You are on page 1of 11

INSTALLATION OF REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION SYSTEM ON

EOG RAKES : A CASE STUDY


Veena Sinha
Dy. CEE/M&P/CORE/Allahabad
SYNOPSIS
In recent times, to keep pace with the ever growing demand for premier train services, the
railways have increased no of coaches in the Rajdhani, Shatabdi and other EOG rakes. It is soon
planned to have 24 coach EOG rakes. This poses a huge challenge in terms of installation of
higher capacity DG sets, larger IV couplers and increased fuel consumption. Thus, need was felt
to study the performance parameters of the power cars on hotel load with a view to improve the
system efficiency on EOG rakes to support the increased loads.
The study revealed the prevalence of low power factor on EOG rakes. It was identified that the
improvement in power factor alone would result in significant improvement in load handling
capacity per engine, reduced current load on IV couplers and associated switch gear, reduction
in system losses and considerable saving in fuel consumption.
1. INTRODUCTION
Passenger train services in India is broadly classified into Rajdhani/Shatabdi/Garib rath
exp (all air conditioned coaches), Mail/express train( AC and non AC coaches), Other
trains(Non AC coaches).
Depending on provision of passenger amenity items and bearthing capacity coaches are
further classified in I-AC/II-AC/III-AC/sleeper/general.
Depending on power supply arrangement ,classification is broadly into end on
generation(EOG) and self generation (SG) system. Power requirement varies with type of
coach in service and is maximum for air conditioned coach.
Rajdhani/Shatabdi/Garib rath being fully air conditioned train, electrical power
requirement is huge and it is increasing rapidly with addition of coaches. The loads
supplied are predominantly reactive in nature. Electrical Load requirement per coach for
EOG system is in range of 40-60 KVA (40 KVA for 3 AC/ 2AC, 60 KVA for Pantry
Car) and for generator car 70-80 KVA.
Electrical load primarily comprises of lighting, air conditioning equipment, pumping,
pantry load (water boiler, deep freezer, hot case, Bottle cooler cum deep freezer in
individual coaches), battery charger for emergency light, radiator motor, distribution
transformers in individual coaches.
Rajdhani/Shatabdi/Garib rath trains works on end on generation (EOG) system, whereby
power is fed at 750 V from 2 generator Car attached at both ends of the train each
consisting of 2 DG sets of 336 KW rated capacity.
The supply to the coaches in EOG system is through two independent feeders (IV
couplers), which are linked by a bus coupler; each feeder is designed for a maximum
current of 250 Amps (except in newly turned out coaches).
In the coaches 750 Volt 3 phase AC supply is stepped down to 415 Volt through 50-KVA
delta/star transformers. All the AC plants, WRA(Water raising apparatus) work on 415
Volt supply whereas the pantry equipments work on 230 Volt AC in individual coaches.

With the present power supply arrangement on EOG system a maximum of six coaches
can be fed through one D.G. set in peak load condition. Any augmentation of rake beyond
6 coaches calls for running of another D.G. set for meeting the power requirement.

2. ACTUAL FIELD TRIAL


Measurement of various electrical parameters was done in summer & winter season (with all
electrical load in ON condition) and some of results/Readings obtained are summarized as under
:
SN No. of coaches
connected on one
engine of power
car
1
Power Car
2.
PC + Lights only
3
PC + 1 CC
4
PC + 2 CC
5
PC + 3 CC
6
PC + 4 CC
7
PC + 5 CC
8
PC + 6 CC
9
PC + 7 CC

Current in Amps
(At ACB in
generator car)(A)

Power
factor of
the load

55
75
100
120
140
160
175
200
240

0.61 lag
0.48 lag
0.49 lag
0.52 lag
0.51 lag
0.50 lag
0.50 lag
0.50 lag
0.52 lag

PC: Power Car, CC : Coach , PC + 7CC: Electrical load of Power car and 7 coaches.
Though various readings were taken, in this paper, further analysis is restricted to
power factor only. Results of measurement of power factor equipment wise
(measured by switching off all other loads) is as under:Type of Load
Pf observed (Average)
Light Load
.44 lag
Pantry Load only
.56 lag
Light + Vent Load
.5 lag
Light + One plant Load
.6 lag
Light + both plant Load
.7 lag
AC plant Load only
.6 lag
Light +AC+ Pantry Load
.5- .75 lag (on diff. train, diff. time)
From the above table it can be seen that:
Maximum load that can be connected on one engine- 7 coaches
Power factor with maximum load (7 coaches) on one D.G. set - 0.52.
Highly distorted current waveform (Current harmonics) was observed (I-THD-39%, IEEE
limit-20%).
V-THD (Voltage harmonics) was more than prescribed limit(12.8%, IEEE limit-5%).
PF observed varied with type of load connected on DG set, improvement in pf was
observed when both the AC plant and light load was switched ON
Variation in pf reading was observed in summer and winter season, pf deterioration
observed in winter season.

PF reading varied at different time of the day , improved pf was observed in afternoon and
evening, gradually deteriorating in night and morning.
Improved pf was observed on new coaches.
Lighting load had poorest pf even though pf of ballast was found in range of .98-.99.

3. POSSIBLE CAUSES OF LOW POWER FACTOR/VARIATION IN POWER FACTOR


Following issues were identified:
For air conditioning in AC coaches, different type of induction motors are used like,
Blower motor, Condenser motor, Compressors & 50 KVA transformers .These
equipments operate at lagging power factor. The power factor decreases with decreasing
load. An induction motor may have higher power factor of 0.85 lagging at full load, 0.8
lagging at 75% load & 0.5 lagging at 25% load. This is the reason for variation in pf
reading at different time of day ie, Afternoon, Evening, night, and morning. IN afternoon
with rising ambient temperature, compressors of both ac plant are required to be run
continuously to maintain inside coach temperature hence fully loaded condition and
improved pf than partially loaded condition.
Discharge lamps operate at low power factor due to typical characteristics. Also with
lighting load only, 50 kva transformer operate at much lower than rated capacity
Lower power factor particularly in the older coaches is due to improper maintenance &
repairs of the motors. Improper rewinding techniques lead to increased magnetic leakages
& low power factor. Some times air gap is increased due to which greater magnetizing
current is required & therefore the power factor drops.
Pantry equipments, bottle cooler & deep freezer have fractional hp motors & compressors
hence operate at very poor pf.
During winter season, all the AC equipments operate at reduced capacity (25 to 50%) and
hence contribute towards low power factor.
Presence of higher harmonics level contributes to low pf.
4. POWER FACTOR AND ITS EFFECT
Power factor is the ratio between the KW and the KVA drawn by an electrical load where the
KW is the actual load power and the KVA is the apparent load power. It is a measure of how
effectively the current is being converted into useful work output and more particularly is a good
indicator of the effect of the load current on the efficiency of the supply system. All current will
cause losses in the supply and distribution system. A load with a power factor of 1.0 results in the
most efficient loading of the supply and a load with a power factor of 0.5 will result in much
higher losses in the supply system. A poor power factor can be the result of either a significant
phase difference between the voltage and current at the load terminals, or it can be due to a high
harmonic content or distorted/discontinuous current waveform. Poor load current phase angle is
generally the result of an inductive load such as an induction motor, power transformer, lighting
ballasts, welder or induction furnace. A distorted current waveform can be the result of a rectifier,
variable speed drive, switched mode power supply, discharge lighting or other electronic load.
Closer the power factor to unity, the less reactive power is drawn from the supply source.
5. SYSTEM CONSTRAINTS BECAUSE OF LOW PF
A lower power factor results in higher current for a fixed amount of kW output. This has
following drawbacks:

Overloading of power source i.e. transformer or Alternator.


Under utilization of the installed capacity of generating system.
Higher operating costs on account of higher fuel consumption.
Higher IR losses in the distribution system, leading to additional heating
Voltage drop problem.
. Increase in rating of associated switchgear, protective device.
Shorter life of AC accessories.

6. METHODS OF POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT IN AC EOG PASSENGER


COACHES

Provision of single power factor (PFC) correction panel in the generator car to
Improve overall pf.
Provision of pfc panel in individual coaches.
Provision of fixed capacitors with equipments.

7. TECHNOLOGY AVAILABLE
Power factor in AC EOG train/coaches can be improved by switching ON/OFF the capacitor
bank in following way:- Manual switching: - Constant monitoring of load pattern is required so as to enable
Operator to switch ON/OFF capacitor bank.
Contactor switched capacitor:- Capacitor bank switched ON/OFF through electro
mechanical contractor. Random switching , unsuitable to variable load condition.
Thyristor Switched Capacitors: - Switching at zero crossing voltage, solid state, fast
switching without delay time for discharging ( 20 ms), transient free (Voltage as well as
current) power quality, flicker compensation, no harmonics generation because of full
wave switching, step wise reactive power control.
IGBT based voltage source converter; It is a voltage source converter for static VAR
compensation comprising IGBT. It does not require any passive components like capacitors &
reactors. Requires less space in comparison to others step less reactive power control, faster
response time. Also referred as dynamic reactive power compensation system.
Mixed operation: - Hybrid mode (conventional & dynamic pfc) basic load is compensated
with contactors, only the fast changing load peaks are compensated via thyristors . So
reduction in cost.
SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGY/METHOD OF PF IMPROVEMENT

Method/Technology selected for power factor improvement should address the issues
discussed in para 2 and 3.
After observing variation in pf with change in ambient condition, season, reduced
loading, real time pf correction is needed to be incorporated for improvement in
pf.Improved pf can not be achieved by installation of capacitor bank only where either
overcorrection/under correction is achieved in steps.
Also, contactor switched capacitor needs harmonics filter to be added in system for
harmonics suppressions. Space requirement for installation of pfc panel is huge for

accommodating various sizes of capacitors and inductors. Though this technology


suitable for stationary applications,suffers from disadvantage in rolling stock application
where space is a severe constraints.
dynamic reactive power compensation system holds many promises as it requires lesser
space than other technologies as capacitors and reactors are not required. It offers real
time pf correction and effective harmonics suppressions .
Availibility of coach for doing any modification work is limited, so method chosen for
implementation should take least time.

8. METHOD TRIED IN FIELD TRIAL ON POWER CAR NO 1852


For the purpose of carrying out study, One no contactor switched Pf correction panel (100
KVAR, 800V, Gas filled capacitors, five stage switching) was installed on one DG set of power
car no.01852( development of Thyristor swiched /IGBT based voltage source convertor would
have taken time so contactor switched capacitor panel was developed and effort was made to
study various parameters after installation of pfc panel.)
PERFORMANCE IMPOROVEMENT
With Power Factor Correction Panel.
SN

No. of coaches
connected
PC + 7 CC
PC + 8 CC
PC + 9 CC

1.
2.
3

Current in Amps (at


ACB in generator car)
180
210
240

Power factor of the


load
0.79 lag
0.75 lag
0.74 lag

DATA ANALYSIS:

It can be seen from the table in para 2 that while the power factor without provision of pfc
panel was .52 in the 7th coach, the same has improved to .74 even after connecting 9
coaches on the same DG set(table in para 8) . Further improvement in pf can be done by
installation of higher size pfc panel for having even greater benefit .Load/Feeder current
reduction from 240A to 180A at 750v for improved pf of .79 lag.
Based on the outcome of the trial as shown above with present improved PF, capacity
augmentation of 30% during winter and 20% in summer season is expected. The load on
one DG set can be increased from 6-7 to 9-10 coaches. If PF is further improved from .74,
then more capacity augmentation can be expected.
I-THD is much more that IEEE prescribed limit and is increasing after addition of
capacitors.
Effect of improved pf on decreased system losses requires further study.

9. EFFECT OF IMPROVED PF ON HSD OIL CONSUMPTION


Every increase / augmentation of coaches in train/ / frequency & services puts huge pressure in
terms of increased demand for HSD Oil.

For the purpose of showing benefits of power factor improvement on fuel consumption, Case
study on running of Guwahati Rajdhani Express (Train No.2423/24, 16 coaches and 2 power
cars) From NDLS-GHY and back has been taken.
UNDERLING CRITERIA

Calculation is made for .7pf at full load(without pfc panel) and targeted pf of .85(with
pfc panel).
HSD oil consumption at 50-70 % loading for KTA 1150 - 40 lts/hour/engine, for higher
capacity engine HSD consumption is even more.
Load on one engine without pfc panel (in fully loaded condition, when
both AC plants, light, Pantry load are in operation )- 6-7 coaches.
Maximum loading happens between 10 AM-8PM, when 3 engines (sometime all the four
(4) engines) are required to be run to meet the electrical demand.
Maximum loading condition prevails during 8 months out of 12 months.
No. of EOG AC coaches over IR= 1000 nos, SGAC Coaches= 5000 nos.
Average working day for one coach= 300 days (min.) (Maintenance/ unutilized period
deducted).Average working hrs. per day of EOG AC = 12 hrs/ day, though it is much
more in case of Shatabdi exp.
Average EOG coach hour per year over IR, 1000 x 300 x 12 = 36,00,000 coach hour.

If calculation is made for .5 pf (during winter condition /Partial load condition when
one plant is in operation) and targeted pf greater than .85 lag then the saving accrued will be
much more.
Running of DG sets as per electrical load and as per train running hours is tabulated as under
SN

Block

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.

02hrs
10hrs
14hrs
05hrs
03hrs
11hrs
16hrs

viii.

No of
engines
running
2
3
2
3
2
3
2

Average
current

165A
414A
303A
440A
320A
471A
346A

Average
Power
factor

Targeted
Power
factor

Average
current at
0.85PF

0.7
0.85
135A
0.7
0.85
341A
0.7
0.85
250A
0.7
0.85
362A
0.7
0.85
263A
0.7
0.85
387A
0.7
0.85
285A
Total diesel saved/trip
Saving in Rs/trip(rate for HSD oil- Rs 37/-)

No of
engines
that will
be
running
2
2
1
2
2
2
2

HSD
oil
saving
In ltrs
Nil
400
560
200
Nil
440
Nil
1400
Rs
51800/-

From the table, saving per coach hr.= Rs. 47/With the improved pf of .85 lag, after installation of pfc panel, saving in HSD oil
consumption/ annum for 1000 no. EOG coaches over Indian Rly =17 Cr.

Apart from this saving there will be Investment reduction on account of installation of
higher capacity DG set and associated switchgear which needs further study.

10. CONCLUSION
From the Data analysis in Para 8, Installation of pf correction panel resulted in following
performances improvement,
Improved pf
Reduction in HSD oil consumption
Investment reduction for new equipment (Distribution equipments, transformer,
cable cross section),
Augmentation in load handling capacity per engine,
Reduction in current handling by distribution systems
Reduction of system losses. (which needs to be established based on network
components).
Note: Performance improvement with installation of pfc panel on SGAC Coaches (5000
no. over IR) and in individuals coaches can be taken up for further study.

EFFECT OF LOWER PF ON HSD OIL CONSUMPTION


HSD consumption for running ---- services of Rajdhani / Shatabdi / Garib Rath is------litre
annually every increase / augmentation of coaches in trains, frequency & services puts huge
pressure in trains of increased demand for HSD oil.
This called for detailed energy consumption analysis of various equipments installed for lighting
/ Air conditioning purpose to determine any scope for saving in energy consumption, Eventually
leading to lesser HSD oil consumption.

Without Power Factor Correction Panel.

SN

No. of coaches connected

Load in Amps

1
2.
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Power Car
PC + Lights only
PC + 1 CC
PC + 2 CC
PC + 3 CC
PC + 4 CC
PC + 5 CC
PC + 6 CC
PC + 7 CC

55
75
100
120
140
160
175
200
240

Power factor of the


load
0.61 lag
0.48 lag
0.49 lag
0.52 lag
0.51 lag
0.50 lag
0.50 lag
0.50 lag
0.52 lag

With Power Factor Correction Panel.


SN

No. of coaches connected

Load in Amps

1.
2.
3

PC + 7 CC
PC + 8 CC
PC + 9 CC

180
210
250

Power factor of the


load
0.79 lag
0.75 lag
0.74 lag

Why Development of Power Factor Panel on EOG Rakes was not available till date:
Constraint:
1. Non-availability of reliable sources with expertise in this field.
2. Non-availability of capacitors for 800V rating indigenously.
3. Limited technology in the field of power factor correction for mobile application.
4. Lot of discussion & research work was done at the divisional level in the last six month
with various firms. This also involved power quality analysis with power analyser.
5. The firm was deliberated to come up with the solution in light of the scope for future
expansion. 800V grade capacitors were then especially imported from Germany.
6. Due to synchronization problem separate panel for DG set is must. However
availability of space is serious constraint.
1. KVA requirement of decreased from 112 KVA to 80 KVA (decrease of electrical
parameter measurement with and without capacity panel of 100 KVA (on 28/12/07)
in genret of power car 185.2 attached with train No. 2017A Dehradun AC special
Express train (Coaches-8no.)
3. Voltage THD much higher than IEEE recommended limit of V-THB i.e 12.8%
against 5% of limit
4. Current THD is crossing by very higher difference of recommended maximum 20%
for I0THD i.e 45.8% and it is increasing after adding capacitors.

Revenue Loss calculations for running coaches without Power Factor Controllers.
Average savings in cost after adding Power Factor Module in EOG AC Coaches
Average AC coach load in summer (both AC panel & Lighting & Fan loads) = 42 KW
Sr.No.

Power
Factor/
Coach

Required
Total KW
KW/Coach Utilized
due to low

Actual
Energy
Power Fed Consumed in
from
One Coach in

PF

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

0.67
0.71
0.73
0.74
0.75
0.76
0.77
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.92
0.95

42.00
42.00
42.00
42.00
42.00
42.00
42.00
42.00
42.00
42.00
42.00
42.00

28.14
29.82
30.66
31.08
31.50
31.92
32.34
33.60
35.70
37.80
38.64
39.90

Generator/ Terms of
Coach
Revenue
@ 5.5 Rs/Unit
for
[@ 12 Hrs/Day
for 30 days
= 360 Hrs.}
55.86
110602.80
54.18
107276.40
53.34
105613.20
52.92
104781.60
52.50
103950.00
52.08
103118.40
51.66
102286.80
50.40
99792.00
48.30
95634.00
46.20
91476.00
45.36
89812.80
44.10
87318.00

Total % Power Savings from bringing power factor to 0.95 (by adding PFC) from 0.67
(without PFC) in every coach = 21%.
In terms of total revenue saved/earned by PFC in every (1-12) coach in 30 days
= Rs.23285
Total revenue saved/earned by PFC in each train of 15 coaches in 30 days
= Rs.349275

Experiences on installation of FIRST Reactive power compensation system (


Pfc panel) on Power Car 1852. Over DLI Division and its effect on HSD oil
consumption.
VEENA SINHA,
DY CEE (MP)/CORE/ALLAHABAD
ABSTRACT:
An attempt had been made to determine the PF of hotel load (on Rajdhani/Shatabdi/Garib Rath ),
Solution available for power factor improvement and its effect on HSD oil consumption. Prima
facie the study revealed very poor Power factor (.5 to .75 lagging during different seasons).
In line with growth of passenger services, 3-10 coaches had been augmented in various
Rajdhani/Shatabdi/ Garin Rath Exp. as well as increased frequency/ trains services over last 10
years. Planning is already under consideration to run Shatabdi/Rajdhani/ Garin Rath Exp. with

24 coaches. This puts huge challenge in term of installation of higher capacity D.G. set, IV
coupler , excessive loading on IV coupler, more fuel consumption. These challenges can be
successfully memt by installation of pfc panel in power Car / individual coaches.
By installation of PF correction panel, Lesser fuel consumption, Augmentation in the load
handling capacity per engine, Reduced current handling by IV coupler was observed which will
be discussed in the paper..