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Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme Month 18

Lesson 65.

%pkark/kark- iv_aiKt>
itIya iv_aiKt>

Level 2. The second vibhakti.


It is time that we take our study of Sanskrit to Level 2. You would have
developed quite a bit of understanding of the language by now. However,
when reading texts or when attempting to translate subhashitas, you might
find yourself wondering why a particular vibhakti has been used and not
another more 'logical' one. The answer is quite simple actually. grammar
rules. And how!
I'll take you through each vibhakti and list out the words that compel you to
use a particular vibhakti. Explanations/examples follow after the list.
Let's understand a few technical terms first.

The relationship between a noun and a verb is called kark ,

Therefore any relationship between words that are not connected to a


verb cannot be called a kark ,

There are six kark s in Sanskrit. ktaR kmR kr[ sMdan Apadan and

Aixkr[ ie, all the vibhaktis except the sixth.

The sixth connects to another noun in a sentence and not to a verb

and therefore is not categorized as a kark , For exmple: izvSy pu>

g[ez> , izvSy connects to pu> ,

Certain indeclinables, AVyys , are used with certain vibhaktis. For

example when ever you use Ai_at> , which means 'all around', you need
to use the second vibhakti. AXyapkm! Ai_at> Daa> %pivziNt , The
students sit all around the teacher.
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Vibhaktis which are thus governed by indeclinables are called

Similarly, we have vibhaktis which are governed by verbs. For example,

%ppdiv_aiKt s.

whenever you use the verb da in any form, the person that the gift is
given to is always'chosen' from the fourth vibhakti. Ah< ramay pu:p<

ddaim , I give Rama a flower.

These verb-governed vibhaktis are called karkiv_aiKt s.

Now let's get to the job on hand:


Whenever you use the following words, you must use the itIya iv_aiKt>

You've already done a few in Level 1. This is the complete list.


The first vibhakti is used only to identify the subject and the number and
gender of the subject. It is not an %ppdiv_aiKt> or a karkiv_aiKt> ,

itIya iv_aiKt>

\Y"Y"#

1. (between)

2. (without, excepting, with


reference to, regarding)

3.
4.

{W"O"#
W"Y"O"#

5. :
6.

7.

8. :

9. (near)
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10. _"X"Y"p (near)

11. (woe be to)

12. (sometimes used with the nominative


or vocative.)

13. T"Y"sT"qZ,R"pu&R"#,RY"{R" (when nearness is


indicated otherwise use the )

T"Q/R"pO"s#

1.

@X"

2. Verbs signifying " to name", "to choose",


"to make" " to appoint" " to call" " to know"
" to consider" govern the accusative.
G"pS"p{X" O\"pz T"@w{O"T"s^"X"o$ I know thee to be
the chief person.
3. BpX"o and all verbs that mean 'to go.'
(greater detail is given in the explanation)
4. T"{\"po (also with the. _".{\". , and in the
5.
6.
7.

^".{\". if SO"Z is used)


{\"po (also with the. _".{\". , and in the
^".{\". if SO"Z is used)
T"pT"o (destination)
{R" + pr ( General rule to follow: when
intransitive verbs are preceded by an
upasarga, they are governed by the
Accusative: S"s + \"wO"o = S"s\"O"O"u to follow,

p + `o = pZpu`{O"
ascend; S"s + R"p\"{O" = S"sR"p\"{O" to run
act according to;
behind )
8. {R" + _P"p
9.

{R" + p_"o

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10. T"11.

S"s- {R"- p- \"_"o

Y"G"o

12. words denoting duration of space and time


are put in the Accusative.
13. T"{NpT"O"o , T"NpX"o ( also dative)
14. QpY"{O" ( also dative)
15. the secondary object with the root , to
think, takes accusative when contempt is
NOT to be shown.
16. dp governs the accusative. Other words
implying belief and confidence govern the
Locative.

@X"T"\"E"S"rY"X"o

1.

prepositions
used as
separate
words NOT
as
upasargas.

indicated by, resembling, imitating.


2. {W" before, in
3.
4.
5.

S"s after, in consequence of, being


T" near, inferior to
{O" superior to
S"s the side of, along, inferior

Let's look at each one in greater detail:

\Y"Y"#

(between)

SO"Zp O"z E" O"pz BpSP"#$

There is a book between him and her.

(without, excepting, with reference to, regarding )

O\"pX"o SO"ZuNp `z S" Bp{X"^Y"p{X"$ I will not go without you.


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tm! ANtre[ kayR< k> ktuR< zKnaeit ? Who can do the work except for him?
ramay[m! ANtre[ @v Ah< @td! Zlaek< vdaim , I say this shloka with
reference to the Ramayana.

ma< ANtre[ tSy k> ivcar> , What is his opinion regarding me?

{W"O"#

g&hm! Ai_at> v&]a> vtRNte , There are trees all around the house.

W"Y"O"#
g&hm! W"Y"O"# v&]a> vtRNte ,

There are trees on both sides of the house.

g&h< : v&]a> vtRNte , There are trees all around the house.

AXyapk< it Ahm! AgCDm! , I went towards the teacher.

Tva< ivna s> iv*aly< gNtu< n #CDit , Without you he does not desire to go
to school.

:
am< svRt> pvRta> siNt , There are mountains all around the village.
(near)
mm g&h< ink;a @k> tfag> vtRte , There is a pond near my house.
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smya (near)
mm g&h< smya @k> tfag> vtRte , There is a pond near my house.
(woe be to)
ha Alsm! ! Woe be to laziness!
(sometimes used with the nominative or vocative.)
caer< ixk! , Fie upon the thief!

%pyuRpir, Axae=x>, AXyix (when nearness is indicated otherwise use the


)

v&]m! %pyuRpir / AXyix me"> , The cloud is just above the tree.
v&]Sy %pyuRpir / AXyix me"> , The sun is far above the tree.
me"m! Axae=x> v&]> , The tree is just below the cloud.

me"Sy Axae=x> v&]> , The tree is far below the cloud.

pd / xatu>
kmR

The object in a sentence is always picked from the second vibhakti.

balk> og< pZyit , The boy sees the bird.

Verbs signifying 'to name', 'to choose', 'to make', 'to appoint', 'to
call', 'to know', 'to consider' govern the accusative.

janaim Tva< k&itpu;m! , I know thee to be the chief person.


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gm! and all verbs that mean 'go'

When physical motion is indicated, the place to which it is directed is


either accusative or dative. s> am< / amay gCDit ,

Mental motion is indicated, the place to which it is directed is accusative.

hir jit ,

ivz! (also with the. s. iv. , and in the ;. iv. if ANtr is used)
ivz! (also with the. s. iv. , and in the ;. iv. if ANtr is used)
sa g&h</ g&he ivzit / ivzit , She enters the house.
ap! (destination)

ten am< aPt< , The village was reached by him ( he arrived at the village)
Aix + zI ( General rule to follow: when intransitive verbs are

preceded by an upasarga, they are governed by the Accusative:

Anu + v&t! = AnuvtRte to follow, act according to; Aa + h! Aaraehit ascend;


Anu + xav! = Anuxavit to run behind)

og> zaoa< Aixzete , The bird sleeps upon the branch.


Aix + Swa

s> AasNd< Aixit:Qit , He occupied ( stood upon) the chair.


Aix + Swa

s> AXyaSte g&hm! , He sits in the house.


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%p- Anu- Aix- Aa- vs!

All these upasargas when added to vs! retain the original meaning of the
word 'to stay'. Without the upasarga, vs! is used with the s. iv

izv> kElasm! %p-Anu-Aix-Aa-vsit , Shiva lives in Kailasa.


izv> kElase vsit , Shiva lives in Kailasa.

yj! the person to whom the sacrifice is offered is put in the

Accusative and the means or the thing by which the sacrifice is made is
put in the instrumental. pzuna < yjte He sacrifices a bull to Rudra.

Words denoting duration of space and time are put in the Accusative.
aez< kuiqla ndI The river runs winding for two miles.

n vv;R v;aRi[ adz dzzta]> The thousand eyed Indra did not 'rain' for
twelve years.

i[pt! , [m! ( also dative)


Ah< gu< / gurve [maim / i[ptaim , I bow to the Guru.
dzRyit ( also dative)

yzaeda k&:[< sUyR< dzRyit , Yashoda shows Krishna the sun.

yzaeda k&:[ay sUyR< dzRyit , Yashoda shows Krishna the sun.

The secondary object with the root, to think, takes accusative when
contempt is NOT to be shown.

]Mytam! Ah< Tva< k&:[< mNye, I'm sorry, I thought you were Krishna.
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a governs the accusative. Other words impying belief and


confidence govern the Locative.

k> aSyit _aUtawRm! ? Who will believe the real state of things?
mm ivas> izve AiSt , My faith is in Shiva.

kmRvcnIym!
Anu (after, in consequence of, being indicated by, resembling,
imitating.)

jpm! Anu Av;Rt! , It rained after japa.

Ai_a (before, in)

_aKt> devm! Ai_a it:Qit , The devotee stands before the Lord.
%p (near, inferior to)

%p sUrj< Zyam> , Shyam is inferior/near to Suraj.

Ait (superior to)

Ait devan! izv> , Shiva is superior to all the Gods.


Anu (the side of, along, inferior)

Anu hir< sura> , The gods are inferior to Hari.


And that's that. We'll work on the third vibhakti next.

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Lesson 66.

%ppd/kark- iv_aiKt>
t&tIya iv_aiKt>

Level 2. The third vibhakti.


Let me give you the list first. Then we'll work on each word in turn just as
we've done for the second vibhakti.

t&tIya iv_aiKt>
AVyy>

1.
2.

@wO"z

3.
4.
5.

6.
7. ik< - kayR<, AwR>, yaejnm! ,

pd /

xatu>

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Agent.
Manner of doing an action.
Attribute characterizing a noun.
The price at which a thing is bought.
Conveyance.
That on which a thing is carried or placed.
Direction of route followed to go to a particular
place.
8. In whose name an oath is taken.
9. Words denoting resemblance.
10. Words expressing "likeliness" or equality."
11. Words denoting space and time when the
accomplishment of the desired object is
expressed.
12. Object or purpose.

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13. Defect of the body.
14. Indicating the existence of a particular condition
by which one is recognized.
15. When a noun denotes the cause or motive of a thing
or action.

AVyy>

enough of

Al< zynen ! Enough of sleeping!

@wO"z

k&tm! Aen Away with the horse!

pQnen ivna iv*a kw< l_yte ? How can knowledge be received without
studying?

/ /

ten / / xRm! Ahm! %*anm! AgCDm! , I went to the garden with him.

ik< - kayR<, AwR>, yaejnm! ,

zaeken ik< kayR< / k> AwR> / ik< yaejnm! ? What's the point in lamenting?

pd / xatu>

Agent

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s> hSten oadit , He eats with his hand.

Manner of doing an action

Attribute characterizing a noun

sa mxure[ vdit , She speaks sweetly.


k&Tya saxu> / dzRnIy> , By nature he is good.

k&Tya dzRnIy> , By nature he is worthy of being seen.


gaee[ maQr> AiSm , I am a Matara by clan.

The price at which a thing is bought

Conveyance

That on which a thing is carried or placed

ikyta mULyen It< puStkm! ? At what price was this book bought?
s> ivmanen gCDit , He travels by airplane.
SkNxen vhit , He carries. upon his shoulder

sevk> _at&Rra}a< mUXnaR Aaday ..... , The servant, having accepted his master's
command 'upon his head'

Direction of route followed to go to a particular place.

In whose name an oath is taken

Words denoting resemblance

vam_aagen sa AgCDt! , He went to the left.

jIivtenEv zpaim te ... , I swear to thee by my very life!!

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Svre[ ram_amnuhrit resembles Rama in his voice.

Words expressing "likeliness" or equality."

xnden smSTyage equal to Kubera in generosity.


Words denoting space and time when the accomplishment of the desired
object is expressed.

adzv;ER> Vyakr[< Uyte ... , grammar is learnt in twelve years.

Object or purpose

AXyynen vsit , Lives (somewhere) for the sake of studying.

Defect of the body

nee[ ka[> , Blind in one eye.


Indicating the existence of a particular condition by which one is
recognized.

jqai_a> taps> , Recognized as an ascetic because of his hair.

When a noun denotes the cause or motive of a thing or action

ten kar[en s> n gCDit , For that reason he does not go.

guraE _aKTya ItaiSm te , I am pleased with thee with thy devotion to thy
preceptor.

We'll work on the fourth vibhakti next. That list is rather long, but we'll
survive, not to worry.

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Lesson 67.

%pkark/kark- iv_aiKt>
ctuwIR - iv_aiKt>

Level 2. The fourth vibhakti.


Here is the list of words for the fourth.

ctuwIR - iv_aiKt>
AVyy>

1.
2. :

3.
4.
5.
6.

7. Svagtm!

pd /

xatu>

1. sMdan

2. ux! , kup,! kw!, da, ApR!, %pidz!, invedy, uh,! $:yR!, AsUy!
3. c!

4. Sp&h!

5. xary! owe
6. Kl&p! kLpte (haena, ke il@ ),

7. it +u, Aa +u (to promise)

8. That which is foreboded by a significant phenomenon


is placed in the dative, the fourth vibhakti
9. i[pt! , [m! ( also accusative, the second vibhakti)
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10.ihtm!

11. suom!
12._a<

13.kuzlm!

14.Verbs meaning to despatch or send


15.dzRyit ( also accusative.)

16. the secondary object with the root , to think, takes


either the dative or accusative when contempt is to
be shown
17.When physical motion is indicated, the place to which
is directed is either accusative or dative.
18.The person who is propitiated or to whom questions
regarding welfare or good fortune are asked.

AVyy>

a match for; sufficient

Air_y> _aIm> Alm! , Bheema is a match for the enemies.


When means 'enough' it is used with the truyiya.

oadnen! Enough of eating!


: salutations

nm> izvay , Salutations to Shiva.

But when : is used in combination with the k& xatu> , then the second
vibhakti is used.

s> dev< nmSkraeit , He salutes the Lord.

dev< nmSk&Ty s> AXyyn< kraeit , Having saluted the Lord, he studies.
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(A blessing)
SviSt tu_ym! , May auspiciousness be upon you!
/ This term is used when offering oblations to the gods.
This term is used when offering oblations to one's ancestors.
Svagtm! welcome

Svagt< tu_ym! ! Welcome to you!

pd / xatu>

sMdan

ten devay pu:p< dTtm! , The Lord was offered a flower by him.

The person who is given something is 'chosen' from the fourth vibhakti.

ux! , kup,! kw!, da, ApR!, %pidz!, invedy, uh,! $:yR!, AsUy! , Oya, z<s!, c]! The
person towards whom the above actions (and other verbs conveying
the same meanings) are directed , is picked from the fourth vibhakti:

ux! , kup,! To be angry. mata puay kuPyit , The mother is angry with her
son.

uh,! To cause injury.

( Note: When ux! and uh! are prefixed with an %psgR> then the person
towards whom the anger and the injury is directed is in the second

vibhakti- mata pum! Ai_auXyit , The mother is angry with her son.
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tm! Ai_au s> plaiytvan! , Having injured him, he ran away.)


$:yR,! AsUy! To feel malice/ hatred/jealousy/envy
kw! , invedy , Oya , z<s! , c]! To tell.
da , ApR, To give. ( Note: yj! - to sacrifice or give as in a sacrifice, the

person to whom the sacrifice is offered is in the second vibhakti and the
offered gift is in the third.)

%pidz!, To guide, to direct one to the right course/path.


c! to like. The person who likes is placed in the dative and the
object that is liked is placed in the first vibhakti, the nominative case
in the case of the c! xatu> and other verbs that convey a similar
meaning.

g[ezay maedk< raecte , g[ezay maedk< Svdte , Ganesha likes modak ( a sweet)
Sp&h! to like. The opposite holds true here and only in the case of

Sp&h!, The person who likes is in the nominative case and the object
that is liked is placed in the fourth, the dative case.

g[ez> maedkay Sp&hyit , Ganesha likes modak.

x& (10th g[) to owe. The person, to whom one owes something, is in
the fourth vibhakti.

ram> devdTtay zt< xaryit , Rama owes Devadutta a hundred rupees.


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Kl&p! kLpte (haena, ke il@ ), jn!, sMpd!, _aU verbs having a similar sense as
in 'adequate for', tends to',' brings about'. the result or the end
product is placed in the fourth vibhakti

iv*a }anay kLpte sMp*te jayte va , Knowledge tends to lead to /brings


about wisdom.

it + u, Aa + u (to promise..... the person to whom a thing is promised


is in the dative.)

ram> k&:[ay puStk< itu[aeit , Ram promises to give Krishna a book.

That which is foreboded by a significant phenomenon is placed in the


dative.

vatay kipla iv*ut! ... , the tawny lightening forebodes a hurricane.


i[pt! , [m! ( also accusative)

Ah< dev< / devay i[ptaim / [maim , I bow to the Lord.


ihtm! ( also used with the sixth vibhakti and the vocative case if it
means 'good in or to' ) / suom! good

a[ay ihtm! / suom! , This is good for a Brahmana.

_a< / kuzlm! / suom! greeting, blessing. ( also used with the sixth

vibhakti)

devdTtay _a< / kuzlm! / suom! , May auspicious be upon Devadutta!

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Verbs meaning to despatch or send.... the person one sends something


to is in the dative and the thing which is sent and the place it is sent
to is in the accusative.

balk> AMbayE p< e;yit , The boy sends his mother a letter.
n&p> sevk< am< e;yit , The king sends the servant to village.
dzRyit ( also accusative.)

yzaeda k&:[< sUyR< dzRyit , Yashoda shows Krishna the sun.


yzaeda k&:[< sUyR< dzRyit , Yashoda shows Krishna the sun.

The secondary object with the root ' to think', takes either the
dative or accusative when contempt is to be shown. (Note: it takes
the accusative alone, when contempt is NOT to be shown.)

Ah< Tva< t&[ay t&[< va mNye , I consider you as worthless as grass.

When physical motion is indicated, the place to which is directed is


either accusative or dative.

k&:[> am< amay va gCDit , Krishna goes to the village.

The person who is propitiated or to whom questions regarding welfare


or good fortune are asked...

rax! ( raXyit ) propitiate

$]! ( $]te ) to look to the welfare of anyone.

k&:[ay raXyit $]te va ggR> , Garga propitiates Krishna.

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When the infinitive, tumNt, is suppressed in a sentence then the


object of the tumNt is placed in the fourth vibhakti.

s> iv}an< piQtu< iv*aly< gCDit , He goes to school to study science.


s> iv}ay iv*aly< gCDit , He goes to school to study science.

The dative of an abstract noun is used to express the purpose of the


root of that noun.

s> xEyaRy pUjyit #:qm! , To become courageous, he worships his chosen


deity.

The price at which a person is employed is put in the instrumental or


the dative----the third or the fourth vibhakti.

sa ztyen ztyay pirIta , She is employed for two hundred rupees.


Let's move over to the fifth.

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Lesson 68.

%ppd/kark- iv_aiKt>
pmI-iv_aiKt>

Level 2. The fifth vibhakti.


Here is the list of words for the fifth.

pmI iv_aiKt>
AVyy>

1.

ANy, pr>, #tr> other than different from.

2. till, as far as, from.


3. near/ far.
4. after
5.

hO"u without

6.
7.

T"W"w{O"

8. Aar_y

9. / pUvRm!
10. actual directions. amt! pUvR< east, %Ttr> north,

di][a south, ak! east, Tyg! , pim> west

11.

V"{`#

12. , p&wg! , nana


13. dUr<

14. smIpm!

15. AnNtrm!
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pd /

xatu>

1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Apadan

A noun in the ablative case frequently denotes


cause of an action or phenomenon and has the
same sense of on account of, for, by reason
of.
The place where an action is performed
Comparison
Words denoting abhorrence, cessation and
swerving
The teacher from whom something is learnt,
The prime cause in the case of jn! to be born

and the source in the case of _aU are put in the


8.
9.

10.
11.

12.

13.

kmRv-

ablative case.
Verbs denoting ' to be born' are sometimes
used in the Locative.
In words implying fear and protection from
danger that from which the fear proceeds is
put in the ablative.
That from which one is warded off.
In the case of the root jI with pra, meaning

unbearable, that which is unbearable is put in


the ablative.
The point of space or time from which distance
in space or time is measured is put in the
ablative case. The word denoting the distance in
space is either in the Nominative or Locative
and the word denoting the distance in time is in
the Locative.

inlIyte

it in the sense of "representative" or "in

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cnIym!

exchange for" *uMn> k&:[at! it , Pradyumna is


Krishna's representative. itle_y> ityCDit

ma;an! , exchanges Urad dal for sesame seeds.

AVyy>

ANy, pr, #tr> other than, different from.

k&:[at! ANy k> mm Aay> ? Other than Krishna, who else is my refuge?
till, as far as, from.
X"tpO"o dpuO"sX"o EF>p{X"$ I wish to hear this from its source.
AakElasat! as far away as Kailas.
near/ far.
: The pond is near/far from the village.
after...
: | We will go in a moment.

hO"u without.
c"pS"pO"o hO"u @sO"# X"pub"# ? How is liberation possible without wisdom?

/ AnNtrm!

_aaejnat! / AnNtr< ina AavZykI , Sleep is necessary after a meal.


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T"W"w{O"
V"pY"pO"o T"W"w{O" _"# _"pR"s#$ He has been a good person from childhood itself.

Aar_y

@tSmat! ][at! Aar_y Ah< s<Sk&t< vdaim , I will speak in Sanskrit from this
moment onwards.

/ pUvRm!

W"puG"S"pO"o / pUvRm! | Wash your hands before a meal.


Actual directions. amat! pUvR< east %Ttr> north, di][a south, ak! east,
Tyg! , pim> west

amat! pUvR< miNdrm! AiSt , There is a temple to the east of the village.

V"{`#
Bpw`pO"o V"{`# : | There is a tree outside the house.

, p&wg! , nana .....

BpEF>p{X"$ I will not go to school without Rama.


dUr<
amat! dUr< miNdrm! AiSt , There is a temple far from the village.
smIpm!
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amat! smIpe miNdrm! AiSt , There is a temple close to the village.

pd / xatu>

Apadan

That from which separation takes place is put in the fifth vibhakti

p[R< v&]at! ptit , The leaf falls from the tree.

a noun in the ablative case frequently denotes cause of an action or

phenomenon and has the same sense of .. on account of, for, by reason
of. ( So does the instrumental case, the trutiya vibhakti)

tSmat! kar[at! sa n AagCDit , Because of that/ For that reason, she


does not come.

ten kar[en sa n AagCDit , Because of that/ For that reason, she does
not come.

The place where an action is performed

amat! ma< s> sUcyit , He keeps me informed when (staying) in his village
itself.

Comparison

k&:[at! ram> ctur> , Rama is more clever than Krishna.

Words denoting abhorrence, cessation and swerving

xinke_y> juguPste , shrinks from the rich.

AsTyvcnat! ivrmtu , desist from speaking a lie.

Svaixkarat! ivclit / mTt> , swerves from his duty.


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lae_aat! inv&iTt> , refraining from greed.

The teacher from whom something is learnt, the prime cause in the

case of jn! to be born and the source in the case of _aU are put in the
ablative case.

%paXyayat! pQit , Learns from the teacher.


v;eR_y> sSyain jayte , Crops grow on account of the rains.
ihmalyat! ga _avit , Ganga arises from the Himalayas.

Verbs denoting 'to be born' are sometimes used in the Locative.

tSya> id k[a Ajayt , Compassion arose in her heart.

In words implying fear and protection from danger that from which
the fear proceeds is put in the ablative.

Ah< mm iptu> aexat! n _aIta ,

I am not afraid of my father's anger.

tI[vcne_y> %ijte , is afraid of ( shrinks from ) severe words.

du>zasnat! aEpdI< atu< k&:[> s_aag&h< ivzit , To save Draupadi from


Duhshasana, Krishna enters the assembly hall.

That from which one is warded off.

k&;k> m&gan! ]eat! invaryit , The farmer wards off the deer from the

field.

In the case of the root jI with pra, meaning unbearable, that which is
intolerable is put in the ablative.

Alsat! prajyte , finds laziness intolerable.


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The point of space or time from which distance in space or time is


measured is put in the ablative case. The word denoting the distance
in space is either in the Nominative or Locative and the word denoting
the distance in time is in the Locative.

g&hat! paQzala cTvair yaejnain ctu;uR yaehne;u va , The school is four yojanas
from the house.

av[at! _aapd> mase Bhadrapad is a month away from Shravan.

inlIyte to indicate concealment.


The person from whom one wishes to conceal oneself is placed in the
fifth vibhakti.

devI _aKtat! inlIyte , The Goddess conceals Herself from the devotee.

kmRvcnIym!

it in the sense of "representative" or "in exchange for"

k&:[> pa{fve_y> it , Krishna is the Pandavas' representative.


duGxay ityCDit )lm! , exchanges fruit for milk.
And this takes us to the sixth.

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Lesson 69.

%ppdiv_aiKt>
;:QIiv_aiKt>

Level 2. The sixth vibhakti.


Here is a list of words for the sixth vibhakti, the Genitive case. Since verbs
are not connected to this vibhakti, it is not a karkiv_aiKt> , And wherever

verbs do come into the picture, grammarians tell us that we ought to


consider those verbs and the sixth vibhakti as having a 'relation'. (Sounds
confusing but let's leave it at that.) However there are several words and
ideas best expressed with the Genitive.

;:QIiv_aiKt>
AVyy> 1.
2. :
3.

@wO"u

4. :, : ,,:
5. , :
6. :

7. :
8.

9.
10. Ape]ya

11. AnNtrm!
12. ANte
13. mXye

pd/

Indicates a relationship...called the Genitive case.


Represents 'of'.

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xatu>

It denotes the one who possesses.


To denote the whole of which a part is taken
(called the Partitive Genitive.)
The Partitive Genitive is also found used with
ordinals and pronouns or adjectives implying
number.
The Partitive Genitive is also used with
superlatives.
Sometimes the word is used with the Genitive in
the sense of 'of' or ' among.'
When a time frame elapses after the occurence of
an action, the word expressing the occurence is put
in the Genitive.
Words having the sense 'dear to' or the opposite.

When using the words ivze;> and AnNtrm! signifying


'difference.'
In the case of potential passive participles, the
agent of the action is put in either the Genitive or
the instrumental.
Words meaning 'for what reason', 'for the sake
of.'

ihtm! , suom!, _am!, kuzlm!, AwR>, mm!, Aayu:ym! ,

When the Past participles are used, if the present


tense is intended, then the Genitive is used. If the
past is intended, then the Instrumental alone is
used.
When the past participles are used as abstract
neuter nouns, only the Genitive is used.
Verbs implying ' to be master of', 'to rule','to
pity', 'to take compassion upon', 'to remember
(with regret),' to think of' govern the object of
these actions in the Genitive.

Words having the sense of 'equal to', 'like' tuLy, sdz


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, sm, s<kaz ,

Words denoting ' worthy of', 'proper', 'befitting.'

AVyy>

Above

\Y"G"S"X"o | There is a fan above me.


: Under

: : [_O"$ There is a hole under (at the bottom of) the


tree.

@wO"u For
V"p@_Y" @wO"u X"pO"p W"puG"S"z T"E"{O"$ The mother cooks a meal for the child.

:, : ,, : In front of

W"\"S"_Y" : : | There is a lake in front of the building.


, : Behind

T"w>O"#

E"@_Y" | The priest's house is behind the

temple.
: To the left

: | The Devi is to the left of Shiva.


: To the right

: : : | Shiva is to the right of the Devi.


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Far

/ iv*alyat! : | The mountain is far from the school.


( also goes with the fifth vibhakti.)

Near

/ iv*alyat! | The garden is close to the


school. ( also goes with the fifth vibhakti.)
Ape]ya Instead of

saemvarSy Ape]ya Ah< mlvasre AagCDaim , I shall come on Tuesday


instead of Monday.
AnNtrm! After

suoSyanNtr< du>o< du>oSyanNtr< suom! , Unhappiness arrives after

happiness. Happiness arrives after unhappiness. ( AnNtrm! also goes with


the fifth vibhakti.)
ANte End

_aa;[Sy ANte ][< ivrmtu , Rest for a moment after (your) speech.
mXye middle

ngrSy mXye %*anm! AiSt , There is a garden in the middle of the city.
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pd / xatu>

Indicates a relationship between two nouns in a sentence. It is called


the Genitive case.

Represents 'of'.

It denotes the one who possesses.

izvSy pu> g[ez> , Ganesha is the son of Shiva.


mm g&hm! , My house.

n*a> tqm! , The river's bank.


To denote the whole of which a part is taken (called the Partitive
Genitive.)

jlSy ibNdu> , A drop of water.

puStkSy pm! , A page of a book.

ngra[a< ztshai[ , Thousands of cities.


The Partitive Genitive is also found used with ordinals and pronouns or
adjectives implying number.

Tvmev tasa< mla , You alone are the blessed one amongst them all.
ANyae> ANytra , One of these two (girls)
tasam! ANytma , One of those (girls)

The Partitive Genitive is also used with superlatives

Sometimes the word is used with the Genitive in the sense of 'of' or

Daa[a< mez> e:Q> , Mangesh is the best amongst the students.

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'among.'

@te;a< mXye kae=ip gNtu< n #CDit , Amongst them no one is willing to go.
When a time frame elapses after the occurence of an action, the word
expressing the occurence is put in the sixth vibhakti.

A* dzm> mas> sItaya> ivvahSy , It is the tenth month today since


Sita's marriage.

Words having the sense 'dear to' or the reverse.

%*anivhar< tSy iym! , Strolling in the garden is dear to him.


saemez> tSya> Aiy> , She dislikes Somesha.

When using the words ivze;> and AnNtrm! signifying 'difference.'

@td! @v AiSt ivze;> Aavyae> , This alone is the difference between the

two of us.
In the case of potential passive participles, the one who performs the
action is put in either the Genitive or the instrumental.

laekiht< mm kr[Iym! , I ought to do that which is beneficial to the


world/people.

mya piQtVyym! , I ought to study.

Words meaning 'for what reason','for the sake of'

kSy hetae> kaep> ? For what reason is this anger?

balSy hetae> sa amat! ngr< gNtum! #CDit , She wishes to go from her
village to the city for the sake of her child.
Words are used in the Genitive or the Dative when a blessing is
intended.
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ihtm! , suom! , _am!, kuzlm!, AwR>, mm!, Aayu:ym! ,

iz:yay ihtm! / suom! / _am! / kuzlm! / AwR> / mm! / Aayu:ym! _avet! , May
good fortune be with the student.

When the Past participles are used, if the present tense is intended,
then the Genitive is used. If the past is intended, then the Instrumental
alone is used.

Ahmev mt> mhIpte , I alone am regarded by the king.


pi{ftana< pUijt> , Is worshipped by the learned ones.
ten }atm! , It was understood by him.

When the past participles are used as abstract neuter nouns only the
Genitive is used.

myUrSy n&Ttm! , The peacock's dance.

balkSy histm! , The child's laughter.


Verbs implying ' to be master of', 'to rule','to pity', 'to take
compassion upon', 'to remember (with regret),' to think of' govern the
object of these actions in the Genitive.

yid s> _aivtu< smwR> ivdezjnanam! , If he is capable of ruling/ being the


master of the people from another land.

_aKtSy dymana devI Avtrit , The Goddess, taking pity upon the devotee,
incarnates (before him).

zkuNtla du:yNtSy Sm&Tva ioNna jata , Shakuntala remembering


Dushyanta became unhappy.

(In sentences where regret is not to be conveyed, then the object of


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rememberance takes the Accusative.

s> zarda< Smrit , He remembers Sharada.)

Words having the sense of ' equal to', 'like'

tuLy, sdz! , sm, s<kaz ,

k&:[Sy tuLy> k> naiSt , There is no one equal to Krishna.

Words denoting ' worthy of',' proper', 'befitting.'

soe pu{frIk, nEtdnup< _avt> , Friend Pundarik, this is not worthy of you.
And now we will work with the seventh vibhakti, the Locative case.

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Lesson 70.

%ppd/kark- iv_aiKt>
sPtmIiv_aiKt>

Level 2. The seventh vibhakti.

sPtmIiv_aiKt>
AVyy>
pd /

xatu>

1. The place in or on which an action takes place.


2. The Locative is used to denote the time when an action
has taken place.
3. The Locative also has the sense of 'towards', 'about',
'as to'.
4. With adjectives in the superlative degree.
5. Words expressing an interval in time or space is put in
either the Ablative or Locative.
6. Words in lexicons are expressed in this vibhakti to mean
'in the sense of.'
7. The Locative is sometimes used to denote the object or
purpose for which anything is done.
8. Words meaning 'to act', ' to behave', ' to deal with'.
9. Words signifying 'love', 'attachment', 'respect' such as

iSnh! govern the Locative of the person or thing for whom

or which the love is shown.


10. Words indicating a cause or effect are often put in the
Locative.
11. The root yj! and its derivatives in the sense of 'to' in

English.
12. Words expressing fitness and suitability with the nouns
regarding which the fitness is expressed are put into the
Locative or Genitive.
13. The recipient to whom anything is entrusted or imparted
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is in the Locative.
14. Words implying to 'seize' or 'strike' govern the Locative
of what is seized or struck.
15. Words like i]p!, muc!, As! having the sense of 'throwing'
or 'darting' govern the Locative of that against which
anything is thrown.

16. Words implying belief and confidence (except for a,

which governs the accusative) govern the Locative of that


which the belief is placed in.

17. Words like AxIitn! 'who has learned', g&hIitn! 'who has

comprehended', govern the Locative of that which forms


their object. And saxu and Asaxu of that towards whom
goodness or otherwise is shown.

18. Words like Vyap&t, AasKt, Vy, tTpr having the sense of

'engaged in', ' intent on' and kuzl, inpu[, zaE{f,pqu, vI[,

pi{ft meaning 'skilfull' and xUtR, iktv meaning 'a rogue'


are used in the Locative.

19. The words ist and %Tsuk meaning 'greatly desirous of',
'longing for' govern the Locative or the Instrumental.

20. rax! + Ap in the sense of 'to offend' governs the


Locative and the Genitive.

pd / xatu>

The place in or on which an action takes place.

vgeR Daa> pQiNt , The students study in class.


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The Locative is used to denote the time when an action has taken
place

_aate tSya> jpm! , Her japa is done in the morning.

The Locative also has the sense of 'towards', 'about', 'as to'

miy ma tI[a , Do not be severe towards me.

With adjectives in the superlative degree

balke;u ram> e:Q> , Amongst the boys, Ram is the best.

Words expressing an interval in time or space are put in either the


Ablative or Locative.

AiSmn! idne _auKTva s> idnyat! idnye oaid:yit , Having eaten today, he
will eat after three days.

A %pivZy s> aezat! aeze va og< pZyit , Sitting here he sees the bird
at a distance of one Krosha.

Words in lexicons are expressed in this vibhakti to mean 'in the sense
of.'

ba[ae bilsute zre (Amrkae;>) , Bana in the sense of 'the son of Bali' and
'arrow.'

The Locative is sometimes used to denote the object or purpose for


which anything is done.

cmRi[ iipn< hiNt dNtyaehRiNt kurm! , keze;u cmrI< hiNt sIiMn pu:klkae ht> ,
Man kills the tiger for skin, the elephant for tusks, the Chamari for hair
and the musk deer for musk.

Words meaning 'to act', ' to behave', ' to deal with'.

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kw< s> miy Vyvhrit ! Oh! How does he deal with me!

Words signifying 'love', 'attachment', 'respect' such as govern the


Locative of the person or thing for whom or which the love is shown.

mata bailkaya< iSnit , The mother loves the girl.

Words indicating a cause or effect are often put in the Locative.

The root yj! and its derivatives in the sense of 'to' in English.

v&i:q> @v sm&(a< kar[m! , Rain alone is the cause for prosperity.

s> tm! AamxmeR inyuKte , He appoints him to the duties of the ashram.
Words expressing fitness and suitability with the nouns regarding
which the fitness is expressed are put into the Locative or Genitive.

@td! kayR< Tviy yuKtm! , This job is suitable for you.

The recipient to whom anything is entrusted or imparted is in the

Locative. (t& with iv is also used with the Dative.)

ivtrit mata iv*a< balke;u , The mother imparts knowledge to the children.
Words implying to ' seize' or 'strike' govern the Locative of what is
seized or struck.

hSte g&hITva , seizing by the hand.

Words like i]p!, muc!, As! having the sense of 'throwing' or 'darting'

govern the Locative of that against which anything is thrown.


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aEe;u pa;a[o{fain Ai]pt! , Threw stones at the cranes.

Words implying belief and confidence (except for a, which governs

the accusative) govern the Locative of that which the belief is placed in.

deve ivisit ku A_aKt> , When does a non-devotee ever believe in God?

Words like AxIitn! " who has learned", g&hIitn! "who has

comprehended" govern the Locative of that which forms their object.

And saxu and Asaxu of that towards whom goodness or otherwise is shown.

AxItI vede;u , He who is well versed in the Vedas.

g&hItI s<Sk&tVyakr[e , He who has mastered Sanskrit grammar.

guraE saxu> Asaxu> va , Well behaved or ill behaved towards his Guru.

Words like Vyap&t, AasKt, Vy, tTpr having the sense of 'engaged in',

' intent on' and kuzl, inpu[, zaE{f, pqu, vI[ pi{ft meaning 'skilfull' and

xUtR, iktv meaning 'a rogue' are used in the Locative.

s> pUjaya< Vyap&t> / AasKt> / Vy / tTpr> , He is absorbed in the worship


(of the Lord).

s> xnuivR*aya< kuzl> / inpu[> / zaE{f> / pqu> / vI[> / pi{ft> , He is skilfull


in archery.

Vyvsaye s> xUtR> / iktv> , He is a rogue in matters relating to business.

The words ist and %Tsuk meaning 'greatly desirous of', 'longing for'
govern the Locative or the Instrumental.

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_aaejne _aaejnen va %Tsuk> ivame ivame[ va ist> c , Longing for a meal

and rest.

rax! + Ap in the sense of 'to offend' governs the Locative and the
Genitive.

kiSmNnip pUjaheR Apraxa zkuNtla , Shakuntala has offended someone


deserving respect.

Apraae=iSm t_avt> k{vSy , I have offended Kanva.


And that covers all the vibhaktis.
Source of reference for lessons 65-70: Shri Vaman Shivram Apte's 'A
Student's guide to Sanskrit Composition.'

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