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Friction and Wear Research Volume 2, 2014

Effect of Slip Velocity on the Performance of a


Magnetic Fluid Based Squeeze Film in Porous
Rough Infinitely Long Parallel Plates
SnehalShukla*1, Gunamani Deheri2
Department of Mathematics, ShriR.K.Parikh Arts and Science College; Petlad, Gujarat, India
Department of Mathematics, Sardar Patel University; VallabhVidyanagar, Gujarat, India

*1
1

snehaldshukla@gmail.com; 2gm.deheri@rediffmaim.com

*1

Received 25 June 2013; Accepted 1 November 2013; Published 12 January 2014


2014 Science and Engineering Publishing Company

Abstract
An endeavor has been made to study and analyze the effect
of slip velocity on the performance of a squeeze film in
porous rough infinitely long parallel plates in the presence of
a magnetic fluid lubricant. The Neuringer-Rosensweig
model governs the fluid flow while the velocity slip is
modeled by the method of Beavers and Joseph. A stochastic
random variable with nonzero mean, variance, and skewness
characterizes the random roughness of the bearing surfaces.
With the adding of suitable boundary conditions, the
associated stochastically averaged Reynolds equation is
solved to obtain the fluid pressure, in turn, which results in
the calculation of the load-carrying capacity. It is found that
although the bearing suffers owing to transverse surface
roughness, the performance of the bearing system can be
improved to some extent by the positive effect of
magnetization, considering the slip parameter at the
minimum, at least in the case of negatively-skewed
roughness. A comparison of this study with some
established investigations indicates that the reduction of
load-carrying capacity due to porosity and slip velocity is
comparatively less here especially, when negative variance
occurs.Of course, in augmenting the performance of the
bearing system, the aspect ratio plays a central role even if
the slip parameter is at the minimum. This article offers the
suggestions that for a better performance of the bearing
system, the slip velocity should be minimized, even if the
magnetic strength has been chosen suitably. It is established
that the bearing can support a load even in the absence of
flow, unlike the case of a conventional lubricant.
Keywords
Parallel Plate Slider Bearing; Magnetic Fluid; Roughness; Slip
Velocity; Porosity; Load Carrying Capacity

Introduction
A slider bearing is the simplest and frequently

encountered bearing system in the industries. The vast


number of industrial slider bearing designs initially
evolved from a desire to create a bearing having better
load carrying capacity and/or to reduce friction and
wear. Thus, great deal of emphasis was placed on the
effectiveness of the bearing geometry to generate
pressure and thus increasing load capacity. Several
relevant studies on hydrodynamic lubrication of slider
bearing have been published (Pinkus&Sternlicht, 1961;
Cameron, 1972;Hamrock, 1994;Basu et al., 2009).In fact,
the infinite long slider bearing is the idealization of a
single sector shaped pad of a hydrodynamic thrust
bearing. Such a bearing consists of a pivoted pad and a
moving pad which may be plane, stepped, curved or
composite shaped (such bearings are widely used in
hydrodynamic generators and turbines).
Self-lubricating porous bearings have been studied in
the last few decades because of their industrial
applications and machine manufacturing. These
bearings have self-contained oil reservoir and hence
continuous lubrication is not required.Numerous
papers are available in the literature for the study of
different types of porous bearings. (Wu, 1972) studied
the squeeze film effects between two porous
rectangular plates. Plane inclined porous slider
bearing was analyzed by (Prakash&Vij, 1973) and it
was concluded that the effect of porosity decreased the
load carrying capacity and friction. (Patel & Gupta,
1983) extended the above analysis by considering the
problem with slip velocity.
All the above studies dealt with conventional
lubricants. The use of the magnetic fluid as a lubricant
in bearing system has attained considerable

Friction and Wear Research Volume 2, 2014

importance because of its contribution towards the


industrial applications. It is found that the magnetic
fluid has different applications in a variety of
engineering devices and systems, such as in
lubrication and sealing of bearings. The squeezing-film
technology is widely observed in applications of
engineering practices such as dampers, matching gears,
and machine-tool systems. In fact, a magnetic fluid is a
colloidal suspension of nano-sized magnetic particles
with average diameters of approximately 10 nm
covered with a surfactant layer in a carrier liquid. The
magnetic fluids change their structure under the
influence of an external magnetic field and do not
return immediately to the initial state after the
magnetic field is taken off. It is known that the cluster
of magnetic nano particles formed in the fluid
subjected to a magnetic field remains quite for
sometimes after the field has been removed (Bhat,
2003).Shah &Bhat (2005) theoretically analyzed the
combined effect of slip velocity and magnetic fluid on
the performance of a parallel plate porous slider
bearing. Here, it was shown that the increase in the
slip parameter failed to significantly alter the load
capacity and position of the centre of pressure; on the
other hand, increase in the material parameter caused
reduced friction. Elsharkaway&Alyaqout, (2009)
proposed an approach for designing the optimum
shape of slider bearing using sequential quadratic
programming. Wang(2012) studied the effect of slip on
the performance of the porous slider bearing. An
elastohydrodynamic numerical simulation was
conducted for one-dimensional Rayleigh step bearings
by Kazuyuki &Joichi(2013).
Several studies have been reported in the field of
magnetic fluid lubricated bearings. Ramanaiah (1967)
theoretically investigated the performance of a parallel
plate
slider
bearing
with
a
non-uniform
magneticfieldparallel to the plates and perpendicular
to the direction of the flow. Bhat(1978) initiated
theoretical investigation of a parallel plate porous
slider under a non-uniform applied transverse
magnetic field. Here also, it was shown that the
optimum magnetic profile was a step function and the
porosity
slightly
affected
the
performance
characteristics such as, load carrying capacity,
frictional force, friction factor and magnetic field state
location.Verma(1986) and Agrawal (1986) studied the
squeeze film performance by taking magnetic fluid as
a lubricant. Bhat&Deheri(1991) modified the analysis
of Verma&Agrawal (1986) by considering a magnetic
fluid based porous composite slider bearing with its

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slider consisting of an inclined pad and a flat pad.


Here, it was shown that the magnetic fluid lubricant
increased the load carrying capacity, friction,
coefficient of friction and shifted thecentreof pressure
towards the inlet. Shah &Bhat(2003) studied a slider
bearing with exponential film thickness profile and
obtained analytic expression for variation of nondimensional pressure, load carrying capacity, friction,
coefficient of friction and centre of pressure.Patel et
al.(2008) discussed the behavior of a magnetic fluid
based infinitely long hydrodynamic slider bearing. It
was concluded that the magnetic fluid lubrication
results in relatively better performance without
altering friction significantly.Devakar&Iyengar(2010)
considered the run up flow of a couple stress fluid
between
parallel
plates.Oladeinde&Akpobi(2010)
presented a mathematical model for the hydrodynamic
lubrication of finite slider bearing with velocity slip
and couple stress lubricants. At the juncture, film
thickness ratio was obtained for which load capacity
was maximized with or without slip.More recently,
Lin. et al. (2013) investigated the parallel circular
squeeze film disks with a non-Newtonian ferrofluid in
the presence of a transverse magnetic field. Using the
Shliomis Ferro hydrodynamic model, the modified
Reynolds equation was derived. Here, they compared
the results with Newtonian and non-Newtonian
ferrofluid cases and found that non-Newtonian
ferrofluid lubricated squeeze films provided a higher
load carrying capacity.
After having some run-in and wear, the bearing
surfaces tend to develop roughness. Even sometimes
contamination of lubricants and chemical degradation
of the surfaces contribute to the roughness. Decreasing
the roughness of a surface will usually exponentially
increase its manufacturing costs. This often results in a
trade-off between the manufacturing cost of a
component and its performance in an application. The
effect of the surface roughness on the behavior of a
thin film flow has long been the subject of intensive
studies. Various ways have been introduced to study
and analyze the effect of surface roughness on the
performance of the bearing systems.Some of the most
popular results are the Christensen &Tonder(1969a,
1969b, 1970) for longitudinal and transverse roughness
and the Patir&Cheng(1970) flow factor model for a
more general surface roughness pattern.Tzeng&Seibel
(1967) employed a stochastic approach to study the
effect
of
surface
roughness.Bujurke&Naduvinamani(1998) studied the
effect of roughness on squeeze film characteristics

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between two rectangular plates of which the upper


plate has a roughness structure and lower plate has a
porous material. Here, it was shown that the effect
oflongitudinal roughness increased load capacity of
the bearing compared to smooth case. Litwin(2011)
investigated the effect of roughness on the waterlubricated polymer bearing and showed that the effect
of roughness to the sliding direction of the bearing
could increase hydrodynamic load capacity. Lahmar et
al.(2013) analyzed the homogenization method of
roughness in turbulent lubrication. Here, it was found
that the effect of turbulence was to greatly increase the
load, in both the rough and smooth cases.
Deheri et al.(2008) studied the effect of magnetic fluid
lubrication on the performance of a squeeze film in
rough porous infinitely long parallel plates with
porous matrix of variable film thickness. It was found
that the positive effect of a magnetic fluid lubricant
minimized the adverse effect of roughness and
porosity up to certain extent.Patel &Deheri(2011)
evaluated the performance of a magnetic fluid based
squeeze film for a parallel plate porous slider bearing
with slip velocity. It was established that for an
effective performance of the bearing system, the slip
velocity should be kept at minimum, even if the
magnetization is in force. Chiang et al.(2012)
considered the performance of a magnetic
hydrodynamic tilted bearing under the effect of
surface roughness. Here, it was found that the tilted
bearing lubricated with ferro-fluid had the higher
built-up pressure distribution and load carrying
capacity. Recently, Kudenatti et al.(2013) theoretically
discussed the effect of surface roughness and couplestress fluid between two rectangular plates. Results
obtained here showed that the pressure distribution,
load capacity and squeeze film time were predominant
for larger values of roughness parameters and smaller
values of couple-stress parameters when compared
with their classical cases.
Thus, it was deemed appropriate to make an
investigation on the performance of a magnetic fluid
based squeeze film between porous rough infinitely
long parallel plates taking the slip velocity in to
account.
Analysis
The geometry and orientation of the bearing structure
is given in Figure1.

Friction and Wear Research Volume 2, 2014

FIG. 1.THE CONFIGURATION OF THE BEARING SYSTEM

It concerns with the laminar axis symmetric flow of an


incompressible fluid between two infinitely long
parallel pates approaching each other, and upper plate
having a porous facing approaches the lower one
normally with velocity= dh/dt.

Neuringer-Rosenswein (1964) proposed a simple


model to describe the steady flow of magnetic fluids in
the presence of slowly changing magnetic fields. The
model consists of the following equations:
)

(.
) = + 2 + 0 (.
. = 0
=0

=

+
) = 0
. (

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

0 2
+ 2
2

(6)

Using equations (3) (4), equation (1) becomes


(.
) =

This proves that an extra pressure term

1
2

0 2 is

introducedinto the Navier-Stokes equation when


magnetic fluid is used as a lubricant.
The expression for film thickness is considered in the
form of Christensen &Tonder (1969a,1969b and 1970).
() = () + (7)

where is the mean film thickness, while is a


randomly varying portion measured from the mean
level characterizing the random roughness.
Here is assumed to have the probability density
function ( ) over the domain [-b. b]
3

32
2
1

(8)
( ) = 35
2
0,
elsewhere

The details regarding the mean , standard deviation,


and skewness associated with the characterization of
roughness
can
be
seen
from
Christensen
&Tonder(1969a, 1969b and 1970).

Friction and Wear Research Volume 2, 2014

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formis found to be

where
= ( ),
= [( )2 ],
= [( )3 ],
2

(9)

() = ( ) (10)

The assumptions of usual hydromagnetic lubrication


theory are taken in-to consideration in the
development of the analysis. Following the method
adopted in Bhat(2003) and resorting to Beavers &
Joseph(1967) slip model as well as Andharia et al.(1997,
1999) roughness model, one arrives at the associated
Reynolds equation

H2
B2
6 dh
P 0=
(2 2 sh 3s 2 h 2 ) (
x 2 ) (11)
a (h) dt
2
4
Where

a (h) = h3 + 3 h 2 + 3( 2 + a 2 )h + + 3 2 + 3 + 12 H ,
which is just 3 + 12in the case of smooth bearings.

The magnetic field is oblique to the lower plate and its


magnitude is given by Bhat(2003),
2
2 (12)
4
where = 1014 2 4 chosen so as to have a magnetic
field of strength over 105 . The inclination of the
magnetic field to the X-direction has been considered
from Agrawal(1986).
2 =

The concerned boundary conditions are

= 0 , at = and = (13)
2
2
Introducing the dimensionless quantities

0 kh3
x
h3
*
P
u
=
=
, P*
,
,
2
B
h
hB
L *

s* sh
=
=
=
=
,
,
, *
, (14)
3
B
h
h
a ( h)

H
A(h)
=
, *
,=
,
* =
3
h
h
h3
and substituting, one obtains the expression for
pressure distribution in dimensionless form as:
x*
=

60.25( )2 22 +3
()

3
4

Results and Discussion

while E is the expectancy operator defined by

= (0.25 ( )2 )

(15)

The load carried per unit width of plate is

= 2 (16)

5
24

5 22 3

()

(17)

It is easily noticed that the non-dimensional pressure


distribution is obtained from Equation (15) while the
dimensionless load carrying capacity is determined
from Equation (17). In the case of smooth surfaces
setting the slip parameter to be zero, this study
reduces to the investigation of Bhat(1978) in the
presence of porosity. For a porous bearing with
smooth surfaces, this investigation reduces to the
study of Bhat&Deheri(1991). Further, considering the
magnetization parameter to be equal to zero for a
porous bearing with smooth surfaces, one can obtain
the results of Prakash&Vij(1973). In addition, setting
the magnetization parameter to be zero for a
nonporous bearing with smooth surfaces, the results of
Bhat (2003) can be available. Considering the slip
parameter as well as the magnetization parameter to
be zero for a nonporous bearing with smooth surfaces,
this study comes down to the discussions of Cameron
(1972).
Aclose glance at (17) tends to indicate that the slip
velocity of the bearing decreases the load carrying
capacity.Also, it is noticed from Equation (15) that the
dimensionless pressure increases by
(0.25 ( )2 )


(18)
2

While Equation (17) establishesthat the nondimensional load carrying capacity gets enhanced by
5
(19)

24
as compared to the case of conventional lubricant. It is
manifested that the expression for the load carrying
capacity is linear with respect to the magnetization
parameter and hence the dimensionless load carrying
capacity increases with increasing magnetization
parameter as shown in FIG. (2)-(7). The magnetization
results in an improvedperformance because it
increases the viscosity of the lubricant leading to an
increase in pressure; thus,giving increased load
carrying capacity. Besides, the expression for nondimensional pressure distribution indicates that slip
velocity of the bearing significantly distorts the profile
of pressure distribution.

Thus, load carrying capacity in non-dimensional

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Friction and Wear Research Volume 2, 2014

0.44
W*

W*

0.455
0.435

0.365
0.29

0.415
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.215

0.2

*
*=0.5
*=0.2

0.1

0.15

0.2

*
*=0.1

FIG. 2. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY WITH


RESPECT TO AND .

However, for smaller values of the standard deviation,


the effect on load carrying capacity with respect to the
magnetization parameter can be nominal as in the FIG.
2. The effect of standard deviation is negligible up to
0.05. Likewise, the effect of porosity on load carrying
capacity with respect to is almost negligible up to
the porosity 0.001(FIG.5)

*=0

*=0.0001

*=0.01

*=0.1

*=0.001

FIG. 5. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY WITH


RESPECT TO AND .
0.4775

W*

*=0
*=0.15

0.05

0.4525
0.4275
0.4025

0.5125

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

W*

0.4875
0.4625
0.4375
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

*
*=-0.05

*=0.05

*=0.1

s*=0.31

s*=0.33

s*=0.34

s*=0.32

FIG. 6. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY WITH


RESPECT TO AND .
0.4875

*=0
w*

*=-0.1

s*=0.3

FIG. 3. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY WITH


RESPECT TO AND .

0.4625

0.4375
0

0.47

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

W*

0.42

=0.7

=0.71

=0.73

=0.74

=0.72

0.37
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

*
*=-0.1

*=-0.05

*=0.05

*=0.1

*=0

FIG. 4. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY WITH


RESPECT TO AND .

10

FIG7. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY WITH


RESPECT TO AND .

The graphical representation makes it clear that the


load carrying capacity increases sharply due to
magnetization barring the case of porosity.The effect of
standard deviation on the distribution of load carrying
capacity is displayed in FIG. 8-12.

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0.37

W*

W*

0.43

0.345
0.32

0.405

0.05

0.15

0.2

0.38
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

*
*=-0.05

*=0.05

*=0.1

*=0

0.43

s*=0.3

s*=0.31

s*=0.33

s*=0.34

s*=0.32

FIG. 11. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY


WITH RESPECT TO AND s .
0.47
W*

*=-0.1

FIG. 8. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY WITH


RESPECT TO AND .

W*

0.1

0.45
0.43
0

0.38

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.33
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

*
*=-0.1

*=-0.05

*=0.05

*=0.1

W*

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

*
*=0

*=0.0001

*=0.01

*=0.1

=0.71

=0.73

=0.74

=0.72

FIG. 12. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY


WITH RESPECT TO AND .

*=0

FIG. 9. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY WITH


RESPECT TO AND .

=0.7

*=0.001

FIG. 10. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY


WITH RESPECT TO AND .

FIG. 8 says that the rate of decrease in the load


carrying capacity due to gets increasing due to
negatively skewed roughness. It is easily noticed that
the load carrying capacity decreases considerably
owing to the standard deviation. This is because
surface roughness of the bearing system retards the
motion of the lubricant, resulting in decreased loadcarrying capacity. However, this decrease is relatively
less in the case of porosity and negligible up to
=0.001, which can be seen from FIG. 10.

One can observe the variation of non-dimensional


load-carrying capacity with respect to variance from
FIG. 13- 15. (positive) decreases the load-carrying
capacity. It is seen that (negative) induces an
increase in the load-carrying capacity. One can easily
find that the effect of slip velocity and aspect ratio is
sharper, which can be seen from FIG.14and FIG.15. It
is interesting to note that the effect of the porosity on
the distribution of the load-carrying capacity with
respect to variance is negligible up to 0.001.

11

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Friction and Wear Research Volume 2, 2014

variance is relatively sharp as compared to the effect of


negatively skewed roughness. Furthermore, itcan be
visualized that the combined effect of negatively
skewed roughness and negative variance is
significantly positive in most of the situations.

0.44

W*

0.365
0.29
0.215
0.14
-0.1

-0.05

0.05

*=0.0001

*=0.01

*=0.1

0.38

W*

*
*=0

0.43

0.1

0.33
-0.1

*=0.001

-0.06

-0.02

0.02

0.06

0.1

FIG. 13. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY


WITH RESPECT TO AND .

*=-0.1

*=-0.05

*=0.05

*=0.1

*=0

0.43

FIG. 16. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY


WITH RESPECT TO AND .

W*

0.38

0.43
0.33

W*

0.33

0.23

0.28
-0.1

-0.05

0.13
0

0.05

0.1

-0.1

-0.05

*
s*=0.3

s*=0.31

s*=0.33

s*=0.34

s*=0.32

W*

*=0

*=0.0001

*=0.01

*=0.1

*=0.001

FIG. 17. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY


WITH RESPECT TO AND .
0.505

0.43

0.455
0.405

W*

0.38
0.33
-0.05

0.1

FIG. 14. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY


WITH RESPECT TO AND s .

-0.1

0.05

-0.1
0

0.05

-0.05

0.1

0.05

0.1

*
=0.71

=0.73

=0.74

=0.72

FIG. 15. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY


WITH RESPECT TO AND .

The profile for the distribution of the load-carrying


capacity with respect to skewnessis depictedin FIG. 1619. It is found that the skewness follows the trends of
the variance. The effect of slip velocity as well as
aspect ratio is sharp, which can be seen from FIG. 18
and FIG. 19. It is noticed that the effect of the porosity
on the distribution of the load-carrying capacity with
respect to skewness is negligible up to 0.001. However,
one can easily notice that the positive effect of negative
12

s*=0.3

s*=0.31

s*=0.33

s*=0.34

s*=0.32

FIG. 18. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY


WITH RESPECT TOAND s .

W*

=0.7

0.5275
0.5025
0.4775
0.4525

-0.1

-0.05

0.05

0.1

*
=0.7
=0.73

=0.71
=0.74

=0.72

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FIG. 19. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY


WITH RESPECT TO AND .

The effect of the porosity is considerably adverse as


can be seen from FIG. 20-21. Itcan be easily concluded
that indeed, the load capacity decreases sharply due to
porosity. This effect is almostnegligible in the case of
aspect ratio.

W*

0.39
0.29
0.19
0

0.025

0.05

0.075

0.1

*
s*=0.3

s*=0.31

s*=0.33

s*=0.34

s*=0.32

FIG. 20. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY


WITH RESPECT TO AND s .
W*

0.43
0.355
0.28
0.205

0.025

0.05

0.075

0.1

*
=0.7

=0.71

=0.73

=0.74

Lastly, FIG.22 concerning the variation of load


carrying capacity with respect to slip parameter makes
an interesting reading in the sense that load carrying
capacity decreases sharply with respect to s* when
higher values of are involved.
A close glance at the graphs reveals that the negative
effect of porosity can be overcome to a large extent by
the positive effect of magnetization in the case of
negatively skewed roughness for small to moderate
values of the slip parameter. The adverse effect of
standard deviation can be compensated to some extent
by the magnetization for small values of slip
parameter at least in the case when (-ve) is in place.
The combined negative effect of positively skewed
roughness and variance (+ve) can be reduced only to a
small extent, by the positive effect of magnetization,
keeping slip at minimum, for small values of standard
deviation suitably choosing the aspect ratio.
These observations confirm that in spite of the fact that,
the porosity, standard deviation and slip parameter
combine decreases the load carrying capacity, this
article offers some measures to improvethe situation.
Validation

=0.72

FIG. 21. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY


WITH RESPECT TO AND .

W*

FIG. 22. THE VARIATION OF LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY


WITH RESPECT TO s AND

A comparison of the results found here with that of


Deheri et al. (2008) and Cameron (1972) indicates that
the load is decreasedby 1.45%. It is not surprising as
roughness, slip velocity and porosity combined
decreases the load carrying capacity. Only due to the
effect of surface roughness, does the load capacity gets
decreased by 2.1%.
In order to validation, the following sets of comparison
have been made with other well-known published
works.

0.44

0.39
0.3

0.31

0.32

0.33

0.34

s*
=0.7

=0.71

=0.73

=0.74

=0.72

Table 1 and 2 present the load-carrying capacity


without considering the given quantity from (Deheri et
al. 2008, paper*).
Table 3 represents the load-carrying capacity without
considering the quantity from Cameron (1972, paper**).
TABLE 1

Quantity

=-0.05

with consideration

0.405189

0.40217

0.98217857

0.44438

0.38620

0.93639767

0.40821

0.4113

0.99775243

0.45591

0.46192

1.12123543

0.41396

0.72803

1.00462604

Load-carrying capacity in this investigation


without consideration
without consideration (paper*)

13

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Friction and Wear Research Volume 2, 2014

TABLE 2
Quantity

S*=0.3

Quantity

S*=0.3

Conclusion

with consideration



with consideration


Load-carrying capacity in this investigation


without consideration
without consideration (paper *)
0.39324
0.39021
0.43022
0.37551
0.39626
0.39901
0.35659
0.39670
0.46131
0.43734
TABLE 3

Load-carrying capacity in this investigation


without consideration
without consideration (Cameron **)
0.47824
0.47095
0.83354
0.51923
0.51930
0.90608
0.47824
0.48156
0.83942
0.43036
0.47878
0.83449
0.55675
0.52783
0.92130

This investigation makes it clear that from bearings


life period point of view the roughness aspects must be
considered carefully while designing this type of
bearing system, even if there is the presence of a
suitable magnetic strength and slip is at the minimum.
To mitigate the adverse effect of porosity and standard
deviation, even the aspect ratio may offer some help in
the case of negatively skewed roughness when
variance (-ve) occurs.
Nomenclature
h

fluid film thickness at any point

slip parameter

length of the bearing

magnitude of the magnetic field

breath of the bearing

lubricant pressure

velocity of slider

load carrying capacity

fluid velocity in the film region

magnetization vector

dimensionless slip parameter


external magnetic field

dimensionless pressure

inclined angle

dimensionless load carrying capacity

fluid density

dynamic viscosity of fluid

14

aspect ratio
porosity
standard deviation

0.95315409
0.91034067
0.96836269
0.9626919
1.06164908

skewness

variance

non-dimensional standard deviation

non-dimensional variance

non-dimensional porosity

non-dimensionalskewness
magnetization parameter
magnetic susceptibility
permeability of the free space

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors acknowledge


suggestions of the reviewers.

the

comments

and

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