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ENERGY I

1st Lecture

DR. ENVER DORUK ZDEMIR

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SHORT CV
> Middle East Technical University
>
>
>
>

Bachelor Mechanical Engineering


Double Major Sociology
Master Mechanical Engineering Fluid mechanics
Teaching Assistant Fluid mechanics

> Universitt Stuttgart Energy Economics


> PhD Energy Economics (Alternative powertrains and fuel)
> Co-Lecturer Renewable Energy 2 Bioenergy
> DLR Institute of Vehicle Concepts
> Teamleader Road Vehicles
> DHBW Dual Lecturer Powertrains
> At SRH since 1.6.2016
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ENERGY I - TARGETS

> Comprehensive overview of


>
>
>
>
>
>
>

Energy sources
Energy conversion technologies
Advantages and disadvantages of different technologies
Energy market and structure
Power grids and electricity storage
Energy management and investments
Energy policies

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GRADING
> Presentation (Energy Market)
>
>
>
>

(20%)

On September 27th , presentation: 15 min + 5 min


6 Groups with 6 or 7 students (at least 3 students must present on the day!)
Groups and topics declared by Dr. Hartmann on September 9th
Important: Content, Structure, Time management, Presentation style

> Term paper (Energy management / feasibility study)

(25%)

> Due September 30th at 23:55! (penalty for late submissions)


> Group work. Topics will be announced by Mr. Yaman on September 9th
> Important: Scientific writing rules. No tolerance for plagiarism!
> Exam
> On September 30th

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(55%)

CONTENT
> L01 (29.08): Energy terms and definitions, Drivers of R&D for energy
> L02 (30.08): Sustainability definition and measurement, energy sectors
> L03 (31.08): Rational use of energy, Coal, natural gas
> L04 (02.09): Nuclear energy, Oil and wood
> L05 (05.09): Other renewable energy sources, Thermodynamic
fundamentals, Carnot cycle, Rankine cycle
> L06 (06.09): Brayton cycle, Combined cycle, Cogeneration, Internal
combustion engines, heat pump
> L07 (07.09): Fuel cell, ORC plant, Life cycle analysis
> L08 (09.09): Dr. Hartmann, power market, seminar work assignment
> L09 (09.09): Mr. Yaman, Renewable energy policy
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CONTENT (II)
> L10 (12.09): Mr. Yaman, Renewable energy policy (cont.), Renewable
energy management and investment
> L11 (13.09): Dr. Hartmann, electricity storage options, demand side
management
> L12 (16.09): Mr. Yaman, Renewable energy management and
investment (cont.), Renewable energy in developing countries
> Excursion 1 (22.09): KMW-AG, Mainz (combined cycle power plant)
Bus is leaving at 11:15
> Excursion 2 (probably 23.09): Uni Stuttgart IFK-Lab (CC & CHP plants)
> L13 (27.09): Dr. Hartmann, Presentation, power grids
> L14 (28.09): Summary of the course / Exam preparation
> EXAM (30.09) and Term paper due 30.09 at 23:55!
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PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE ON ENERGY?


> Please answer the following questions. These questions will NOT be
graded.
> 1. Try: Answer the questions alone (5-10 min)
> 2. Try: Build groups of 2 Students. Check all questions. How many
answers are different? Try to convince your partner for your answer!
Target: Consensus for at least 8 questions (10 min)
> 3. Try: Build group with 2 pairs (4 Students). Try to convince your
partner for your answer!
Target: Consensus for at least 12 questions (10 min)
> Document your answers each time. I will collect the papers at the end
without names.
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ENERGY: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS


a) Recapitulation: Force, Energy,
Heat, Work, Power
b) Energy supply chain:
primary, secondary, final,
useful energy, energy carrier

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FORCE
> Force is the capacity to do work or cause physical change
> Equation: Force= Mass times acceleration (F = ma)
> The concept of force was originally defined by Sir Isaac Newton in his
three laws of motion.
> The SI unit for force is the newton (N). 1 N = 1 kg m s-2
> Force is a vector.

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http://physics.appstate.edu/sites/physics.appstate.edu/files/newton_3.gif

ENERGY
> Energy is the ability of a system to produce external effects (Max Planck)
> Types of energy
>
>
>
>
>
>

Kinetic
Potential
Thermal
Electrical
Chemical
Nuclear

> The SI unit for energy is Joule (J). 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 kg m2 s-2

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HEAT
> Heat is the transfer of energy from a hot object to a colder object.
> Types of heat transfer
> Conduction
> Convection
> Radiation

> The SI unit for Heat is Joule (J). 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 kg m2 s-2


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WORK
> Work refers to an activity involving a force and movement in the directon
of the force
> Equation: W = F d cos ()
> The SI unit for Work is Joule (J). 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 kg m2 s-2

POWER
> Power is the rate of doing work or the rate of using energy
> Equation: P = W / t
> The SI unit for Power is Watt (W). 1 W = 1 J s-1 = 1 kg m2 s-3
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DEFINITIONS - ENERGY SUPPLY CHAIN:


> Energy carrier
> Substances or other physical forms, from which by transformations or by energy transfer
the desired form of energy are provided (e.g. fuel, hot water, electricity etc)

> Primary energy


> The energy content of energy carriers that were not subjected to conversion or
transformation (e.g. crude oil, raw hard coal)

> Secondary energy


> The energy content of energy carriers that were at least once subjected to conversion or
transformation (e.g. fuel oil, electricity at power plant)

> Final energy


> The energy content that is consumed by the customer (diesel at fuel station, electricty at
household)

> Useful energy


> The energy content that is required by the customer (mechanical energy at wheels, space
heating at household)
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ENERGY SUPPLY CHAIN

Primary energy
(e.g. coal at mine, raw
biomass, Oil at the
field)

Conversion losses
Distribution losses
Own energy requirement
Use for non-energy purposes

Secondary energy
(e.g. petrol at refinery,
electricity at power
plant)

Conversion losses
Distribution losses
Own energy requirement
Use for non-energy purposes

Conversion losses
Distribution losses
Own energy requirement
Use for non-energy purposes

Final energy
(e.g. petrol at fuel
station, fuel oil at
home)

Loses by consumer

Useful energy
(e.g. heat, light, force,
thrust)
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http://www.energieplattform.info/Startseite/Energien/Biomasse/biomasse.html

SUPPLY CHAIN:
Mining

Primary
Energy

Secondary
Energy

Final
Energy

Useful
Energy

100 J

35 J

32 J

25 J

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SIGNIFICANCE AND HISTORY OF


ENERGY
a) Energy for what?
b) Drivers of energy research:
c) Energy supply and economics,
environment and society
d) History of energy consumption

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ENERGY AND OUR DAILY ACTIVITIES


Your energy consumption today?

> Space heating / cooling of buildings


> Cell phone
> Kettle / coffee machine
> Lights
> Travel to the university (car, public transport)
> Working with the computer
>

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DRIVERS OF ENERGY R&D


> Increasing population
> Increasing demand for energy related activities
> Availability of energy sources
> Environmental problems / Health issues

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Friedrich, 2015

POPULATION IN GERMANY
Population (million, 106)

2010

Scenario variations for 2050


depending on migration

S1
Age structure
(CRP, 2013)

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S2
>65
20-65
<20

S3
Growing region
Stable region
Shrinking region
(Tramp/Difu: Mobilitt 2050 )

Population (billion, 109)

Inhabitants per square meter

WORLD POPULATION

(UN/DESA, 2011)
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DRIVERS OF ENERGY R&D


> Increasing population
> Increasing demand for energy related activities
> Availability of energy sources
> Environmental problems / Health issues

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Friedrich, 2015

ANNUAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION FOR


DIFFERENT AGES

Utilized energy sources

Primitive human
(1 million years before)

Sun, human muscles

Hunter & Gatherer


(100 000 years before)

Sun, wood, human muscles


Sun, wood, human muscles,
animals, hydro

Primitive farmer
(5 000 BC)

Sun, wood, human muscles,


animals, hydro, wind, gun
powder

Advanced farmer
(1 400 AD)

Hydro, coal, oil, natural gas,


wood, wind, sun,
Hydro, coal, oil, natural gas,
nuclear, wood, wind, sun, bio
energy

Industrial human
(1875 AD, England)
Contemporary human
(Today, Germany)
0
0
Nourishment
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Living

30
1

60
2

90
3

120
4

Industry and farming

150
5

180 GJ/a
6
kW
Mobility
Vo, 2012

ACCELERATED TRANSITION
Time intervals for the next energy innovation are shortening

Muscle

600.000 years before

Fire

400.000 years before

Animals

8.000 years before

Hydro

1.000 years before

Wind

500 years before

Coal

200 years before

Oil and Natural gas

90 years before

Nuclear

50 years before

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Vo, 2012

PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA


IS NOT EVENLY DISTRIBUTED

USA
7,21 toe/cap =
=302 GJ/cap

China
2,17 toe/cap =
=91 GJ/cap

Tons of oil equivalent


per capita in 2014

1 toe = 41.868 GJ
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Africa (as a continent)


0,36 toe/cap = 15 GJ/cap

Germany
3,83 toe/cap = 160 GJ/cap
BP, 2015

https://www.go

DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY ENERGY


CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA

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BP, 2015

https://www.go

PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION PER GDP


TOE / million $

180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
USA

China

Germany

Africa

India

> China is using the double amount of energy to


generate same GDP as Germany
1 toe = 41.868 GJ
$ GDP ppp
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BP, 2015

https://www.go

PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION SHARES ARE


ALSO DIFFERENT IN DIFFERENT REGIONS

North America

S. & C.
America

Eurasia

Middle East

Africa

Asia Pacific

> Oil and natural gas are dominating the consumption except for region Asia Pacific
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BP, 2015

https://www.go

DRIVERS OF ENERGY R&D


> Increasing population
> Increasing demand for energy related activities
> Availability of energy sources
> Environmental problems / Health issues

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Friedrich, 2015

CLASSIFICATION OF ENERGY
DEPOSITS AND FLOWS
EnergyEnergiebasis
deposits and flows

Energievorrte

Energiequellen

(erschpfliche Energietrger)

(Energieflsse, Energiestrme)

Fossil energy deposits

Renewable energy flows

fossile
Energievorrte

Reserves
Reserven

rezente
Energievorrte

Resources
Ressourcen

Theoretisches
Theoretical
Technisches
Technical
potential
potential
Potential
Potential

Wirtschaftl.
Economic
potential
Potential

Deducible potential
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BP, 2015

https://www.go

RESERVES AND RESSOURCES


> Reserven: Energy sources that were detected with high accuracy and
can be economically recovered with the current technical possibilities

> Ressourcen: Energy sources that are


> either detected but are not currently economically and/or
technically recoverable
> or to be expected to be detected by exploration on the basis of
geological indicators

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Friedrich, 2015

MC KELVEY-BOX FOR CLASSIFICATION OF


FOSSIL ENERGY SOURCES

Detected resources

Undetected resources

indicated

Probability

measured
Technically and
economically
extractable
Not feasible today

Others

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proven

detected

Geologically
possible

Speculative

Reserves
Ressources
Ressources

Unconventional resources

Friedrich, 2015

STATIC RANGE OF FOSSIL ENERGY SOURCES


> Ratio of reserves (R) and actual annual consumption (C)
> This ratio (R/C) is a snapshot
> Indeed both reserves and annual consumption are changing over time

Static range in years

> Unit is in years

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Coal

Natural gas
Oil

Schafiee und Topal, 2009

DEPLETION MID-POINT (HUBBERTS PEAK)


> Depletion-mid-point (or Hubberts peak) is the time, where half of the
expected potential (reserves and resources) are extracted
> This corresponds also to the maximum supply amount of the energy carrier
Complete cycle of production of any
exhaustible resource

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Hubert, 1956

QUO VADIS OIL SUPPLY?


7

Global oil supply in Gt/a

4,36

0
1950

1960

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1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

2040

2050

2060

2070

2080

2090

2100

2110

2120

2130

2140

2150

Quelle: http://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/40306/umfrage/welt-insgesamt---erdoelproduktion-in-millionen-tonnen/

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUDE OIL


RESERVES AND RESOURCES

Cummulated
supply

Reserves

Resources
Unconv.

Resources conv.
In Billion tons

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Resources
Reserves
Supply 2013
Energiestudie 2014 - Reserven, Ressourcen und Verfgbarkeit von Energierohstoffen, Hannover

ERDLPREISE IN ABHNGIGKEIT VON


WELTEREIGNISSEN

Actual
Oil price:
49 $/bbl

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Quelle: BP, 2013, www.goyax.de

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF
NATURAL GAS
RESERVES AND RESOURCES

Cummulated
supply

Reserves

Resources
Unconv.

Resources conv.
In Billion m3

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Resources
Reserves
Supply 2013
Energiestudie 2014 - Reserven, Ressourcen und Verfgbarkeit von Energierohstoffen, Hannover

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF
COAL (BITUMINOUS)
RESERVES AND RESOURCES

Cummulated
supply
Resources
Reserves

In Gt

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Resources
Reserves
Supply 2013
Energiestudie 2014 - Reserven, Ressourcen und Verfgbarkeit von Energierohstoffen, Hannover

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF LIGNITE


RESERVES AND RESOURCES

Cummulated
supply

Resources
Reserves

In Gt

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Resources
Reserves
Supply 2013
Energiestudie 2014 - Reserven, Ressourcen und Verfgbarkeit von Energierohstoffen, Hannover

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF URANIUM


RESERVES AND RESOURCES

Cummulated
supply
Resources

Reserves

In Mt

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Resources
Reserves
Supply 2013
Energiestudie 2014 - Reserven, Ressourcen und Verfgbarkeit von Energierohstoffen, Hannover

POTENTIAL DEFINITIONS
Energy supply potential
Theoretical
potential
Theoretisches
Potenzial
Technical
potential
Technisches
Potenzial

Existing energy carrier

Possible with the current technology

Economic
WirtschaftlichesPotenzial
Wirtschaftliches
Economically feasible
potential
Potenzial
Deducible
potential

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Under specific conditions


(e.g. political
Framework, social etc.)

Eltrop, 2012

AN EXAMPLE FOR BIOMASS IN GERMANY


FOR THE YEAR 2050
Technical bioenergy potential
Energy crops

Wood

Agro-side products

others
Total energy demand Germany

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FNR, Eltrop, 2012

DRIVERS OF ENERGY R&D


> Increasing population
> Increasing demand for energy related activities
> Availability of energy sources
> Environmental problems / Health issues

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Friedrich, 2015

ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH


> Air pollutants
Seite 44

>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>

Ammonia (NH3)
Lead (Pb)
Ozone (O3)
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
Non Methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)
Particule matter (PM)
Nitrogenoxides (NO und NO2 as NOx)

> Greenhouse gas


> Water vapor (H2O)
> Carbon dioxide (CO2)
> Nitrous oxide (N2O)
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> Methane (CH4)


> Ozone (O3)

POLLUTANTS AND THEIR DISPERSION


Impact is local and not global!

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http://www.geodz.com/deu/d/Schadstoffausbreitung

POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN GERMANY

CO
PM
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NMVOC
PM10

NOx
PM2.5

SO2

Quelle: Trend der Luftschadstoff-Emissionen, http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/themen/luft/emissionen-vonluftschadstoffen/trend-der-luftschadstoff-emissionen,

SOURCES OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN 2013

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Quelle: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/themen/luft/emissionen-von-luftschadstoffen/quellen-der-luftschadstoffe

DAMAGE COSTS OF POLLUTANTS


Pollutant

Cost of emission for Vancouver


(CA$2005/ton)

CO

205

VOC

44

NOx

934

O3

1.739

PM10

3.175

PM2,5

317.000
1 CAD = 0,67 EUR

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RWDI (2006), South Fraser Perimeter Road Regional Air Quality Assessment: Technical Volume 16 of the Environmental Assessment
Application. BC Ministry of Transportation (www.gov.bc.ca/tran/).

SOURCES OF POLLUTANT
EMISSIONS

UK in 2013

> 2 categories for energy related pollutants


> Stationary
> Power and heat plants (NOx and SO2)
> Households, commerce (CO and PM)
> Mobile
> Transport (NOx, PM, CO)

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https://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/assets/documents/reports/cat07/naei2000/chap5.html
https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/themen/luft/emissionen-von-luftschadstoffen/quellen-der-luftschadstoffe

DAYS IN A YEAR ABOVE


THE PM LIMIT IN GERMANY
Berlin, Neukln 48 days in 2014
26 days in 2015

Stuttgart
Neckartor

64 days in 2014!
72 days in 2015

Heidelberg 7 days in 2014


5 days in 2015

http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/370/dokumente/pm10_2014_1.pdf

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HOURS IN A YEAR ABOVE


THE NOX LIMIT IN
GERMANY
Number of hours (> 200 g/m)
Darmstadt Hgelstrae,
31 h in 2014
57h in 2015

Stuttgart - Neckartor
36 h in 2014!
61 h in 2015

Heidelberg 0h in 2014
0h in 2015

https://www.umweltbundesamt.de
/themen/luft/luftschadstoffe/stickst
offoxide

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GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) EMISSIONS


Main antropogenic GHG-Emissionen:
> Carbon dioxide (CO2): Global warming potential defined as 1.
> Methane (CH4): Effect 25-times CO2q
> Nitrous oxide (N2O): Effect 298-times CO2q

GHG Impact is global and not local!

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https://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/assets/documents/reports/cat07/naei2000/chap5.html
https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/themen/luft/emissionen-von-luftschadstoffen/quellen-der-luftschadstoffe

AVERAGE GHG CONCENTRATION AND


TEMPERATURE CHANGE

Temperature

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Change of combined temperature


Change of land temperature
Change of ocean temperature

Quelle: IPCC, 2014

TODAY
> Energy terms and definitions,
> Drivers of R&D for energy

NEXT TIME
> Sustainability definition and measurement
> Energy sectors

BEFORE EACH LECTURE


> Look at the server for lecture notes on the day before latest at 17:00:
D2S\Fakultten\Fakultt_School_of_Engineering_and_Architecture\
zdemir\Energy-1
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