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Solids and Structures (SAS) Volume 3, 2014

Self-Piercing Riveting Process and Joint


Modeling and Simulations
M. Grujicic *1, J.S. Snipes1, S. Ramaswami1, F. Abu-Farha2
Departments of: 1Mechanical Engineering; and 2Automotive Engineering, Clemson University
Clemson, SC 29634, USA
gmica@clemson.edu

Received 27 January 2014; Accepted 19 May; Published 4 June 2014


2014 Science and Engineering Publishing Company

Abstract
A three-step computational approach is proposed to help
establish the effect of various self-piercing riveting (SPR)
process and material parameters on the quality and the
mechanical performance of the resulting SPR joints. Using
the results of a virtual-testing procedure, the constitutive
relations for the simplified SPR connectors are determined,
parameterized and validated. The availability of such
connectors is mandatory in large-scale computational
analyses of whole-vehicle crash.
Keywords
Self-Piercing Riveting; Process Modeling; Virtual Testing; Joint
Connectors

Introduction
Self-piercing riveting falls into the category of fast,
spot-type, sheet-metal mechanical-fastening processes.
In contrast to traditional riveting, self-piercing riveting
does not require pre-drilled or pre-punched holes and,
therefore, no alignment between the rivet-setting
machine and the sheets to be joined is required.
Consequently, self-piercing riveting is typically a highspeed, one-step joining process. The results of the SPRprocess modeling displayed in Figures 1(a)(d) reveal
the four basic stages (i.e. clamping, piercing, flaring
and releasing) of this process.
A comprehensive list of the main advantages and few
limitations of SPR relative to the alternative
joining/fastening technologies can be found in Abe et
al. (2006). In the same reference, a brief overview of the
main areas of application of SPR can also be found.
A review of the open-domain literature carried out as
part of the present work revealed a number of
experimental studies of the SPR process [Abe et al.

20

(2006); Sun and Khaleel (2007); Sun et al. (2007)]. These


studies are focused mainly on the following aspects of
this process: (a) an investigation of the effect of various
process parameters such as rivet shape/material,
worksheet materials and thicknesses, die shape,
clamping force, punch force vs. time profile, etc. on the
overall structural integrity of the resulting joint; (b)
mechanical testing of the joints to determine their
static, dynamic and cycling strengths under various
combinations of shear and normal-types of loading;
and (c) establishment of the functional relationships
between the SPR process parameters and the
mechanical properties of the riveted joints.
Besides real-time monitoring of the punch force vs.
time profile during the SPR process, most of the
aspects of this joining process could not be monitored
(and, thus, controlled) in real time. Consequently, the
effect of various SPR process parameters on the
quality,
structural
integrity
and
mechanical
performance of the self-piercing riveted joints relies
upon the use of various post-mortem characterization/
measurement techniques. To overcome this limitation,
computer modeling of the SPR process has been the
subject of a number of investigations. A review of the
open-domain literature carried out as part of the
present work revealed a number of modeling studies
of the SPR process and the structural behavior of the
resulting joints [Sthmeyer (2005); Sommer and Maier
(2008)]. The main limitation of these modeling/
simulation studies is that they focus on particular
aspects of the process or joint performance. In other
words, no attempt is made to relate the SPR process
parameters to the SPR-joint mechanical performance
as well as with the construction of SPR-joint line
connectors used in large-scale computational
simulations.

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use of three-dimensional, continuum finite-elementbased numerical simulations of various mechanical


tests performed on the SPR joints; and (c)
determination and parameterization of the
constitutive relations for the simplified SPR
connectors, using the results obtained in (b). The
availability of such connectors is mandatory in
large-scale computational analyses of whole-vehicle
crash or even in simulations of vehicle component
manufacturing, e.g. car-body electro-coat paintbaking process. In such simulations, explicit threedimensional representation of all SPR joints is
associated with a prohibitive computational cost.
Spr Process Modeling
Problem Definition
The problem analyzed in this portion of the work
involves finite-element analysis of a prototypical SPR
joining process.
Modeling and Computational Analysis
1)

Geometrical Model

An example of the geometrical model/ computational


domain for the problem analyzed in this portion of
the work is depicted in Figure 1(a). Since the tools
(i.e. the punch, the pad and the die) undergo only
(small) elastic deformation, they are modeled as
rigid bodies, while the rivet and the two sheets are
considered as elasto-plastic deformable bodies.
Furthermore, due to the inherent axisymmetric
nature of the region surrounding the rivet axis, the
geometrical domain is treated as being
axisymmetric. It should be noted that in order to
reveal interior details of the computational model,
a 300, rather than 360, angular portion of the
model is shown in Figure 1(a).
2)

FIG. 1. A SCHEMATIC OF THE FOUR BASIC STAGES OF A


SINGLE SPR PROCESS CYCLE, CALLED: (A) CLAMPING; (B)
PIERCING; (C) FLARING; AND (D) RELEASING.

The main objectives of the present work include: (a)


finite-element modeling and simulations of the SPR
process; (b) determination of the mechanical
properties of the resulting SPR joints through the

Meshed Model

The mesh size, within different components, used


in the SPR-process modeling was determined by
carrying out a mesh-sensitivity analysis and
represents
a
compromise
between
the
computational efficiency and accuracy. Typically,
the meshed model contained between ca. 30,000
and
10,000
quadrilateral
plus
triangular
axisymmetric elements with finer elmements being
used in the top/bottom sheet regions near the rivet.
3)

Computational Algorithm

All the calculations carried out in this portion of

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4)

Initial Conditions

At the beginning of the analysis, all the


components of the computational model are
assumed to be stationary, and the deformable
components are assumed to be stress-free.
5)

Boundary Conditions

the sheets to be joined. This was accomplished by


employing the classical Johnson-Cook progressivedamage/ductile-failure model.
Typical Results
The results presented in this subsection were obtained
for the following set of process/material parameters
[Porcaro et al. (2006b)]: (a) sheets material: A 6060 T4
and T6; (b) sheet thicknesses 2 mm; (c) Boellhoff rivet
C 5 x 6 made of high strength steel; (d) Boellhoff DZ
090 2025 die; (e) stroke-control piercing as defined in
Figure 2; and (f) time-dependent clamping force as
defined in Figure 2.

The following boundary conditions were applied to


the computational domain:

(b) Pad A time-dependent downward holdingforce was applied.


(c) Die Completely fixed with respect to all its
translational and rotational degrees of freedom.
(d) Rivet, top sheet and bottom sheet Only the
boundary
conditions
consistent
with
the
axisymmetric character of the problem are
prescribed.
6)

Contact Interactions

Punch/rivet, pad/top-sheet, top-sheet/bottom-sheet,


rivet/sheets and bottom-sheet/die interactions are
all modeled using the penalty-type normal-contact
algorithm combined with a generalized Coulomb
friction law [Grujicic et al. (2012a, 2014)].
7)

Material Models

Since the punch, pad and die are all treated as rigid
bodies, and a dynamic analysis was carried out, the
only material property required for these
components is their mass density.
The mechanical response of the rivet and sheets is
assumed to be governed by the same isotropic
(linearly) elastic, and (strain-hardenable, strain-rate
sensitive, thermally-softenable) plastic constitutive
model
(with
different
parameterizations).
Furthermore, it is assumed that this response can
be mathematically represented using the JohnsonCook material-model formulation.
To enable piercing of the top and bottom sheets by
the rivet, in addition to the deformation model, a
progressive damage model had to be defined for
22

Punch Stroke

-1

-2

Clamping force

Punch Stroke, mm

(a) Punch A time-dependent downward (zdirection) displacement was prescribed.

-4

-2

-6
-3
-8
-4
-10

Clamping Force, kN

the work are based on a transient, displacementbased, purely-Lagrangian, conditionally-stable,


explicit finite-element algorithm [Grujicic et al.
(2007, 2013)]. Since the SPR process is generally not
associated with significant thermal effects, such
effects are neglected in the present work.

Solids and Structures (SAS) Volume 3, 2014

-5
-12
-6

-14
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

Time, s

FIG. 2. PROCESS-MODELING INPUT FUNCTIONAL


RELATIONSHIPS SHOWING TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF
PUNCH STROKE AND CLAMPING FORCE.

Spatial distribution of the attendant materials during


the SPR process is shown in Figures 1(a)(d). The four
previously mentioned stages of this process can be
readily identified by examining the results displayed
in these figures. Figure 3 depicts the results pertaining
to the functional relationship between the punch force
(output) and the punch stroke (input). Examination of
the results displayed in Figure 3 reveals that initially,
as the rivet is piercing the top sheet, the increase in the
magnitude of the (negative) punch force is relatively
small. However, as the rivet penetrates the bottom
sheet, approaches the rigid die, and begins to flare, the
punch-force magnitude increases at a progressively
higher rate.
Virtual Mechanical Testing of SPR Joints
The self-piercing riveting process is associated with a
relatively large number of process and material
parameters (e.g. rivet geometry and material, top and
bottom sheet-metal materials and thicknesses, die

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profile, etc.). Consequently, optimization of the SPR


process with respect to obtaining the desired
combination of the SPR-joint properties, using purely
experimental means, is generally impractical or even
infeasible. To help overcome this problem, virtual
mechanical testing of the SPR joints can be employed.
0

Punch force, kN

-10

-20

2)
-30

-40

-50
-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

Punch stroke, mm

FIG. 3. PROCESS MODEL OUTPUT SHOWING THE PUNCH


FORCE VS. PUNCH STROKE FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP.

Problem Definition
The problem analyzed in this portion of the work
deals with virtual mechanical testing of the SPR joints.
Four types of virtual mechanical tests are used: (a)
normal-pull test; (b) shear test; (c) 45 oblique-pull test;
and (d) peel test.
Modeling and Computational Analysis
The virtual mechanical-testing procedure employed in
the present work utilizes the same type of finiteelement formalism as the one described in the
previous section.
1)

material-distribution results of the axisymmetric


finite-element modeling of the SPR process to a full
three-dimensional computational domain. The
remainder of the upper and lower sheets are
reconstructed by simply assuming that their
geometries/thicknesses were not affected by the
SPR process. The vertical and oblique end sections
are obtained by bending the sheet ends over a 4.0
mm-radius rigid/immobile rod. For each test
specimen, the direction of the applied loading is
indicated, in Figures 4(a)(d), using arrows, and
the (vertical) symmetry plane is labeled.

Geometrical Model

Examples of the geometrical models used in the


aforementioned four virtual mechanical tests are
depicted in Figures 4(a)(d). It should be noted that
in these cases the geometrical models are no longer
axisymmetric, but instead, possess a vertical plane
of symmetry. The test-specimen geometries differ
only in the number (one or two, per sheet), location
(top/bottom, left/right) and orientation (vertical vs.
oblique) of the bent end sections. These end
sections are used for specimen gripping during
virtual testing. Geometrical boundaries for the rivet
and for the upper and lower sheets (in the vicinity
of the rivet joint) are obtained by mapping the

Meshed Model

Since the geometrical models depicted in Figures


4(a)(d) are not axisymmetric, the computational
model had to be treated and meshed as a threedimensional body. Consequently, the computational
domain for each of the four test- specimen
geometries is meshed using continuum eight-node,
first-order hexahedron elements with reduced
integration. The mesh size in the vicinity of the
SPR joint was chosen to match the corresponding
mesh size used in the SPR-process model. Sections
of the upper and lower sheets further away from
the SPR joint, including the vertical/oblique
sections, are modeled using a coarser mesh.
3)

Computational Algorithm

The same computational algorithm as the one used


for SPR-process modeling is employed in this
portion of the work.
4)

Initial Conditions

Since the SPR process is associated with extensive


plastic deformation of the rivet and the two sheets
and introduces residual stresses and damage into
the region surrounding the joint, the plastic strain,
residual stress and damage fields obtained at the
end of the SPR-process modeling had to be
mapped onto the test specimens and used as initial
conditions.
5)

Boundary Conditions

For all four test specimen geometries, symmetry


boundary conditions are applied along the vertical
symmetry plane. In adition, constant-velocity
loading is applied in the test-specific direction, as
indicated in Figures 4(a)(d). The velocity-type
loading is applied to the affected faces of the test
specimen using a translator-type connector (a
connector in which the only available degree of freedom

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Solids and Structures (SAS) Volume 3, 2014

freedom of the nodes residing on the subject surface to


the corresponding degrees of freedom of a reference
node, i.e. the node which coincides with one of the
connector nodes). The stiffness of the translator
connector is then selected in such a way as to match
the combined stiffness of the loading piston and the
specimen-gripping device.
6)

Contact Interactions

The same contact algorithm as the one used for SPR


process modeling is employed in this portion of the
work.
7)

Material Models

The same material models as those used for SPR


process modeling are employed in this portion of
the work. However, as mentioned above, the rivet
and sheet materials are assigned initial values of
plastic deformation and damage in accordance
with the results obtained at the end of the SPR
process modeling.
Typical Results
Figures 5(a)(d) show typical results pertaining to the
spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the rivet,
top-sheet and bottom-sheet materials during the
normal-pull test. Examination of the results displayed
in Figures 5(a)(d) reveals that: (a) during the test, the
rivet is being pulled out from the bottom sheet while
still attached to the top sheet; and (b) in this process,
the bottom sheet experiences most of the damage
while the top sheet suffers substantially less damage.
Typical load vs. displacement curves obtained in this
portion of the work for the normal-pull, shear, 45
oblique-pull, and peel tests are depicted in Figures
6(a)(d) and labeled as 3-D SPR Joint. The results
displayed in these figures will be discussed in the next
section, when they will be compared with their
counterparts obtained using the shell representation of
the sheets and connector representation of the rivet.
Construction of the SPR-Joint Connectors
Problem Definition
FIG. 4. GEOMETRICAL MODELS USED IN THE SPR-JOINT
VIRTUAL MECHANICAL TESTING: (A) NORMAL-PULL; (B)
SHEAR; (C) 45 OBLIQUE-PULL; AND (D) PEEL TEST
SPECIMENS.

is the translation of the two nodes along the line


connecting them) and a coupling-type kinematic
constraint (a constraint which couples the degrees of

24

The problem analyzed in this portion of the work


involves derivation, parameterization and validation
of the governing equations of the SPR-joint connectors.
Derivation of the Line-type SPR-Joint Connector
Constitutive Relations
The constitutive relations for the SPR-joint connector are

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(sixth) DOF; (e) plastic behavior of the connector is


described in a manner similar to the conventional
metal plasticity and involves specifications of the yield
potential, flow rule and the hardening/constitutive
relations; and (f) damage initiation and damage
evolution relations are assumed to mimic those
encountered in the case of ductile failure involving
voids nucleation, growth and coalescence.
1)

Elastic behavior

In accordance with the assumptions made above,


as well as regarding free rotation about the
connector axis (x3), the elastic response of the SPR
connector is fully defined by using five elastic
stiffnesses Ei , i = 15 (E6=0).
2)

Plastic behavior

The driving force promoting plastic response of the


connector is assumed to be governed by the
following yield-potential function:
1

F F
=
P N + S
RN RS

(1)

where the equivalent normal force, FN , and


equivalent shear force, FS , are respectively defined
as:

FN =+
f3

=
FS

K
m12 + m22
r

(2)
(3)

f12 + f 22

where i = 1, 2, 3 denotes three components of a


vector associated with the three coordinate axes, f
denotes a force, m a moment, r is the rivet radius,
and RN , RS , and K are the connector yieldpotential parameters.
FIG. 5. AN EXAMPLE OF THE RESULTS PERTAINING TO THE
SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF
THE RIVET, TOP-SHEET AND BOTTOM-SHEET MATERIALS
DURING THE PULL TEST.

derived under the following conditions, assumptions


and simplifications: (a) a local connector coordinate
system is used, within which the connector is aligned
in the x3-direction, while directions x1 and x2 lie in the
plane of the riveted sheets; (b) elastic responses of the
connector associated with each of the three
translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs)
are assumed to be independent/decoupled; (c) the
riveted joint is assumed to be axisymmetric; (d) since
the riveted joint can be readily rotated about its axis of
symmetry, zero elastic stiffness is assigned to this

The onset and continuation of the plastic response


is then assumed to be governed by the following
yield criterion:

( )

= P ( f1 , f 2 , f 3 , m1 , m2 ) F 0 u pl 0

(4)

where F 0 is the force-equivalent of the yield


strength, and u pl is the equivalent plastic relative
motion (a quantity analogous to the equivalent
plastic strain in metal plasticity).
Evolution

pl

of

the

plastic

T
u1pl , u2pl , u3pl , urpl1 , urpl2

relative

(where

motion

subscript

denotes a rotational DOF) is assumed to be


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Solids and Structures (SAS) Volume 3, 2014

governed by the associated/normality flow rule as:

u pl = u pl .
f

(5)

where the generalized force vector is defined as

f = [ f1 , f 2 , f 3 , m1 , m2 ]T

. The equivalent plastic

relative motion rate and the equivalent plastic


relative motion are then defined as:

(u ) .(u )
pl T

u pl =
t

u pl = u pl dt
0

pl

.
f T f

(6)

Eq. (7) yields u pl = RS u1pl for the case of pure


shear in direction 1 and u pl = RN u3pl for the case
of pure tension in the axial direction x3 .
As plastic deformation proceeds, the connector is
assumed to experience isotropic strain-hardening.
Consequently, F 0 in Eq. (4) controls the size of the
(fixed-shape) yield surface. As plastic deformation
proceeds, u pl and, thus, F 0 increase, causing an
expansion of the yield surface. Thus, hardening
behavior is fully described by the F 0 vs. u pl

(7)

functional relationship.

FIG. 6. A COMPARISON OF THE LOAD VS. DISPLACEMENT RESULTS OBTAINED IN THE VIRTUAL TESTING OF SOLID SPR-JOINTS
AND SHELL-SECTIONS RIVETED BY SPR-JOINT CONNECTORS: (A) NORMAL-PULL; (B) SHEAR;
(C) 45 OBLIQUE-PULL; AND (D) PEEL TESTS.

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Solids and Structures (SAS) Volume 3, 2014

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Damage Initiation and Evolution

2)

Plastic Behavior

As plastic deformation continues, the equivalent


plastic relative motion crosses a critical value
beyond which the connector continuously incurs

To determine RS and RN , the following procedure

internal damage. Both the critical value of u

independent of the mode of loading; (b) At the


peak load under normal-pull, pure-shear and 45
oblique-pull loading, the connector acquires the

pl

and

the rate of damage evolution/accumulation are


generally found to be functions of the connector
loading angle (i.e. loading mode-mixity) m ,
defined as:

was employed: (a) It is first established that the


initial level of the connector strength, F00 , is

0
same (maximum) level of its strength, Fmax
; and (c)

By combining Eqs. (1) and (4), the following

m = tan

FS
2

1 FN

(8)

Clearly, m = 0.0 for the case of pure shear, and

m = 1.0 for the case of pure normal loading.


pl
Damage initiation is then fully defined by a u DI
vs.
m functional relationship, where subscript DI

denotes damage initiation.


As internal damage accumulates within the
connector, its strength is assumed to decrease
linearly with an increase in u pl . At u pl = u fpl ,
connector strength becomes zero, causing it to fail.
Under this simplifying assumption, damage

pl
evolution is fully defined by a u fpl u DI
vs. m

relation.

relation:

is

FI0 = FJI RJ , I = 0, max, J = N , S

obtained. Using this relation, the plastic portions of


the force vs. displacement curves (up to the onset
of damage), and a curve-fitting procedure,
RN = 20.3 and RS = 31.5 are obtained.
The parameter is obtained by curve-fitting the
45 oblique-pull force vs. displacement results in
the plastic region (up to the onset of failure) to the
relation obtained by combining Eqs. (1) and (4).
This procedure yielded = 1.55 .
The F 0 vs. u pl relationship is obtained by: (i)
extrapolating the elastic response of the connector
into the elastic/plastic region; and (ii) estimating
the plastic relative displacement (as a difference
between the total and the elastic relative
displacements) at different levels of F 0 . This

Parameter Identification and Calibration

procedure yielded the functional relationship F 0

In the cases of normal-pull, pure-shear and 45


oblique-pull loading, the contribution of the bending
moments m1 and m2 to the overall loading is

vs. u pl depicted in Figure 7.

negligibly small. Since the contribution of the bending


moments to the overall loading is proportional to the
parameter K in Eq. (2), the results of these tests are
first used to determine the remaining parameters and
functional relations defining the connector constitutive
behavior. Then, the peel-test results are used to
determine K .
1)

Elastic Behavior

Using the elastic portions of the force vs.


displacement results obtained under normal-pull,
pure-shear and 45 oblique-pull loading conditions,
and employing a curve-fitting procedure, the first
three elastic-stiffness constants are determined as
follows: E1 = E2 = 2.97 MN/m and E3 = 3.54 MN/m.
Following prior work of Weyer et al. (2006), E4 and
E5 are assumed to be infinite (a rigid-elastic
approximation).

FIG. 7. STRENGTH VS. RELATIVE PLASTIC DISPLACEMENT


HARDENING BEHAVIOR OF THE SPR-JOINT CONNECTOR.

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3)

Solids and Structures (SAS) Volume 3, 2014

Damage Initiation and Evolution

pl
To define the u DI
vs. m functional relationship, it
was first assumed that damage initiates at the point
of maximum load. Then the sought-after functional
relationship is obtained by simply determining the
equivalent plastic relative displacement associated
with the corresponding peak loading for different
tests, each corresponding to a different value of m .

1.2

3.9
1.1
3.8

3.7

3.6

0.9

3.5
0

0.25

0.5

0.75

Difference of equivalent plastic motion

Equivalent plastic motion at damage initiation

pl
The resulting u DI
vs. m functional relationship is
depicted in Figure 8.

0.8

Mode Mixity

FIG. 8. THE EFFECT OF MODE MIXITY ON THE EQUIVALENT


PLASTIC MOTION AT DAMAGE INITIATION, AND THE
ADDITIONAL POST-DAMAGE-INITIATION EQUIVALENT
PLASTIC MOTION AT THE POINT OF FAILURE.

To calibrate the

(u

pl
f

pl
u DI

pl
f

pl
vs. m functional relationship depicted
u DI

in Figure 8 is obtained.
4)

Parameter K in Eq. (2)

To determine the last unknown parameter K , an


optimization procedure was employed in
conjunction with the finite-element simulations (for
the peel test) as described in the next section.
Within these simulations, riveted sheets are
modeled as shell structures while the SPR-joint is

28

Validation Procedure
To validate the fidelity of the derived and
parameterized constitutive relations for the SPR-joint
connectors (described above), virtual (normal-pull,
shear, 45 oblique-pull and peel) tests of riveted shelltype specimens are carried out. In these simulations,
the riveted connections between the sheets are
represented using the just-derived SPR-joint
connectors. Temporal evolution of the material within
the two riveted shells during the pull test is depicted
in Figures 9(a)(b). A comparison of these results with
their counterparts in Figures 5(b)(d) reveals that in
both cases, the ultimate failure of the SPR joint takes
place by the degradation and fracture of the (mainly
bottom) sheet material surrounding the rivet. This was
an expected outcome since the bottom sheet has
acquired the largest extent of damage during the SPR
process.
(a)

vs. m functional

relationship, it is first recognized that in the postdamage-initiation portion of the load vs.
displacement curves, the mixity ratio changes
during loading (except for the cases of pure normal
and pure shear loading). Taking this into account,
combining all the post-damage-initiation force vs.
displacement data, and utilizing a linear regression
analysis, the piecewise linear form of the

(u

modeled as the connector constructed and


parameterized in this section. Within the
optimization procedure, parameter K was used as
a single design variable while the extent of
agreement between the peel-test load vs.
displacement results obtained in the previous
section and in the present section was defined as
the objective function. This procedure yielded
K = 0.53 .

(b)

FIG. 9. TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF THE MATERIAL WITHIN


THE TWO RIVETED SHELLS DURING THE PULL TEST.

Figures 6(a)(d) display the load vs. displacement


results (labeled as SPR-Joint Connector) for the
normal-pull, shear, 45 oblique-pull and peel tests
obtained in this portion of the work. A comparison of
the two sets of results reveals that the overall level of
agreement for each of the four tests is satisfactory,
relative to the joint strength (as quantified by the
maximum force), joint ductility (as quantified by the
maximum displacement before a complete loss of the
load-carrying capacity), and the overall toughness (as

Solids and Structures (SAS) Volume 3, 2014

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quantified by the area under the load vs. displacement


curve). This finding suggests that the SPR-joint
connectors can reasonably well account for the
mechanical response of the very detailed threedimensional continuum SPR joints.

(LFW)."

Journal

of

Materials

Engineering and Performance 21 (2012): 20112023.


Grujicic, M., Galgalikar, R., Snipes, J. S., R. Yavari,
Ramaswami,

S.

Multi-Physics

Modeling

of

the

Auxetic-Hexagonal Sandwich-Structures. Materials and

Based on the results obtained in the present work, the


following main summary remarks and conclusions can
be drawn: (a) a three-step computational procedure is
developed to establish dependence of the mechanical
properties of the self-piercing rivets (SPRs) on the SPR
process parameters; (b) this procedure involves finiteelement modeling and simulations of the SPR process
and virtual testing of the resulting SPR joints under
different types of loading such as normal-pull, shear,
45 oblique-pull and peeling; (c) the results of the
virtual mechanical testing are used to construct and
parameterize SPR-joint point-to-point line-connector
elements. These elements are used in large-scale
simulations of whole-vehicle crash in the vehicle-body
manufacturing process (e.g. car-body electro-coat
paint-baking process); and (d) virtual testing of the
shell components riveted using the joint connectors
validated the ability of these line elements to
realistically account for the strength, ductility and
toughness of the three-dimensional SPR-joints.

Design 51 (2013): 113130.


Grujicic, M., Yavari, R., Snipes, J. S., Ramaswami, S., Yen, C.F., and Cheeseman, B. A. Linear Friction Welding
Process Model for Carpenter Custom 465 Martensitic
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