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Third Party Logistics Project Report

Submitted By –

Bibhav Behera u108017


Bhabani Kar u108071
Nikhil Chandan u108087
Raj Mohanty u108046
Sujit Kumar Sahoo u108111
Swarup Kumar Kar u108112
Udaya Bhanu Satapathy u108116
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Third Party Logistics Project Report

Table of Contents

Table of Contents........................................................................................................2

Third Party Logistics ...................................................................................................3

Introduction................................................................................................................ 3

What is Third Party Logistics ?.................................................................................3

................................................................................................................................ 4

Origin of 3rd Party Logistics (3PL) ...........................................................................4

Why such a huge growth in 3 party Logistics providers?............................................5

Types of Third Party Logistics Providers:....................................................................7

3 PL Providers can also be classified broadly as......................................................9

How to select a Third Party Logistics Provider?..........................................................9

Advantages of Using Third Party Logistics................................................................11

Limitations of Third Party Logistics...........................................................................14

Modern trends in Third Party Logistics......................................................................15

Dangerous Goods Warehouses: Dangerous goods are goods like chemicals,


inflammables, weaponry etc. The handling of dangerous goods needs special
storage facilities which must be in distinct locations and with advanced safety
facilities. Such facilities are now taken care of by niche 3PL companies...............16

References................................................................................................................17
Third Party Logistics Project Report

Third Party Logistics

Introduction

What is Third Party Logistics1 ?


3rd Party Logistics (3PL) is the supply chain practice where one or more logistics
functions of a firm are outsourced to a 3PL provider.

Typically, the logistics function consists of following:

• Inbound Freight
• Customers and freight consolidation
• Public Warehousing
• Contract Warehousing
• Order Fulfillment
• Distribution
• Management of outbound freight to the client’s customers

Besides that, Value Added Services can be provided. 3PL consists of

1. Repackaging
2. Assembling
3. and Return logistics

The 3PL provider manages and executes these particular logistics functions using its
own assets and resources, on behalf of the client company. The thoughts and
rational behind these are to keep the firm competitive by keeping it lean without
owning many assets and allowing the 3PL companies to focus on niche area and to
reduce operational costs. 3PL is also referred as Contract Logistics.

3PL companies are evolving from predominately transactional-based to more


strategic in nature. At the same time, 3PL is gradually evolving into 4PL (Fourth
Party Logistics Provider). 4PL is a supply chain services provider that searches the
best logistical solutions for its client, typically without using own assets and
resources.

Relatively new is the term 5PL or even 7PL, indicating Total Supply Chain
Management Outsourcing.

1
http://www.logistics4everyone.com/2009/06/what-is-3rd-party-logistics-3pl/
Third Party Logistics Project Report

Supply Chain having 3PL Service Provider

Origin of 3rd Party Logistics (3PL) 2


During 80s, there was an increase in global transactions, hence “globalization”
coupled with an influx use of information technology. These trends resulted in an
increased demand on firms and raised the competitiveness among companies and
industries. The role of logistics have become (one of the) pivotal role in determining
the success of the companies. 3PL has gradually increased in demand and its
performance has determined the effectiveness of the logistics company. More
logistics companies have emerged and competitiveness has increased. Some of the
successful companies that emerged during these periods include:

• DHL

• Exel

• Schenker

• UPS

• Panalpina

• C.H. Robinson

• TNT Logistics

• Schneider

• NYK Logistics
2
http://www.logistics4everyone.com/2009/06/origin-of-3rd-party-logistics-3pl/
Third Party Logistics Project Report

Why such a huge growth in 3 party Logistics providers?

A significant reason for the growth in 3 party Logistics is that companies are
moving from transaction strategies to relationship based alliances such as
partnerships. All types and sizes of companies from small firms to multi-
nationals are becoming increasingly aware that they can gain a competitive
and economic advantage by outsourcing their supply chain and logistics
requirements to specialist companies that offer the resources and expertise
to provide a faster, more efficient and cost effective service.

3PL frees up resources - companies now understand that they are not in
the business of managing supply chains but in marketing and selling their
products. Using a 3PL to manage complex distribution requirements frees up
resources to focus on core competencies rather than being tied down with
day-to-day operational uncertainty.

In addition to saving time, a well run 3PL partnership reduces expensive


distribution processes and the need for costly buffer inventories. Despite the
growing trend towards outsourcing, some companies still baulk at the
Third Party Logistics Project Report

prospect of contracting out such a critical aspect of their business, believing


that relinquishing control to a logistics provider will result in complex
arrangements with inadequate service levels and higher costs. However,
those companies now benefiting from using a reputable 3PL provider have
stated that they can attribute their increased contribution directly to a solid
logistics network.

Reduce Costs During Economic Recession- The trend towards adopting a


3PL is even greater during periods of economic downturn as companies turn
to it as a way of reducing their logistics costs. Passing on costs savings - the
notion that all 3PL organizations have complicated management structures
and impersonal call centres has also been attributed as a reason why
companies have sometimes been reluctant to contract out their logistics
requirements.

Some organizations however, such as LinQ Alliance, operate a local


management team and are able to pass on cost savings from reduced
administration overheads as well as providing efficient decision making in an
appropriate reaction time. This approach also allows for synergies between
multiple fleets and services to be identified, offering a single, integrated
solution.

In the last ten years, the logistics industry has undergone a great many
changes. These have been especially significant in such areas as company
size and makeup, services offered, geographical reach, and IT support. 3PL
services have broadened dramatically in response to the users' desire for
one-stop shopping. Now a 3PL can provide a variety of distribution and
logistics services including freight forwarding, home delivery and pallet
distribution as well as providing a wide range of warehouse and value added
services.

Service expansion has been accomplished in several ways. A 3PL may initiate
new services or develop operating alliances with other companies to enable
it to provide customers with greater geographical cover, specialist
warehousing or additional value added services. By integrating competencies
successfully, 3PL companies are producing a unique and holistic approach to
Third Party Logistics Project Report

supply chain management that provides their customers with many key
benefits.

Foray into Overseas markets - more and more organizations worldwide


are developing products for global markets. At the same time they need to
source material globally to be competitive. Therefore, it is not surprising that
one of the top challenges facing companies is how to handle a progressively
more complex global supply chain. As companies look to source and sell in
new markets, their supply chains are extending overseas, most commonly
China, but also into India and Eastern Europe. In China alone the potential
market for such services is 'mind-boggling' with reported increases
estimated at 25%. Looking to capture a slice of this market for UK importers
and Chinese exporters, many 3PL companies have begun to increase the
scope of their services to include IT applications (for ex freight billing),
transportation planning and optimization applications. Companies that can
provide a diverse range of services to include export shipping,
documentation requirements, packaging and labeling considerations,
warehousing and inland transit options, legal and governmental restrictions
and compliance management, are now sought after for these specialist trade
routes.

Firms with wide and/or complex distribution network, for whom


outsourcing their logistics function is a more feasible and viable option
(Example IBM)

Firms that do not focus on logistics as their core competency such as


Chevron and BP

3rd Party logistics is useful and significant in the case of the creation of a new
product group or when a company is integrating activities of a takeover.

Any business that refuses to consider outsourcing is at risk of losing its'


competitive advantage or the opportunity to create a new competitive
differential.

Types of Third Party Logistics Providers:

• Transportation based: In this type, the third party logistics provider


goes on to provide the transportation services. They also provide a
Third Party Logistics Project Report

comprehensive set of other services such as tracking and tracing of


consignments, cross-docking, specific packaging, or providing a unique
security system. They are of two types. Leveraged or non-leveraged.
Leveraged 3PLs use the assets of other firms. Non-Leveraged 3PLs use
the assets belonging solely to the parent firm. Examples of this would
be Ryder, Schneider Logistics, FedEx Logistics, UPS Logistics etc.

• Warehouse/Distribution based: In this type, the 3PL provides


warehousing facilities along with its distribution facilities. Not all firms
have former warehousing and distribution experience. Thus the
transition to integrated logistics has been less complex than for the
transportation based providers. Examples of this type would be DSC Logistics,
USCO, Exel, Caterpillar Logistics, and IBM.

• Forwarder based: They are essentially middlemen who extend their


roles to provide logistics services. They are Non-asset owners that
capably provide a wide range of logistics services such as warehousing
and distribution (to an extent). Examples of this type are AEI, Kuehne &
Nagle, Fritz, Circle, C. H. Robinson, and the Hub Group.

• Financial based: They Provide freight payment and auditing, cost


accounting and control, and tools for monitoring, booking, tracking,
tracing, and managing inventory. Examples of this type are Cass
Information Systems, CTC, GE Information Services, and FleetBoston.

• Information based: This is logistics based on Information usage. It is a


fast developing method of providing 3PL services. They are usually
Internet-based, business-to-business and electronic markets used for
transportation and logistics services. Example sof this type are
Transplace and Nistevo.
• Non Asset Based Service Providers: This class of 3PL performs
functions such as consultation on packaging and transportation, freight
quoting, financial settlement, auditing, tracking, customer service and
issue resolution. However, they don’t employ any truck drivers or
warehouse personnel, and they don’t own any physical freight
distribution assets of their own – no trucks, no storage trailers, no
pallets, and no warehousing. A non-assets based provider consists of a
team of domain experts with accumulated freight industry expertise
and information technology assets. They fill a role similar to freight
agents or brokers, but maintain a significantly greater degree of
“hands on” involvement in the transportation of products.
Third Party Logistics Project Report

3 PL Providers can also be classified broadly as

• Standard 3PL provider: This is the most basic form of a 3PL provider.
They perform activities such as, pick and pack, warehousing, and
distribution – the most basic functions of logistics. For a majority of
these firms, the 3PL function is not their main activity. They mostly
cater to the needs of small retailers.

• Service developer: This type of 3PL provider offers their customers


advanced value-added services such as: tracking and tracing of
consignments, cross-docking, specific packaging, or providing a unique
security system. A solid IT foundation and a focus on economies of scale and
scope enable this type of 3PL provider to perform these types of tasks.

• The customer adapter: This type of 3PL provider comes in at the


request of the customer and essentially takes over complete control of
the company’s logistics activities. The 3PL provider improves the
logistics dramatically, but does not develop a new service. The
customer base for this type of 3PL provider is typically quite small.

• The customer developer: This is the highest level that a 3PL provider
can attain with respect to its processes and activities. The 3PL provider
integrates itself with the customer and takes over their entire logistics
function. These providers will have few customers, but will perform
extensive and detailed tasks for them.

How to select a Third Party Logistics Provider?


Third Party Logistics Project Report

Now that we have seen what exactly a 3PL is , and how it performs its functions, we
can discuss on some of the most important parameters that need to be taken into
account before an organisation can zero in on a 3rd party logistics provider. One
should always look for a company that fits into the client organisations scheme of
things, and can optimise the former’s supply chain.

As is shown in the diagram, the major features that should be taken care of by an
organisation before hiring a 3PL are:

1. Know your demand

Understanding how materials flow through a supply chain is the key to properly
defining supply chain requirements. Collecting detailed historical data to document
the costs, units, frequencies and modes utilized as raw materials are converted to
sellable units, as it is critical to synchronize planning, material requirements
planning (MRP), material delivery, conversion to finished goods and outbound
product movement. Modeling the past, with appropriate normalization to
accommodate projected future changes, will help manufacturers understand the
Third Party Logistics Project Report

cost-impacting decisions that drive supply chain requirements and identify which
components to outsource or retain.

2. Master (and own) the forecast

Developing the demand model described above will typically require input and
validation from a variety of stakeholders, including procurement, manufacturing,
distribution and commercial. Participation from these stakeholders is critical to
establishing an accurate forecast and articulating key constraints, and ultimately
can drive the success of the transaction, as the provider’s ability to meet a
company’s needs and targeted cost structure will be largely dependent on the
accuracy of the forecast.
3. Demand accountability

While 3PL providers must be held accountable for optimizing costs within their span
of control, internal stakeholders also must take responsibility for the cost
implications of their decisions, many of which may limit a 3PL’s ability to truly
optimize.

4. Set clear and fair expectations

Set clear objectives to drive provider behaviour, such as specific cost savings or
reporting, escalation and explanation. Engage the 3PL in discussions prior to
finalizing objectives, as its experience and input can provide better visibility into the
tradeoffs of supply chain decisions.

5. Measure business impact

Outsourced supply chain should provide some combination of increased supply


chain effectiveness, reduced cost and overall flexibility can be measured by looking
at end-to-end key performance indicators such as inventory turn rates, total cost
per unit sold and customer satisfaction.

Advantages of Using Third Party Logistics


Third Party Logistics Project Report

One of the advantages of using 3PL results from economies of scale (merits from
large truck fleets, warehouses, etc.) and economies of scope, which encourage firms
to increase net value by reducing costs. The effects of these economies are
obtained depending on the type of 3PL provider (e.g. IT-equipped, marketing-based,
non-asset-based (and then flexible), etc.) Competent 3PL providers possess high
coordination ability, enabling them to search reliable partners or sub-contractors,
and to manage efficiently the inter-firm flow of goods. Such ability can be developed
through experiences as a 3PL.

Likewise, by outsourcing logistics activities, firms can save on capital investments,


and thus reduce financial risks. Investment on logistics assets, such as physical
distribution centers or information networks, usually needs large and lump sum
costs, which involves financial risks. Furthermore, the 3PL providers can spread the
risks by outsourcing to sub-contractors.

3PL allows a firm to gain competitive advantage via:

• Allowing firms to focus on developing their Core Competences.

• Cost competitiveness.

• Freeing up resources (money).

• Benefit from the logistics know-how and international distribution networks of


specialized 3PL Logistics providers, allowing for superior customer service
levels.

• 3PLs offer greater booking options and service types. Shippers can take
advantage of increased ocean sailings per week since 3PLs contract with
numerous carriers to provide a variety of service levels, transit times, etc.

• 3PLs generally have greater negotiating leverage with carriers than individual
shippers. This translates into more competitive rates, greater free time
allocations, reduced demurrage and per diem penalty rates, etc.
Third Party Logistics Project Report

• 3PLs offer significant, measurable administrative savings. By utilizing a 3PL,


shippers outsource the administrative component of their logistics program.
This saves time and money! Shippers not utilizing a 3PL must develop these
competencies in-house to book and track containers, which adds costs.

• By utilizing a 3PL, the shipper has someone to hold ultimately accountable for
all shipments along various legs of the supply chain.

• 3PLs offer superior information services. By their very nature of being the
coordinator for all supply chain processes and transportation modes, 3PLs are
best positioned to combine and report disparate data through value added
information services.

• 3PLs offer greater shipment control through vendor relationship management


and P.O. monitoring at origin. 3PLs proactively contact and work with
overseas suppliers ensuring shipments flow according to plan. Vendor
performance reports are also available.

• 3PLs offer an integrated solution and various value added services including:

 Multi-vendor and country consolidation

 Cargo management services

 Expedited delivery team trucking

 Customs brokerage, bonds and compliance

 Document collection and forwarding

 Warehousing and distribution

 Cargo insurance and claims processing

 Lead logistics provider and 4PL service


Third Party Logistics Project Report

Limitations of Third Party Logistics


To implement 3PL successfully, one may need to bear in mind some possible pitfalls:

• Loss of control over the logistics function (especially for critical parts).

• More distance from clients. Loss of human touch.

• Discontinuity of services of 3PL provider.

• Differences of opinion or perception of the service level of the third party provider.
Third Party Logistics Project Report

Modern trends in Third Party Logistics

A study in 2006 by Capgemini discusses the growing satisfaction with the IT Skills of
third-Party Logistics Providers.3 It mentions that now clients want 3PL companies to
leverage upon IT services and new technology. Visibility tools and web-enabled
communications are the top two technologies that currently 3PL companies want to
leverage upon. RFID is also expected to be the technology with the largest future
potential.

The following table shows the specific logistics services outsourced by 3PL
customers in 2004. The current activities of 3PL firms are mainly concentrated in
warehousing, outbound transportation, customs brokerage and customs clearance,
all over the world. 4

3
Source: “Growing Satisfaction with the IT Skills of Third-Party Logistics Providers”,
Capgemini, http://www.capgemini.com/resources/news/growing-satisfaction-with-the-it-skills-
of-thirdparty-logistics-providers/
4
Source: Third-Party Logistics Study Results and Findings of the 2004 Ninth Annual Study,
Capgemini, http://www.us.capgemini.com/DownloadLibrary/requestfile.asp?ID=429
Third Party Logistics Project Report

Specialized services

To compete against global logistics giants, small and midsize 3PL companies are
catering to niche markets by providing specialized services instead of providing the
whole gamut of services provided by a large 3PL company. Such services cater to
very specific industries and clients prefer to hire only specialist firms for these
activities. These services are very often unattractive for larger firms. Nonetheless
for specialized small 3PL firms “specialized services” offer a dedicated clientele.

Examples of such services are:

Reverse Logistics: It is the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the


efficient, cost effective flow of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods
and related information from the point of consumption to the point of origin for the
purpose of recapturing value or proper disposal. More precisely, reverse logistics is
the process of moving goods from their typical final destination for the purpose of
capturing value, or proper disposal. Remanufacturing and refurbishing activities also
may be included in the definition of reverse logistics.5 Reverse logistics is a big
headache for mass merchandisers e.g. hypermarkets, so they prefer employing
third party logistic companies for the same.

Temperature controlled logistics: Perishable items require controlled storage


conditions. Food and grocery industry requires services of cold storage, blast
freezing and distribution of products with a maintained temperature range of 0 to
-18 degree Celsius. Modern 3PL companies are now catering to such needs through
temperature controlled logistics.

Dangerous Goods Warehouses: Dangerous goods are goods like chemicals,


inflammables, weaponry etc. The handling of dangerous goods needs special
storage facilities which must be in distinct locations and with advanced safety
facilities. Such facilities are now taken care of by niche 3PL companies.

Service Parts Logistics: In any service business, the need for dynamic and real
time coordination and control of the full logistics pipeline of parts, sub-assemblies,
and items of supply holds immense importance. Proper management of this pipeline
can long way in contributing to the bottom-line of the organization. For high-
technology companies e.g. telecom companies, service parts logistics has thus
become a major area to be leveraged. Rapid fulfilment of high-value parts, with
large number of SKUs, low inventory turns; high distribution costs and extended
supply chain visibility are important aspects of this industry. (See figure for a block
diagram of service parts logistics supply chain).

5
Source: http://www.rlmagazine.com/edition01p12.php
Third Party Logistics Project Report

Service Parts Logistics Overview

References

1. http://www.logistics4everyone.com/2009/06/origin-of-3rd-party-logistics-3pl/

2. www.industryweek.com

3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third-party_logistics

4. http://mix.jokesprank.com/the-four-types-of-third-party-logistics-providers-
explained/