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EME 4086: Assignment 1 (6%)

This assignment assesses the following LOs and POs:

LO1: Formulate the finite element equations using physical systems (Cognitive - applying,
level 4)

PO6-- Create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering
and IT tools to complex engineering activities.

LO2: Formulate the finite element equations using mathematical equations (Cognitive analyzing, level 4)
PO5: Conduct investigation and research on complex engineering problems in the chosen
field of study.

1) In the case of any violation of the following rules, the instructor has the right not to accept
your assignment submission.
2) Please work on this assignment in a group of at most three students. You may choose to work
alone. Form your own group without assistance from your instructor.
3) For Q1 part f), please submit Scilab/Matlab/Excel Visual Basic scripts (a capture of print
screen or a printed script with results from execution) or your Microsoft Excelsheet in A4
size papers (can be blank or with lines), as well as in softcopy to my email address
(ckkok@mmu.edu.my). Scilab/Matlab/Excel tools will not be taught in class. You are
expected to learn it yourself. To complete this exercise, you can use the reference material in
this link:
4) Write your ID(s) and name(s) clearly at the top left corner of the first sheet of your
5) If your submission consists of more than one page, please staple them. Do not fold the corner
of the stack and expect instructor to staple for you. You will be solely responsible for any
loose sheet from un-stapled stacks.
6) Deadline for submission is Aug 9, Tuesday, 11:00 pm (in class).

Q1: LO1, PO6

Figure Q1 shows a tapered round bar with the cross-sectional area being a function of x. The left
end of the bar is fixed.
Given E = 100 GPa, A0 = 100 mm2, P = 1 kN, L = 1 m.


Figure Q1
a) Using two linear finite elements, propose a ONE DIMENSIONAL finite element model
for the tapered bar with end loading by:
i) Identifying the governing equation for the problem.
ii) Identifying the boundary conditions of the problem.
b) Compute and Assemble the stiffness matrices of each element into a global stiffness
matrix [K], such that

c) Solve for


d) Will the results for
at L/2 and L be different if 4 elements are used in the
model instead of 2? Explain without calculation.
e) Will increasing the number of elements in this problem improve the convergence of
solution? Explain.
f) Use either Scilab/Matlab/Excel to solve for displacements U 1 to U11 given a discretization of
the bar into 10 elements. Plot the displacements versus the x-coordinate (i.e. x from 0 to L).
For this part, you will be evaluated with the following ribrics:
Criteria/Evaluatio Poor
Appropriate use
Student cannot
of the tool
demonstrate skills
required to use the



Student demonstrates
required skills to use
the tool. However the
script is difficult to
follow and the
resulting plot does

required skills to use
the tool. The scripts
are easy to follow
and the resulting

Effective use of
the tools

The script
submitted does
not yield the
required solution
due to syntax

not look professional

(i.e. missing labels,
small fonts, etc.).

plot is elegant.

The script submitted

yield the required
solution, yet with
redundancy or
possible coding

The script submitted

yield the required
solution. No
redundancy or
possible coding
errors detected.

Q2: LO2, PO5

The governing equation for one-dimensional fluid flow in a closed conduit is

2 u dP

y 2 dx

Eq. (2.1)


is the viscosity of the fluid, P is the pressure, and u is the velocity. A typical velocity
profile is given in Figure Q1. Assume that the pressure drop per unit length,
, is a constant.



Figure Q1
(a) Using the given boundary conditions, derive the exact solution for the problem.
u c1 sin

(b) Now, if you use an approximate solution of the form
, solve for c1 using:
i) the collocation method with a collocation point at y = H/2.
ii) the Galerkin method
iii) the Rayleigh-Ritz method

(c) Compare the exact solution and the approximate solutions (b) i) and ii) by tabulating the
u at increment of y = 0.1H. Comment on the accuracy of the approximate solution.