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Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm for TWDM-PONs

M. Pubuduni Imali Dias and Elaine Wong

Parkville, Australia

Email: i.dias@student.unimelb.edu.au

Pisa, Italy

a theoretical framework of an energy-efficient offline dynamic

wavelength and bandwidth allocation (DWBA) algorithm designed for a delay-constrained time and wavelength division

multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON). This DWBA

algorithm exploits the tunability and the sleep/doze capabilities

of a 10 Gbps vertical-cavity surface-emitting optical network

unit (10G-VCSEL-ONU) to improve the energy-savings at the

OLT and the ONUs, respectively. In this work, using simulation

results on the number of active wavelengths and the percentage

of energy-savings, we verify the theoretical framework proposed

in our previous study. Most importantly, we show that the

average delay of upstream packets are not adversely affected

by the proposed energy-saving mechanism and is kept below the

specified maximum.

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I. I NTRODUCTION

The Full Service Access Network (FSAN) group has specified the network requirements of future broadband networks

under next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2). Based on

these specifications, the future broadband networks are required to support high data rates, high split ratios, and longreach communication. As importantly, these networks should

be cost-effective, energy-efficient, and co-exist with G-PONs

[1]. After evaluating different network configurations, the

FSAN has selected time and wavelength division multiplexed

PON (TWDM-PON) as the favorable network architecture that

satisfies these requirements [2].

Figure 1 presents the general architecture of a TWDMPON. A TWDM-PON consists of multiple wavelengths, tunable transceivers at the optical network units (ONUs), and

tunable or fixed-tuned transceivers at the optical line terminal

(OLT). Unlike in seeded/reflective WDM-PONs, a TWDMPON does not have a centralized light source and as a

result, the transceivers at the ONUs should be able to tune

into multiple wavelengths supported by the network. For

example, in the TWDM-PON shown in Fig. 1, the tunable

transceivers at ONUs transmit on wavelengths l10 ......lN0 and

receive on wavelengths l1 ......lN . Due to the tunability of

ONU transceivers, the OLT can control the ONU distribution

among wavelengths. When certain wavelengths are idle for a

long duration, the OLT can migrate the ONUs supported by

these idle wavelengths to other active wavelengths and switch

off the OLT transcivers associated with these idle wavelengths.

As an active OLT transceiver consumes significant power,

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the OLT. Following this concept, various solutions have been

proposed for energy-efficient TWDM-PONs.

In [3], the authors have proposed an user-migration scheme

to minimize the number of active wavelengths in the network.

Under the proposed solution, the OLT monitors the network

for wavelengths with lighter traffic. The OLT then migrates

the ONUs supported by the idle wavelengths to other active

wavelengths and switches off the idle ones, thereby saving

significant energy at the OLT. In a similar attempt, the authors

in [4] have proposed and experimentally evaluated a TWDMPON in which, lightly loaded wavelengths are powered off at

the OLT for improved energy-efficiency. In [5], the authors

have proposed wavelengths optimization in conjunction with

sleep mode to improve the energy-efficiency of a TWDMPON further. Under the proposed solution, the OLT monitors

traffic load of the network for a period of T and determines

the number of active wavelengths accordingly. In addition,

the OLT transits idle ONUs into sleep mode to improve the

energy-savings at the ONUs. The authors have also analyzed

the energy-efficiency of a novel TWDM-PON with wavelength

selective switches (WSS) [6]. The proposed scheme optimizes

the grouping of network users among wavelengths based on

data rate and the distance to the ONUs and keeps a minimal

number of wavelengths active.

In existing work [3]-[6], the primary objective is to minimize the energy consumption of a TWDM-PON. While

5018

mode improve the energy-efficiency of a TWDM-PON, they

also increase the average delay of the network. Most of the

internet-based applications such as IP telephony and video

gaming are delay-sensitive and have restrictions on maximum

allowable delay to provide guaranteed quality of service (QoS)

to the customers. While the solutions proposed in [3]-[6] report

acceptable delay values, these solutions do not consider a

delay-constrained network. To address this issue, we proposed

an energy-saving mechanism that uses both wavelength optimization and sleep operation in a delay-constrained TWDMPON in [7]. The proposed algorithm however, is specific to a

given sleep control function and is only evaluated for a delay

constraint of 10 ms. The solution proposed in [7] therefore

does not provide a general framework that determines the

number of active wavelengths and the sleep time for a delayconstrained TWDM-PON. As importantly, these methods have

not considered the doze mode capabilities of ONUs to achieve

energy-savings when the idle time of an ONU is less than

sleep-to-active transition time [8].

To address these shortcomings, in [9], we proposed and

numerically analyzed an offline dynamic wavelength and

bandwidth allocation algorithm (OFF-DWBA). For a delayconstrained TWDM-PON, the proposed algorithm determines

(a) the number of active wavelengths at the OLT and (b) the

sleep or doze time of the ONUs. The OFF-DWBA exploits

the tunability [10] and the sleep/doze capabilities [11] of a

10 Gbps vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (10G-VCSEL)

ONU to improve the energy-efficiency of a TWDM-PON. In

addition, the offline nature of the OFF-DBA algorithm ensures fairness among the ONUs in resource allocation. Based

on the numerical analysis provided in [9], the OFF-DWBA

algorithm optimizes the number of active wavelengths and

improves the energy-efficiency of a TWDM-PON. However,

it is important to verify that in a practical TWDM-PON,

the proposed framework achieves the percentage of energysavings reported in [9]. Most importantly, we should ensure

that when the OFF-DWBA is deployed in a practical delayconstrained TWDM-PON, the average delay of upstream packets does not exceed the specified maximum. To address these

practical concerns and to provide a comprehensive analysis

of our theoretical framework proposed in [9], in this work,

we verify our theoretical framework using simulations. The

simulation results on the number of active wavelengths, the

percentage of energy-savings at the OLT, and the percentage

of energy-savings at the ONUs verify the numerical results

reported in [9]. Most importantly, the simulation results on

average delay indicate that the average delay of a TWDMPON, under the proposed OFF-DWBA algorithm, does not

exceed the specified maximum delay.

The rest of the paper is structured as follows. Section

II describes the proposed OFF-DWBA algorithm in detail.

Section III presents the analytical and simulation results of

the proposed algorithm. Finally, a summary of our findings is

presented in Section IV.

(OFF-DWBA) ALGORITHM

BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION

This section presents the theoretical framework of the OFFDWBA algorithm proposed in [9] in detail. The objective of

the proposed OFF-DWBA algorithm is to minimize the energy

consumption of a TWDM PON while maintaining the average

delay of upstream packets below a specified maximum. This

problem can be mathematically formulated as follows:

minimize

Ecycle

(1)

Nactive wl Ntotal wl

represent the energy consumption of the network per cycle,

the average delay of upstream packets, the delay constraint,

the number of active wavelengths, and the total number of

wavelengths in the network, respectively.

Following the general equation on average delay reported

in [12], we can approximate the Davg of a TWDM-PON as

follows:

Tpoll

+ NTpoll + RT T,

(2)

2

where N is the number of cycles the upstream packets have

to wait in the ONU queue after they are reported to the OLT,

before the OLT allocates any bandwidth for their upstream

transmission. Parameter RT T represents the round trip time

of the network. In general, a longer Tpoll allows an ONU to

sleep for longer, and as a result, saves more energy. However,

Tpoll cannot be increased arbitrarily as it increases the average

delay. The maximum energy-savings at the ONUs is achieved

if the network operates at the maximum polling cycle time,

Tpoll max , that satisfies a given Dcons . Using Eq. (1) and (2), we

can mathematically formulate the relationship between Tpoll

and Dcons as follows:

Davg

Tpoll

+ N Tpoll + RT T Dcons

2

Dcons RT T

Tpoll

,

N + 12

(3)

that satisfies a given Dcons is given by the minimum value of N.

The minimum value of N depends on the type of the algorithm

deployed. In this work, we have used the same offline DBA

process used in [8] and [13] as it ensures fairness among

ONUs in bandwidth allocation. Based on this offline DBA, the

ONUs inform the OLT of their bandwidth requirement using

REPORT message. The OLT waits until it receives REPORT

messages from all ONUs in the PON and then calculates the

average bandwidth allocated to an ONU. Under the OFFDWBA algorithm, upstream traffic has to wait a complete

polling cycle after the REPORT message is sent to the OLT

before any bandwidth is allocated to them. As a result, the

minimum value of N in this case is 1. The Tpoll max of the

OFF-DWBA, therefore, can be approximated as follows:

5019

2 (Dcons RT T )

,

(4)

3

Under the proposed OFF-DWBA algorithm, the network operates at this Tpoll max .

Figure 2 illustrates the flow chart of the OFF-DWBA

algorithm executed at the OLT of a network operating at

Tpoll max . The OLT waits until it receives REPORT messages

from all ONUs in the TWDM-PON. Once it receives all the

REPORT messages, the OLT calculates the average bandwidth

requested, BWavg , by an ONU. Under the assumption that all

ONUs in the network operate at the same network load, it is

reasonable to calculate BWavg . Once BWavg is calculated, the

OLT initiates the wavelength optimization process. The OLT

first calculates the maximum allowable bandwidth, BWmax , of

a TWDM-PON operating with a single wavelength. BWmax

corresponds to the maximum allowable bandwidth allocated

to an ONU operating under Tpoll max . Parameter Tprocess in Fig.

2 represents the processing time of the ONUs. If the BWavg

BWmax , a new wavelength is introduced to the network and

the OLT calculates the new BWmax of a TWDM-PON with

two active wavelengths. This BWmax is again compared with

the BWavg , and this process continues until BWavg is lower than

Tpoll max

number of active wavelengths required to keep the upstream

packet delay below a specified maximum.

Once the wavelength optimization is complete, the OLT

initiates the sleep/doze allocation process. As shown in Fig.

2, the OLT first calculates the idle time, Tidle , of an ONU.

The parameter Tslot represents the period that corresponds to

BWavg . Once Tidle is calculated, the OLT decides on whether

an ONU is transitioned into doze, sleep, or active state as

follows. Let sleep-to-active transition time and doze-to-active

transition time of an ONU be Tsta and Tdta , respectively. If Tidle

Tsta , the ONUs are transitioned into sleep mode and if Tsta

Tidle

Tdta , the ONUs are transitioned into doze mode. If

neither of these two conditions are satisfied, the ONUs remain

active.

It is important to note that we have considered only upstream traffic and delay constraints in our algorithm. Had

we considered the downstream traffic as well, we have to

take the minimum of the delay constraints in upstream and

downstream. Further, the upstream and downstream traffic

should be synchronized as proposed in [8].

III. S IMULATIONS AND RESULTS

TABLE I: Network and protocol parameters

Parameter

Network reach

Number of wavelengths

Number of ONUs

Delay constraints

Propagation delay

Inter-frame gap in upstream

Average Ethernet packet size

Wavelength tuning and GATE processing

each ONU

BWavg = Total BW requested/Nonu

BWmax = (Tpoll max - Tprocess)/(Nonu/Nactive wl)

No

Parameter

Doze-to-active transition time (VCSEL) [11]

Sleep-to-active transition time (VCSEL) [11]

Power consumption VCSEL (active) [11]

Power consumption VCSEL (doze) [11]

Power consumption VCSEL (sleep) [11]

OLT TRX (active) [7]

OLT base power (EDFA Preamp +

Booster + L2 switching capacity) [7]

the number of active

wavelengths

No

TABLE II: Power consumption and switching values of 10GVCSEL-ONUs and OLT

Yes

Yes

Calculate Tidle

Tidle = Tpoll max - Tslot

Nactive wl = Nactive wl + 1

Tidle >

Tsta

Yes

Tidle - Tsta

No

Tsta>Tidle >Tdta

No

Yes

Tidle - Tdta

Value

40 km

4

64

7.5, 10, and 15 ms

200 s

1s

791 bytes

50s

Remains active

Sleep/Doze start time, and Sleep/Doze command

the OLT.

Value

330 ns

2 ms

3.984 W

3.85 W

0.75 W

11 W

64 W

were performed using C++. We have simulated a 40 km

TWDM-PON with 64 ONUs and four wavelengths. Table

1 lists the network and protocol parameters of the TWDMPON used in our simulations. Table 2 lists the power consumption and switching values of the VCSEL-ONU and the

OLT considered in this work. First, we verify Eq. (4) using

simulations as the validity of Tpoll max depends on this equation.

In this initial simulation, we have considered processing and

tuning times to be negligible. Figure 3 plots the average delay

of the network under the OFF-DWBA algorithm for a Tpoll

of 10 ms. As shown in Fig. 3, the average delay of the

5020

16

14

Time (ms)

12

10

8

6

4

Offline DBA

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Normalized network load

0.8

cycle time. The minor difference between the theoretical and

simulated values is due to the fact that in our equations, we

have not considered the time, which is in nano second range,

it takes a packet to reach the beginning of the ONU queue.

This result therefore, verifies the calculation of Tpoll max in our

OFF-DWBA algorithm. The rest of this section discusses and

compares the numerical and simulation results of the OFFDWBA algorithm for Dcons of 7.5 ms, 10 ms, and 15 ms.

Figure 4 plots the average delay of the OFF-DWBA algorithm for Dcons of 7.5 ms, 10 ms, and 15 ms. It is important

to note that the simulated values of average delay for each

Dcons is slightly higher than the Dcons . As explained before,

we have not considered the time it takes for a packet to reach

the beginning of the ONU queue. As a result, the simulated

average delay is not exactly 1.5 times the polling cycle times.

Had we taken the simulated value of 1.6, it would have resulted

in lower Tpoll max and lower average delay. However, we have

considered the factor of 1.5 in our simulations, resulting in

this reported increase in average delay.

OFF-DWBA against the numerical results reported in [9].

Based on these plots, we can verify the performance of

the OFF-DWBA in terms of the optimum number of active

wavelengths, the percentage of energy-savings at the ONUs,

and the percentage of energy-savings at the OLT.

Figures 5 (a) and (b) plot the number of active wavelengths

as a function of normalized network load based on simulations

and numerical analysis, respectively. In both simulations and

numerical analysis, for any given Dcons , when the network load

increases, the number of active wavelengths increases. When

the network load increases, BWavg increases. As explained in

section II, when BWavg exceeds BWmax , a new wavelength

is introduced to the network. As such, the number of active

wavelengths increases with the increase in network load. It

is also important to note that when the Dcons increases, the

same traffic could be transmitted with lower number of active

wavelengths. For example, when the network load is 0.4,

a network with a Dcons of 15 ms requires only 1 active

wavelength while a network with a Dcons of 10 ms requires 2

active wavelengths to support the same traffic. When Dcons

18

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

Dcons = 15 ms

Dcons = 10 ms

0.5

Dcons = 7.5 ms

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Normalized network load

1.2

1.2

(a) Simulations

3.5

Number of active wavelengths

18

Average delay (ms)

16

14

12

10

8

6

Dcons = 15 ms

Dcons = 10 ms

Dcons = 7.5 ms

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Normalized network load

2.5

2

1.5

1

Dcons = 15 ms

Dcons = 10 ms

Dcons = 7.5 ms

0.5

0

0

0

1.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Normalized network load

Fig. 4: Average delay as a function of normalized network

load.

simulations and (b) numerical analysis

5021

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cycle per ONU (%)

80

70

65

60

55

50

45

Dcons = 15 ms

40

Dcons = 10 ms

35

Dcons = 7.5 ms

30

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Normalized network load

1.2

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Dcons = 15 ms

Dcons = 10 ms

Dcons = 7.5 ms

40

35

30

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Normalized network load

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reported in (a) simulations and (b) numerical analysis

increases, the corresponding increase in BWmax allows the

same amount of traffic to be transmitted with a lower number

of active wavelengths.

Figures 6 (a) and (b) plot the percentage of energy-savings

per ONU per cycle as a function of normalized network load

based on simulations and numerical analysis, respectively. The

percentage of energy-savings is calculated as the proportion

of energy-savings achieved using a sleep/doze mode VCSELONU compared to an always-active VCSEL-ONU. In both

simulations and numerical analysis, for a given Dcons , the

percentage of energy-savings decreases with the increase in

network load. When the network load increases, it also increases Tslot . As the increase in Tslot increases Tactive , the energy

consumption increases, and thereby decreases the percentage

of energy-savings. It is important to note that the percentage of

energy-savings of more than 60% reported in this work is due

to the ONUs entering into sleep mode for the Dcons considered

in this work. The large difference in power consumption, 2.134

W, between active and sleep modes of a 10G-VCSEL-ONU

results in maximum energy-savings of 64%, 56%, and 47%

for Dcons of 15 ms, 10 ms, and 7.5 ms, respectively. When

the Dcons increases, it allows the ONUs to sleep for a longer

duration, thus saves more energy.

Figures 7 (a) and (b) plot the percentage of energy-savings

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Fig. 7: Percentage of energy-savings at the OLT per cycle

reported in (a) simulations and (b) numerical analysis

at the OLT as a function of normalized network load based

on simulations and numerical analysis, respectively. The percentage of energy-savings is calculated as the proportion of

energy-savings achieved by switching off idle wavelengths,

compared to having all four wavelengths active. In both

simulations and numerical analysis, for a given Dcons , when

the network load increases, the number of active wavelengths

increases as discussed in Fig. 3. As a result, the percentage of

energy-savings decreases with the increase in network load.

As explained before, higher Dcons requires a lower number

of active wavelengths to support the same network traffic and

therefore results in more energy-savings at a given network

load. It is important to note that irrespective of the network

load, an OLT requires a base power of 64 W. As a result, even

when only a single wavelength is active, the OLT consumes

75 W of power, resulting in a maximum percentage of energysavings of only 30 % at the OLT.

IV. C ONCLUSION

In this work, we have simulated a previously proposed theoretical framework of the energy-efficient OFF-DWBA algo-

5022

TWDM-PON. The algorithm provides a general framework

that can be used for TWDM-PONs with different parameters

such as delay constraints and number of wavelengths. In this

work, we have provided a comprehensive analysis of the

OFF-DWBA algorithm and have compared its simulation and

numerical results. The simulation results verify our previous

claim that the proposed OFF-DWBA algorithm results in

significant energy-savings both at the OLR and the ONU. Most

importantly, our simulation results indicate that under the OFFDWBA algorithm, the average delay of upstream packets does

not exceed the specified maximum. As a result, the proposed

energy-efficient OFF-DWBA algorithm is suitable to provide

delay-sensitive services over a TWDM-PON.

R EFERENCES

[1] A. Dixit, S. Lambert, B. Lannoo, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester,

Toward energy efficiency in optical access networks, Proc. of IEEE

International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommuncations

Systems (ANTS), 2013.

[2] Y. Luo, M. Sui, and F. Effenberger, Wavelength management in time

and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks (TWDMPONs), Proc. of IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2012.

[3] H. Yang, W. Sun, J. Li, and W. Hu, User migration in time and

wavelength division multiplexed PON, Proc. of 15th IEEE Transparent

Optical Networks (ICTON), We.B3.2 (2013).

[4] N. Cheng, L. Wang, D. Liu, B. Gao, J. Gao, and X. Zhou, Flexible TWDM PON with load balancing and power saving, Proc. of

39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical communication

(ECOC), We.3.F.6 (2013).

[5] A. Dixit, B. Lannoo, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, Novel

DBA algorithm for energy efficiency in TWDM-PONs, Proc. of

39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical communication

(ECOC), 2013.

[6] A. Dixit, B. Lannoo, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, Flexible

TDMA/WDMA passive optical network: energy-efficient next-generation

optical access solution, J. Optical switching and networking, 10(4),

491506(2013).

[7] M. P. I. Dias, D. P. Van , L. Valcarenghi, and E. Wong,Energy-efficient

dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation algorithm for TWDMPONs with tunable VCSEL ONUs, Proc. of IEEE Optoelectronic and

Communications conference (OECC), 2014.

[8] M. P. I. Dias, B. S. Karunaratne, and E. Wong,Bayesian estimation and

prediction based dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for sleep/doze

mode passive optical networks, J. of Lightwave technology, 32(14), 2560

2568(2014).

[9] M. P. I. Dias, D. P. Van , L. Valcarenghi, and E. Wong, Energy-efficient

TWDM-PON with VCSEL ONUs, Asia Communications and Photonics

Conference (ACP), ATh2F.4, (2014).

[10] E. Wong, M. Muller, and M.C. Amann, Characterization of energyefficient and colorless ONUs for future TWDM-PONs, OpticsExpress,

21(18), 20747-20761 (2013).

[11] E. Wong, M. Muller, P.I. Dias, C.A. Chan, and M.C. Amann, Energyefficiency of optical network units with vertical-cavity surface-emitting

lasers, OpticsExpress, 20(14), 14960-14970 (2012).

[12] G. Kramer, Ethernet passive optical networks, McGrow-Hill (2005).

[13] M. P. I. Dias and E. Wong,Sleep/doze controlled dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms for energy-efficient access networks, OpticsExpress,

21(8), 9931-9946 (2013).

5023

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