;>

devpUjk>

devSy pUjk>

$r_aKt>

$rSy _aKt>

devaly>

devSy Aaly>

svRmhan!

sveR;a< mhTtr>

svRet>

sveR;a< ettr>

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Exceptions

ANnSy pack> ( Ak Tyy>)

xnSy htaR ( t&c! Tyy> )

jgt> :qa ( t&c! Tyy> )

"qSy ktaR ( t&c! Tyy>)

a[Sy ktRVym! (tVy Tyy> )

a[Sy k&Tva ( AVyy)

ra}a< pUijt> ( Kt Tyy> added


to pUj!)

sPtmItTpu;>

aid tTpu;>

vI[avI[>

vI[aya< vI[>

vedpi{ft>

vede pi{ft>

kaVykuzl>

kaVye kuzl>

zaSinpu[>

zaSe;u inpu[>

kayRcpl>

kayeR cpl>

jllIn>

jle lIn>

jlmGn>

jle mGn>

kayRctur>

kayeR ctur>

SwalIpKv>

SwaLya< pKv>

smStpdm!

ivh>

acayR

gt> AacayR

iptamh>

gt> iptamh>

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AitmyaRd>

AitaNt> myaRdm!

Ty]>

itgt> A]m!

%el>

%t> velam!

ingR&h>

ingRt> g&hat!

3. kmRxarysmas> ,
This one is really simple. Whenever two words, one which is an adjective of the other, are

combined, you have a kmRxarysmas> , So you will have a combination of a ivze;[ and a ivze:y,

an %pman and an %pmey , Since one is a ivze;[ of the other, naturally, when a ivh> is formed,
both the words will be in the same iv_aiKt> ,

You may see the words c AsaE, #v, @v, in the ivh> to reinforce the relationship between the
two words.

su meaning "beautiful/ good" and ku (kuiTst) meaning "bad" are added to words to form a
kmRxarysmas> ,
Note:

Why has this particular smas> been called kmRxary ? Simple.

Let's look at an example nIlaeTplm! , %Tpl< nIlv[R< xaryit , nIl< becomes the object in the
sentence.

Similarly, gu
u dev> , guu> devSy pd< xaryit , Alternatively it could be: dev> gurae> p< xaryit , If
you look at the examples in the tabular column, you'll begin to see how one of the words
"becomes" the object of the other.
Even if that may not be an authentic explanation, why must we reject it if it helps us
remember what the kmRxarysmas> is?!!

kmRxarysmas>

smStpdm!

ivh>

mhadev>

mhan! c AsaE dev>

Level 1 - Month 17 Lessons 62 - 64


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Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme Month 17

k&:[spR>

k&:[> spR>

nIlaeTplm!

nIlm! %Tplm!

dI"RrJju>

dI"aR rJju>

kusumkaemlm!

kusumm! #v kaemlm!

cNmuom!

cN #v muom!

muopm!

muo< pm! #v

muokmlm!

muo< kmlm! #v

pu;is<h>

pu;> is<h> #v

k&:[et>

k&:[ et (both are

SnatanuilPt>

Snat AnuilPt (Kt TyyaNt

cracrm!

cr Acr (opposites)

gudev>

gu> @v dev>

iv*axnm!

iv*a @v xnm!

tpaexnm!

tp> @v xnm!

vedsMpt!

ved> @v sMpt!

AyaeXyangrI

AyaeXya #it ngrI

Aav&]>

Aa #it v&]>

kupu>

kuiTst> pu>

Level 1 - Month 17 Lessons 62 - 64


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adjectives)

ivze;[s)

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Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme Month 17

kumata

kuiTsta mata

supu;>

zae_an> pu;>

sujn>

zae_an> jn>

Svagtm!

zae_anm! Aagtm!

4. igusmas> ,

smas with numbers!! Just the examples themselves will help you figure out what is what!
igusmas>

smStpdm!

ivh>

pgvm!

pana< gva< smahar>

ppam!

pana< paa[a< smahar>

i_auvnm!

ya[a< _auvnana< smahar>

ctuyuRgm! / ctuyuRgI

ctu[aR< yugana< smahar>

sPtah>

sPtanam! Aa< smahar>

nvram! / nvraI

nvana< raI[a< smahar>

ilaekI

ya[a< laekana< smahar>


(AkaraNt laek kevl<
SIile)

pmUlI

pana< mUlana< smahar> (AkaraNt

pvqI

pana< vqana< smahar> (AkaraNt

Level 1 - Month 17 Lessons 62 - 64


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mUl kevl< SIile)

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Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme Month 17

vq kevl< SIile)
ztaBdI

ztanam! ABdana< smahar>

;{matur>

;{[a< mat[am! ApTym!

Ematur>

yae> maae> ApTym!

pgvxn>

p gav> xn< ySy s>

pgoq!vI / poq!vm!

pana< oq!vana< smahar> (


AakaraNt oq!va)

5. Nsmas> ,
Just take a look at the examples. Easy.
Between every word, be sure to add the c . A compound of two words will be dual and a

compound of more than two will be in the plural. A point to be noted is that words beginning
with a vowel and words ending in AkaraNt should come first.

smStpdm!

ivh>

hirhraE

hir hr (#karaNt words before AkaraNt)

$zk&:[aE

$z k&:[

ArweNa> / #Narwa>

A rw #N

izvkezvaE

izv kezv

I:mvsNtaE

I:m vsNt

hemNtizizrvsNta>

hemNt izizr vsNt

mataiptraE

mata c ipta c

Level 1 - Month 17 Lessons 62 - 64


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Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme Month 17

pai[padm!

pai[ c padaE c @te;a< smahar>

riwkaaraehm!

riwka Aaraeha @te;a< smahar>

kakaelUkm!

kak %lUk Anyae> smahar>

pupaEm!

pu paE Anyae> smahar>

dasIdasm!

dasI c das Anyae> smahar>

pupaEm!

pu paE Anyae> smahar>

@kaze;> a part of the Nsmas> ,


When similar things are put together and the entire compound is described by just one of the
words, either in the dual or plural, @kaze;> is seen.

smStpdm!

ivh>

v&]aE

v&] v&]

iptraE

mata c ipta c

atraE

ata c Svsa c

puaE

pu duihta c

h<saE

h<s h<sI c

taE

s c ram

yaE

s c y

_avNt>

_avNt _avTy

vym!

yUy< c vy< c

ramaE

ram ram

Level 1 - Month 17 Lessons 62 - 64


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Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme Month 17

6. bhuIih>
Read our simple explanation again of this particular smas> (given at the beginning of the

lesson) then let's move on. You'll find either both the words of the ivh> in the same iv_aiKt>
or they may be in different iv_aiKt>s.

Since we are talking about someone else altogether, you need to describe the compound by
adding a y< s>, yen s>, ySya> sa and the like.

In other cases you'll see compounds formed by a combination of sh with the t&tIya iv_aiKt> ,

Note:

The word bhuIih> itself means "a person who has plenty of rice". In other words, a wealthy
man. A long time ago, parents would give their daughter in marriage to Mr. bhuIih>, who would
have the capacity to look after their child well. It won't be difficult now to connect this word
to what the smas> implies.

smStpdm!

ivh>

aPtaedk>

aPtm! %dk< y< s>

htzu> (raja)

hta zv> yen s> ,

k&t_aaejn>

k&t< _aaejn< yen s> ,

AxItkaVya

AxIt< kaVy< yya sa ,

x&tpu:pa

x&tain pu:pai[ yya sa ,

same iv_aiKt>

Level 1 - Month 17 Lessons 62 - 64


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Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme Month 17

dTt_aaejnm!

dTt< _aaejn< ySmE s> ,

%taEdna (SwalI)

%t> Aaedn> ySya> sa ,

pittp[R> (v&]>)

pittain p[aRin ySmat! s> ,

giltpu:pa (lta)

giltain pu:pai[ ySya> sa ,

pvayR>

pvtI _aayaR ySy s>

ga_aayR>

ga _aayaR ySy s> ,

dFa_aiKt>

dFa _aiKt> ySy s> ,

(i_a]uk>)

similarly : pItMbr>,

dzann> , cturann>,
ctumuRo>, pyaein>
vIrpu; (am>)

vIra> pu;a> yiSmn! s> ,

gdapai[>

gda pa[aE ySy s> ,

gfuk{Q>

gfu> k{Qe ySy s> ,

_aalcN>

_aale cN> ySy s> ,

cNmaEil>

cN> maElaE ySy s> ,

iv;k{Q>

iv;< k{Qe ySy s> ,

k{Qekal>

k{Qe kal> ySy s> ,

spu> / shpu>

pue[ sh vtRte #it

Different iv_aiKt>s .

with sh

Level 1 - Month 17 Lessons 62 - 64


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(pue[ siht> )

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Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme Month 17

skuquMb> / shkuquMb>

kuquMben sh vtRte #it ,

skmRk>

kmR[a sh vtRte #it ,

slaemk>

laeMna sh vtRte #it ,

mhayzSk> / mhayza>

mht! yz> ySy s> (kp! is added because no


other rule is applied to yz! when forming
the compound)

%daTtmnSk> / %daTtmna>

%daTt< mn> ySy s> (kp! is added because no


other rule is applied to mns! when forming
the compound)

kp! is also added

when the last word

$rktuRk>

$r> ktaR ySy s> (\karaNt pu.)

suzIlmat&k>

suzIla mata ySy s> (\karaNt SI.)

ANnxat&k>

ANn< xat& ySy s> (\karaNt npu.)

suNdrvxUk>

suNdrI vxU> ySy s> (^karaNt SIil)

pvTSIk>

pvtI SI ySy s> ($karaNt SIil)

is a \karaNt in any
gender, or is an

$karaNt or %karaNt
SIil word

7. Aluk! smas> ,
In cases where the iv_aiKt remains in the smStpdm! , Aluk! smas> is seen. It can be any of the
ones that we have studied in detail.

Level 1 - Month 17 Lessons 62 - 64


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Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme Month 17

smStpdm!

ivh>

yuixi:Qr>

yuix iSwr>

sPtmItTpu;>

duradagt>

durat! Aagt>

pmItTpu;>

dasIpu>

daSya> pu>

;:QItTpu;>

gehezUr>

gehezUr>

sPtmItTpu;>

prSmEpdm!

prSmE pdm!

ctuwIRtTpu;>

AaTmnepdm!

AaTmne pdm!

ctuwIRtTpu;>

k{Qekal>

k{Qe kal>

Vyixkr[bhuIih

vnecr>

vne cr>

%ppdsmas>

8. n|!smas> ,
Add an A if it is followed by a Vynm! and an An if followed by a Svr> ,

smStpdm!

ivh>

AsNdeh>

n sNdeh>

Aivn>

n ivn>

An>

n A>

Anagmnm!

n Aagmnm!

Aivvad>

n ivvad>

Apqu>

n pqu>

Level 1 - Month 17 Lessons 62 - 64


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AwR

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Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme Month 17

AnupliBx>

n %pliBx>

ApNwa> / ApNwm!

n pNwa>

Apu>

Aiv*man> pu> ySy s>

AnpTy>

Aiv*manm! ApTy< ySy s>

ApuIk>

Aiv*mana puI ySy s>

Aja>

Aiv*man> ja ySy s>

Amexa>

Aiv*mana mexa ySy s>

Ashay>

n iv*te shay> ySy s>

AnpTya

n iv*te ApTy< ySya> sa

An&[>

n AiSt \[< ySy s>


9. %ppdsmas>

This is a smas> with %ppds. Here the word %ppd stands for any noun.

smStpdm!

ivh>

kuM_akar>

kuM_a< kraeit #it

inzakr>

inza< kraeit #it

tuNdpirm&j>

tuNd< pirmai:Rq #it

%:[_aaejI

%:[< _au'!Kte #it

saemyajI

saemen #:qvan! #it

zaSk&t! / zaSkar>

zaS< kraeit #it

Level 1 - Month 17 Lessons 62 - 64


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Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme Month 17

_aa:yk&t! / _aa:ykar>

_aa:y< kraeit #it

iy<vd>

iy< vdit #it

_ayr>

_ay< kraeit #it

v<zvd>

v<z< vdit #it

A_ayr>

A_ay< kraeit #it

xnd>

xn< ddait #it

samg>

sam gayit #it

pi{ftmNy> / pi{ftmanI

pi{ftm! (AaTman<) mNyte #it ,


Worksheets.

Just try and understand this:

smas _agvIta adzaeXyaay>

@v< sttyuKta ye _aKtaSTva< pyuRpaste ,

ye caPy]rmVyKt< te;a< ke yaegivTtma> . 1 .


1 ) n ]rm! - A]rm! , (n|! tTpu; )

2 ) n VyKtm! - AVyKtm! , (n|! tTpu; )

3 ) yaege ivTtma> - yaegivTtma> , (sPtmI tTpu; )


siNnyMyeiNyam< svR smbud!xy> ,

te aPnuviNt mamev svR_aUtihte rta> . 4 .


1 ) sma bui> ye;a< te - smbud!xy> , ( bhuIih )

2 ) sveR_y> ihtm! - svRihtm! , tiSmn! - svR_aUtihte , ( ctuwIR tTpu; )

Level 1 - Month 17 Lessons 62 - 64


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Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme Month 17

AwEtdPyzKtae=is ktuR< m*aegmait> ,

svRkmR)lTyag< tt> ku ytaTmvan! . 11 .


1) mm yaegm! - m*aegm! , (;:QI tTpu;)

m*aegm! Aait> - m*aegmait> , (itIya tTpu;)


2) svaRi[ kmaRi[ - svRkmaRi[ , (kmRxary)

svRkmaR[a< )lain - svRkmR)lain , (;:QI tTpu;)

svRkmR)lana< Tyag> - svRkmR)lTyag>, tm! - svRkmR)lTyagm! , (;:QI tTpu;)


Ae:qa svR_aUtana< mE> k[ @v c ,

inmRmae inrhar> smdu>osuo> ]mI . 13 .

1) sveR _aUta> - svR_aUta> , te;a<m! - svR_aUtanam! , (kmRxary)


2) ingRt< mmTv< ySmat! s> - inmRm> , (aid bhuIih)

3) ingRt> Ahar> ySmat! s> - inrhar> , (aid bhuIih)


4) du>o< c suo< c - du>osuoe , (Nh)

sm> du>osuoyae> y> s> - smdu>osuo> , (bhuIih)


sNtu:q> stt< yaegI ytaTma dFiny> ,

mYyipRtmnaebuiyaeR mKt> s me iy> . 14 .


1) dF> iny>- dFiny> , (kmRxary)

dFiny> ySy s> - dFiny> , (bhuIih)


2) mn> c bui> - mnaebui , (N)

AipRt< mnaebui yen s> - AipRtmnaebui> , (bhuIih)


Level 1 - Month 17 Lessons 62 - 64
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Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme Month 17

ySmaNnaeijte laekae laekaNnaeijte c y> ,

h;aRm;R_ayaeegEmuRKtae y> s c me iy> . 15 .

1) h;R> c Am;R> c _ay< c %eg> c - h;aRm;R_ayaeega> , (N)


h;aRm;R_ayaeegE> muKt> y> s> - h;aRm;R_ayaeegEmuRKta> , (bhuIih)
Anpe]> zuicdR] %dasInae gtVyw> ,
svaRrM_apirTyagI yae mKt> s me iy> . 16 .

1) n iv*te Ape]a yiSmn! s> - Anpe]> , (bhuIih)


2) gta Vywa ySmat! s> - gtVyw> , (bhuIih)
yae n :yit n ei:q n zaecit n ka'!]it ,

zu_aazu_apirTyagI _aiKtmaNy> s me iy> . 17 .


1) zu_a< c Azu_a< c - zu_aazu_ae , (N)

zu_aazu_ayae> pirTyagI y> s> - zu_aazu_apirTyagI , (bhuIih)

sm> zaE c ime c twa manapmanyae> ,


zItae:[suodu>oe;u sm> sivvijRt> . 18 .

1) man> Apman> c - manapmanaE , tyae> - manapmanyae> , (N)

2) zIt< c %:[< c suo< c du>o< c - zItae:[suodu>oain , te;u - zItae:[suodu>oe;u , (N)


3) s< ivvijRt< yen s> - sivvijRt> , (bhuIih)

Level 1 - Month 17 Lessons 62 - 64


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Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme Month 17

tuLyinNdaStuitmaERnI sNtu:qae yen kenict! ,

Ainket> iSwrmit_aRiKtmaNme iyae nr> . 19 .

1 iSwra mit> ySy s> - iSwrmit> , (bhuIih)

***
Please do write in case you have any questions regarding this lesson. Hesitate not and thy
doubts shall be gone with the wind!

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