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Mel'cuk et al. 1992 Igor Mel'cuk avec Nadia Arbatchewsky-Jumarie, Lidija Iordanskaja et Suzanne Mantha. Dictionnaire explicatif et combinatoire du frangais contemporain:
Recherches lexico-semantiques III. Montreal, 1992.
Mel'cuk et al. 1999 Igor Mel'cuk avec Nadia Arbatchewsky-Jumarie, Lidija lordanskaja,
Suzanne Mantha et Alain Polguere. Dictionnaire explicatif et combinatoire du frangais contemporain: Recherches lexico-semantiques IV. Montreal, 1999.
Reuther 1996 Tilmann Reuther. On Dictionary Entries for Support Verbs: the Case of
Russian VESTI, PROVODIT' and PROIZVODIT' // Wanner L. (ed.). Lexical Functions in
Lexicography and Natural Language Processing. Amsterdam; Philadelphia, 1996.

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51

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52

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53

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1996 . . . . .:
, 1996.
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. .: , 1974.

-,


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. [Benveniste 1966; Hagege 1982].
, . . -, . [Isacenko 1974].
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Chvany 1975; 1996; 2000] ,
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1

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55

, ), (.-. * , . [ 1979: 71]).


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() ('', '', ''
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, , [Dingley 1995], XIXIV . [ 1991:
150152],
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. . 2

. , , [Creissels 1996; Heine 1997].


[Weiss, Rakhilina 2002].

56

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4

. [Hiittl-Worth 1956; 1963].


, [ 1974]. .

57

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[ 1991].
. ,
,
, :
(. avoir affaire ):
*
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- (avoir en vue quelque chose):
* ? .:
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58

-,

-. 6 .
5. .

: "{...) avoir n'est rien d'autre qu'un etre a inverse: mihi estpecunia
se retourne en habeo peeuniam" [Benveniste 1966: 197].
.
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[Benveniste 1966: 194]. : -, , avoir
.
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, , .
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6

[ 1975]
.
7
. . . [
. . 2001: 357361].

59

8 ,
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.
6.
, . [ + ],
.

. . , "When Byt'
means Have", :
[3] There is a samovar at Petja's
IMEJ- Petja has
samovar [Chvany 1996: 2942]. . 9 .
-
,
, . [ + ] [Garde 1983],
, , . , , , ,
- () : Les mains lui tremblent , , avoir: II a les
mains qui tremblent.
10 .
[ + ] ,
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. [Weiss,
8

.: (...) (...) [ 2000: 202].


9
, , [ 1995].
.
10
. [ 2000; Weiss, Rakhilina 2002].

60

-,

Rakhilina 2002: 192], "Russian has achieved a unified expression of non-attributive


possession" 11 . ,
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11

[Garde 1987].
[ + ] . [Mikaelian, Roudet 1999; Roudet 1999; Weiss, Rakhilina 2002].
[ + ] , . [ 1999].
13
. [ 1985: 180186;
2001: 269316].
12

61

(2) 34-
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62

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?
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) (7), (8), (9),
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14

., , [ 1996].

63

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; 2) ' - , '.
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).
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64

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[ + ]

, , .: , . . [Yokoyama 1983].

65

,
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.
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66

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71

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73

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. .

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, ].
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, , [ 1972], , , , , , . [ 1988/1995: 142]. . [. .]:
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, . [Lakoff 1993].
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, . [Dobrovol'skij
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.
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. . - [MacWhinney 1989:229230].
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1

.
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. . . (, [Pustejovsky 1993:
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, , , , , ,
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78 . .

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1

, , ,
, , .
2
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' 2', . .

92

( , , . (3)).

:
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(. [ 1998: 441452; Wierzbicka 1988: 312;
1992: 3441]). . (8) (8'):
(8) - [] (. . ).
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; .
' 1' ' 2' regretter
:

20

93

(9) Vous serez foyer vieille accroupie regrettant amour et votrefier dedain
'
'.
regretter :
amour ' 2' ( ) votre fier dedain ' ( = ', ').
, , ,
-, regretter amour et votre fier dedain .
, :
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,

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94

1997]). '' - , , ,
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20

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7


, . [ 1988].
8
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(. ' '), :
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96

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9, . (16):
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3.
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; , . .

(
' 1', ' 2 ' ) .
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] = 'X , , '. . : , .

20

97

, X ( . [ 1982: 6882; 1992: 6469]).



(. ), (. (18), (19), )10:
(18) , (, MAC).
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, ! (. ).
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. , , , (. ).
, , , , ,
. , , . , :
, ;
:
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. . . . , , ,
. () , [ 1998:
229], , .: (),
~ = ', ' [ 1992: 154157].
. (. (20)),
(. (22)). , (21)
, .
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= ' ; ; ; X , '.
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10
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.

7 - 3595

98

X, . . , ( , : , ; . (27) ).
. ; .
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, , , (. . , 3 1834 .).
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).
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20

99

(31) Bee ,
(. . , 18 1824 .).
(32) , ?
() , .
() , , , ,
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(. (30), (326)),

'
'. , - (, . . '')
,
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(32) .
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). , - , , .
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-

100

, (. .
, 8 1959 .).
(34) (.
).
(34) . ( ): Je ne regrettais point, aupres
d'Ellenore, ces plaisirs de la vie sociale ' '. . , ' 2' . gretter ( , JI.
).
, ,
.
.

1995 . . . : ( ) /I . . . . . . 2. ., 1995. . 503536.


1985 . . . II . .
1985. 3.
1998 . . . . ., 1998.
1982 . . .
// . .: , 1982. . 785.
1985 . . : . . ... . . . ., 1985.
1986 . . // . : .
IX . , 1986.
1988 . . // . ., 1988. . 189213.
1992 . . // Slavistische Beitrage, Bd. 298. Miinchen: Otto Sagner Verlag, 1992.
1997 . . . , , , //
/ . .
. . . . 1. ., 1997. . 107112.
1988 . . . //
. ., 1988. . 154165.
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Be. ()

, 20- . ,
1 . .
, . , , . [ (.) 1997: 66
70] ( . . ). , .
, ,
, ( ),
. /
. ( ) '' (
1076 ., . 136: ; . ( , . 135): '' .;
XI ., 73, . [ 1893: 647]). , , , XVIII .,
,
1

. [ 1927: VIII].
, , . , [
19276: 8486] [Sethe 1918; 1998:
463465 ],
, (.
, ,
, : [Cushing 1990; 1892;
1998: 496]).
[Spelke, Tsivkin 2001: 8688].

102

Be.

: , , . [ 1991: 62] ( . . ). [. ., III: 206]


,
:
:

.
.
:
,
.
I 10- , . [ 1995: 748; 1958; 1987: 53].
, , (.-. *,
1377 ., . 35, . \', XI ., 181, aboayihhi,
; XVIII . , , , . [ 1991:
49]), 2 (.-. ()/(), XIV ., , 133,
, XVIII . , ), , , . 2

. ...

1930- ., < *- ', ' [ 1972: 308 ( ' ') 289 ( )\ 1993, . 1: 234], .
XVIII .: [ 1991: 57]; .
()(). ,
,
, ( )
,
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3
. [ 1991: 59]. [ 1991: 51].

103

. .
( 1076 ., . 184) 4
5; I XVIII .
. ', ': . 6 . , ,
: - 7 :

.
(, , ) .


, 8.
,
( ), , , , ,
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() ( ), , ( , , ) ( ), ( , ,
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( ). , , :

, ... 10
4

[ 1912, : 86].
[ 1893, . I: 641].
6
[ 1991: 52]. [ : 57].
7
, , ( , ) , , ., , [ 1998: 48].
8
. [ 1991: 61, 58].
9
[ 1995, . 1: 354361, 315329].
10
[ : 358].

104

Be.
;
, ,
,
11.
..., ... 12
13.
, ... 14
# 15.

, , :
... .
(. )
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:
!

, :

...
(. ;
)

'

1922 .:

" , ,
-
...17
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

: 357].
[ : 355].
[ : 356].
[ ].
[ : 360].
, , . [ 1997: 6970].
[ 1990: 150].

104

Be.
;
, ,
,
11.
..., ... 12
13.
, ... 14
15.

, , :
... .
(. )
( ) , 16 :
:
!

, :

...
(. ;
)

'

1922 .:

' , ,
-
...17
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

[ : 357].
[ : 355].
[ : 356].
[ ].
[ : 360].
, , . [ 1997: 69- -70].
[ 1990: 150].

105

,
,
, 10 , 1912 ., - :

, 18.
:
, ,
...
( ...)
,
- ,
( , ) ,
:
, .
- ...
, ,
,
,
:
-
, ?19
( ) ( ) ( ,
, ,
). 2 0
, (, ,
).

18
19
20

[, 1993: 477].
[ 1992: 124].
[ 1990: 27, . . .].

106

Be.
...
21.

, ,
( )
( ).
.
, (.
, , 1909 .
), (Doppelganger; XVII . 22 ).
23 .
,
, .
. . Zweifel '', zweifeln '' (.-.-.
zwlval '', zwTvelen ' ', .-. twifliari)
(tweifl), .-. *dewy-plo- > . du-plus, , t u p l e , t u p l a 24 .
21

[ 1992: 56].
:
,


.
:
.
( . . 452)

. . double '' [Artaud


1938]. [Troubetzkoy 1996]. XVIII .
, (' ', '
', ' - ,
', ' ' [ 1991: 51]):
.
22
[Seebold 1999:190]. . () Doppelbereich
, .
23
[ 1995: 416437].
24
[Lehmann 1986, . 42: 351; Seebold 1999: 918; , 1984, II: 706;
Ernout, Meillet 1994: 188]. . [Gvozdanovic 1992; Blazek 1999].

107

-
() , 25 . ,
, dvi-gubbus '';
dvi-gubbiit ''; durai ''. . dubius, dubio: duo.
,
. . , .
. dubius, dubit-5(-are) ( '' '') .-. douter XVII . '' '',
. redouter '', redoutable ''.
('' '') .-. doplar - 26 . (-)
', ' (', ') (. . - ) ().
. , .-. erkncim '' erku '', . zweifeln zwei, 815
(*5-8-) *dwi-, 5ig" . . (. Soifi '': 5" '', . dubius: duo)21. (ev
Soifi '' SeiSi^ev ' ') 28 (, IX, 229): A.vr(v ...
^ 5eiSi)iev; ev 5oir| 8e oacoo|iv r| cutoA.eo0ai vt| ag" ... . , (. ).
,
,
, : erkin, erkir ( erkin ew erkir); , 29 .
25

[ 1975; 1983 ( ); 1996: 711712].


., , [Bloch 1932,1: 231].
27
[Pisani 1938: 222, n.l; 1983; 1996].
28
[ 1974].
29
[ 1948: 31].
( , XIV) . [Dumezil 1985:195 ff.; Russell 1982; Watkins 1995:167,253
254; 1983]. , , ,
.
26

108

Be.


, .-. erk-n-el ' ', erk- ' , ' .-. erkneim ', ', . . . . 5 ', ', .-. idu30,

figura etymologica. (erkir) (erkin) , ( )
*- *-, () () 3 1 . (
): *dw-tr... *dw-n... *dw-r... *dw-r...
,
,
( , ,
).

, , -, (-). , . . tuw-, . (.) tbi, . A kbi ( *dw- >
*kw-,
), . . . kuwaya- '' 32 ( ,
). ku-wa-ya-ta '' ( ),
. dvaed '' (yehya aid is dvaed "cuius me = mihi pernicies minatio").
*dw(e)y-(o)t- '' 33 . .
(
) . 34 .
30

[Schindler 1975],

.
31
[Pisani 1951: 6]; . [Knobloch 1961].
32
[Hawkins 2000: 63, 293, 469; Ivanov 2002: 11].
33
. nahsar-att- ''
.
34
[ 1976: 156].

109

,
.

1948 . . . , 1948.
1990 . . . . 3- . .: .
. . -, 1990. (- ).
1992 . . . / ., , . . . . .: / , 1992.
(.) 1997 . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . . . . 1 / . . . . . .:
, 1997.
1990 . . . . . 1: . .:
, 1990.
1995 . // . . . .: , 1995.
1974 . . . .: , 1974.
, 1984 . . , . . .
. . II. : - . -, 1984.
, 1993 . . , . . (. .). . 18901917: . .: , 1993.
1998 . : // . . . .
. 1. .: : , 1998.
1967 . . . - // Honor Roman Jakobson. Essays on the Occasion of his Seventieth
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1983 . Be. . // -. . 1983. 4 (103). . 23^*3.
1996 . . . // . . : . 60- . . . 1996. . 704726.
1998 . . . . . . . 1.
.: , 1998.
1995 . . . . . . . 12. (
- ). .: . , 1995.
1958 . . . // : . . .; .: - , 1958. . 324333.
1995 . . . . :
19601990. : . .: -, 1995.
1927 . . . // [ (.)] 1927. . VXIII.
19276 . . . : ( ) //
[ (.)] 1927. . 196.
1927 . . . [(.) ] : . . .: - - . . -, 1927.

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(). .: . . -, 1991.
1972 . . (.). .
. 7 (). .: . . -, 1972.
18931912 . . . - . . I III (
1958 . . III ). .: , 18931912 (.: .: -
, 1958).
1975 . . . : . D. .: , 1975.
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. 1990. . 550.
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., 1987.
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1995.

Lidija Iordanskaja & Igor Mel'cuk


(Observatory of Meaning-Text Linguistics, University of Montreal)

THE MEANING A N D COOCCURRENCE OF RUSSIAN


NEMNOGO 'A LITTLE'

The Meaning and Cooccurrence of Russian NEMNOGO 'a little'

8 - 3595

113

114

Lidija lordanskaja < Igor Mel'cuk

The Meaning and Cooccurrence of Russian NEMNOGO 'a little'

117

118

Lidija lordanskaja < Igor Mel'cuk

120

Lidija lordanskaja < Igor Mel'cuk

Diagrammatically:

In this decomposition, the semanteme 'bigger' occurs three times. The occurrence of
'bigger' which has to accept the semanteme 'a little' and which thus is the contact point
between 'heavy [X]' and 'a little' is boldfaced and the corresponding node is blackened.
As is easily seen, this semanteme is, so to speak, blocked by two other 'bigger': one underlined, which is communicatively dominant in the definition, and the 'bigger' that relates 'norm' with 'threshold'. To express the meaning 'small intensity of heaviness' the
semanteme 'a little' must be linked to this 'bigger' of difficult access. Theoretically, this
operation is possible, since the semantic configuration 'small intensity of heaviness' is
well-formed. However, it is, as indicated above, very complex, which impedes the existence of some standard expressions for it.
It is psychologically unnatural to speak of the semanteme 'small' whose scope is
inside the semantic component 'sufficiently big'. This combination of 'small' and 'big'
is, as we have seen, only seemingly contradictory; yet it requires the use of such detractors as NO 'but' and XOTJA 'although' (On veselyj, no ne ocen', lit. 'He is joyful, but
not very'; Cemodan tjazelyj/legkij, xotja i ne ocen', lit. 'The suitcase is light/heavy, although not very'), which demonstrates psychological unnaturalness of this combination.
We believe that it is these three factors that explain why language does not have a standard way to express such semantic configurations as 'small intensity of heaviness'.
4. The Semanteme 'a little' and the Lexical Function AntiMagn
To sum up: the semantic combinability of 'nemnogo' = 'a little' is much freer than
lexico-syntactic combinability of the corresponding LUs. When examining this fact, it is
important to indicate that the meaning 'a little' itself is very special: it corresponds to the
lexical function [= LF] AntiMagn, so that the difficulties with its expressions have to be
expectedas is typical for all LF-related meanings. Generally speaking, the cooccurrence
of such "desintensifiers" is covered by the listing of AntiMagn's corresponding value
elements under the lexical units involved:

The Meaning and Cooccurrence of Russian NEMNOGO 'a little'

121

We could simply list NEMNOGO as an element of the value of AntiMagn in the entries of the LUs
L; that accept it. However, we prefer to capture a useful generalization and avoid repeating NEMNOGO in thousands of lexical entries, since its cooccurrence can be stated
in general semantic terms: as y^c have shown, it is sufficient to describe the meaning of
NEMNOGO and that of all possible Li, and then NEMNOGO will be admitted or rejected by simple rules of free lexical combinatorics. Therefore, we propose that NEMNOGO
is one of standard expressions of AntiMagn, which should not be listed in the lexical
entries of the arguments: it will be chosen by rules that we have presented above. Namely, NEMNOGO cannot be combined with "threshold" LUs.
However, some value elements of AntiMagn can idiomatically express the difficult
meaning 'a little' with "threshold" LUs. Thus, 'a little' '[to] sleep' cannot be expressed
as *nemnogo spat' '[to] sleep a little' [meaning 'not very'], since SPAT' is a "threshold"
LU ('X is sleeping' ?'X is resting with a SUFFICIENTLY BIG switching off of X's conscience'). However, Russian has a phraseologically bound expression for this semantic
configuration: CUTKO' lightly'; this is an element of the value of AntiMagn. The same
is true about many similar LUs:

5. The Meaning of the Degree Adverb N E M N O G O and Semantic


Constraints vs. Semantic Restrictions
We can now propose a lexicographic definition of the degree adverb NEMNOGO in
any construction NEMNOGO?L. It is actually the definition given at the beginning of the
paper (for NEMNOGO with a comparative adjective) plus an additional condition needed to exclude the combinations with "threshold" LUs.
NEMNOGO, degree adverb (nemnogo L) = 'the intensity of L is small' | 'L' does not
include the semanteme (threshold)8.

122

Lidija lordanskaja < Igor Mel'cuk

The first part of the definition (to the left of the vertical bar "|") is the meaning of
NEMNOGO, i. ., its meaning in the strict sense of the term: the semanteme 'nemnogo'.
Formally: 'nemnogo' 1 'L' = 'small' <2 'intensity' 1 'L'.
The structure of the semanteme 'nemnogo' controls its semantic cooccurrence: it is
combinable with such semantemes that are allowed to be the 1st Sem-Actant of 'intensity' (i. ., with gradable semantemes) and whose intensity is not quantitatively specified
(i. ., is not characterized as 'big' or 'small').
The second part of the definition (to the right of the vertical bar "|") is a semantic restriction, imposed on the meaning of the Deep-Syntactic governor of NEMNOGO. This
restriction controls the c'ooccurrence of the lexeme NEMNOGO, namely it bars its combinations with a "threshold" LUs.
Since the concept of semantic restriction is very important and, at the same time, far
from clear, it seems necessary to say a few words concerning it.
At least two types of semantic restrictions have to be distinguished: semantic constraints and semantic conditions.
1) A semantic constraint on a Sem-actant 'L' of the semanteme in question 'L Q ' is a
requirement imposed on the semanteme which fills in the SemA 'L' of 'L 0 '; this requirement is part of the semanteme 'L 0 ' itself it belongs to the signified of the corresponding sign L 0 . Thus, the Russian adjective RUSYJ /rusyj/ 'light brown [of hair]' can be
applied only to nouns referring to hair: RUSAJA golova 'head' < seveljura 'head of hair',
prjad' 'strand', kosa 'braid', boroda 'beard', etc.. Therefore, we have for RUSYJ the
following definition:
(10) 'rusyj L' = 'light brown hair L'.
In (10), the semanteme 'hair' is a semantic constraint on 'L' (this is shown by smaller
type). On the one hand, 'hair' is part of the meaning of RUSYJ: when you say or hear
RUSYJ, even in isolation, you know that it is about hair. On the other hand, however, the
semanteme 'hair' does not behave as all "genuine" components of a meaning do: when
'rusyj' is introduced into a SemS, 'hair' does not go there it simply controls the semantic "filling" of 'L' (that is, only a meaning with the dominant node 'hair' or the meaning 'hair' itself is allowed to instantiate the variable 'L'). Thus, rusaja kosa 'light brown
braid' is represented in the SemS as 'light brown' 1 > 'braid': the semantic constraint
'hair' allows 'kosa' = 'braid' as an instantiation of 'L', but does not appear itself in the
SemS. Similarly, the verb [to] DRINK has a semantic constraint on its SemA 2: 'liquid'
(what you drink is necessarily a liquid); the semanteme 'liquid' also belongs to the meaning
'drink', but it is not brought by it into the corresponding SemS.
Semantic constraints can thus be checked at the level of Semantic Structurealthough
they are not present there: to verify whether they are satisfied the dictionary must be used.
The violation of a semantic constraint represents a semantic anomaly: the resulting meaning e. g., *'rusye glaza', *'the intensity of a leg', etc. is ill-formed and should be
discarded before lexicalization. (These two semantic anomalies illustrate two different
types of anomaly: linguistic and logical, see below.) Semantic constraints have to be distinguished from other types of semantic "restrictors," which do not entail semantic ill
formedness. Consider, for instance, the semantic component 'X having power over Y and
assuming that Y will do what X asks Y to do' in the definition of [to] ORDER [as in "Stop
immediately! he ordered"]. Crucially, it is not a semantic constraint: it reflects a specific

The Meaning and Cooccurrence of Russian NEMNOGO 'a little'

123

situation, indicating particular relations between the SemAs X and Y. If instead of he ordered I sayin the same circumstanceshe implored, the resulting meaning is perfectly well-formed, but wrong.
2) A semantic condition on a DSynt-actant/on the DSynt-governor is a requirement
imposed on the meaning of the LU L which is a DSynt-actant or the DSynt-governor of
L0; this requirement belongs to the syntactics of L(). Since a semantic condition is not included into the semanteme 'L Q ', it is not accessible at the semantic level.
Semantic constraints control SEMANTIC cooccurrence: the semanteme configurations
*'rusye glaza' = 'light brown eyes' or *'rusyj sviter' = 'light brown sweater' are informed. A semantic constraint refers to the dominant, or generic, semanteme in the meaning that fills in the SemA variable 'L' or to this meaning as a whole.
Semantic conditions control LEXICAL cooccurrence: the semanteme configuration
'nemnogo veselyj' = 'a little joyful' is well-formed, but its lexical expression *nemnogo
veselyj is ungrammatical. A semantic condition refers to a semanteme which is (deeply)
embedded in the concerned meaning as, for instance, the semanteme 'threshold' (mentioned in the semantic condition of NEMNOGO) is in the meaning 'L'; cf. Fig. 4, p. 120.
Under our approach, then, the semantic configuration 'nemnogo' 'L' is well-formed,
even if 'L' is a "threshold" meaning, while a phrase *NEMNOGO < L where L is
a "threshold" LU is not (*nemnogo veselyj): producing such a phrase is a linguistic mistake.
In this way, we account for the important distinction drawn by Ju. Apresjan (1978 [1995:
598621] and 1990) between a LOGICAL and a LINGUISTIC anomaly. (Cf. his example of well-formed semantic configuration 'vsegda' 'ne'= 'always' 'not', which corresponds, in most cases, to an ungrammatical lexical configuration *VSEGDA NE + V [correct expression: NIKOGDA NE + V 'never not V']: Apresjan 1978 [1995: 602].) More
specifically, following Apresjan, we propose to distinguish LANGUAGE-RELATED, or
SEMANTIC, LOGICAL mistakes vs. (PURELY) LINGUISTIC mistakes.
S e m a n t i c l o g i c a l mistakes involve ill-formed SemSs and consist in one of
logical anomalies. More precisely, a semantic logical mistake can be:
either an absurdity, as in *'nemnogo' 1 > 'mertvyj' = *'a little dead', ^intensity' 1 'leg', *'green'1 > 'ideas', etc.;
or a contradiction, as in *'nemnogo ' 1 > 'razjaren; = *'a little furious', *'exceedingly' 1 'warm [tea]', etc.
Formally, a semantic logical mistake is produced by violating a semantic constraint
of a GENERAL NATUREwhen the forbidden configuration is described in terms of
broad semantic classes, i.e., by using "semantic labels," or universal taxonomic semantemes, such as 'physical object', 'state', 'property', 'event', etc.
Semantic logical mistakes are a subclass of extralinguistic mistakes, which characterize
ill-formed SemSs and include mistakes due to poor arithmetic (* 'five of three girls'), poor
use of real world knowledge (*'John crawled into the bottle'), poor interpretation of cognitive postulates (*'The door was close to the shoes'), etc.
Linguistic mistakes can involve a representation of any level; they are subdivided
according to the level at which the mistake can be pinpointed (semantic mistakes: informed Sem-Representations; lexico-syntactic mistakes: ill-formed Synt-Representations;
morphological mistakes: ill-formed Morph-Representations; etc.). Here only the semantic and syntactic level linguistic mistakes are mentioned; we do not touch, either, upon

124

Lidija lordanskaja < Igor Mel'cuk

the important distinction between relative and absolute linguistic mistakes, established in
Apresjan 1978 [1995: 601].
A SEMANTIC linguistic mistake may involve an ill-formed semanteme configuration due to a violation of a semantic constraint that does not produce a logical anomaly: for instance, *'rusye glaza' = 'light-brown eyes' or *'karie volosy' = 'brown hair' [the
adjective KARIJ means 'brown [eyes]' and cooccurs only with the noun GLAZA 'eyes'].
This happens when the semantic constraint is stated in QUITE SPECIFIC TERMSa
rather narrow semantic subclass. (Note the difference in perception: *'the intensity of his
leg' is an absurdity, which impossible to interpret naturally; while *'rusyj sviter' is not
absurd: it means 'light brown sweater', but is bad because the meaning 'rusyj' can characterize only meanings whose dominant semanteme is 'hair'.) There are of course other
varieties of semantic linguistic mistakes as well.
A LEXICO-SYNTACTIC linguistic mistake may involve an ill-formed phrase (more
precisely, an ill-formed syntactic structure) that expresses a well-formed semanteme configuration. In turn, it can be due to a violation of a semantic condition (*NEMNOGO <
VESELYJ) or to a violation of a cooccurrence restriction (*SVETLO-KORlCNEVYE <VOLOSY 'light brown hair' [correct expression: RUSYE <- VOLOSY]). These two subtypes of lexico-syntactic mistakes can be called, respectively,
SEMANTICALLY CONDITIONED mistakes and COOCCURRENCE-CONDITIONED mistakes.
Note that treating the semanteme configurations *'rusye glaza' vs. 'nemnogo veselyj'
in two different ways corresponds to Apresjan's idea (1990: 60, 1995: 624): the deeper
the semantic element responsible for anomaly is embedded, the "more linguistic" this
anomaly seems to be. In *'rusye glaza; the semantic element creating the anomaly
'eyes' is, so to speak, immediately visible: it corresponds to the whole meaning of the
Sem-actant of 'rusyj'. In contrast, in 'nemnogo veselyj' such an element 'threshold'
is deeply embedded in the meaning of 'veselyj' and thus much less visible. Correspondingly, *rusye glaza represents a semantic linguistic mistake, while *nemnogo veselyj is a
semantically-conditioned lexico-syntactic linguistic mistake; it is closer to the surface and
in this sense it is more linguistic.
6. A Few Case Studies
To illustrate the applicability of our description, we will add several non-trivial examples.
(11) Kotlety nemnogo podgoreli 'The patties got a little burnt'.
PODGORET. '[to] get burnt [food]' = 'food X becomes damaged in the process of
cooking such that X's surface becomes charred'; ([to be] damaged) is of course gradable,
and the degree of damage is not characterized in PODGORET' quantitatively; moreover,
PODGORET' is not a "threshold" LU, because even the smallest charring of X's surface
allows for the use of PODGORET'. Therefore, its combination with the degree adverb
NEMNOGO is possible. Thus, in the meaning of PODGORET' we have the gradable
semanteme 'different', and this 'difference' is not characterized quantitatively; moreover,
PODGORET' is not a "threshold" LU. Therefore, the combination with the degree adverb NEMNOGO is possible.

The Meaning and Cooccurrence of Russian NEMNOGO 'a

little'

125

(12) Kran nemnogo tecet 'The faucet is leaking a little'. = 'The faucet lets pass a little water'.
Is this a case of the quantitative NEMNOGO? We do not think so: the quantity of water that a leaky faucet lets pass characterizes the intensity of the leak (cf. si/ 'no tecet, lit.
'leaks strongly'). The same case is represented in Ot okna nemnogo duet, lit. 'From the
window, it is drafting a little' (small quantity of air), Razvaliny nemnogo dymilis' 'The
ruins smoked a little' (small quantity of smoke), etc.: in all such sentences, NEMNOGO
signals 'small intensity' (of the draft, of smoking, etc.).
In sentence (13):
(13) Eta setka nemnogo zasciscaet ot komarov 'This net protects a little against mosquitoes'. = 'This net stops a few mosquitoes'. the small quantity (of mosquitoes turned
away by the net) corresponds again to 'small intensity' (of protection), as well as in On
nemnogo posedel 'He became a little gray'. = 'He got a few gray hairs', On nemnogo
zaikaetsja 'He stutters a little', etc.
Sentence (14):
(14) On nemnogo kartavit 'He pronounces his r's closer to !yj a little). illustrates the
same case: 'nemnogo' bears on the intensity of a comparative: (closer to /%/ than normal).
In (15) we see again the degree adverb NEMNOGO:
(15) On nemnogo otstal ot nas/On nemnogo vperedi nas 'He fell a little behind us'/
'He is a little ahead of us'.
X is behind/ahead of Yb 'There is a difference between the locations of X and Y such
that...'; 'nemnogo' bears on the intensity of this difference.
Finally, we consider two more complex cases involving adjectives.
(16) Rubaska nemnogo grjaznaja (*cistaja) '[The] shirt [is] a little dirty (*clean)'.
Grjaznyj = 'which contains more dirt than the norm', and cistyj = 'which contains sufficiently less dirt than the norm'. Consequently, nemnogo grjaznyj means 'which contains
a little more dirt than the norm'
'which contains small amount of dirt'). The combination of NEMNOGO with cistyj is precluded by the threshold character of the latter (reflected by the component 'sufficiently').
(17) Rubaska nemnogo vlaznaja (*mokraja, *suxaja) '[The] shirt [is] a little wet (lit.
*quite wet, *dry)'.
Vlaznyj = 'which has on itself more liquid than the norm such that the liquid can
be still absorbed',
mokryj = 'which has on itself sufficiently more liquid than the norm such that the
liquid cannot be absorbed', and suxoj = 'which does not have liquid on itself.
The phrase nemnogo vlaznyj then means 'which contains on itself a little liquid more
than the normsuch that the liquid can be still absorbed'; *nemnogo mokiyj is excluded
by the threshold character of mokryj-, *nemnogo suxoj is semantically ill-formed, since suxoj
is not gradable (cf. *ocen' suxaja rubaska '*very dry shirt', while ocen' vlaznaja rubaska
'very wet shirt' and ocen' mokraja rubaska 'very-very wet shirt' are both possible)9.
9

As indicated by L. Iomdin, one can say Palatka byla nemnogo mokraja "The tent was a
little quite wet"; this means, however, that the tent was quite wet but in some places only
not an important part of its surface was covered by liquid (cf. *Nosovoj platok byl nemnogo
mokryj "The handkerchief was a little quite wet", because the surface of a handkerchief is

126

Lidija lordanskaja < Igor Mel'cuk

7. Conclusions
Five general lessons can be drawn from this study:
1. Semantic components in a lexicographic definition are of different nature: some
correspond to the meaning proper and some are semantic restrictions on actants or governors (known also as selectional restrictions). This division has been well known for quite
a while; what is a relative novelty is the distinction of two major types of semantic restrictions:
A semantic constrpint of a LU L targets the DOMINANT semanteme in the meaning of a Sem-actant of L and thus controls semanteme cooccurrence; it is part of the signified of L.
A semantic condition of a LU L targets a semanteme (DEEPLY) EMBEDDED in
the meaning of a DSynt-actant or the governor of L and thus controls lexeme cooccurrence; it is part of the syntactics of L.
2. The ill-formedness of a semanteme configuration can be not only formal (unsaturated actant slots, etc.), encyclopedic (in the broadest sense) or logical (absurd or contradictory), but also language-dependent: incompatibility of particular semantemes, which
is reflected by their semantic constraints.
3. The compatibility of a LU L with NEMNOGO is a reliable test for establishing
components of the lexicographic definition of L. Namely, the possibility of the phrase
NEMNOGO i L indicates the gradability of 'L'; it pushes one to look for the presence
of a scale-admitting component, which often (although not always) is a comparative, since
the comparative is the prototypical target for NEMNOGO. On the other hand, the incompatibility of a gradable L with NEMNOGO suggests the existence in the meaning of L
either of a quantitative characterization (which leads to a contradiction) or of a "threshold;" both must be reflected in the definition of L.
4. The members of an antonymous pair of positive/negative state adjectives are asymmetric with respect to the presence of 'threshold' in their definitions: the "negative" adjective does not have it, while the "positive" one does. At the same time, parametric adjectives show symmetry in this respect: both antonyms include the semanteme 'threshold'.
5. The notion of 'threshold' turns out to be relevant to many lexical meanings. For
instance, a parametric adjective can be used to name the corresponding property only if
the property reaches a certain threshold. At the same time, this semantic component is
not easily detectable: it seems to be a "sokrovennyj smysl" (roughly, "hidden meaning"),
to which the present volume is dedicated.
Acknowledgments
The manuscript of this paper has been read and commented upon by Ju. Apresjan,
L. Iomdin, S. Kahane, N. Pertsov, A. Polguere, and E. Savvina; we thank all these colleagues for their remarks and suggestions that have allowed us to improve the presentation.
rather small). In a possible combination of NEMNOGO with MOKRYJ the adverb bears
semantically on the "quantity" of the surface affected, not on the quantity of liquid.

The Meaning and Cooccurrence of Russian NEMNOGO 'a little'

127

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C. 242254.

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), ,
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. ( "Metaphors we live by", 1980 .


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, . // .
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. . - : ( . XIV . - .-. . 9) // . ., 1888. 72.
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196

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197

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: , , , .
[Wierzbicka 1991: 411412]
(attitudes and expectations), , ,
. ,
, . .
. 411,
' ' ( , ). ,
; , X, , .
, X X - , . ,
, ,
. - (, ), .
X, ,
, . -, , , , ,
5 . ,
; .
, , , :
. :
, . ,
. ,
(JI. );
,
. . - ?
(. );
, ,
(.);
, ,

(. );
5

[, 1997] X X,
, . . . [] .

199

(...) , , , : ( );
(...) ,
,
( );
, . ,
, (. );
, . ,
();
,
, .
, . (...)
, , .
(. );
, . (.
);
, . - ,
(. );
. (. );
! . . (...) . - ,
,
(. ).
, , X X
:
X, , , , X .
, , , , ( )
, . [, 1997] X
X . , , : -,
, ,
.
, X X
,
.
6. ,
. . 1976 ,
, . [ 1976: 95 .]. , ,
.

200

. .

"Metaphors we live by" [Lakoff, Johnson 1980 ( L&J)] , , , :


.
, , , ,
,
6 , . , , L&J, ( ) . ,
:
(1) ! ; ; ; -, [ \\ -, ?-,
.
, , . , . time , (invest, cost, budget), ,
: (. I've invested
a lot of time in her)-, (. . You
need to budget your time)-, - , (Put aside time for ping-pong). . spend . , ,
, ' ';
(2) How do you spend your time these days [
?
- , :
(3) ; , .
, . time ,
, , ,
, 7 .
,
: , . . ,
time ,
6

[ 1986].
, , . [ 1999].

201

time ; .
L&J , , . ,
; . - . , , :
, : "We are using our everyday experiences with money, limited resources and valuable commodities to conceptualize time"
[Lakoff, Johnson 1980: 8]. , , , -, ,
-, -.
, , , , , , L&J
. , ( , , ) , . .
:
; ,
. .
, , , .
, , :
\ . ,
, , .
''; ''. , , , , , ,
, . , , . L&J [Jackendoff 1996: 557 .; Stern 2000: 176 .].
(
)
,
.
, .
(4) ,
, , :

202

. .

(, ) , .
L&J, ; , :
(5) ; , ;
; . .
, , ,
, - , . , . , ,
, : , ,

. ,
:
(6) ; ; ;
; ; . .
,
( -), .
- , (, ,
, ?). .

1976 . . . . .: , 1976.
1990 . . . // . .:
, 1990.
1999 . . . . 2- . .:
, 1999.
, 1997 . . , . . .
: ( ). .: , 1997.
, 1980 . . , . . . // Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. Bd. 6. 1980. . 191210.
1965 . . . II . . . . , 1965.
1982 . . . //.
. - . . . 41, 4. 1982.
1999 . . . : , ,
// . . : . 70- . . . ., 1999.

203

1979 . . . : . . 11. 1979. .142148.


1987 . . . II . . .
. .: , 1987.
Black 1962/1990 . Black. Metaphor // . Black. Models and Metaphor. Ithaca; London, Cornell University Press, 1962 [. .: M. . // .
.: , 1990].
Brown, Yule 1983 G. Brown, G. Yule. Discourse analysis. Cambridge University
press, 1983.
Davis 1998 W. A. Davis. Implicature: intention, convention, and principle in the failure
ofGricean theory. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.
Geis, Zwicky 1971 M. L. Geis, A. M. Zwicky. On invited inferences // Linguistic Inquiry.
Vol. 11, 1971. P. 561566.
Green 1996 G. Green. Pragmatics and natural language understanding. Mahwah, New
Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum associates, 1996.
Grice 1975 H. P. Grice. Logic and conversation // Syntax and semantics. Vol. 3. N. Y.,
Academic Press, 1975.
Ikegami 1993 Y. Ikegami. What does it mean for a language to have no singular-plural
distinction? Noun-verb homology and its typological implication // Geiger, Richard A. &
Rudzka-Ostyn, Brigita (eds.). Conceptualizations and Mental Processing in Language. Berlin; N. Y.: Mouton de Gruyter, 1993. P. 801814.
Jackendoff 1996 R. Jackendoff. Semantics and cognition // Sh. Lappin (ed.) The handbook of contemporary semantic theory. Oxford UK: Blackwell, 1996. P. 539560.
Karttunen 1973 L. Karttunen. La logique des constructions anglaises a complement
predicatif // Langages. 1973. . 30. P. 5680.
Lakoff, Johnson 1980 G. Lakoff, M. Johnson. Metaphors We Live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.
Levinson 1983 St. Levinson. Pragmatics. London; N. Y.: Cambridge University Press,
1983.
Levinson 2000 S. D. Levinson. Presumptive meanings. The theory of generalized implicature. Cambridge, Mass.; London UK: MIT Press, 2000.
Nunberg 1978 Geoffrey Nunberg. Poetic and prosaic metaphor. In Association with
Computing Machinery (Ed.), Theoretical issues in natural language processing, 3. Las Cruces,
NM: New Mexico State University, 1978. P. 177180.
Searle 1991 J. R. Searle. Metaphor // S. Davis (ed.). Pragmatics. A reader. N. Y.;
Oxford: Oxford UP, 1991. P. 519539.
Stern 2000 / Stern. Metaphor in context. Cambridge, Mass.; London: MIT Press, 2000.
Talmy 1985 L. Talmy. Lexicalization patterns: semantic structure of lexical forms //
T. Shopen (ed.) Language, typology and syntactic description. Vol. 3. Cambridge UP, 1985.
Traugott 1997 E. C. Traugott. Semantic change: An overview // Glott international,
Vol. 2, 910, 1997. P. 36.
Wierzbicka 1991 A. Wierzbicka. Cross-cultural pragmatics: The semantics of human
interaction. Berlin; N. Y.: Mouton de Gruyter, 1991.
Wierzbicka 1996 A. Wierzbicka. Semantics. Primes and universals. Oxford; N. Y.:
Oxford UP, 1996.
Wilson, Sperber 1986 D. Wilson, D. Sperber. Inference and implicature // C. Travis (ed.)
Meaning and interpretation. Blackwell, 1986. P. 4575.

Denis Paillard (Laboratoire de linguistique


formelle Universite Denis Diderot Paris 7)

A P R O P O S DE : V A R I A T I O N ET I D E N T I T E

Dans un premier temps, nous ne discuterons pas des emplois "intransitifs" de (de la
forme ). Ces emplois seront analyses a la fin de cette partie.
2
un
C0, Cj, etc... designent les differents complements de : C0 designe un N sujet,
N objet, C2 un N a 1'instrumental et un N introduit par une preposition.

A propos de ,- variation et identite

205

Cette liste ne pretend pas etre exhaustive.


Avec un N comme il s'agit de plusieurs varietes de jeux, chaque variete Aant definie
par un ensemble de regies.
5
Cela vaut en premier lieu lorsque differents sujets sont impliques dans le "jeu" qui se presente
alors comme une competition. Par ailleurs, on notera que les verbes exprimant les notions de "perdre" et "gagner" sont des verbes dont la base est precisement : et .

206

Denis Paillard

A propos de ,- variation et identite

207

A ce sujet, on notera que (14) peut signifier: "en tant qu'acteur il est specialise dans les roles
comiques".
7
Le terme en position de n'est pas necessairement un N /humain/.

208

Denis Paillard

Par ce terme nous designons aussi bien ensemble de regies prescriptions qui correspond a
un "jeu" (premiere valeur) que l'oeuvre artistique (deuxieme valeur). L'introduction d'un terme commun vise a mettre en evidence ce que les differentes valeurs ont en commun.
9
Nous considcrons que l'expression idiomatique peut etre rattachee a cette
troisieme valeur: les nerfs sont assimiles a un instrument dispositif qu'un sujet actualise pour produire certaines reactions (la production de telles reactions exige a priori un certain savoir faire...).

A propos de ,- variation et identite

10

209

C-dessous, nous reviendrons sur l'existence de , a cote de .


L'exemple suivant est interessant dans la mesure ou la seconde partie apparait comme une sorte
de commentaire de ce que signifie : , ,
, .
11

14 - 3595

210

12

Denis Paillard

Dans les textes on trouve souvent des suites combinant (27) et (29): ,
.
13
Dans certains cas on trouve la preposition : ,
. L'analyse que nous proposons pour (30)(32) peut etre etendue aux exemples
avec N,locatif'

A propos de : variation et identite

211

14
Ceci semble etre caracteristique du russe. Avec le verbejouer en fran^ais, dont l'identite semantique est relativement proche de celle de (cf. sur ce point M. C. Romero Lopes [2002]) on
trouve en position de Co non seulement des N correspondant a l'actualisateur, mais aussi des N
correspondants au dispositif.
15
Que des dizaines de millions d'enfants soient aujourd'hui forces de travailler ne contredit pas
ce point: il s'agit d'une activite illegale selon la legislation d'un grand nombre de pays et selon le
droit international.

14*

212

16

Denis Paillard

Nous ne discuterons pas ici du statut precis du N a l'instrumental.


Cette semantique lexicale est etroitement au statut syntaxique des N. Si le sujet actualisateur
est regulierement C0, le N correspondant au dispositif a des statuts syntaxiques variables: Cp C2, C.
18
Comme nous l'avons souligne ci-dessus, cette semantique de fondee sur le sujet actualisateur et le dispositif est toujours mobilisee, compris dans les cas element "dispositif'
n'est pas lexicalise.
17

A propos de ,- variation et identite

213

2. Les N, en tant que lexicalisant les elements abstraits, conferent a ces derniers une
identite particuliere, fondee sur les proprietes des N.
L'identite semantique de est done donnee par une "forme schematique". Le
terme de forme schematique, introduit par A. Culioli, reflete cette interaction double: en
tant que schema, structure le co-texte, plus exactement certains termes du co-texte
en leur attribuant le statut de sujet actualisateur et de dispositif, en retour, ces deux elements
abstraits (formels) reqoivent leur substance des N qui les lexicalisent.
La forme schematique de est done la suivante: "un element S est le sujet actualisateur d'un dispositif D dont le fonctionnement est defini independamment de toute
actualisation. Ce dispositif contient sa propre finalite: cette finalite interne au dispositif est son actualisation, et I'activite de S, actualisateur de D, est soumise a cette
finalite interne".

Bibliographie
: 4 . .: - . . , 1957.
/ . . . . .: - . .
, 1963.
: 17 . .; .: -
, 19481965.
De Vogue, Sarah, Paillard, Denis (1997) "Identite lexicale et heterogeneite de la variation cotextuelle: le cas de suivre", in: C,. Guimier ed, Co-texte et calcul du sens. Presses Universitaires de
Caen. P. 4162.
Paillard, Denis (2000) "A propos des verbes polysemiques", Syntaxe et semantique 2. Presses
universitaires de Caen. P. 99120.
Romero Lopes, Maria, (2002) "Identite et variation du verbe jouer", Langue franqaise 133.
P. 6373.

. . ()

XVII 1

, XX ., ,
,
. ; , XVII .
(Transcendental Particles) (16141672), XX ., (., , [, 1984]).

XVII ., , , . XVII .
; ,
, , ,
(
).
(, . )
(, . .). , , . , 1620- .,
; 1629 . .
,
. , .
, , .
, ,
, ,
, 02-04-00023.

I
i

X VII

215

.
,
.
, ( ,
), , .
"The Discovery of a World in the Moon" (1638)
. "Mercury"
(1641) ,
,
(. ), , . 1640- .
, ,
. (George Dalgarno, "Ars Sinnorum", 1661), , .
,
. [Wilkins 1668] . , , ,
,
: ,
.
.
40 (
) .
, , , , . (Radical Characters) ,
Z: Za, Ze, Zi.
. . , (Di) (Diba) . .
, , .
,
: ,
, .
() , .
, , -

216

. .

[Lodowyck 1647], . . [Comenius 1966].


, ( 1666 .)
, ( '', ' ', I ' ', U ' ' . .); , (lus '' alus
'' elus ' ' ilus '' ulus ' ' . .). , , . [Wilkins 1668]
VI ("On Transcendental Particles
(...)") VII ("Examples of Transcendental Particles") III .
( "Concerning Natural Grammar") ,
, , . . ( ) .
: ; ; ; (
). , , .
1.1. METAPHORICAL ''; LIKE ''.
METAPHORICAL: Thin Subtle ' ', Light Evident,
Plain ' , '; Dark Mystical, Obscure ' , ', Way Means ' '.
LIKE. 5 , :
1) : Devil Devilish
' ', Brute Brutish ' ';
2) : Blood Crimson ' ', M i l k Milky ' ';
3) : Flame to Inflame ' ()', Cloud
to Cloud ' ';
4) : Infant Infant-like ' ';
5) : Foot Pedestal ' ', Money Medal, Counter ' , '.
1.2. K I N D ', '; M A N N E R ', , '.
K I N D : People Folk ' ', Guns Artillery ' '.
MANNER. Feeding Diet ' ', Sound Tone ' '.
1.3. T H I N G ''; PERSON ''.
T H I N G (1) ,
(2) (3) :
1) Seeming Semblance ' ';
2) Medicating Medicament, Medicine ' ';

X VII

217

3) Created Creature ' ', Acted Fact '


'.
PERSON (1) , (2)
(3) :
1) Military Soldier ' ', Art Artist ' ';
2) Acting Actor ' ', Giving Donor '
', Travelling Traveller, Passenger ' ,
';
3) Send Messenger ' '.
II.1. PLACE ''; TIME ''.
PLACE: , , , , : (1) , (2)
(3) :
1) Metal Mine ' ', Trees Wood ' ', Flowers
Garden ' ', Deer Park ' ';
2) Sacrificing Altar ' ', Washing Bath ' ', Ship-making Dock ' ';
3) King's Authority Kingdom, Realm ' ',
Academical Academy, University ' , '.
TIME (1) (twenty times ' '), (2) (Now '', Then '', Always '') (3)
(Paschal Easter ' ').
.2. CAUSE ''; SIGN ''.
CAUSE: - ( Fool Befool ' '), Know Acquaint, Advertise ' , ',
Healthy Cure, Heal ' , ', Die Kill, Slay, Mortal
' , , ', Fall Fell, Throw down, ' , ', Slave Enslave ' ', Child Adopt ' '.
SIGN: Foot Footstep ' ', Wound Scar ' ', Wind
Weathercock, Fan ' , ', Praise Applaud ' '.
II.3. AGGREGATE ''; SEGREGATE ''.
AGGREGATE: Assessors Bench ' , ', Travelling Merchants Caravan ' ', Ships Navy, Fleet
' , ', Sheep, Flock ' ', Bees Swarm ' ', Trees Wood ' ', Feathers Plume ' ', Cards Pack ' '.
SEGREGATE: One by one, man by man ' ', word by word '', Hourly '', Annually '', Selling Retailing '
'.
III.l. LAMINA ''; PIN ''.
LAMINA: , ,
: Wood Board, Plank ' , ', Paper

218

. .

Leave, Sheet ' ', Metal Plate ' ', Snow Flake
' ', Bread Sippet, Toast, Wafer ' , , '.
PIN : Wood Peg ' , ', Vest Pin ' '.
111.2. INSTRUMENT ''; VESSEL ''.
INSTRUMENT: Digging Spade, Shovel ' ', Weighting
Balance ' ', Shaving Razor ' ', Sawing
Saw ' ', Writing Pen ' ', Combing Comb ' '.
VESSEL.
, : (1) , ; (2) ,
; (3) , ,
:
(1) Ink Ink-horn ' ';
(2) Frying Frying-pan ' ';
(3) Earthen Pot ' ', Glassy Vial ' , '.
111.3. JUGAMENT; MACHINE ''.
J U G A M E N T ,
, , ,
: Ploughing Plough ' ', Weaving Loom ' ', Rolling Roller ' '.
MACHINE , : Grinding Mill ' ', Up-pulling Crane ' '.
IV.l. SEPIMENT; A R M A M E N T ''.
SEPIMENT (. septum '') . , , (
) : ' ' (Staff or
Beam Rail ' ', Shrub Hedge '
') ' ' (Sheep Sheep fold ' ', Military Line, Outwork ' (),
').
A R M A M E N T : Horse Bridle, (Back) Saddle, (Foot) Horseshoe ' , () , () ', Rider's foot Stirrup
' '.
IV.2. VEST ''; A R M O U R ''.
VEST: Head ' ', Face Mask ' ', Arm
Sleeve ' ', Hand Glove ' '; Foot Shoe,
(Loose) Slipper, (Inner) Sock ' , ()
, () '.
ARMOUR: Head Helmet ' '.
IV.3. HOUSE ''; ROOM ''.

X VII

219

HOUSE: Dogs Kennel ' ', Bees Hive ' ', Lions or Bears Den ' ', Water Conduit '
', Sale of Wine Tavern ' ', Votaries
Abbey ' '.
ROOM: Eating Dining room ' ', Discourse Parlour ' ', Books Library ' '; Meat: (Preparing)
Kitchen, (Keeping) Larder, (Selling) Shop ': () ,
() , () '.
V.l. HABIT, ART ', , ': Quantity Mathematics ' ', Star motions Astronomy ' ', Land Geography ' '.
V.2. OFFICER ' '; ARTIST '() '.
OFFICER: Abbey Abbot, Prior ' , ', Book
Librarian ' ', Drinks Butler ' ',
Navy Admiral ' '.
ARTIST: Quantity Mathematician ' ', Stars Astronomer ' '.
V.3. MECHANIC ''; M E R C H A N T ''.
MECHANIC: Stone Mason ' ', Wood Carpenter ' ', Metal Smith ' ', Music Minstrel ' ', Book Bookbinder ' '.
M E R C H A N T : Spice Grocer ' ', Wine Vintner
' '.
VI.l. POWER or Ability ' '; APTITUDE ''.
. /.
POWER or Ability. : Sensitive '' / : Sensible,
Visible ', .'
APTITUDE. : Amorous '' / : Amiable ''. : Motion Agile ' ', Fear
Terrible ' ', Play Wanton, Gamesome ' , ', Trouble Troublesome ' '.
VI.2. INCEPTIVE ''; FREQUENTATIVE ''.
INCEPTIVE : Fire
Kindle, Light ' , ', Work Set to work '
'.
FREQUENTATIVE: Drink Tipple ' ', Talk Babble
' ', Bite Gnaw ' '.
VI.3. ENDEAVOUR ' , '; IMPETUS ', , '.
ENDEAVOUR: Hear Listen, Attend, Give Ear ' , ', See Pry, Peep ' , ', Lift Heave
' '.

220

. .

IMPETUS: Exclamation Shout, Squeak, Squeal ' , ,


', Rain Storm ' ', Disease Fit, Paroxysm ' , '.
VII. 1 A U G M E N T A T I V E ''; D I M I N U T I V E ''.
AUGMENTATIVE: Wave Billow ' '. , , very '', much '', hard '', sore
'', stark '', sound '', greatly ' '
. .: Anger Rage, Wrath, Fury, Rave ' ', Past Antique ' ', Pain Torment, Torture ' , '.
DIMINUTIVE: House Cottage ' ', Chamber Cell, Cabin
' , ', Hot Tepid, Lukewarm ' ',
Handsome Pretty ' ', Bite Nibble '
'.
VII.2. EXCESSIVE ''; DEFECTIVE ''.
EXCESSIVE: Faith Credulity ' ', Great Over-grown
' '.
DEFECTIVE: Diligence Idleness ' '. Baked Under-baked ' '.
VII.3. PERFECTIVE ''; CORRUPTIVE ''.
PERFECTIVE: Prove Demonstrate ' ', Time Opportunity, Season, Good time ' , '.
CORRUPTIVE: Colour Discolour ' ,
', Opinion Mistake ' ', Name Miscall, Nickname
' , ', Timely Unseasonable,
Untimely ' , ', Horse Jade
' '.
VIII.l. VOICE ' '; L A N G U A G E ''.
Lion Roaring ' ', Hen Cackle ' ', Chicken
Peep ' ', Grief Wail ' ', Mourn Moan ' '.
VIII.2. MALE '' FEMALE ''.
(Lion Lioness ' ', Bull Cow ' ') (Brother Sister
' ', Uncle Aunt ' ', King Queen ' ').
VIII.3. Y O U N G ''; PART ''.
YOUNG: Horse Colt ' ', Cow Calf ' ', Sheep Lamb ' '.
PART. .
1) , . ,
: Fore Prow, Beak ' ,
'.
2) : A tenth Tithe ' '.

X VII

221

3) , , . , : White White ' ', Yellow Yolk ' '.


4) ,
: Covering Lid ' '.
: Continuing Discontinuing ' ',
Permitted Hindering ' ', Facility Difficulty
' ', Flower '', Fruit ''.
, - , , XX .
. (, ,
)
(. . , . , . .). ()
().
: 1) , ; 2) ,
, ; 3) ,
, .
1) , :

; , PLACE , ,
S]oc : ' '.
2) . , ,
, : Syn () , ( , . . ). ( , ),
( , ,
FunCj . .) .
3) , METAPHORICAL, LIKE, SIGN . .
,
: MALE FEMALE, YOUNG . . ,
, , , ( IV), , , ( V).

XVII

221

3) , , . , : White White ' ', Yellow Yolk ' '.


4) ,
: Covering Lid ' '.
: Continuing Discontinuing ' ',
Permitted Hindering ' ', Facility Difficulty
' ', Flower '', Fruit ''.
, , , XX .
. (, ,
)
(. . , . , . .). ()
().
: 1) , ; 2) ,
, ; 3) ,
, .
1) , :

; , PLACE , ,
S]oc : ' '.
2) . , ,
, : Syn () , ( , . . ). ( , ),
( , ,
FunCj . .) .
3) , METAPHORICAL, LIKE, SIGN . .
,
: MALE FEMALE, YOUNG . . ,
, , , ( IV), , , ( V).

X VII

221

3) , , . , : White White ' ', Yellow Yolk ' '.


4) ,
: Covering Lid ' '.
: Continuing Discontinuing ' ',
Permitted Hindering ' ', Facility Difficulty
' ', Flower '', Fruit ''.
, * , , XX .
. (, ,
)
(. . , . , . .). ()
().
: 1) , ; 2) ,
, ; 3) ,
, .
1) , :

; , PLACE , ,
S]oc : ' '.
2) . , ,
, : Syn () , ( , . . ). ( , ),
( , ( ,
FunCj . .) .
3) , METAPHORICAL, LIKE, SIGN . .
,
: MALE FEMALE, YOUNG . . ,
, , , ( IV), , , ( V).

222

. .

, , XVII . ,
.

. , , .
*

, 1984 . . , . . . - . , 1984. (Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. Sdrbd. 14).


Comenius 1966 J. A. Comenius. Panglottia II J. A. Comenius. De rerum humanarum
emendatione consultatio catholica. Prague, 1966. II. P. 147204.
Lodowyck 1647 Frances Lodowyck. "A Common Writing", 1647 // English Linguistics
15001800 (A Collection of Facsimile Reprints) / Selected and ed. by R.C. Alston. 147.
Menston, England: The Scholar Press Limited, 1969.
Wilkins 1668 John Wilkins. "An Essay towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical
Language", 1668 // English Linguistics 15001800: (A Collection of Facsimile Reprints) /
Selected and ed. by R. C. Alston. 119. Menston, England: The Scholar Press Limited, 1968.

. .

()

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1.,
, , , , [ 1990], ,
.
,
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2 . (1) , (2) :
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(2) . , ,
! (); .
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, - , ,
- ,
, , .
, -.
, 1

02-04-00294, .
2
, ,
. [ 2002].

224

. .

, . . .
,
3 . , , .
, , [ 1998]. , ,
, .
, , (3),
, (4):
(3) [] , ().
(4) -, , ().
, , . . , , , , , , .

, , . .
, , , () ().
2.
- , , ( ), ( ),
( ), (
), ( ),
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, 4 .
,
- . , , - .
, , ( , , ,
3

, ,
. . . . [, 1994].
4
. ,
, .

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225

)5 ( ). , , ( , , ), ( ,
, , ), ( , ). ( , ). ,
, ,
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6 .
, - ( , ,
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(5) . , , , -
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().
(6) . ... [] (); . ...
, ().

( / , !, !,
!, / . .).
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.
, , , , ,
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5

- [1988].
6
, , , , , ,
[ 1995: 348388].
15 - 3595

226

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, )1.
( , , , ).
:
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.
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), (
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227

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.
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(), (), (), (
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228

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( ).
, (
), ( [ ]), (
[ , ]), , ( ), ( ), ( ), ,
( ), ( ),
( ), ( [ ]), ( [ ])
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232

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234

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239

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240

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241

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Lakoff, Johnson 1980 G. Lakoff, M. Johnson. Metaphors we live by. Chicago, 1980.
[. : / . . (.). ., 1990].

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243

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244

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245

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246

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247


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248

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249

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250

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251

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252

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253

, - (.); [ ] ? , (.); [ ] , ,
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! (. ). .
(., 1960. . 6162 8687).
, -. , , .
, , , .

. . . . ., 1981. . 5268.
. . . . ., 1982. . 6882.

254

. .

. . . - // .
, 1992. . 8389.
. . , . . . - , // . ., 1988. . 116125.
. . , . . . - // , . - . . ,
1986. . 27613 10.12.1986.
. . . // . . -. . 9,
. ., 1998. 6. . 8292.
. . . - : ( . . . ): . . ... . .
. .: - . . , 1987.
. . .
// . ., 1997. . 178181.
. . . // :
XX . ., 1999. . 109113.
. . . - II
. , 1986. . 13. . 8490.
. . . -
// . , -.
-. 1987. . 11. . 9498.

. . ()

: 1


0.

, , ,
(. [Konig 1986; 1986; Konig 1991;
Rudolph 1996; Morel 1996; 1998]). ,
, .

, though, although,
even though, despite , obwohl, obgleich , bien que, neanmoins
.

I ; . (
) , .
XIX ., ,
, . ,
, , , "Concession: Figure de rhetorique par laquelle
l'orateur, sflr de la bonte de sa cause, semble accorder quelque chose a son adversaire,
mais pour en tirer soi-meme avantage, ou pour prevenir les incidents inutiles par lesquels on pourrait l'arreter" (Encyclopedic de Diderot, 1753, . no [Morel 1996]).
1

( 0204-), ( 00-15-98866), ,
(. 4.15) -1576.2003.6.
. . . . . . .

256

. .

XX . , Grammaire Frangaise [1967] , , , "consiste


rapprocher deux faits qui, normalement, devraient s'exclure" (. no [Morel 1996]).
,

([Wierzbicka 1987; 1988; 1988; ,
1997]), , '' '' ([Konig 1986; 1998]) '' '' ([ 1986; 1987; Konig
1991; 2002]). . although even though [Konig 1986]:
although, even though p, not q
a. p & not q
b. if p, normally q (presupposition)
. bien que [Morel
1996]:
Bien que A, BIB, bien que A
Bien qu'ilpleuve, ilsort
A est normalement associe a B1 et = B1
[Konig 1991] although
because . ,
because , , although
, :
not (q because ) = (not-q) although p
Konig
because although: This house is no
less comfortable because it dispenses with air-conditioning = This house is no less comfortable although it dispenses with air-conditioning.
. [Konig 1986; 1991] ,
, .
:
) ,
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)
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) I 2
2

1 ,
. . [. 2003].

257

) , , .
1.
[Konig 1991] , , . , [Konig 1991].
(la) [Q] - , [].
(16) [Q], ( )
[].
(1) (16) . ,
(), , -Q ( ), . . Q ( ).
(1) , (16)
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[Konig 1991] (1). . .
(2) ( , ) - ,
.
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.
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(26) . [ 1995]
,
(. 619). (26)
; .:
= ' ,
, ' ( , , ),
= ' , , , ' (
).
3

1 ( '') 2 (''), . . [ 2003].


1 7 - 3595

258

. .

(26)
.
, , ,
4 .
[Konig 1986] [Morel 1996] (. ) , ,
-Q. ,,
. , (26)
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(4) [], [Q].
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, .
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.
4

259

(4) (46) , : , , ; , - , .
, (4) (46) , , ,
(5) [Q], [].
.
, . (4)
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, -Q; Q'.

260

. .

2.
1
( ), . 3. [ 1989: 156]:
(9) X, Y ( , ) = 'X;
X - Y-y;
Y;
Y'.
,
' X - Y-y' ' , X,
-Y'. , . .
, 1 ,
(4) (46), , ''. .
(10) , - [X], [Y].
,
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, (9) , :
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Y;
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) , .
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( ). .
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.
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, (. . ) ~
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. .
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261

(14) , ~ { )
, .
(15) , 5 =
(156) - ( ) , .
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. , 1 ?
, , (156). , (156) : , , . , ,
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.
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(16)

X,HOY =

'X;

, X, -Y;
Y;
Y'.
,
1, . .
(17) [X], [Y],

[ 1989: 155].

262

. .

(176) * ( ) [], [Q],


, (176), Q, 1 ,
.
3. 1,

0

, [ 1989: 156].
1 [ 2002]. , , ,
. ' '. , 1
, , , ,
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, , , [,
1983], . , ,
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, ,
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, 1. . (18):
(18)
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. .
(186) ? ,
.
. (19),
Q:
(19)
, -

263

(. .
).
, 1 :
(19) , Q = ' ; ,
, -Q; Q'.
, (
) ( ).
. 3. [ 1989: 162164]
, 1 .
1) .
, ( - - ).
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1 .
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.
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(26) 71 , .
(266) * , .
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, ,
1 .
3) (,
).
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6

[ 1989].

264

. .

(29) 7 7 , .
(296) * , .
, -, , 1
.
4), , , , , , . . :
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1, .
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() , .
() , .
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.
7 ( , ).
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(346) , .
(34) , .
, , 1, .
[, 1983].

265

, 1
- , , .
(35) , ( ,
).
(36) , - ( ,
).
(37) , (. . . ).
(38) ,
(. . ).
, , , , . , ,
.

1995 . . . . ., 1995.
1999 . . . II . . 1999. 5. . 2444.
2003 . . . 1, 1, , II . . , . . ,
. . , . . , . . , . . . / . . . . .
. 3. ., 2003.
1988 . . . : . .
. ., 1988.
2003 . . . 2, 5, 1 // . . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . , . . .
/ . . . . . . 3. ., 2003.
, 1997 . . , . . . : ( ). ., 1997.
1986 . . . :
. ., 1986.
, 1983 . . , . . . : . //
. : . ., 1983. . 38103.
1988 . . . : ( ) II : . ., 1988. . 146168.
1989 . 3. . : .
. . ., 1989.

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1987 . . . // . , 1987. (. . . -. . ).
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()

[Benacchio 2002]
.
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,
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268

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(. . ) . . : CeKoj !, OBaj !, "Odprite vsak dan
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,
, : .
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271

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, , ,

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. [Thomas, 1) 1998: 143].

272

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, , , ,
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!
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( ). . "Prizgite televizor! No, prizgite
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273

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Film se zacenja".
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.
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: , ,
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, , ( ) [ 1990].
(8) . . { ,
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340

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[ 1986]
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341

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342

. .

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...

343

,
[ 2002].

1986 . . .
// . . 28. ., 1986. . 533.
1990 . . . // . ., 1990.
1996 . . . . .:
, 1996.
1982 . . .
// . ., 1982.
1988 . . //
X / . . . (Studia Slavica Finlandensia. . V). 1988. P. 99141.
2002 . . . II : . .,
2002. . 137144.
1997 . . . , , II : . ., 1997. . 218228.
2002 . . . // : . ., 2002. . 334347.

( ,

, ,
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(. . . .
., 1976)

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345

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346

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347

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348

. , , , , , ,
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, . [Lend, Bertinetto 2000]:
Quest 'anno Maria e andata (*andava) spesso a Londra '
(, , *) ', Oggi ho letto (*leggevo) due volte il
giornale ' (, , *) '. , ,
, . ,
, : Da giovane andavo/sono andato
spesso agli spettacoli di baletto5 ' (*) '.
, :
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sono andato spesso a Londra in treno ' ' Andavo sempre a Londra in treno ' '.
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, . [ 2000; 1998; Kresin 2000]. ,
:
Z tohoto pole sklizeji (HCB)lsklide () brambory kazdy rok az naposled ' ()/* () '; prvni, vyrusta (YiCB)lvyroste () v kvetinaci, je vzdycky plevel ',
()/* () , '; Navstevuje ()/navstivi () nas pravidelne v sobotu '
()/* () '; Nadanlk hudbe se castoprojevi ()/
projevuje () uz v mladi ' ()/
* () ' ( [ 2000]).
. , ,
5

, sempre (''), .
, Maria andava a Londra due volte I'anno (' ')
, .

. . .

349


6 .
, ,

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). ,
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[ 2000: 64].
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[ 1989: 123]). , , : . . ,
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112].
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6

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[Kresin 2000].

350

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[ 2001: 209], ,
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[ 2001: 203]). ,
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[ 1985]. : -
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351

, . . (, [ 1998]).
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).
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352

( . [ 1989]): (*) . , .
(.: ).
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:
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(.: ),
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( ).
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. .: , , ,
( : Myslim, ze ze byste si vzal kazdou, ktera sem prijede, Capek;
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...

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, , , . ,
,
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( ).
5.
, , . ,
, , , (, ,
), , . . .
(., , [ 1994;
Junghans 1995; Cinque 1999]) , ( ). ,

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, . .
[ 1988: 32]. / ,
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: ) , , , ; )
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6.
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2 3 - 3595

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1976 . . . . .: , 1976.
1988 . . . : . .
. .: , 1988.
1990 . . . . . .: , 1990.
1998 . .
// . 1998. 5455.
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1989 . . . , // / . . . . . .: ,
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2001 . . . - . .: ; , 2001.
. 1998 . . , . . , . . . . .: - , 1998.
1985 . . . . .: , 1985.
2000 . . .
. .: - , 2000.
1968 . . . . .., 1968.
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, , , .
, , ,
, (, , ) ,
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, ,
. . - .
,
, .
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,

, / , , , .
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, , ,
,
, , , , . . , , .
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, ,
, .
,
,
,
, . [ 1987; , 1987; 1973;
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, , ,
( ) . , , ,
, ( ) . ,
.
,
, . [ 1980] , . . ,
, .
, , , , : ,
, ^, , : +
. .
(1) ,
, , ()
(. ).
,
, - :
(2) () (. ).
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357

, , ,
, . , , . (2) , (3)
, ,
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:
(4) () ,
, (), , (. ).
,

,
, ., , [ 1987], [
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, : I. , ( ); II. ., Pj ( );
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,
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, (6) :
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. , , ,
, :

358

. .

(7) ,
, () ().
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(. ).
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(11) () ().
, , , , , .
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...

359

, ,
, . (13). ,
. , ,
. (14)(16), , , . , . (14). , , , . (17), , . (18).
,
,
, , , - ., . (19)(20), ., . (21), ., . (22), :
(19) , () (. ).
(20) () ,

, (. ).
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.
, , () , (. ).
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360

. .

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361

, Pj , , 2 , , ,
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. 349 : .

.
,
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( ). , 7
. : Pj 2 ( ). : ,
2 - (
).
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362

. .

(36) , () (. ).
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0 - , :
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(38) () .

:
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,
-
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:
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2 , P t :
(42) () .

!,
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(. ).
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() - (. ).
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...

363

, ,
2, ,, - :
(46) () .
(47) (),
, (. ).
, , , ( , ), , Pj 2 -
, , . (46) (48):
(48) * () .

, , , , , , . . Pj 2 :
(49) : , () () , (. ).
(50) ,
, () (. ).

, . . (50) (51):
(51) ,
, () .

/, , , .
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:
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21 64 (. ).
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(. ).
(55) () ,
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, ,
, , ,

364

. .

, ,
. , , . (56)(57), , . (58), ,
, ,
- ., . (56)
(57), ., . (59)(60) ., . (61)(62), :
(56) : ()
? (. ).
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(. ).
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() ().
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() (. ).
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...

365

, . (68), - :
(66) () (. ).
(67) , ,
() (. ).
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() (. ).
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() (. ).
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2 , , , , , -
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(, , , , , ), (, ), (, , ),
, (, ,
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, , , ), (, ).
. , , . ,
, ,
.
, , , ,
.
, ,
,
,
, , . [ 20016].

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.
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, , , -
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, .
( ,
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, ),
, , ( ?), ():
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. ,
,
( , ),
( ) .
: ?; !
? . . (-; ,
, , , )
. ( ' ')
, : , , , ( ,
, , . .) . : ? = ' ,
?' ? = '-, ,
, ?'. ,
, (): , .
2. ,
: ! !', . ', ', . .
.

, . .: -
1


;
,
, .

S 24 - 3595

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. .

; -
, ; ? X
, , - ? ,
; ? , ,
. ,
, .
. .: /
; ! ,
/ ; / ? . . - , ,
. ,
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, ,
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() . ,
, ,-
. , ,

; ,
, ;
. : , ,
' '. : !
, , ,
, ' ',
, . . ,
, : *
. . , ,
! ,
- .
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, , . ..

. , , : [ ?] , ,
... (. ). , , , ( ) ( ):
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,
, () , , , , , . . , . ,
, - , , , , -
. , , ,
. . , . . [1976: 371375 .], , ,
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.
,
, - . , , , . , ,
, , , .
: ' , , ...'. ( , , (),
: ,
= ', , ;
, '.
,
, ,
. ,
. .
4. . , , , , , .
-
.
A. , ,
(
,
): ,
( )
: ... ...-, , - ; ,
... ( ), . * ..., ...-,
,
... ( // . . . . .).
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, ; ! . , , ,
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373

! , , ...: ,
! ... ... ...; , ...; . [] ,
... ( . .
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... 45 (. ).- , - - (- ),
. ( ? , - , .)
- ,
, , , , , . . ,
,
( ; ), ,
- . , ( - ), , -,
( , .
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. . X!
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, , . .
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, , , . : ? , , : ' , '
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, (. . ,
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.
, .
- , , . ., -, [ 1976: 337; 1983: 7677]. ,
,
/ . , : / ! . ..., , , ,
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(,

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) , ,
,
. , :
. , !
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. , : () rf ,
; ,
()
(
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.
, - , . , , ,
- () () Q, , , , , ,
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Q. : ( ), ( .. .)
( ) [Israeli 1998: 69]: , ,
, , . ., ( ) . : ?! ?! ? = ', , , ,
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8- ?; ? = ' ,
, , , ,
, , ;
?, ,
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?; , ?
! ! ? ,
, , , , , , , , { ! . .).
( ) ,
,
. . ( ). , /
? !, ,
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, ', .: ?
.
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Laura A. Janda (UNC-CH)

BORDER Z O N E S I N T H E R U S S I A N CASE S Y S T E M

The six grammatical cases of Russian are not discrete semantic islands. The cases interact with each other, variously dividing up and sharing meanings and syntactic roles,
and thus drawing the whole of the case system into an interconnected, interdependent
entity. The border zones that hold this system together are the places where speakers are
empowered to choose among alternative expressive strategies.
The framework of cognitive linguistics (foundational works include [Langacker 1987;
1991; Lakoff 1987 and Johnson 1987] for an overview and bibliographies, see [Janda 2000])
provides Slavists in particular with an opportunity to continue the Jakobsonian pursuit of
the form-meaning relationship. According to this framework, meaning is grounded in human perceptual and conceptual experience, and grammar is an essential part of the symbolic
structure of language (for a discussion of the relationship between perceptual and conceptual experience and its impact on linguistic form, see [Talmy 1996]). The metaphorical and
metonymical extension of grounded meaning contribute to the evolution of grammar by
providing an abstract architecture that facilitates the joining of lexemes in complex symbolic units. In other words, a given concrete experience (for example, the juxtaposition of
an object and its location) can be extended via metaphor (where this relationship of location can be applied to various domains other than space, such as time or psychological states)
and via metonymy (where location can be understood as the endpoint of a trajectory, thus
linking the concepts of arrival and location). These extensions join concepts in powerful,
pliable semantic networks that form the backbone of grammar. As Turner [1996] points out,
grammar uses an abstract process closely linked to literary parable to recognize and deploy
"small physical stories", such as the flow of energy from subject to object in a transitive
construction (a parallel to physical movement to a destination). In a very real sense, the repeated concrete experience of agents bringing forces to bear on patients motivates the existence of transitive verb constructions, as well as their extension to novel situations.
Cognitive linguistics takes the form-meaning relationship very seriously. All linguistic
forms and structures bear meaning, and a given linguistic entity always bears its meaning,
never being negated or entirely devoid of content. Linguistic systems abound with polysemy, created largely by metaphorical and metonymical extension. Polysemy makes room for
ambiguity and enables a given linguistic form to be variously nuanced in different surroundings. Polysemy is never a random aggregate of meanings, but rather always has an internal
logic linking submeanings to a semantic network. Strictly speaking, absolute synonymy
(identity of meaning across two or more linguistic forms) is rare, due to the fact that difference in linguistic form is usually capitalized on as opportunity for difference in expression
of meaning. Near synonymy (close, but not identical meanings across linguistic forms) is,

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however, common, and it almost invariably relies on slightly different construals and/or
different aggregates of polysemous concepts. This article will explore instances of near
synonymy in the Russian case system. Each case is conceptually founded on certain concrete physical perceptual experiences, abstracted by parable into grammatical "stories: and
embroidered into richly textured coherent polysemous semantic networks by the forces of
metaphor and metonymy. The cases lay the cornerstones for Russian syntax, determining
the contours of grammatical constructions. Together, the semantic networks of the Russian
cases provide a rich expressive system, often allowing speakers to choose among two or
more grammatical means to describe ."the same" perception of reality. These points of ambiguity and overlap are the cognitive "border zones" that will be the focus of this article.
An overview of the Russian case system
Russian's six cases form an austere and efficient system, enabling speakers to describe
all possible relationships of entities, both to each other and to events. Each case can be
used to express concrete physical relationships, and can be metaphorically extended to
express relationships in other domains, such as time, purpose, emotion, states of being,
scalar values, etc. Like any other instance of polysemy, the various meanings of a given
case constitute a coherent semantic network, where all uses are clearly related to one another, not just an unmotivated random list. Although much of case usage is associated with
various trigger words (usually prepositions or verbs, though nouns, adjectives, and even
adverbs can participate), these collocations are best understood as well-motivated semantic
associations. Cases never appear as automatic or semantically empty units, as arbitrary
accidents of grammatical structure, but always access at least some portion of their semantic network. Case meaning is always present, and a given trigger word is associated
with a given case precisely because the meanings of the trigger word and of the case are
compatible. Case meaning is therefore most appropriately treated as a significant semantic force in all grammatical constructions.
The following is an overview of the gross structure of the Russian case system, listing the major submeanings of each case, with indications of their usage. This interpretation of the Russian case system has evolved in the course of over fifteen years of empirical research on the semantics of case in Russian and other Slavic languages, arrived at
through analysis of large databases of authentic language, and through integration of theoretical achievements of previous scholars (particularly [Jakobson 1936/1971; van Schooneveld 1978 and Chvany 1986]). The results presented here on the language internal
interactions of Russian, as well as results presented elsewhere on cross-linguistic comparisons, cf. [Janda in press a; Janda forthcoming; Janda in press b; Janda and Clancy
forthcoming] confirm the structure of this case system, since the behaviors we observe
are not random, but are clearly motivated within such a system.
Nominative: a name (naming, subject); an identity (predicate nominative)
Instrumental: a means (means, instrument, path, agent); a label (predicate instrumental); an adjunct (preposition s); a landmark (prepositions of location)
Accusative: a destination (movement, direct object, points in time); a dimension
(durations, distances, amounts, comparisons); an endpoint (places and times a given distance away)

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Dative: a receiver (indirect object); an experiencer (benefit, harm, and modal uses);
a competitor (matching forces, submission)
Genitive: a source (withdrawal); a goal (approach); a whole (possession/'of, quantification); a reference (lack, comparison, near)
Locative: a place (location in space, time, and other domains)
This is not a static system constraining meaning to unique expression. The case system is sufficiently rich and pliable to empower speakers to make choices in how they use
it. As an individual subsystem, each case is underdetermined, representing an aggregate
of abstract, flexible meanings that can be extended via metaphor and metonymy. The
dynamic nature of case networks gives speakers the agility they need to negotiate all situations, including novel ones (such as when an entirely new word or concept enters a
language, requiring integration into grammatical constructions). Collectively, however,
the case system as a whole is overdetermined, presenting a system with expressive means
beyond the bare minimum for communication. Perceptual/conceptual experiences that are
"the same" (or very nearly so) can be expressed using more than one grammatical construction, entailing a choice among cases. The system thus supports overlapping and contiguous semantic expressions, and acknowledges the existence of ambiguity. We will
examine these variations on the theme of near synonymy in the analysis below.
The cognitive "border zones"
There are numerous instances where the Russian case system presents speakers with
alternative case constructions for nearly synonymous expressive goals. As it turns out,
these alternatives are not scattered at random across the case system, but are relatively
restricted and systematic, constituting entrenched relationships among cases motivated
by semantic similarities. These systematic relationships target semantically significant
junctures in the grammatical landscape of case, namely the places where potential ambiguity resides. These are the border zones, where there is either no one-to-one mapping of
perceptual input and case use, or the perceptual/conceptual experience is itself ambiguous. The ambiguities characteristic of the border zones involve basic concepts, such as
location, trajectory, reference, control, agency, means, categorization, and causation. The
case system acknowledges the fact that a given experience may be cognitively manipulated in multiple ways by providing alternative strategies in terms of case constructions.
Ultimately the vast majority of alternatives are not entirely synonymous: any case construction emphasizes some meanings while suppressing others, and indeed no linguistic
expression captures the totality of a perceptual/conceptual experience. Such experiences
are too richly textured to be fully comprehended and processed. Choices must always be
made. Different speakers may use different constructions to describe "the same" realia,
and indeed, the same speaker may use multiple means to describe "the same" realia too.
The system supports enough variety to leave room for alternative construals, a fact of linguistic expression that has been well-efctablished [Langacker 1987; 1991].
Three parameters have been used to construct a typology of inter-case relationships:
1) the number of cases involved, 2) the type of semantic relationship (contiguous, overlapping, virtually synonymous), and 3) the factors contributing to the semantic relationship (various kinds of construal, metonymy, abstract similar meaning, same/similar lexical

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trigger). While we will use all three parameters in this study, we will focus primarily on
the semantic relationships, the factors that contribute to them, and what these semantic
relationships mean for human cognitive systems.
Typological parameter 1) number of cases
In reference to the number of cases engaged in a semantic relationship, the most common relationship involves a 1 x 1 contrast, where one case is used in one construction,
but another one is used in another construction, for example: stradat' bessonrticej [suffer insomnia-INST] vs. stradat' ot bessonnicy [suffer from insomnia-GEN], both of
which mean 'suffer from insomnia' contrast the use of the instrumental and the genitive
to label the cause of suffering. There also exist l x l x l contrasts, involving three similar constructions, each using a different case. For example, compare: byl soldat [HeNOM was soldier-NOM] vs. On byl/stal soldatom [He-NOM was/became soIdier-INST]
vs. On postupil v soldaty [He-NOM entered in soldiers-ACC], all of which mean 'He was/
became a soldier' showing overlapping uses of the nominative, instrumental, and accusative (albeit in an archaic guise) to describe the state that has been achieved. More complex contrasts are observed in sets of constructions where two similar roles are expressed
using different cases. A familiar 2 x 2 contrast is found in these phrases: ucit' kogo
[teach who-ACC what-DAT] vs. prepodavat' komu cto [teach who-DAT what-ACC]
'teach someone something', where both the learner and the subject matter are contrasted. Russian also displays a few 2 x 2 x 2 contrasts, as in: U nego ogromnye sredstva [At
him-GEN enormous means-NOM] vs. On raspolagaet ogromnymi sredstvami [HeNOM has-at-disposal enormous means-INST] vs. On imeet ogromnye sredstva [HeNOM possesses enormous means-ACC], all of which mean 'He has enormous means/
great wealth'. In this last set of examples, both the possessor and the possessed are alternatively expressed by three different pairs of cases. This article will examine all four
types of contrasts, specially identifying those that are complex ( 2 x 2 and 2 x 2 x 2 ) . The
complex contrasts are necessarily less crisp, and will force some perturbations in the order of presentation of contrasts.
Typological parameter 2) semantic relationship
As mentioned above, synonymy is almost never absolute. Synonymy is also not a
uniform phenomenon. Although synonymy plays a role in all of the contrasts examined
below, the semantic relationship between constructions varies, and we can distinguish three
types of synonymy: contiguous, overlapping, and virtual synonymy. This is not an exhaustive inventory of types of synonymy, nor are the types themselves discrete. In some situations we encounter meanings that are contiguous or parallel, yet are distributed complementarity. Contiguous meanings amount to a division of labor these meanings may
touch, but do not actually overlap. For example, the prepositions v and na can be used
with the accusative case to designate the destination of movement, and the preposition
can also be used with the dative case for the same purpose; the meaning of all three preposition + case constructions is very similar, and the distribution of these preposition + case
constructions is determined primarily by animacy: animate destinations (usually people)

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require + DAT, whereas inanimate destinations (usually places) use v or na + ACC.


Although there is a strong parallelism between the two constructions, they are not entirely synonymous, since going 'to' a person is a qualitatively different experience (it does
not involve physically encroaching upon the person's body), from going 'to' a place (which
does involve physical encroachment). These similar meanings, all understandable as 'to'
a destination, can be thought of as instances of contiguous synonymy. Like complementary distribution in phonology, this differentiation is symptomatic of a greater unity. In
addition to contiguous synonymy, there is also overlapping synonymy, where the situation described might seem tp be "the same", using the same lexemes, but we get slightly
different overlapping meanings from two different cases. Overlapping meanings provide
choices for speakers, since they share at least some portion of meaning and syntactic function, although usually one option will be preferred. An example of overlapping synonymy is the use of the accusative vs. genitive cases with a group of verbs denoting waiting
and wanting. For example, we can say both Boris zdet avtobus [Boris-NOM waits busACC] and Boris zdet avtobusa [Boris-NOM waits bus-GEN] to describe a scene where
Boris is waiting for a bus. However, if we use the accusative case, we imply that Boris is
waiting for a specific bus, whereas the genitive suggests that Boris just wants to get away
and will take any bus that comes. There is plenty of semantic overlap between the two
constructions, which differ only in the degree of specificity ascribed to Boris's intentions.
Only rarely is the overlap so extensive that the resulting expressions are virtually synonymous, a situation where it is difficult to establish any semantic difference between two
case constructions. The adverbs zal'/zalko 'pity, sorry' can be used with either the accusative or the genitive case to say 'It's too bad about X', with no discernable difference in
meaning. Similarly, the distinction between izucat' + ACC vs. ucit'sja + DAT, both of
which mean 'study', is minimal.
Typological parameter 3) factors contributing to semantic relationship
The role of construal in the competition between alternative case constructions cannot be underestimated. A speaker can choose to foreground, background, imply blame,
etc. by imposing various case roles on the noun phrases in an utterance. Although Ja
spaf'[l-NOM want sleep] 'I want to sleep' and Mne xocetsja spat' [Me-DAT wants-self
sleep] 'I feel like sleeping' can describe the same objective reality, the speaker is assigning a volitional role to the nominative subject in the first construction, but claiming that
the corresponding dative in the second construction is but a victim of circumstance. Similarly, Ivan razbil masinu otca [Ivan-NOM crashed car-ACC father-GEN] 'Ivan crashed
his father's car' makes a relatively neutral statement, whereas Ivan razbil otcu masinu
[Ivan-NOM crashed father-DAT car-ACC], though it has "the same" meaning, focuses
on the father's distress, cf. [Levine 1984; 1986; Wierzbicka 1986]. Although the objective reality may be the same (or nearly so), the speaker's construal ultimately shapes every
utterance. Using what is known about the semantic structure of the Russian case system,
it is possible for us to examine the construals motivating various case constructions in a
coherent and systematic way.
One common source of case contrasts is endpoint-trajectory metonymy, the relationship between a path and its endpoint. Often it is possible to refer only to the final location

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of a path; in such instances, the endpoint stands metonymically for the whole path. This
type of metonymy is evident when we contrast English uses of over, for example, as in
Bill went over the hill and Sally lives over the hill, where Sally's location is merely the
endpoint of a movement whose entire trajectory is traversed by Bill. Metonymy relates
the destinational (trajectory) meaning marked with the accusative of prepositions such as
v 'to', na 'onto', 'against', za 'beyond', pod 'under' with their corresponding (and contiguous) locational (endpoint) meanings marked with the locative case for v, na, and o,
and with the instrumental case for za and pod.
Often a number of means (including various cases) are used to express what is more
or less a single concept. For example, Russian has many ways to express direction of
purpose, roughly equivalent to English for, among them the prepositions v, na, pro, and
za with the accusative case, do, dlja, radi with the genitive case, as well as the bare dative case (as in Vot pis'mo emu [Here letter-NOM him-DAT] 'Here's a letter for him').
Sometimes different case uses are triggered by the same or similar lexical items, such as
verit' 'believe', which can combine with both the bare dative case and the preposition v
with the accusative case; likewise, the verb napolnit' 'fill' uses the instrumental case to
mark the substance doing the filling, but the related adjective polon 'full' uses the genitive case for the filling substance. These examples parallel the complementary distribution discussed above, again betraying reference to a greater unity.
Contrasts involving the nominative
The following tables illustrate how nominative: a name contrasts with dative: an experiencer, genitive: a reference, instrumental: a means, and accusative: a destination.

Nominative: a name vs. dative: an experiencer


The nominative subject of a verb, also interpretable here as the agent, is always de facto
an experiencer of the action of the verb. Conversely, the distinguishing feature of the dative case is its potential subjecthood [Janda 1993; Janda in press b; Janda & Clancy forthcoming; Bachman 1980; Smith 1992], a fact which links the dative and nominative cases. The nominative case assigns a volitional role to the subject, whereas the dative case
portrays the sleepy speaker as merely a passive experiencer of circumstance.

This 2 x 2 contrast likewise compares an active agent (the person who needs the money)
with a more passive experiencer. The use of dative constructions is of course the norm
for modal expressions in Russian, where circumlocutions using modal verbs with nominative agents are less common. In addition, this example set illustrates a contrast between

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locative: a place and nominative: a name, understood as a contrast between a location (the
domain of the person's need, specifically that of money) and the mere naming of the need.

This 2 x 2 x 2 contrast expands even futher on the theme of the active agent as opposed
to the passive experiencer (here, the person experiencing pleasure). In addition, the role
played by poetry in this complex set of contrasts compares an accusative destination (direct object) with an agent (subject causing pleasure) with a means (instrument for achieving pleasure). Odd as this 2 x 2 x 2 constellation may seem at first glance, it is well established for both likes and dislikes, and represents a systematic source of alternative cognitive
strategies in Russian (cf., for example a similar set that could be constructed using nenavidet\ gnusat'sja, and prenebregat', all of which denote hatred). The difference between Ja
ljublju poeziju and Ja naslazdajus' poeziej of course parallels the differences in case markings between active and passive constructions, which will be discussed below.

Nominative: a name vs. genitive: a reference


The subject of a sentence always has special salience, for it is a point of reference both
for naming items and for predicates. The genitive case is also used to identify reference
points. In the instance of the comparison, the nominative case simply names the brother,
implying a parallel between the girl's intelligence and his. The genitive case, however,
sets up the brother as a reference point on a scale of intelligence. Negation can either be
treated exactly like a positive assertion by assigning the nominative case, or a speaker can
emphasize the negation as separation from a reference point, as with the genitive case.
The use of the genitive with negation carries an additional connotation of lack of access;
whereas the nominative is a neutral statement, the genitive implies that 'I' will simply not
be available and the speaker does not intend to provide any further information.

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385

This 2 x 2 x 2 contrast shows how 'have' can be expressed either as a transitive verb
with a nominative subject (he), or as existence at the possessor (him), which is a genitive
reference point; because Russian is primarily a BE language, the latter construction is
preferred. The possessed item (enormous means) can be the nominative subject of existence at the possessor or the accusative destination of 'having', and the possession can
further be understood as the means by which 'having' is experienced, using the instrumental case. The use of the instrumental case is really only appropriate when the possession is abundant, and this construction carries with it the nuance that the possessor is rich
in something, making him a person of means.
The following table illustrates how nominative: an identity (predicate nominative)
contrasts with instrumental: a label and accusative: a destination.

Nominative: an identity vs. instrumental: a label vs. accusative: a destination


Whereas nominative: an identity sets up a simple equation X = Y, naming both X and
Y on either side of the copular verb, instrumental: a label describes the category (Y, 'soldier') through which an item is manifested. The instrumental case emphasizes the unequal status of X and Y: X is a specific instance, but Y is the name of a category that X
belongs in. The use of the accusative: a destination depends upon an understanding of
states of being as locations which can be entered; stepping into the ranks of soldiers is
metonymically understood as a reference to the entire act of becoming a soldier, and this
construction emphasizes the fact that 'he' has joined a profession.

This 2 x 2 x 2 contrast involves both nominative: a name vs. instrumental: a means


vs. genitive: a reference and accusative: a destination vs. nominative: a name. An agent
('who') can be expressed as the nominative subject of an active verb. For passive verbs
there are two options: the agent can be either an instrumental means for achieving the
verbal activity, or the agent can be a genitive point of reference, the location at which the
activity takes place (similar to versions of 'have' above). With each case, the construal is
slightly different. The nominative subject and instrumental agent bear a relationship typical for transitive vs. passive constructions, and the -sja passive (which perhaps more resembles middle voice) is interpreted rather as a causative, cf. [Toops 1987], suggesting
that the patient had the operation done by a designated professional. As in any contrast
between active and passive, the item that undergoes a process (here, the patient) will be
25 - 3 5 95

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and accusative object in active voice constructions, but will appear as a nominative object in passive and causative constructions.
Contrasts involving the instrumental
The following tables illustrate how instrumental: a means contrasts with accusative:
a destination, accusative: a dimension, genitive: a source, and genitive: a whole.

Instrumental: a means vs. accusative: a destination


One can either achieve an action by means of an item, using the item as a resource or
instrument to carry out the action, or one can think of the activity as transitively affecting the item. The special construal of the instrumental amounts to a meaning like 'use
stones as projectiles; engage in the act of throwing using stones'.

This 2 x 2 contrast enlarges the discussion of an instrument as something to use in an


action as opposed to the accusative as the destination of the action by adding a contrast
between accusative: a destination and dative: a receiver to the mix. This latter contrast
involves the person receiving the gift, who is either merely a destination for the gift, or a
participant in a transaction (the use of the dative adds the implication that the gift will be
appreciated in some way).

Instrumental: a means vs. accusative: a dimension


One can move through time or space using an expanse of either domain, such as a field
or a life, as a path, a means to go (instrumental), or one can simply traverse an expanse
(accusative). Again the instrumental requires the more marked construal, this time highlighting the fact that movement passes through some sort of conduit.

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387

Instrumental: a means vs. genitive: a source


Here the means by which suffering is manifested is understood as the cause of suffering,
but there is another metaphor for causation, which involves understanding the cause as a source.
13. 'fill a glass with water; a glass full of water'
I: means napolnit' stakan vodoj
[fill glass-ACC water-INST]

G: whole stakan polon vody


[glass-NOM full-NOM water-GEN]

Instrumental: a means vs. genjtive: a whole


Manipulation of a substance can be understood as a manipulation for which the substance is the means by which the manipulation takes place; manipulation of a substance
can alternatively focus on the amount manipulated, in which case we view that amount
as a part of the whole, some of the substance.
The following table illustrates how instrumental: an adjunct contrasts with locative: a place.
14. 'He has money with him'
I: adjunct U nego den 'gi s soboj [At himGEN money-NOM with self-INST]

L: place U nego den'gipri sebe [At himGEN money-NOM at self-LOC]

Instrumental: an adjunct vs. locative: a place


The presence of the money in a person's possession can be understood either as a relationship of togetherness between the money and the person, or as a relationship of proximal location.
The following table illustrates how instrumental: a landmark contrasts with genitive:
a goal.
15. 'before we left'
I: landm pered tem, my uexali [infront-of that-lNST, how we-NOM left]

G: goal do togo, my uexali


[to that-GEN, how we-NOM left]

Instrumental: a landmark vs. genitive: a goal


Prior existence can be interpreted either as a static temporal location in front of an item,
or as a movement toward the item, an example of endpoint-trajectory metonymy. This
relationship is partially motivated by the fact that time can be conceived of both as a static space that we move through and as something that moves along as we stand still.
Other contrasts discussed above:
3, 6. [instrumental: a means vs. nominative: a name vs. accusative: a destination]
7. [instrumental: a label vs. nominative: an identity vs. accusative: a destination]
8. [instrumental: a means vs. nominative: a name vs. genitive: a reference]
Contrasts involving the accusative
The following tables illustrate how accusative: a destination contrasts with dative: a
competitor, dative: a receiver, genitive: a goal, and genitive: a reference

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16. 'go to someplace'


A: dest idti v, na cto (+ non-humans)
[go (in)to, (on)to what-ACC]

D: comp idti (+ humans)


[go to who-DAT]

17. 'believe (in) someone, something'


A: dest verit' v kogo, vo cto [believe in
who-ACC, in what-ACC]

D: comp verit' , [believe


who-DAT, what-DAT]

18. 'study math'


A: dest izucat' matematiku
[study math-ACC]

D: comp ucit 'sja matematike


[teach-self math-DAT]

Accusative: a destination vs. dative: a competitor


In all instances, we have a contrast between movement to a destination (including the
metaphorical understanding of a transitive action as being transferred from the subject to
the object accusative) and submission to an item that exerts some kind of control, rather
than being a mere destination (dative). The sense of directionality is strong (here metaphorically extended to express the focus of mental activity) for both the accusative and
the dative, but the dative additionally emphasizes the fact that the destination has a force
of its own.
19. 'teach someone something'
A: dest, D: comp ucit' kogo [teach
who-ACC what-DAT]

D: rec, A: dest prepodavat' komu cto


[teach who-DAT what-ACC]

This 2 x 2 contrast highlights the fact that teaching can be understood in various ways.
According to the first model, teaching is akin to training someone to submit themselves
to a body of knowledge (in which case the trainee is the accusative object of the action,
and the knowledge is marked dative: a competitor). The second model is related to the
notion of giving, where the knowledge is understood as an object passed to the learner in
a transaction (motivating the use of accusative: a destination for the subject matter and
dative: a receiver for the learner).
20. 'Boris waits for the/a bus'
A: dest Boris zdet avtobus
[Boris-NOM waits bus-ACC]

G: goal Boris zdet avtobusa


[Boris-NOM waits bus-GEN]

21. 'it's too bad about the money'


A: dest zal'lzaiko deit'gi
[pity money-ACC]

G: goal zal'lzaiko deneg


[pity money-GEN]

Accusative: a destination vs. genitive: a goal


Here we see the near equivalence of the direct object as the destination of an action
(accusative) and the same item as the goal of an action (genitive). Goals and destinations
are cognitively very similar concepts.

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389

22. 'I don't see the/a car'


A: dest Ja ne vizu masinu
[I-NOM not see car-ACC]

G: ref Ja ne vizu masiny


[I-NOM not see car-GEN]

Accusative: a destination vs. genitive: a reference


This distinction plays on the difference between a tangible, actual referent which is
direct object (accusative), and something referred to but not actually accessed, as a
enitive reference point perceptually separated from the speaker (genitive). In other words,
>oth expressions can be used to describe not seeing a car, but when the accusative is used,
specific car is referenced, and presumed to exist. The use of the genitive signals an abolute negation, used when there is no car at all in sight, specified or unspecified.
23. 'take away someone's inheritance'
A: dest, G: ref lisit' kogo nasledstva
[deprive who-ACC inheritance-GEN]

G: ref, A: dest vzjat' kogo nasledstvo


[take by who-GEN inheritance-ACCj

This 2 x 2 contrast plays the interaction between accusative: a destination and geniive: a reference in both directions. The person is the target of deprivation when marked
with the accusative, but merely the locus of this action when marked with the genitive
'note that the use of the genitive parallels what we have observed for expressions of 'have',
where the possessor can be construed as the location of a possesssion). The lost possession can be understood either as something that the possessor is separated from (in which
case it becomes an unattainable reference point), or as a mere destination for the action
of taking.
24. 'for it/him; a letter for him'
A: dest v, na, za, pro nego
[for it/him-ACC]

G: goal do, dlja, radi nego',


pis'mo dlja nego [for it/himGEN; letter-NOM for himGEN]

D: rec pis 'mo emu


[letter-NOM him-DAT]

Accusative: a destination vs. genitive: a goal vs. dative: a receiver


In all instances we are dealing with the target of purpose, and all of these expressions
share a sense of directedness toward an item. This is another example of how these three
cases express directed movement: in a fairly neutral way with the accusative, emphasizing the salience of a goal (rather than just the whole path to the target) with the genitive,
and highlighting the potential subjecthood of a receiver (who will presumably read the
letter) with the dative.
The following table illustrates a contrast between accusative: a destination and locative: a place.
25. 'understand linguistics'
A: dest ponimat' lingvistiku [understand
linguistics-ACC]

L: place razbirat 'sja v lingvistike


[understand in Iinguistics-LOC]

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Accusative: a destination vs. locative: a place


The direct object (target of conceptual focus, thus motivating the use of accusative: a
destination) is here contrasted with a place where an activity (that of making sense of
something) is engaged. The act of understanding can be understood either as aimed at or
located at something. The connection between direction and location observed in this
example is motivated by endpoint-trajectory metonymy.
The following tables illustrate how accusative: a dimension contrasts with dative: a
competitor and locative: a place

Accusative: a dimension vs. dative: a competitor


Here we compare engagement of a dimension of an item (accusative) with submission to an item (dative). Involvement can be viewed as a mere transitive action or as an
action that signals yielding to something. The contiguous synonymy observed here differentiates these expressions according to the numeral present (dative for 'one', but accusative for higher numerals).
28. 'talk about oneself
A: dim govorit' pro sebja
[talk about self-ACC]

L: place govorit' sebe


[talk about self-LOC]

Accusative: a dimension vs. locative: a place


Activity (talking) can be understood either as being transferred to a given dimension
or as existing at a location, another example of endpoint-trajectory metonymy correlating movement and location, very similar to the example of understanding above.
Other contrasts discussed above:
3, 6. [accusative: a destination vs. instrumental: a means vs. nominative: a name]
7. [accusative: a destination vs. instrumental: a label vs. nominative: an identity]
8. [accusative: a destination vs. nominative: a name]
9. 10. [accusative: a destination vs. instrumental: a means]
11. [accusative: a dimension vs. instmmental: a means]

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Laura A. Janda

Accusative: a destination vs. locative: a place


The direct object (target of conceptual focus, thus motivating the use of accusative: a
destination) is here contrasted with a place where an activity (that of making sense of
something) is engaged. The act of understanding can be understood either as aimed at or
located at something. The connection between direction and location observed in this
example is motivated by endpoint-trajectory metonymy.
The following tables illustrate how accusative: a dimension contrasts with dative: a
competitor and locative: a place

Accusative: a dimension vs. dative: a competitor


Here we compare engagement of a dimension of an item (accusative) with submission to an item (dative). Involvement can be viewed as a mere transitive action or as an
action that signals yielding to something. The contiguous synonymy observed here differentiates these expressions according to the numeral present (dative for 'one', but accusative for higher numerals).

Accusative: a dimension vs. locative: a place


Activity (talking) can be understood either as being transferred to a given dimension
or as existing at a location, another example of endpoint-trajectory metonymy correlating movement and location, very similar to the example of understanding above.
Other contrasts discussed above:
3, 6. [accusative: a destination vs. instrumental: a means vs. nominative: a name]
7. [accusative: a destination vs. instrumental: a label vs. nominative: an identity]
8. [accusative: a destination vs. nominative: a name]
9. 10. [accusative: a destination vs. instrumental: a means]
11. [accusative: a dimension vs. instrumental: a means]

Border Zones in the Russian Case System

395

Contrasts involving the dative


The following table illustrates how dative: an experiencer contrasts with genitive:
a whole.

Dative: an experiencer vs. genitive: a whole


Possession can be understood either as an experience (dative) or as a part-whole relationship (genitive). When the dative case is used, there is an implication that the possessor is having some kind of experience (often a negatively evaluated one, such as suffering or damage), whereas the use of the genitive is relatively neutral.
Other contrasts discussed above:
10, 19. [dative: a receiver vs. accusative: a destination]
24. [dative: a receiver vs. accusative: a destination vs. genitive: a goal]
1, 2, 3. [dative: an experiencer vs. nominative: a name]
16, 17, 18, 19. [dative: a competitor vs. accusative: a destination]
26, 27. [dative: a competitor vs. accusative: a dimension]
Contrasts involving the genitive
The following table illustrates how genitive: a whole contrasts with locative: a place.

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Laura A. Janda

The following table illustrates how genitive: a reference contrasts with locative: a place.

Genitive: a reference vs. locative: a place


All three contrasts involve the use of one item (marked either as genitive: a reference
or locative: a place) to specify the position of another item. These contrasts are motivated by the fact that the use of a reference point vs. a positional landmark are both good
strategies for describing location.
Other contrasts discussed above:
12. [genitive: a source vs. instrumental: a means]
13. [genitive: a whole vs. instrumental: a means]
15. [genitive: a goal vs. instrumental: a landmark]
20, 21. [genitive: a goal vs. accusative: a destination]
4, 5, 6. [genitive: a reference vs. nominative: a name]
8. [genitive: a reference vs. nominative: a name vs. instrumental: a means]
22, 23. [genitive: a reference vs. accusative: a destination]
24. [genitive: a goal accusative: a destination vs. dative: a receiver]
29, 30. [genitive: a whole vs. dative: an experiencer]
Contrasts involving the locative
All these contrasts have already been discussed above:
2. [locative: a place vs. nominative: a name]
14. [locative: a place vs. instrumental: an adjunct]
25. [locative; a place vs. accusative: a destination]
28. [locative: a place vs. accusative: a dimension]
31, 32. [locative: a place vs. genitive: a whole]
33, 34, 35. [locative: a place vs. genitive: a reference]
The following table summarizes the data presented above. Note, however, that all
contrasts are presented multiple times in this table so that they can be seen from the perspective of each case (i. e. nominative: a name vs. dative: an experiencer as well as dative: an experiencer vs. nominative: a name).

398

Laura A. Janda

( Continued)

The thirty sets of case contrasts presented in the tables are probably not an exhaustive
inventory of this phenomenon, but they are highly representative of the behavior of case in
Russian, and it is believed that they include all major systematic contrasts. Given the over-

Border Zones in the Russian Case System

399

all number of case meanings and possible combinations, the number of case contrasts found
here is only a small fraction of those that might theoretically exist. Further examples are
unlikely to significantly alter this picture. We should also note that the majority of case contrasts are not merely isolated phenomena, but are instead endemic to Russian grammar, servingmultiple purposes (see, for example, sets 4,5, and 6, where a contrast of nominative: a name
vs. genitive: a reference provides alternative construals for comparison, negation, and the
role of possessor). What we have is therefore a highly constrained phenomenon, one that is
neither random nor arbitrary. As suggested above, it appears that case contrasts target cognitively significant junctures in the Interpretation of perceptual input. We can now turn to a
discussion of these junctures, which involve the following issues: the telling of grammatical stories, possession, control, purpose, time, and other domains (both spatial and abstract).
Ultimately all of these issues emerge from human perceptual experience, as argued below.
Grammatical stories
1, 2, 3. personal vs. impersonal, modality
8. active vs. passive vs. causative/middle
9. resource vs. direct object
5, 22. negation
12. causation
13. fill with (resource) vs. full of (quantity)
This group of contrasts manipulates syntactic roles to produce alternative grammati-
cal stories to describe similar perceptual input. Contrasts 1, 2, and 3 provide alternative
stories for situations involving an undergoer and an event, interpreting the undergoer either as an active agent that produces the event, or as a passive experiencer of the event.
Contrast 8 provides three alternative stories for situations involving an agent, an event,
and a patient, interpreting the event either as a product of the agent, something produced
by means of the agent, or something that happens at the location of the agent. Human
perceptual experience abounds with both intransitive and transitive events, and the alternative grammatical stories allow these events to be viewed from various perspectives.
Contrast 9 is very similar, interpreting an item used in an action either as an instrument
for bringing about the action or as the patient of the action. The involvement of items in
actions either as instruments or patients is another pervasive experience. Contrast 13 interprets a substance either as the means for filling or as the whole from which a part is
used when something is full; manipulation and measurement of substances is likewise a
basic human experience. Causation, the issue of contrast 12, interprets an item (the cause)
either as a means or a source, reflecting the ambiguous human experience of causes.
Contrasts 5 and 22 present negation either as parallel to positive assertion (nominative or
accusative) or as distinct from it (genitive). When negation is distinct, this distinction is
predicated upon the lack of perceptual access the speaker has to the item negated, rather
than the actual existence or non-existence of the item.
Possession
6. possessor, possession
29, 30. possession

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Laura A. Janda

32. possession/part-whole
10, 23. giving and taking
The relationship of possession can be interpreted in various ways. The possessor (prototypically human) can be either the agent of possession or a landmark for the location
of a possessed item (6). The possessed item can be alternatively construed as the means
by which the experience of possession is realized (cf. the use of the instrumental in 6).
Another possibility is to view the possessor as the whole of which the possessed item is
apart (cf. the use of the genitive in 29,30, and 32). This interpretation contrasts with others
that involve the construal of the possessor as an experiencer (strongly emphasizing the
role of the human being in this relationship) or as merely a location. Possession is an abstract relationship, partly derived from and partly projected onto reality. The establishment of this relationship is a hallmark feature of human experience, brought about by
experiences of giving and taking (10, 23).
Pleasure/control/purpose
3. (dis)liking
16, 17, 18, 19. destinations, believing, studying (mental yielding)
20, 21. intentional goals
24. intentional goals/purpose
Interactions of enjoyment and intent rank nearly as high as possession in terms of both
their significance for the human experience and their prominence in motivating case contrasts. All of these contrasts involve action (be it actual physical movement or abstract
intention) directed toward targets, differentiated according to the control exerted by the
target and/or the intent of the agent.
Time
11. paths in space and time
15. prior temporal location
31. simultaneity
35. time after
Time is a ubiquitous feature of human experience, and indeed our ability to mentally
manipulate time (remembering the past, imagining the future) is one of the capacities that
sets us apart as humans. We have no direct perceptual access to time, a mental construct
deduced from changes perceived in ourselves and our environment. Languages tend to
use space as a metaphor for time [Haspelmath 1997], but because the features of space
and time do not match very well (space is three-dimensional, time is at best one-dimensional, and defective at that; all points in space are equally accessible and we can travel
through space, only one point in time is accessible, and we cannot travel at will; etc.), there
are varying mental models of time, even within single languages. Sometimes we imagine time as if it were a two-dimensional space, and other times as it if were a one-dimensional timeline. Within the model of the timeline, we can either imagine ourselves as static,
with time moving past, or as travelers moving along the timeline. The case contrasts involving time provide various construals for expanses of time, duration, and times prior
to and following. Contrast 11 allows us to view a stretch of time either as a two-dimensional space (accusative) or as a conduit through which activity passes (instrumental).

Border Zones in the Russian Case System

401

Contrast 15 construes a prior time either as a fixed point in a timeline (instrumental; meaning that a prior event is before, or literally in front of an event that takes place later), or
as motion toward a reference point (genitive). Contrast 31 allows us to understand duration either as a part of a process (genitive) or as a (temporal) location alongside an activity. Contrast 35 presents alternative construals for a point in time that is later than another,
viewed either as a static reference point (genitive) or as a point perceived with front-back
orientation, so that following implies a later time.
Other domains
#
4. comparatives
7. states of being
14. with vs. location
26, 27. similarity, distributed amounts
25, 28. locus of verbal/mental activity
33, 34. location
The remaining contrasts deal with a variety of physical and abstract domains. Contrasts 14, 33, and 34 prove that even concrete location is open to interpretation. For contrast 14, co-location can be interpreted either as accompaniment (possible because the
referent is human) or proximal position. The human factor plays a deciding role in contrast 33, since the use of a locative preposition is not possible when one human being is
located at another one (requiring the second person to be a reference point marked with
the genitive), physical encroachment on or in a place is possible only for either non-human locations or non-human referents at a location (such as clothes or glasses). Contrast
34 involves no human factors, but simply interprets 'near' as a separation from a reference point (genitive) or a location at a place (locative). The other contrasts in this group
variously interpret abstract domains in terms of spatial dimensions. As we have seen with
time above, spatial metaphors of this type involve imperfect and ambiguous mappings.
Comparatives (contrast 4) and distributed amounts (contrast 27) both involve amounts
which can be alternatively construed as points along a scale (genitive) and points of control (dative), or treated as mere objects (nominative and accusative). States of being, similarity, and topics of conversation or thought are all conceivable as various kinds of mental spaces which human beings can understand and manipulate in multiple ways.
Conclusions: The lessons of semantic relationships among cases
The case contrasts observed in Russian grammar are a limited, non-random, well-motivated phenomenon. These contrasts demonstrate the powerful, meaningful connections that
hold the case system together. These contrasts are also indicative of the relationship between
perception and linguistic expression, and the centrality of specifically human subjective
experience in the symbolic repertoire of language. This is a compelling story of human ability
to ground complex meaning in perceptual and conceptual experiences, extend and aggregate those meanings into structured systems, and manipulate those meanings at will.
Note: The author would like to thank David J. Birnbaum for his comments on an earlier version of this article.

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Laura A. Janda
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cited

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Levine, James S. 1984. "On the dative of possession in contemporary Russian", Slavic and East
European Journal 28: 493501.
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1976 . . . : - . ., 1976.
1988 . . . : . .
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1982 . . .
1980. ., 1982. . 7691.
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Georg Henrik von Wright

REMARKS O N WITTGENSTEIN'S U S E O F T H E T E R M S
"SINN", "SINNLOS", "UNSINNIG", "WAHR", A N D "GEDANKE"
IN
TRACTATUS

When discussing the above terms in English one must take utmost care with their translation. I am here following Ogden.
Sense and Contingency
In TLP 5.525 Wittgenstein makes a tripartite distinction: "Certainty, possibility or
impossibility of a state of affairs are not expressed by a proposition ("Salz") but by the
fact that an expression ('sondern dadurch dass ein Ausdruck') is a tautology, a significant ('sinnvoll') proposition or a contradiction".
In 4.461 Wittgenstein says: "die Wahrheit der Tautologie ist gewiss, des Satzes moglich, der Kontradiktion unmoglich". Ogden: "The truth of tautology is certain, of propositions possible, of contradiction impossible". I think we can here for "certain" ("gewiss")
substitute "necessary" ("notwendig").
I shall throughout use "Satz" or "sentence" where Ogden uses "proposition" and
"sinnvoller Satz" or, in English, "meaningful sentence" for Ogden's term "significant
proposition".Of tautologies Wittgenstein says that they are senseless ("sinnlos"), but not
nonsensical ("unsinnig"). "they are part of the symbolism", he says in 4.4611, "in the same
way ('ahnlich wie') that '0' is part of the symbolism of arithmetic". They are a sort of
extreme cases in the operation with otherwise meaningful sentences. Wittgenstein does
not make a corresponding statement about contradictions but I think we have the right
to infer that they too are senseless though not nonsensical.
Since a meaningful sentence is neither necessary nor contradictory, it is contingent.
This means that it and its negation arc both possible. Or: the negation of a meaningful
("sinnvoll") sentence is also a meaningful ("sinnvoll") sentence.
It is important to note that, on the Tractatus view, meaningful sentences are contingent.
I am afraid that this is something which commentators have not always clearly observed.
Sense and Truth-Value
A meaningful ("sinnvoll") sentence has what may be called a bi-polar relation to truthvalue. It can be true and it can be false.
Tautologies and contradictions have what I shall call a uni-polar relation to truth. The
tautology is true Wittgenstein says (4.461) "bedingungslos wahr" ("unconditionally
true") and cannot be not-true, and the contradiction is false and cannot be true.

Remarks on Wittgenstein's Use of the Terms...

413

There are also sentences which have what I shall call a zero-polar relation to truth.
These arc sentences which are neither true nor false (void of truth-value). For example
moral, aesthetic, religious and other valuations, and also norm-giving ('deontic') sentences
like commands, permissions, and prohibitions.
Senseless Truths?
If a sentence has an uni-polar relation to truth it is senseless (meaningless) but also
true if it is a tautology, and false, jf it is a contradiction.
To admit that a sentence can be both true and void of sense may seem awkward but is
consistent with Wittgenstein's position in Tractatus. And his argument is no muddle.
In order to remove the impression of awkwardness here one might take the view that
tautologies and contradictions are not "real" sentences. This possibility too Wittgenstein
seems to have considered. In the Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics (3rd ed.,
p. 167) he says of the tautology p z> p that he sees in it a "degenerate proposition which
is on the side of truth". ("Ich sehe in ihm einen degenerierten Satz, der auf der Seite der
Wahrheit ist.") (I assume that any other tautology of propositional logic would also do.)
Similarly, one could then call a contradiction a degenerate sentence "on the side of falsehood". One can defend these locutions by reference to the way the taulologous and contradictory nature of a sentence (in propositional logic) emerges from a truth-table. This
fits Wittgenstein's idea that tautologies (contradictions) although they are senseless are
not nonsensical ("unsinnig").
Thoughts
In 3.4 Wittgenstein says: "Der Gedanke ist der sinnvolle Satz". Ogden: "The thought
is the significant proposition".
In 3.3: "Nur der Satz hat Sinn". Ogden: "Only the proposition has sense".
And in 3.12: Wittgenstein says: "Das Zeichen, durch welches wir den Gedanken ausdriicken, nenne ich das Satzzeichen. Und der Satz ist das Satzzeichen in seiner projektiven Beziehung zur Welt". Ogden: "The sign through which we express the thought I call
the prepositional sign. And the proposition is the propositional sign in its projective relation to the world".
3.5: "Das angewandte, gedachte, Satzzeichen ist der Gedanke". Ogden: "The applied,
thought, propositional sign is the thought".
Wittgenstein's distinction between "Satzzeichen" and "Satz" recalls the distinction
between sentence and proposition which for example Moore was keen to observe. The
"Satzzeichen" is a physical phenomenon which is given a "Sinn" by being applied or
thought in a projective relation to the world.
If thoughts are meaningful sentences and meaningful sentences arc contingent(ly true
or false), then thoughts are contingent. In the last paragraph of the Preface to the book
Wittgenstein says that the truth of the thoughts which his book communicates seems to
him "unassailable and definitive" ("unantastbar und definitiv"). Which thoughts? This is
not clear to me. Is Tractatus a collection of contingent sentences? Certainly not. Is it even

414

Georg Henrik von Wright

true that Tractatus communicates thoughts ("Gedanken")? I am not clear in which sense
the book can claim to communicate unassailable and definitive truths or thoughts.
Here seems to be some kind of muddle or, maybe, inconsistency and the question
is how we shall deal with it. It has struck me that Wittgenstein could have left out the troublesome sentence in the Preface without loss to the message of his book. The rest of the
paragraph where it occurs can stand by itself.
"Legitimately constructed proposition"
In 5.4733 Wittgenstein, with a reference to Frege, uses the term "legitimately constructed proposition" in German "rechtmassig gebildeter Satz". Every such sentence, he says,
must have a sense, "and if it has no sense this can only be ('nur daran liegen') because
we have given no meaning (Bedeutung) to some of its constituent parts".
Here several critical questions arise. In which sense of "must" must every legitimately constructed proposition have a sense? Must it have a bi-polar relation to truth, in which
case it is contingent? Maybe a uni-polar relation will suffice, in which case it is either
necessarily true or necessarily false, i.e. contradictory? Or can it even have a zero-polar
relation to truth, i.e. be neither true nor false?
If the relation to truth is uni-polar, the sentence is senseless ("sinnlos") but at the same
time true or false and not nonsensical ("unsinnig"). (Above, p. 2 and 3.)
How shall we understand Wittgenstein's words that if a sentence has no sense, this can
only (my italics) be because we have given no meaning to one of its constituent parts?
As an example he mentions "Socrates is identical". It has no sense here = "is nonsensical" because "we have given no meaning to the word 'identical' as adjective (L.W.'s
italics)". This is easy to understand. But does the same hold for all nonsensical sentences, viz. that they have a constituent part without "Bedeutung"? Moreover, are all sentences
which are neither true nor false, nonsensical for example "Bach is a greater composer
than Vivaldi" or "you must not smoke here"? And if they are, does it mean that they contain some constituent part without meaning?
"Socrates is identical" is a clear example of a sentence which has no sense (is "Sinnlos") because of the fact that it has a part, viz the word "identical" which, in the context
of the sentence, has (been given) no meaning. If we substitute for it, say, the word "Chinese" we get a meaningful contingent sentence (which happens to be false).
The sentence "Socrates is identical", moreover, is not only senseless ("sinnlos") but
also nonsensical ("unsinnig").
The question may be raised: Why is this sentence-monster not only senseless but is
this in the stronger sense of being nonsensical? An answer not given by Wittgenstein,
however is thai the sentence is ungrammatical, not a correctly formed sentence of the
English language. In this it differs from other types of sentence with what I called a zeropolar relation to truth, for example value-judgements and norm-formulations. "I like this
picture" is, as an expression of a valuation, neither true nor false and so is "smoking
prohibited" as norm-formulation. But the two last-mentioned sentences are grammatically
well-formed. We understand them they have a use in our language. "Socrates is identical" is unintelligible and useless.

Remarks on Wittgenstein's Use of the Terms...

415

Sentences which are neither true nor false but are well-formed and have an established
use in language are, although senseless according to Tractatus not nonsensical (according to the view I am taking here).
So much for the notion of a "rechtmassig gebildeter Satz."
Nonsensical

Tractatus

In the famous penultimate remark (6.54) of the book Wittgenstein tells us that one who
understands him will recognize lys sentences as nonsensical ("unsinnig"). The sentences are
like a ladder which he has to climb "durch sie auf ihnen iiber sie" (Ogden: "through
them, on them, over them"). "Er muss diese Satze uberwinden, dann sieht er die Welt richtig". (Ogden: "He must surmount these propositions; then he sees the world rightly.")
One is struck by the word "world" here. The opening sentence of the Tractatus is the
familiar "the world is everything that is the case", i.e. all contingent truths. Is the world which
we are supposed to see clearly, the world of contingent facts, the "so-sein"? of which Wittgenstein says in 6.41: "...alles Geschehen und So-Sein ist zufallig". (Ogden: "...all happening and being-so is accidental".) Is not what we "see" when we have surmounted the
sentences their nonsensicality? But one could also say that having thrown away the ladder, we see the world of contingent truths, i.e. the world of sense, so to say undiluted by the
philosopher's nonsense. That would agree with 4.114: "Sic (sc. die Philosophic) soil das
Denkbare abgrenzen and damit das Undenkbare. Sie soli das Undenkbare von innen durch
das Denkbare begrenzen." And 4.115: "Sie wird das Unsagbare bedeuten, indem sie das
Sagbare klar darstellt." This does not mean that philosophy (or Tractatus) will make us see
which sentences are true and which ones are false. To determine this is the task of what
Wittgenstein calls the "Naturwissenschaften", i.e. the empirical sciences. The task of philosophy is to elucidate the sentences and separate what belongs to the world of sense or to
"das bestreitbare Gebiet der Naturwissenschaft" (4.113). (Ogden: "the disputable sphere of
natural science") from that which makes no sense (is nonsensical).
I think this is how we have to understand the idea that "surmounting" the sentences
of the Tractatus we come to see the world, i.e. that which is the case, clearly. But the
question remains how we shall understand the nonsensicality of the tractarian sentences.
Are the sentences then not "legitimately constructed"? And if they are not, is this because they contain constituent parts without meaning ("Bedeutung")? It is hard to see that
this were the case. The sentences of the Tractatus, unlike Wittgenstein's sample sentence
"Socrates is identical", are grammatically well-formed and in that sense "legitimately
constructed" ("rechtmassig gebildet"). The reason why they are nonsensical must lie elsewhere. I think we should look for it in the context of what Wittgenstein says about the
pictorial nature of language and correspondence between the picture and the pictured. The
sentences of the Tractatus are obviously not pictures of a language-independent reality.
Nor are their ultimate constituent parts "einfache Gegenstande" ("simple objects") which
"hang on one another like members of a chain". The sentences of Tractatus do not describe states of affairs. (4.023.) Therefore they do not say anything.
I assume that, on the Tractatus view, norm-formulations and value-judgements do not
say anything either. For some time in the heyday for logical positivism it was a
fashion to say that such sentences were "a-logical" or "a-theoretical". This was another

416

Georg Henrik von Wright

way of saying that they are senseless or nonsensical ("sinnlos" or "unsinnig"). (One did
not always observe the distinction.) From the point Qf view of ordinary language this was
an unnatural fag on de parler.
It would make good sense to say that norm-formulations and value-judgements have
no factual meaning. But surely they "say" something in an ordinary and familiar sense
of "saying". If this were not so, we could not understand them and use them the way we
do. It would be natural to say that such sentences have a normative and an evaluative
meaning, and that therefore, although senseless, they are not nonsensical 1 .
Sentences with factual meaning say that something or other is the case and invite us
to compare what they say with the way things are (reality). Things are different with the
sentences of the Tractatus. They have no place in this realm of sentence-meanings (factual,
evaluative, normative; this is not meant to be an exhaustive enumeration). They are senseless in the stronger sense of nonsensical. This is so because they are not sentences in the
7>flc/a/'M.s-meaning of the term. They are attempts to say something which cannot be said,
attempts to transgress the limits of language as marked by the picture theory. Although grammatically well-formed and in some sense "intelligible", they have no established use in ordinary discourse (unlike valuations and normative sentences). They are just "plain nonsense".
But fighting one's way through them will show us something by taking us to a platform from
where we "see the world of so-sein, of contingent fact, rightly".
This, I would say, is the sense moral of Wittgenstein's book. But is this not a very
meagre achievement? So it seems but Wittgenstein says himself that a merit of his work
is that it makes us see how little has been achieved when all the problems of philosophy
have been solved. This is not an expression of modesty but of insight.
Wittgenstein on Philosophy
Wittgenstein of the Tractatus thought that he had solved or rather: done away with,
all problems of philosophy once and for all. He says in the Preface "Ich bin also der
Meinung, die Probleme im Wesentlichen endgiiltig gelost zu haben." (Ogden: "I am therefore of the opinion that the problems have in essentials been finally solved".) The problems have their origin in attempts to transcend the boundaries of the "sayable", i.e. the
contingently true or false. Their solution is to see the futility of the attempt.
Wittgenstein of the Untersuchungen took a somewhat different view of philosophy.
Its problems are linguistic confusions which cannot once and for all be put right but will
again and again puzzle the reflective mind. Their "solution" is to free us, temporarily, from
the mental discomfort they cause.
Perhaps one can say that Wittgenstein of the Tractatus took an "absolutist", Wittgenstein of the Untersuchungen a "relativistic" view of the philosophical enterprise. But the
difference is hardly fundamental.
1

In this context also belongs the observation that normative and evaluative sentences have a
characteristic ambiguity. They can be used to express a subject's will or its approval (disapproval)
of something or to state that something is willed or valued. In the second case the sentence has
factual meaning, says something which is true or false. On this ambiguity rests the possibility of
logical relations between norms and also between valuations.

Remarks on Wittgenstein's Use of the Terms...

417

Another difference between the "two Wittgensteins" has to do with the philosopher's
language. In Untersuchungen 120 Wittgenstein writes "wenn ich iiber Sprache (Wort, Satz,
etc.) rede, muss ich die Sprache des Alltags reden". But the language of Tractatus is anything but "the language of every day". In the Untersuchungen 108 he says "Die Philosophic der Logik redet in keinem anderen Sinn von Satzen und Wortern, als wir es im
gewonlichen Phanomen der Sprache; nicht von einem unraumlichen and unzeitlichen
Unding". I think we must understand this (also) as a statement of self-criticism.
Concluding Remarks
Finally, some remarks about my own inclinations when thinking about these matters.
I would agree to the idea that meaningful sentences ("sinnvolle Satze") are contingent
and that necessary and impossible propositions are senseless (void of sense) but not nonsensical ("unsinnig"). Therefore I would avoid the locutions "necessarily true" and "necessarily false" and consistently say "necessary" and "impossible". My reason for doing
this is that in my opinion the sense in which necessary sentences are true and contradictory sentences false is very different from the sense in which contingent sentences
are true or false. We attribute truth-value to the latter on the basis of a comparison between a linguistic picture and reality. Contingent truth is agreement, falsehood disagreement between what is said and what is the case. But necessary sentences are not true because they agreed with something external to language; nor are contradictory sentences
false because of their disagreement with facts.
2.222: "In der Ubereinstimmung oder Nichtubereinstimmung seines Sinnes mit der
Wirklichkeit, besteht seine Wahrheit oder Falschheit."
2.223: "Urn zu erkennen, ob des Bild wahr oder falsch ist, miissen wir es mit der Wirklichkeit vergleichen."
4.05: "Die Wirklichkeit wird mit dem Salz verglichen."
6.121: "Die Satze der Logik demonstrieren die logischen Eigenschaften der Satze,
indem sie sie zu nichts-sagenden Satzen verbinden."
Because of these differences between the contingent and the not-contingent, I think it
clarifying to drop the terms "true" and "false" altogether as attributes of that which is (logically) necessary and impossible. The last two terms cover, I think, a great many different and distinguishable cases. But I shall not go into this topic here.
By a "thought" I would understand with Wittgenstein the sense of a contingently
true or false sentence.

-3595

JI. . ()

:
1

-3,

(. , , [ . 1989, 1992]). , [
2002], , , .
.
-3 - ,
, , , ,
, -.
, , , -
.

,
. ,
, / .
- :
(1) , , .
,
, -3, :
1

( 01-06-80453- 02-06-80106-).

419

(la) *The main purpose of the Lent that has begun for the Orthodox it is moral
to elevate a person.
(la) ,
(16) * , , .
, (1),
(16) .
? ,
,
.
,
. , , : 2 (1),
(1) ,
, . , () (1), , 3 :

:
0 ... 0 ( ,
(), -3,
).
2

, . . [ 1999: 458459].
3

, . . <=>
[ 1974]: -3.
27

420

Jl. .

, , ,
, - : ( vs. ),
(2) , , ,
,
(3) , , () ,
( ) , ,
.
, , (1) (1) ? ,

? , . , , , ; (1) :
(4) , , .
(1) (4) , .
(16) 4 ( ):
(26) , , .
, () , .
, () , .
, , ( , ) ,
, , , , , , ,
, , .
( , ) , ( 4

purpose '' idea '' (la): The main idea of the Lent that has begun for the Orthodox it is moral to elevate a person. , ,
.

421

), , ,
. .:
(5) ( ),
* ',
(6)
;
(. . ),
*. .
;
(7) - (. . ),
* :
;
(8) (. ),
* ... ;
(9) , -, ,
(. ),
* ... : ;
(10) ,
(. . ),
* , ;
(11) , , (. . )
. .

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . .
. .:
(12) ;
(13) , (. );
(14) , (. );
(15)
;
(16)
. .
?
, ( , , )
. , , , ,
(5)(11) (12)(16).
, ,
" .

422

Jl. .

,
. ,
<=> 5 , , , ( ) ,
[=], [=]
(. ), [=] (. ).
, . , (1)

, .
, () . .
, , ( ) .

, . , ,
, , () (1).
5

[ . 1975] , <=> .

423

(), (12)(16). ,
, (),
(16)
* , , ,
. Last but not
least, (1) (1"),
:
(1) The main purpose of the Lent which has begun for the Orthodox to elevate
a person morally.
, , ( ,
, (1) ), , , . , , . It is interesting
they didn't say anything about this ', ',
. ' '; It is funny you mention that ', ', . ' ' . .
,
. , , , , .
, (. ), , , .
,
. , , , . . ,
(
(17)
),
(.

). ,
,
. , ( 100 , ,

424

Jl. .

45), .
, ( 6 ) , , -, , (17), .
.
, ,
.
.
. . [ 1976] . ,
,
(18) (. . );
(19) - , , (. . ).
, ,
, .
(20) :
(20) , .
,
, .:
(21) . : , ,
:
(22) , ,
(
).
, , , . , ,
, , ,
.
:
(23) , , , (. );
6


( , ),
( ) ,
.
.

425

(24) - ,
(. );
(25)
(. ).
, , ,
, . . .

. 1989 . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . 3. , . . . -2. .: , 1989.


. 1992 . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . 3. , . . . . .: , 1992.
1976 . . . . .: , 1976.
1999 . . . . 2- . .: , 1999.
. 1975 . . , . . , . . .
. I. // - . . 2. 1975. 7. . 3043.
2002 . . . -: ( ) // . .: , 2002 (. . -2002. ). . 2. . 234245.
1974 . . . <=>
. .: , 1974.

. . ( ,
JIoc-A )

0. .
,
, .
, , . .
,
, ,
1 .
, . 1
, . 2
,
. , , . , . , , .
1.0. (1.1), (1.2) (1.3) , ,
(1.4).
1.1. 70- . XX . , [Kuno 1973]. , ,
- . ()
1

. [ 1976; 1999, . X].

All

wa, ga , , ,
. (1) (2)2:
(1) Zoo
wa
liana ga nagai.
elephant ptcl 3 trunk ptcl long
' ' (, ' ').
(2) Sakana wa tai ga
umai.
fish
ptcl ptcl tasty
' ' (, ' ').
() ,
(1) (2) zoo '' sakana '' , a hana '' tai ( ) 4 ; wa , , 5.
(3)(5), (-) [ 1980]:
(3) Boku wa
samuilnodo ga
kawaitalisya
da.
I6
THEME cold
throat ptcl dried
doctor am
' / /() 7 '.
(4) Taro wa
benkyoo ga taikutu datta.
T.
THEME study
ptcl boring was
'Tapo ' (. ' ').
(5) Watasi wa
titi
tenkin ga totemo kanasikatta.
I
THEME father's transfer ptcl very
sad-was
' , ' (, '
').
, 2, (1)(5) -
2

,
,
, . .
3
"ptcl" (particle) ; .
4
Zoo hana wa nagai '
' wa (1) .
, ,
. . [ 19766]. (2)
.
5
wa 'THEME'.
6
1 . . . . .; . 8.
1
: -
boku '' wa.

428

. .

, /
.
1.2. . .
, , 8 . -/ , : .
-, -kun, -san, -sama ( ). -/
3- .
; . , : *boku o-telo-tyawanlo-kaa-sanlsyatyoo-san ' (.) /
// / /', anata o-te/o-tyawan/o-kaasanlsyatyoo-san ' / / / / /' 9 .
,
, : kata wa o-isya-san desu ' ', Watasi wa isya desu ' ', -/ , ,

1 0 .
1.3. -
.
, , , , , . ,
irassyaru , 1 .,
mairu , 2 3 . ( ), ,
8

. : . , (w)atasi .
watakusi ,
. 1 .
3 .
9

.
10
, . : :
/ .

All

2 3 ., - .
- -/ . , , ,
, , ,
, . .
. ,
, , . ,
2- 3- . ( ),
kureru, , '', itte-kureru. 1- .
2- 3- , , itte-yaru.
; .
1.4. ,
,

. , ,
, ,
, , , , , , , ,
, 11 .
(.,
sekkaku desu ga, ), sasete-itadakimasu (, ' ,
'), , , ;
.
11

: , , . , : , () !

430

12

. .

Goto Harukiti (ed.). 1973. Harubin no omoide ( ). Kyoto:


Kyoto Harubin Kai.
13
(
. . ) .
14
. .
, , ,
, (1912
1925) (19261989).
15
(8) .

16

(accusative) , .
17
, ga, , wa. , (1), (2), (4)
(5), . . . . . . . , . . -.

432

'

. .

, ,
, .
2.2. -, ,
1 . . . :
(10) Watasiwa
Taisyoo zyu rokugatu
tooka ni Harubinni sono
I
THEME T.
10 year 6
month 10th on Harbin in the
dai-ippo
sirusita{c. 10).
first-step ACC marked
' 10 10 . '.
,
, ,
1 . . . , ( (10), , ,
,
).

All

'
. , , , ,
.
, , () , .
() () . () , ( ) , ()
() . ()
, , - ,
. , , () '.
(11) .
, ,
: (, ''), , ,
. ,
, , 1 . . .
. , . : .
, , . .
- , , kureru, . , , 0 4
. 0 3 :
, . , -, ,
, ,
: 0 3 = .
28 - 3595

434

'

. .

, -, ,
0 2 , 0 5 0 6 . -, , 0 2 :
, . , ,
. 0 5 0 6 , ,
, .
, 0, 0 7 1 . . .
, , , , , . 18
.
0, 0 7 : 0, , 0 7 /.
; (12)
19 :

All

Mazui bun de tobsii naiyoo, 07 moosiwake nai


ga, dooyara-kooyara
lousy style is poor content 0 7 excuse
none but somehow
matometa mono ga, mina-san
no o-me
ni kakerareru-koto
organized thing ptcl everybody-HONOR's HONOR-eye to exposing
no yorokobi de
ippai de-aru (c. 9798).
of joy
with full am/is/are
' ,
, () . , () , , ()
, . () , [...] . , ,
[... ...]
, , () . , .'
, () -
- ,
'.
0j 0 7 2 0 ,

. , , , , . ,
3. .: Gotoo ' ()'-, mina ''-, - '';
,
, , . -/ o-kotowari ''
-sunt 1 . . ., . sekkaku
nagara21 , - ni kakerareru (,
' ') .
1 . . . ( , ,
. .). (12) , .
3.0. , 20

, . , . . .
21
. 1.4.
28*

436

' . .

, , , 22 . ,
, ,
.
. , , , , , ,
, ,
-.
, , ; , , ,
, '',
. , , :
.

1980 . . II. ., 1980.


1976 . . . . ., 1976.
19766 . . . //
. . . . . 1976. 3.
1988 . . . : . .
. ., 1988.
1999 . . . . 2- . ., 1999.
Kuno 1973 Susumu Kuno. The structure of the Japanese language. Cambridge, MA;
London, 1973.

22

.: [ 1999: 224].

(Christian-A Ibrechts- Universitat,

Kiel)

VS.

- :

HABEN

-
, .
,
- .
, . . - (Y) (X),
haben:
(1) Ich (X) habe eine Einladungskarte fur zwei Personen (Y).
, , Y , . .
- , . ,
. ,

.
, .
haben
.
- ("be"-language) [Isacenko 1974], .
.
.
, . :
(2) ?
-.
?
, .

, .

438

, , , ,
, - , . . [ 1999: 786].
, . . .
, . , , ,
., , ,
:
(3) .
. ^.
. - , [Kantorczyk 1993: 143], . . ,
,
. , (2),
, . . . , . . . ,
, , . . , .
, , [ 1995: 523]:
(4) () - .
, . .
, ,

:
(5) .
, ,
[. Lyons 1998: 158]. ,
, X :
(6) .

(7) Hast du einen Kugelschreiber oder einen Bleistift?
,
.
,

vs. ...

439

. . --, . . . , Y.
(7) ( ' ^7)
^.
Ich habe einen ^Kugelschreiber.
, ,
, . . --.
(76) ( " ?) , ^.
Ja, ^habe ich.
, .
, haben.
vs.
Y
Y,
,
haben . Y
, Y - ,
Y , . [Hawkins 1978: 199]. ,
, . . , , Y , ,
. . [1996: 158], ,
, , , , ( ) .
. , , , , , ,
. ,
, .

:
(8) ? - ^? , ^. . ^.

440

Wassuchst du, ein russisch-lettisches ' Worterbuch? Ich weissgenau, dass Viktor
eins lhat. Nimm ~seins. Das Worterbuch steht bei ihm im M rbeitszimmer.
Y, - , , .
, Y ,
, :
(9) ? * ?
?
. . .
. ,
- :
(10) ?
Hast du einen Schraubenschlussel?
. Y
, . . ,
,
. . ,
, , .
(8). , , ,
, , ., :
(11) ? ,
.
Hast du einen Schraubenschlussel? Ich muss eine kleine Schraube losen, deshalb
darf der Schraubenschltissel aber nicht sehr gross sein.

.
Y, - , ,
, , , . . , , .
.

vs. ...

441

, , ,' (12)
- (13):
(12) ^. .
Ich habe hier einen 1 Briefumschlag. Nimm ihn.
(13) ^ . .
Ich habe hier einen Briefumschlag mit ^Briefmarken. Nimm ihn.
Y ,
.
, Y ,
. Y .
Y, , ,
:
(14) ^, - . ,
.
Ich habe hier die Briefumschlage, die du mir mal geschenkt hast. Nimm sie,
wenn du sie brauchst.
,
Y .
, Y
, :
(15) / ^, - . , .
Ich habe hier einen/einige der Briefumschlage, die du mir mal geschenkt hast.
Nimm sie, wenn du sie brauchst.
Y ,
, . . .
, [Vater 1984: 334], [ 1985: 106].
, . . , . .
.
vs.
Y
, Y, ,
.
:
(16) - , ?
, . () ^,
. , , .

442

Y ,
. . haben Y
, . . Y
: Das Worterbuch habe^ich. (16)
:
(16) - , ?
.
, , ^ - . ,
.
Y
,
. . Y
,
, , - . , . .
, [Lambrecht
1994: 106107]. haben Y
, . .
, : Ich be ein russisch-lettisches Worterbuch. ,



.
,
. , ,
.

.
, Y , .
. , .
, , Y :
(17) , ?
. () ^. .
^Ich habe die Bucher (sie).
,
.

vs. ...

443

haben Y , . . , :
(17) ^ , , , .
Ich 0 / von dir, aber ich weiss nicht, ob es die sind, die du suchst.
, Y . :
(18) , ?
! () ^, ^.
Y
.
, . Y
, , , :
(18) , ?
^ / , , /
, .
,
Y ,
.
( Y
) ( Y ), . . Y
, . .
Ein Buch/einige cher habe ich.
. , :
( ):
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():
Ein Buch/einige Biicher von dir ^habe ich.
, ,
. , ,

, , :
(19) Ich suche einen ^Schraubensch/tissel.
.

444

,

( ), , . . ,
, ( ). (19)

, .
, : () ^.
haben
Y , ,
: Den Schraubenschlussel habe Hchd^Ich habe
ihn.
, : ^ /.
, . haben Y : Ich ^habe einen SchraubenschlUssel/einen. , ,
, , , , :
(19) ^. () .
Ich suche einen Schraubenschlussel. Aber der Schraubenschlussel (er) darf
nicht sehr gross sein.
, , ,
. . , , , . , .
, . , , .
, .


. ,
(20) , ^,
,
, . . .

Vs. ...

445

, Y.
: , -, .
, (21) Y , :
(21) , ^-.
Y " , :
(21) ^. .

(22) , ^-
, , .
,
, . . ,
- ,
. , , ,
, , . .
.
.
, ,
:
(23) Ich suche den Studenten, der ^Lettisch sprechen kann.
, - .
,
:
(24) Ich suche einen Studenten, der ^Lettisch sprechen kann.
-
.
.
. , .
:
(23) (), -, ^.
, ,
, . . .

446

(20)
, :
(236) ^, , .
, , , .
, , .
.
, , (24), , . . -
, Y ,
. haben Y .
.
, Y , , haben
, ,
, , Y . ,
:
(25) !
? () ^.

, . . . , . . - , , ,
.
, ,
. haben Y, ,
. : Das Buch ^habe ich schon.
(25) .
haben ,
, ,
, ,
[ 1983: 23].
-

vs. ...

447

.
. ,
(26) Das Buch, von dem die Rede war, habe ich,
.
. .
, . . , ,
:
(26) , , ^.
Das Buch, von dem die Rede war, habe 4ch.
(266) , , ^.
Das Buch, von dem die Rede war, ^habe ich.
Dein Lehrbuch habe ich
. genitivus
possessivus,
: ^. genitivus auctoris. , .
: ^.
haben.
haben, Y -
, , Y
[ 2000: 69], . . ,
(token),
(type), , , , , , .
,
, ,
, . . ,
. , , ,
^, , , ^ , :
, , ^. , , - , token, type, , , ,
token, . . . , , , , -

448

. , , token, type,
, ,
, , . .
type, . . , token, . . . type ,
, - .

, . . , .
, . . , , ,
, (, , ).
,
. ,

[J. Lyons 1977: 442446; 1983: 23], [ 1991: 46]: ,
. / . , , , (25):
(25) !
.
? () ^.

, , , , , .

,
- . , haben
, (Y). , , Y , , Y

vs. ...

449

, , . haben
, ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
, haben
, ,
(token) (type).
/
, / . / /
,
. ,
, ,
, , , . ,
. , ,
,
(token), (type). , Das Buch, das du suchst, habe
ich, das Buch ''
token type ,
.

1995 . . . : (
) II. . . . . . 2. .: , 1995. . 503534.
1999 . . . . 2- . .: , 1999.
, 1983 . . , . . . .
. .: , 1983.
1991 . . . II
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1985 . . . . .: , 1985.
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1996 . . . . .: , 1996.
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. . ()


( )


,
.
, , .

:
, .
,
, ...
(. . )

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(, , , /
, / ) (,
, ., . , , .).
(. ,
. , . . , . . , . . , . ,
. . , . . . .). :
,
29*

452

. .


, ,
.
,
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: vs.
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, -, ( , . !! vs. ), -,
, -, , -, , -, ( ).
() . ( ), , /

( )

453

,
/. . : [ 2001: 66]; [ 1988: 7];
, , (cleft) , , . [ 1999: 291293], . , .
, , , (, , , ), / , . vs.
! . ,
//() // , , . , , ,
, . ! !!
. ,
, [ 1985: 80]. ,
, ( ),
. vs. , -, , vs. , .
-: () (), (, ), /, ,
() (,
.), (, ) , , , , /
//// ,
/, /
/ ()/ ()
. . .
, , , . , , , , , , , , ,
. ., , , : ,
(
) , . !, !,
!,

454

. .

?
, , , /// ,
. , , , , , , ,
. . .
,

, . vs. , vs. , vs.
. , () ,
, . !
(. ), ! (. ), ! (. ) . ., , ,
, . ,
- , , , : ,
!, !, ?, ?, - , -!
. . ( ., ,
[ 2002].)
, , .
, . , : , ; , ,
().
, , , , , (. . ).
, ,
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,
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, , , , , ,
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( )

455

. , . .

: ,
, : , .
,
, , . .
, / , , . , , , , .
, . , , , , , , , , ,
, , . , , , , . , , ,
, ., . !,
!
, 1) , . / , , ; 2)
.
, , , . ,
(. . [1964], . . , . . , . . , . . , . 3. , . . , . . , . . . .).
, ., ,
- , , ,
, . [ . 1997: 144]; , - ! , ,
, , :

456

. .

,
, .
(focus particles); ( , ,
- . .); ; . .
:
, , , , , , ; , (
, . . [1991: 164], , . ), .
, , . , /! , ,
, , , , .
vs. ( . [Montefiore 1989; Riabtseva 1995]).
, , ,
, , , . ,
, , (
) () /, , ,
. , , , , ,
. , , , . . , ,
, . . ( ) / !! ! ( ) . .
, , - (. ,
. . .)
, ., , [ 1999; 2001: 76].
, ,
, - () ,
(), , ( ), , ,
. ,
, , ,

( )

457

, .: , [ 1999: 259].
, . ,
,
( . .) , , , , :
, ,
, , , ,
, .
, , (. , , ,
),
,
(. ) , . . , , , ,
, . vs. :
/ vs. ( ).
, , , , ,
(), , , (),
, ,
, , ( ) : ,
, , . ,
, (.
.), (, , ), (,
, , . .). , , , ,
. , ,

, ,
, ,
. , .
. -: , !
!

458

, , ,
()
, . , [ 1999: 794],
, ,
, (, . .), - (, ,
. .) - ,
. . .

. 1997 . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . . . . 1 / . . . . . .: , 1997.
1999 . . . . 2- . .: , 1999.
1988 . . .
: . . ... . . .
., 1988.
1964 . . . . ., 1964.
2001 . . . // . 2001. 5.
2002 . . . - : ( ) //
. .: , 2002. (. . -2002. . 1:
/ . . . . ).
1985 . . . . .: , 1985.
1999 . . .
//
/ . . . . . .: , 1999.
1991 . . . : // : / . . . . . .: , 1991.
1999 . . . : . .: -, 1999.
2001 . . . . .: , 2001.
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, .
(. . . )

, , . . [
1955]
... . . : (), ( -
) (). , , . ,
,
, [ 1986], . ... , , . ,
, . . . , [ 1998].
, , , ,
, .
,
. . . : ,
. ,
, , , [-73: 911].
, , , , .:
. ? . I / /I ( , ) (1)

460

. .

. / // . I I
II ( ) (2)
( ) . ? I/ . I / // . II
. I II (3)
, , , . ,
(1) . ., . (2) .
, . . (3) . , , . . , ,
. ,
. ,
, .
, , . .
[ 1998: 411440].
, ( , ) , , \ {), ; ; , .
? , .
, , , -, ,

, -, , , , , .
, , , 1 .
:
. ( ) / II I
I // . , -.
1

,

,
,

, .: / II ( , ,
, ) [ 1986].

461

. ( ) I / . , , , , 2 .
.
,
. . . [
1986], . :
1. :
. I ( ) I
/ - (. ) // , .
. I ? I ? / / I
/ II ,
.
. / / II ,
.
. ( ) / II ( ) , .
. ( ) - II .
II I / / II ,
.
. II I I II , .
2. :
. I / . . / II / II
, , .
. ( .) / (
) . I II II I , , , .
. / ( , ) . I II I II , .
3. :
. I / ( ) //
. II II , .
. I II . I II I !/ , .

ii
2

. . . : , , .
, ,
[ 1986].

462

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

. .

. / II . / II
/ - II I II , , .
. II . I / , .
:
. ( ) // . / II ,
.
. I ( ) / II , , .
:
. I II .
. / / II .
. / ( ) //
.
. I II .
. / .
:
. I II . I ( ) //
, .
. ( ) /
II I II , , .
. / ( ) /
II , .
. ( ) II ? /
II , .
. I II ,
.
. ( ) . I II
() / / ( ) // , .
:
. I /
I I II , .
. II /
II I II , , .
:

463

. ( ) ? ? . /
/ II
.
. I ? . ( ) / II .
9. :
. ( ) ? . I I II .
. ( ) I II / ( )? . I
/ II ,
.
. ( ) II . / II , .
. II . I II , ,
.
. ? . I II , .
. ( )? . I / () // .
. ( ) / ? . / II , .
10. :
. ( ) . I II
.
11. :
. I I II ( ).
. / II .
12. :
. I I I II . II I / / II .
13. :
. ( ) / / /
// / /
/ ! .
14. , , . .:
. I II I / I / II .

464

. .

15. :
. () II / / II , , .
, ,
. .
,
, . , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , .
, , , ,
, , . , , . ,
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.
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, :
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. / , .
. / ( ) // , .
. / I/ , .
. / () I II , .
. ( ) / / /I
, .
. ? II . I I
II .
. I II .
. ( ) I
( ) // .
. / II ,
.

465

.
, , . , . ,
. , .
, .: I - II, * I II.
, , , , .:
. I / , .
. I () I (
) //.
. / () //
.
. / I II .
. I / II .
. / () / ,
.
. I ,
.
. / II . II / II .
. / , .
. / - // , .
. , , , ,
, .: ( ) . II
. / II . , . ,
.
* / II.
,
. , ,
, ,
:
30 - 3595

466

. .

. // . I /I , .
. () ? . / I II , .
. ( , .) ? . /
II , .
. ( ) II .
/ / II ,
.
. () ()? . / II , .
. ( ) // .
( ) / , .
, :
. ? . / II .
, - .
. I / ( ) // , . .
. - I II . I II ,
.
. I I / II ,
.
. / ? . / I
I ... , .
, , ,
, ,
.

1986 . . . // .
. . . 1986. 3.
1998 . . . . . V:
. . VII: . ., 1998.
1955 . . / .
. ., 1955.
1986 . J1. . / . . // . . XVII. . ., 1986.
-73 . ., 1973.
1986 . . . / . . // . . XVII: . ., 1986.
1986 . . . . ., 1986.

. . ()


. .

0.
. . . ,
,
. ,
.
,
, ,
. (. [ 1999]).
, (, , ,
.). , , .
, .
. ( . . )
. , , , . . - .

i : : , , , . : (
t ) ( , ). , , .

, , .

468

. .

, , .
1.
. . . : (, , , . .) .
() : .
, . :
(1) .
(2) .
, .
, . :
(3) , , .
(4) , , .
.
() () , , ,
. .

, (., ,
. . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . .). ( ). .
. -, (
- . [ 2002]) () , [ 1982;
1996]. , : .
.
[ 1996].

. . ...

469

,
(
) . . . :
(5) [* *] [* *].
(6) ( *) ( *).
,
:
.
. .
: (
), ( ).
/,
. , . .
,
. . .
,
. ,
, .
(7) (* *; *,
*: *).
(8) [ * * * * * * *...]
(9) [* * * * * * * . *, * * ( * ),
* * * , * * * *].
(10) (* , * - * , * * * ).
(11) [* *\ ( *), [ * * , * * * * ], [*
* * * * *].
: , .
, ,
. , , .

470

. .

, ,
(
. . . [ 1976]).
,
. :
(12) [ * *, - * * * * * , * * * *- * * . * , *- *. * * *, * * * * , * * * *,
* * * *].
( . . )
. , -, , ,
. ,
,
. .
, ,
. :
(13) ( * ), ( *), (
*) ( *). ( * ) ( * ).
,
.
, , .
2.
. . .
,
.
, .
: .
:
.
.
. . , .

. . ...

471

.
:
(14) ( *) () [* * * * ] ()?
(*, * . *) ().
( ) , , ().

: .
, ,
.
,
, :
(15) ( * *) ()?
( *) ().
() , , .

:
(16) ( *) () [* * *] ()?
( *) ().
(17) (* * ) ()?
( * ) ().
(14) (16)
. : , :
(18) ( *) (). ( *)
()?
( * ) (). ( * *) ().
, .
,
, :
(19) ( *, * ) ().
( * ) () .
(20) , ( *, * ) ()?
(* *) ().
, .

. ,

472

. .

, [, 1983], :
(21) .
(* * *) ()?

, . ,
. ,
.

:
(22) (* *?) () .
(23) (* *?) () !
(24) (* ?..) () .
(25) (* ?..) () .
. ,
, .
(24) (25) (). : . ,
. . [ 1990].
,

.
( ) ,
. ,
, . (
)
. .
- .
3.
. . ,
(-, -, - .)
, . ,
.

. . ...

473

:
( - . )

( - . ; -
). , ( ) .
.
(, , , , , . .), .
, :
(26) - (* * * *).
, , ,
. ,
.

, . , , .
,
.
, ,
. , :
(27) ... -
.
, . , , , . :
(28) : - () * *, () *
*,
- ()
*
*...
: , , . .
( ) . ,
(
Constricted Pharynx). -

474

. .

() , .
[ 1995]. , [ 20026]. ,
.
: ( ) ( ). , , :
(29) Mtfe . (), .
-
:
(30) - . - () .
: :
(31) (- ) () -, -...
, .
, * , - . , ,
(. [ 1990]).
4.
. . , (-) . 80- . ( [ 1988]) . ,
,
. , ,
. , , [Ode 1989; Fougeron
1989; 1996]. \ ( \), \ \ .
, . (\)
. \
(accent exclusive,

. . ...

475

. ), , , /-. , \ ( ) . :
(32) . ? . (\).
(33) . ? . (\).
(34) . ? . (\).
, , .
. . , ( )
( ). ( ):
(35) (\).
(36) (\).
, (36)
, .
, :
,
.
, .
- : ,
.
:
(37) (\), .
(38) (\), .
, ,
, , .
- , . :
--.
/ . , .
, \
, \ .
( , ):
(39) (\-\).
(40) (\-\).
(41) -- (\-\).

. - ,

476

479 . .

. :
(42) .
- -(\).
, , , ,
[ 2000],
. ,
:
(43) - (\).

. . , , . , ,
, .
, , .
-
, .

1990 . . . // . ., 1990.
1988 . . . : . .
. ., 1988.
1998 . . . . ., 1998.
, 1983 . . , . . . : ( ) // . . . . . 1983. 3.
1976 . . . . ., 1976.
1995 . . . // . 2. ., 1995.
1996 . . . //
. ., 1996.
1999 . . . , // . 3. ., 1999.
2000 . . . : (
) // : . ., 2000.
2002 . . . //
: . ., 2002.

. . ...

477

20026 . . . /: II : . . .
., 2 0 0 2 .

1982 . . . . ., 1982.
1990 . . . : // Revue des etudes slaves. Paris.
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. . ()

. ,
:
, . ,
(?..)
(' , ...') (' , ,
...') 2 . . , .
.
, , .
. , , , --
, .: vs. ?
.

, , , , ,
.
. ,
( 1).
. , , ,
1

( 02-04-00065),
, (. 4.15).
2

. [ 1985: 241243], .

479

. -; -! ( 2). ,
, .
,
, ,
, .
( 3). 4
.
1.
, . , --,
. , - , .
,
. ,
, ,
.
.
, , .
. , , , , , ,
. , ,
3 . , , . . ,
, ( ) ,
, ,
, , , .: ?
.
.
, , .

3

, , . [Bally 1942] ;
[ 1955: 4650, 61; 1992: 59; 1998: 408411].

480

71 .

, . . ,
.
, . ,
1,
.
1

. ,
, . . --> , , , . , , , ()
(. !; -; !), , -, , -, , .
,
. , ,
(. ), , (. ,
,
), . .

481

, . 2.
2

. ,
. 2
: . - . . ,
[ 1976], . . , - , () ,
[ 1984]. .
(- )
, , .
. .
2.
. .
31 - 3595

482

71 .

. . [1976: 121]
. ,

,
[ 2001: 207].
,
, ? .
(-3 . . ),
, , .
,
(-6 . . ). ,
.
-3 -6 ( . . ) . [ 1980: 97122].
.
,
. , ,
,
. ,
, . ,
, . , . .
,
.
. , ,

4 . 4

,
, . ,
. ( , ,
, .) ,
, (-, ), ( , ).
,
. . , ,
. , .

483

. 3. ,
( ) .
3

.
, . . , , ,
- , . ,
, , . .
.
, , , ,
, .

.
.
,
-, ,
(. ).
, , , . , ,
( )
. , , , ,
. , , , ,
31*

484

71 .


, 5 .
.
. , ,
, -- .
- ( ), - - ( ?). ,
, , .
, . . , --.
, . 6 .
, , : , , 5
(
) ,
, , . [Dryer 1996] . . ,
, , . ,
, ,
. . ,
: . .
- , , , , , , , ,
, , , .
6

, , , .
, , ,
. , , ... : ? vs. , .
, - , , ,
: ) vs. b) ? ) ) : )

485

,
, . . 1, 2 3. , ,
, . .
2.

.
. ,
, , . . [1999], . [, 2001: 384,
396]. : , , ; ?; :
! . . , . . [, 2001: 388].
, ( ) ,
, ,
(. [ 1999; , 2001: 384, 396]).
, , ,
, . .
. . . , , , ,
, , ,
, , . ,
. . . , . . -7 ( .(.
)), , ,
.
-
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, 2000. . 453501.
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Bally 1942 Ch. Bally. Syntaxe de la modalite explicite II Cahiers F. de Saussure. 1942. 2.
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522

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524

. .

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'. . 55, XVI .;
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.). ( , ) , , , .
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. . . . . . VIII IX. . . 582; . .


. , 1890. . 67;
. . . // 1914.
34. . 183184; . // . 1915. 12. . 119133; . .
- // . 1869. . 193194; . . . ., 1848. . IV. . 97 98; ... . 114115 .

...

525

( ) , . , - , (
, ), ().
,
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546)11.
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10

. .: F. von Andrian-. Die Siebenzahl in Geistesleben der Volker II Korrespondenz-Blatt der


Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Anthropologic, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte. Bd. 31. Miinchen,
1901; . . . 7 .
// . ., 1964;
. . . 7 // . , 1974; . . . // . ., 1980; . F. Edinger. Trinity and Quaternity // Der
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: , , !" , ! . " (, 545).

526

. .

: , , - !
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. ' - [...] (, . 81. . 405).
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!
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, , , - Sittratme Catena Aurea
13 . -, , , , , . 12

, .: , , ; , , ; , , . ., . / . . . . JI., 1968. . 87.


13
. . Eliade. Spiritual Thread, Sutratman, Catena Aurea // Festgabe fur Herman Lommel
zur Vollendung seines 75. Lebensjahres am 7. Juli 1960 von Freunden, Kollegen und Schulern in
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...

527

(AV. VI, 142) Ucchraya baliur bhava svena mahasayava \


[...] || asrnvantam yavam devam yatra tvachavadamasi | tad ucchrayasva dyaur iva
(1 ab2abc) ' , , | [...] ||
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!'.

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528

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, ( 2609; 2614; 2 6 2 4 ) ; [ . . . ] ,
( 2610; 2611; 2 6 1 6 ) ; X , (2612);
, ( 2615); , ( 2 6 1 7 ,
2619, 2621,2622, 2623).
. - , , - , , ,
,
. - , . (< . *xvostb) (< *xvatati), . (< *xytatilsq), .
[ 8, 1981, 123, 134, 160]15. ,
15

,
. , ,
'Equisetum arvense' (< *xvoscb), , ,
Jsis, ,
, () (. [
8,1981, 134135]), . . .;
-, ,
, ( ) . ,
, , , , , , , . . *xvatiti
. [ 8, 1981, 123124]; , ,
'' ( ) '', ' '
( , ).
, , . ., . *xytr-, , , , ,
( . [ 8,1981,161164]), . *xytili, *xyteti '', '', '',
'' [ , 160161]. , . *xvostati '', '' (, , , , , . ., . [ 8, 1981, 132133]). A *xvostati , ,
. *xvastb, *xvastunb, *xvastati () '',
''; ''. *xvost- *xvast- : ; , ' ()', resp. '
' > '' [ 8,1981,122], . .
prallen '' prahlen ''. !
, ., , ,
, . .
, . .

...

529

, . -,
- , , - (: *xytiti), - , , , ,
.
rap- , rapum,
(. rapina ', ', ), , , , , ,
. . (. rapio, rapto, raptito : raptio, raptus, raptum,
raptor .), , (. citas '' [: xumumu, ], '', '', '',
'', '', ''; '', '', raptum
' ', '', ''; rapTnator'', '', '',
''; '' . .).
,
16 , , . .
, ,
, ,
. , , *- * -,
, , . rapio,
.-. poamg, pcupvq, .-.-. raba, ruoba . .-. *-/
*-,
(. . reples '', '' . raples, , , - ) 17 , , ,
, . (Sylvia rubecola), .
. * r%p- (el-lol-), . . rzqp '', '' . *% :
*$; ., , (. ., 1469 . .
. 5,1851. . 275 .), . . . . . 41^7 // 1964. ., 1965. . 69.
16
. Walde, Hofmann. Bd. 2, 5-te Aufl., 417418; I, 852, 865.
17
*-: *- , , [111,471], ,
. . . '', ' ' (. .
, zrepka '', '', ' '), '', ropine'ti '',
'', ropstis ' ' [. ],
'()', '' ( ), roptis, ,
. . - .-. *-, . . racenis '' (,
34 - 3595

530

. .

, , , -, , , , , , ( rapam [rapum] rapio ' '),


, ,
- . ,
, , , . *-] (: *, .
'', '', ' '), ( ), (. . repti, ap-repti '', '', ''), .
- , () , () , () . .
, ,
, , ,
. , -,
.

*rapenis), *rapenis rakt '', '' (. rakt lauka '', '' [


rakt & rapenis > rakt & raceni ( *rakt & rapulrapi) ' ']); '', '' (rakt racenizeme ' '). . repti repti, ap-repti ' () ', '', '', repsoti '',
' ', '', replioti ' ( )', '', replineti
'' (. repukas '', rapukas, ropiite '') . ., .
rqpuot ''; rept 'zur Heilung bewachsen, einen Kallus ansetzen' ( , ,
, , . ., . . callus, callum), repet, , repel '', ' ' . . (. [LKZ XI, 1978, 178179, 468474; Miihlenbachs-Endzelms III, 19271929, 496- -498, 512513, 520521; Fraenkel II, 1965, 698699,
72272?; Karulis II, 1992, 9697, 104]. e .-. '
. rjep '', . '' (. . ) . .

34*

. .

1.
,
,
1 .
. , (-), ty (). , , .
2 ,
:
1

, ,
(., , [Wierzbicka 1994; 1996; 1996b; 1998; 2002; Goddard 1997;
2000]). ( ),
(. . 2).
2
,
, ,
. (. [Wierzbicka 1996; Goddard 1998]).
( )
1. , , -, - (), ,
2.

, ,

3.

, , , ,

4. ,

, ,

5. , , , , ,
6.

(), ,

7.

, ,

8. ,
9.

10. , , , - ( ),
1 1 . , , , , , , ,
12. , , , , , , ,
13. ,
14. ,

15. ()

534



( )
"ty",
-
- ,

, , :


- - ,
,
"Pari"

- - ,
,
"Pani"
, ,
. , ,
. ,
, -,
( ) , -,
, . ,
, ( , )
. ,
, ; - ,
, , ,
, .
, .
,
,
,
.
[Hargrave 1992: 3839]:
- .
, . , . -

535

.
, . ,
. . ,
, , , , .
,
, ( ) ? . (Hargrave) ,
:
, - ,

:
,
,
, - ,
, ,
.
.
(
): "G'day, you old bastard" (, , !).
- [Wilkes 1996] [Tritton 1964]:
, , , , , : "Frank, you bloody bastard!" , , ,
, .
, , , , .
,
[Wilkes 1996]:
,
"you old bastard". , .
,
; ,
, , ,
(. [Wierzbicka 2002]). :
- - :
- ,
- :
, , -,

536

-
- ,
2. ,

, , :
, ,
, .
, , , . : ! ! ! ! . !
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,
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.
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,
:
- ,
- ,
- :
, -
, . [tisoff 2000], , ,
, ,
, .
, :
- , -
- :
, -
, , , - , , .

537

, , : ,
, .
,
(., , [Wierzbicka 1996; Goddard 1998]), .
3. 3
, , , . , , , ,
.
, , ,
. , , .
, (13: 78):
,
.
, ,
, ;
.
, ,
- : (: ) - . ? (11: 14), , , , ,
():
(...) ,
. (...)
, , (...)
, , (...)
.

(11:5-7):
;
,
.
,
3


"the Hebrew Bible".

538

, .
,
,
.
, (, , ,
). (11: 89), :
, ?
, ?
, ,
, ?
,
!
,
,
, ;
;
.
- , (12: 1):
,
;
,
.
,
( ...).
. (14: 23)
, :
, , ;
.
...
:
, ;
.
;
, , , .
, ,
, .
? , , , , , .
, :

539

, , . [Austin 1962] ( , ), , :
- - - :
-
- -
[: ] ,
- :
-

, -
, :

,
: , , , .
, ;
,
(. [Heschel 1962]). The Anchor Bible [Andersen and Freedman 1980: 5152] :
.
, ,
. , , .
,
.
, , ,
, ,
(2: 1823). , 2: 1823 :

;
, , ,
.
(2: 1819).
, ,
( ) .
(. [Austin 1962]) , .
, . , (1:6):

540

[];
,

.
, (1: 9):
[ ],
,
().
(2:23):
,
,
: ,
: !
. (G. . Caird) . :
. ,
, , . , , ... , , ,
[Caird 1980: 112].
(Abraham Heschel) : ... , ,
... .
, ... [Heschel 1962: 286].
, ,
.
, ,

.
4.
? [Wierzbicka 2001],
, , ,
. , ,
(Pinchas Lapide), , . , , [Lapide 1985: 97]. , ,
13 ( ...);

541

- .
, 1
( ):
- - - :
,
, -
,
- :
, -

:
- - - - :
, - -
- :
,
, - -
,
, (5: 22), ,
, , , , .
:
( - !),

, -
, , ,
, ,
.
, ( 6: 1415):
,
;
,
.
: ; , .

(12: 3133). :
: (...)
, ;
,
, .
, ( ,
); , , - : ,

. , (18: 2122) :

542

:
! ,
? ?
: : ,
.
, ,
. , , ,
.

,
? (6: 1415)?
,
, . , ,
, . ( 18: 2122).
, , ,
: , ,
, . ,
? ,
: , , , , ,
. ( : ! , ,
.)
, , ,
, (
"?; , ?).
.
,
, [Russell 1957: 112]:
,
, ,
, , . ,
- .
-,
, ,
. ,
, ,

543

, .
, - , , , , ( 25: 3146),

, :
, ,
, -
,
, ( ,
)
, ,
, , ; ,
, ,
, .
( - , ) (
, - ),
()
( [: ] - ),
, (- -
, , ).
, , ,
. ,
, ; ,
,
- .
, , , (,
) . , ,
. , (
), , ,
(, )
. , .
, (1: 12) ,
, , ,
( ,
, 1: 8), , ( ,
5: 5) , . -,

544

( )
. ,
.
, ,
;
, , , ,
, , . ,
, ,
, . , .
, . , ,
(14:2), , . ( ,
), , : ! , ,
. , ( 12: 3132) ,
.

, : .

, , , , , ,
.
, , ,
, .
, , ,
,
( 10: 25), . [Caird 1980: 1933] :
(...) , , ,
, , , , .
.
,

. ,
; ,
,
.

545

? [Wierzbicka 2001], ,
,
, . ,
, , , ,
(. 5: 48).
, ,
, , ,
( 8: 22).
, , .
,
,
.
; , , , ,
.
, -
, - , , . - , , , ,
, ,
, ,
- - .
, - , - ,
. , - , -
- , . , , ,
,
.
5.
, ...
... ,
[ 1979, 257]. , ,
, ,
-
35 - 3595

546

. . ,
, -, -
, -, -
,
, .

,
, , (
), , ,
. , . ( ) ,

(white fellows) -
. ,
,
, , , , . ,
( ) .

1979 . . // . / . . . . .: , 1979.
1990 . .
Mikkeli: Lansi-Savo / St Michel Print. 1990.
[ ] . // . ( ).
Ameka 1994 Felix Ameka. Areal conversational routines and cross-cultural communication in multilingual society // Heiner Piirschel (ed.). Intercultural Communication. Bern:
Peter Lang, 1994. P. 441469.
Ameka 1999 Felix Ameka. 'Partir, c'est mourir un peu'. Universal and culture-specific
features of leave-taking // Rask 9/10. E pluribus una the one in the many / Ed. by Jacob
Mey. 1999. P. 257283.
Andersen and Freedman 1980 Francis Andersen and David Noel Freedman. Introduction //
Hosea. The Anchor Bible. Vol. 24. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1980. P. 29111.
Austin 1962 J. L. Austin. How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962.
Butwin 1958 Frances Butwin. Translator's introduction to Sholom Aleichem [Rabinowitz], The Old Country. London: Andre Deutsch, 1958.
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547

Fitzmyer 1981 J . A. Fitzmyer. The Anchor Bible. Vol. 28. The Gospel according to Luke
IIX. New York: Doubleday, 1981.
Goddard 1997 Cliff Goddard. Cultural values and 'cultural scripts' of Malay (Bahasa
Melayu) II Journal of Pragmatics 27(2). 1997. P. 183201.
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Goddard 2000 Cliff Goddard. Communicative style and cultural values cultural
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. . ()

, ? 1


.

. . 2 , ,
.
, , -,
( ) , , . , , .
3 , ,
, , - . . (97 1119) 8-
, . . ,
( ), ;
. (7 16
20, 7 V 15) 4-
( 8- ). . ,
. , 4 :
1

- . ,
( 02-04-00356).
2
. . . II : / .
.: . . , . . , . . . ., 2000.
3
[. 381, 131],
(.: ), ;
, . , , - . .: . . . . . ., 2001. . 251418.
4
.-. . , - ,

, ?

549

(.: XIIXIII . .
1- 8- / . .: . . , . . , . , JI. . , . . ; . . // Abhandlungen der Nordrhein-Westfalischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Bd. 98. Opladen, 1996).
. ;
( ),
. ( ), . , ( ). (|), (||), .
( v ). .
( : Mrivaia tox> oXov eviawni. 'Ev '<|, 18881901). . ;
. 2) - ; . : . . .
... . 5677.
5
. 2: 112.
6
. 2: 1214.
7
, , ; : .

550

. .

[. . 1)J,
. 131/132.

, ?

551

552

. .

, ?

553

, , , ,
. , , .
: , ,
( ); -,
. , , ,
, , , .
-
. ,
, ,
17.
, , , . , , ,
( ), , , , ?
, . , odaxuvco

18.
.
, , :

554

. .

, ?

555

()

, ,

1.
,
, ( skrucha, pokuta)
, , .
,
-. :
1. ,
( ).
- , ,
, , ', '. '',
. , . : ,
(
, . [Austin 1967]),
, ,
, , , , -,
, . . , , , .
2. .
, (, ) , .
: 1 ' ' 2 ' '. , .
'
': , !, !, !, , !
, : !, ! . .

, ,

557

,
, , ,
, (, ). , , ,
. .
( , ) , . , :
3. . . '' ''.
,
:
4. .
- , :
5. . - , , , , .
, 3, , ,
. .
2. ,
, zal za grzechy (winy) ' ( )', skrucha
'' pokuta '', ,
. , , , -
. '' (skrucha) '' (pokuta), , . '' (kara)
, '' (. . ).

,
.
, .
. ,
zal '' . , , ,

558

(). : , . ( ),
, , ( ,
), . , , , .
, : ,
.
. ( !). ,
, , .
, .
'', .
, -
, , . skrucha '' ( skruszenie) kruszenie ', ' kruchosc ', ', , '',
', '. , , , , , ,
, .
, ,
- , (
)
'' ,
, , . , , : .

. . [1997; 2000].
'' ''.
' ' (
), .
'' , .
. ,
' ',

, ,

559

' ', , ,
.
. , , ,
: ,
. .
, (Stihnezeichen),
, , , ! , - ,
,
, ,
, .
, , , :
, :
, . , .
, , , , . ,
,
(. [ 2000]).
, , ,
.
.
: - (
) zal za winy (grzechy) '
( )'. skrucha '' , , '' (pokora) . Serce skruszone, czlowiek
skruszony ' , '
serce harde (czlowiek hardy, pyszny) ' (, )'.
, pokuta ''. (kara), , . , '' {skrucha). ,
pokuta '',
( '', '') pokuta, . poena (. ).

560

, , .
,
('') .
: .
. .
:
' ' (), (
), ''
()
( ''
). ' ' ( ,
) , . [...] (. .
). , , .
, , . /, !, !. , , ,
, , .
'', , . , , . * . , , ,
skrucha,
, ,
'' (. . . pokuta).
, ,
, , .
zal za grzechy (winy) '
()' skrucha '', ( , ) pokuta '' ' '.
'' '',
. '' '' poena
'', , , . ,
.
,
, ''.

, ,

561

3. :
' '?
, ' ', . , : -
(.Przepraszam, ktdra godzina? ', ?')
, Przepraszam! '!', -. Excuse !,
Sorry!
,
, - .
, ( , , Confiteor),
. , . : Je demande pardon, Pardonnez moi!
przepraszac ', -, '.
, , to beg pardon to
apologize (
, ,
). , , . ,
: [ 1914 . .
.] . [...] : " (. . . ) 1 .
, ,
, , .
, ,
, ,
.
. , ,
, . , .
( '', ) .
, , . ,
! .
1
- . . . .

36 - 3595

562

4.
,
, , ,
. , .
-, , : ,
, , - ?
. . , , ,
. , ,
. , ,
, ,
, .
, ''? , . : ,
, .
.
: przebaczyc ' , ' (. baczyc cos ' - ,
-', . zabaczyc '').
,
- . , , ,
, . ,
, .
, ,
, ,
.
, , , , ,
, ,
, . , ( , , ,
, . . ). , , , .

, ,

563

1997 . . . // . . 1997. 2.
2000 . . . // : . ., 2000.
. . . . . 14. ., 1956.
2000 . . . // : . ., 2000.
: 4 . . 14. ., 19571961.
. . 117. .; .,
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Austin 1977 J. L. Austin. Jestem niewinny // Znak. 1977. 276.
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36*

. . ()

.
: . .
, . . . [1988/1998] , . : , , /,
/ . 1998 . ,
,
.
[2000] ; ,
, . , .
,
, . , . ,
,
.
, , .
, ,
. ,
(), , , . ,
, ,
, : ...
, , , , .
, , [ 2000: 214].

565

: ,
, ; . , , , ;
, , , ,
.
, ,
. , ;
, : , ,
, , , , , ; , , ,
; .
, , . . . . . ; , , , ,
, , ( 20: 217).
.
, ,
. . - ,
1 . , ,
, - ,
.
. . . , ( , )
, , (
; , ,
), . [ 2001]. , 10-
( , , , ,
)
, , .
(
1

, - , .
( ),
.

566

. .

). , . . [1993: 123] ,
, , XX , , XXI .

. , ,
, . .

, , . .

. , ( 20:1);
( 19: 1). , . 10 ,
, , , , . 10 .
.
. . [1998: 741743] ( . X.
[Schmidt 1969]) : (
) (, , . . ). ne fac ' ' ( )
noli facere;
, : ne faxis ( )/ feceris ().

567

. . . , > (
|).

jj.fi, . , . , , .

, , , ,
. ,
, ( , , ... ).
, .
, ,
, .
, ( ). ,
, ( );
. , .
, , , , (, 551479 . . .). :
, , , ; ,
, , 2. . , :
, ,
:
,
?
, ,
.
,
3.
2
3

. / . . . .: -, 2000. . 65.
. . 9192. .

568

. .

, ,
. , , ,
. . , ,
, ,
. , , .
, . : , ,
4 .
.
. , . , (436338)
: , , , . - . :
, (. 4: 15). ,
, .
, , , ,
, ( ,
). .
,
. , ,
. : ,
, . 5 ( 31). ,
, .
, ,
4

. . 1314, 19 21.
, : , ?
.

569

. , , .
, .
, .
: , ,
, . (
7: 12). ; : av , iva 7toia>aiv uptv oi av9pct>7roi,
Kai u(xetq noierce amoiq- omo yap e a u vopoq 1 oi rcpocp-tycai ',
, , ; '. : - ,
.
; , : , .
. , ,
, , ,
- . ,
,
. . . , ...
, , , [ 2000: 126].
,
. , , .
: . .
. : , , 6 ; : ,
7 . ( ): , , ,
, .
:
: ,
8 . ,
6

. . // . . . .: , 1999. . 196 ( ).
7
. . 197.
8
. . . . 1: // . . 283.

570

. .

,
.
, ,
( ). , . .
,
. ,
^ . , ( ),
. ,
... 9 . :
, ... ,
, , (
, , )
, ... 10 .
, ,
-.
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. ,
, .
- , . ,
-.
, ,
, ,
. .
,
: , , .
, , :
( -) .
,
, . ,

. , , , , .
9

. . . .: , 1994. . 336 (
).
10
. . 377.

571

, , . , , .
.
-
( ) 11 .
, - 12. , . , .
, .

( !) . ,
, ,
. ,
, ? , .

. (. 197200)
, . ,
, , , . . , 13 . ,
, ,

11

. . X. . , -,
, () . , ,
. ,
[ 2000; 20006] ( . debeo
'').
12
. . // . . 189.
13
. , , , . , . , , . . ,
. .
[ 2000], , , , .

572

. .

. , , ,
; , .
, , , , . , ,
. .
, ,
. , , . . ( ). , ,
. , ,
, ,
, . , , , .
, ,
, . , -
. , , ,
, . , .
, .
. 1. . 2. . 3. .
4. . 5. , , ,
, . 6. , ,
, ,
. 7. ,
. . . : [ ,
. . ] ,
, , , , , [ 1992:
152]. , .
.
() (), ,

573

, .
. . : ( ) [ 1998: 749]. , , . ,
- ,
. , , . , , , .
, .
, ,
. , :
, . - , ; .
,
, : , , .
,
.
, , (. . ), .
, , . . . ,
. , .

1988/1998 . . . //
.. . . ., 1998. : . . . : . . . ., 1988.
2000 . . . // : . ., 2000.
2000 . . . // : . .,
2000.

20006 . . . II Colloquia classica et Indo-Europea. ., 2000.


1992 . . . //: 1991. ., 1992.
2000 . , . . ., 2000.
1993 . . . . ., 1993.

574

. .

1998 . . . : (
) // . . . . ., 1998.
2000 . . . . ., 2000.
2000 . . . . ., 2000.
2001 . . . ? //
: . ., 2001.
Schmidt 1969 . . Schmidt. Probleme des Prohibitivsatzes // Studia Linguistica et
orientalia Antonio Pagliaro oblata. Roma, 1969. T. 3.

()

,
(
)1

0. - . . ,
(, , ) . - ,
.
. ,
()
[ 1998: 403 .]. ,
( ) ( ,
, , , , ,
. .). (, , , ,
, , . .) .

. ( . . ) , , ,
, , , , ., , (
). [ 1998:
315].
. .
, . , ,
[ 1998: 346].

( - ), 1

( -99/110).

576

( , , , .).
1. - . () . ( )
. (, , ) , .
( )
,
, , . . - () . ,
( )
( , , ). : ( )
(, , ), , (, ),
( ),
,
, , , / . ( ),
, , .
2. . ( , . .) , . . . -
, ( )
. ( )
: ( , ); ( ) 2 ,
. ( . [ 1992]).
() (, ,
. .), , . : [, II: 190].

, ...

577

. . .
, , [ 1992: 13], , ( ,
). ( ), , , ^
[- 1992]3.
.
, , , , , .
3. . . crux '', . croix, . cross, .
Kreuz, .-. *kreu-k- ', '. crux,
', , ',
( ) ; pascere in cruce corvos '
', . . ' '. , crux
: ) ', , ' ) '() , , , ' [ 1976: 274].
.-. *kreu-k- .
o-tavpoq ( , ', '), , ,
, oxavpoq '', . .
''. *knstb (.-. . \>(; ^) :
,
; '',
'' [, II: 374; , XIII: 76; 1994: 297].
. kHz, . krzyz, . kriz
VIIVIII ., . [Bruckner
[1927] 1970: 276; Snoj 1997: 275].
, *kreu-k- ', ', ( ) , ,
. Kreuz ', , ' ( j-n aufs
Kreuz legen ' -. '); Kreuzung '; ', Kreuzband '' . .; . cross-bar ', ,
3


-.
37 - 3595

578

', cross-beam ' , ', cross-stich ' ', . in die Kreuz und in die Quere ' , ' . .
,
- ( , ) 4 .
- (, , -, - . .) ; (! ( -., -.)5, ( )
' ( , . .)',
', ' [MAC, IV: 121], ), , , - ,
6 .
,
.-. *ikreu-k- ,
- , - . , ,
, , , .
4

. cross [ ] ', , , ',


to cross [ ] ', , ', ' , . .', crossly ', , ', crossness ', ', cross-patch ' ' ( '
'), cross purpose ' ', '', to be at cross
purpose ', ', cross bones ' , '; cross wind ', '; cross-grained
', '; to cross somebody's path ' , -.'; cross swords ' , -. , -.', cross the line ' ,
'; . ein Kreuz iiber etw. machen (schlagen) '
( -.)', mit j-m tibers Kreuz stehen ' -. ;
'; j-n aufs Kreuz legen '' ( ' -. '); aufs
Kreuz fallen ' ; ' ( ' '); er hat
wohl einen Ladenstock im Kreuz ( ' ' ,
).
5
(. [ . 1987: 113; . 1998: 315]).
6

, . ( : , , ), , / , , , , . .

, ...

579

4. ( ); .
, (
) 7 . ( , ), ,
. , , (
), - ( , ,
. .) . , .
,
, , ; (, , ; . .); ( , ,
).
4.1. , ,
, ( ). .
4.2. , ,
.
, ,
. ( ) (V . .).
4.3. (-
), .

7
.
, , , ,
, . :
, , ; ,
, . : , , , , ,
. (15040 . ), ( homo sapiens), . , 40 . .

37*

580

( ), ,
- .
,
( , , ), , - (
), - ', ', ', '. , (
, , . , . berry one's cross, . sein Kreuz tragen . .).
( ) : , ( ), .
.
, , , : ...
(1 . 1: 18).
5. :
( , , , ). , ,
,
()
, , .
( ) , , ,
.
( , , ); .
.
5.1.
( ) .
(. ;
.) 8 .
5.2. , -
8

. :
, : ! ,
? , . ?
! ? ! , ! . , , , .
( , ), ( , !)
.

, ...

581

( ).
( , ; , ,
.) , . .
(. : -, .
, :
, ; ). , : , ; , [, II: 191].
, ,
(. . ) . -,
, , , : .
: !/! (''); () , (); . : /
. .
: ' ,
, -, -'.
5.3. - (,
; , ; ,
' ', , , , . .)
( , , . .), , . .
: ,
, ; ,
, , [, II: 191]9.
XIX . . . , , . .,
, ' [ ]'; ', '; ' '; / ' ' . .
5.4. (, , )
; (
) (.
- ); ; ; ; ,
9

. : [, :]
, ? ... , ; !.

582

(, , , , , , , , ; , . .),
: ,
10 ; ; ( , -, , );
, . . 11 (
) , :
(), [...] (. ).
5.5. ,
, / ,
, : (. 5.7); (- , , ,
-, );
( 1 2 , ). . ,
: ( -, -), , : (' XV
XVII . - '; ' , ') 1 3 , , ,
().
5.6. , , ,
( !, !, -! . .,
10

, , ( ), , ,

. . : ', ' (V, 1640):
[...] , (. );
(. ); .
( ): (
).
1
' (- ), , . . . 17 , 12
, , 11 . , .
11 [ 1995: 218221].
12
, - .
13
.

, ...

583

, , , !,
, ! . .). ( ) 14 ('! ! . .) 15 .
5.7. ,
, / - , ( , ) , . ,
,
,
, , ,
.
,
, , , ( )
(
6. ( ,
;
.). .
- , ( . , . baptisma, . bapteme, . baptism, . die Taufe
( tauen ', ', der ', '), ' , '). ,
, ,
. , , (. . das Kreuz die Taufe).
, , ,
.
5.7.1. .
14

.: , (); : ; ( ); : -, - . . [, 1: 107].
15
, Kreuz! ('!') , , ; kreuz : kreuzdumm ' , ', kreuzkrumm '', Kreuzdonnerwetter Donnerwetter ' !'.
16
, ,
, , .
: [, 11: 596].

584

, ,
17 , ,

. -, .
(, , . , , , ,
). -,
( ),
, ( )', 18 ; ( ; , , 1: 31); ,
(, , ) 19 ; ( -
); , ,

( 6: 2728), ,
, . ,
, . . ,
[ 1991: 553].
5.7.2. , 1917 .,
- , . .
, :
( ', '), , , ( , ), ( ), ,
, , , , , ('
'), ' ' [, II: 191], , 20, ,
. .
17

, /.
18
; , : -
, .
( 1: 2627).
19
, , (. [ . 1998: 19]).
20
. : ,
, .

, ...

585

( ) '
-.', ' -.' [, V: 1636; MAC, II:
127], '
'21 ( . baptize . taufen, stand godfather to smb's child, ein Kind uber
die Taufe halten .). ' ,
-.', -
' ', , ( ", ),
.
5.7.3. (
) - , - . . ' ';
' -. , -. '; () , ; .
: [, V: 1644],
. : [...] , ! [MAC, II: 127].
5.7.4. ,
- ,
, ' , ,
-., -.', ' , -.,
'. . ( MAC) :
- [] , , .
: (. ); , , ?
(. ).
5.7.5. - . -.
', , '; ', ';
, : [, II: 191]; - !,
XIX XX .22;
() 23 .
21

. , : [ ']
, ! (. ).
22
. . ( [, V: 1645]): ... -, , . . , ? .
23

: . , ., . . *sed- '';

586

6. . (, ) ,
, . . . ,
. (, , ) , , .
. , .
( . 1.) , -
;
. .
1) ,
, , , , .
, . , - ,
() .
2) ( ) , . ( ) ,
( , , , ).
, . ( ) ;
, . ,
, ( ,
, , . .): (...
, rolnik role ', '; . chlop . *! ', ';
., ., . kmet . comes, comitis ', , '; . Bauer ', (), , ';
. peasant . pagus ', '. (); , (. ,
. 1 . .).

, ...

587

, , . .),
, , .
3) : ) (); )
24 ; ) ;
) () .

1991 . . . // : : 2 . . I. ., 1991. . 551553.


1998 . . . . ., 1998.
. 1998 . . , . . , . . .
: - . ., 1998.
. . . . 14. .,
1978 [ 18801882 .].
1976 . X. . - . ., 1976.
MAC : 4 . 2- ., . . .: ,
19811984.
1995 . . . . ., 1995.
: 17 . .; .:
- , 19501965.
( XXI ) / . . . ,
. . . ., 1994.
- 1991 . . -. // : :
2 . . I. ., 1991. . 269270.
1992 . . . // : : 2 .
. II. ., 1992. . 1214.
. / . . .
0. . . . 1-^1. ., 19641973.
. 1987 . . , . . , . . . . ., 1987.
: . . 127. ., 1974.
Bruckner A. Bruckner. Slownik etymologicznyjQzyka polskiego. Warszawa, [1927] 1970.
Snoj 1997 M. Snoj. Slovenski etimoloski slovar. Ljubljana, 1997.

24

,
. .
. , ,
(. ,
, , I, . . , ",
I , .).

. . ()

,
, ,
.
8:17
;
,
.
18: 34
1. , ,

, (...) ,
(...) , .
(. . .
. . 632)
,
, , . . - ,
, , [ 1982: 4].
1982 . . . , , ,
, ,
[ ].

. ,
,
, ,
.
,
, , . . . , , , . .

...

589

. . ., . ,
, ,
( ), ,
[ 1997: 657].
, , ,
. , . .
, (, ) , , ,

[ ].

. , . .,
() (. [ 1966]), , ,
(,
, , ) [ 1997: 658].
,
, , ,
. . . (, , , ) ,
,
, .
. .
,
(.
. . ),
, . . ., , , . [ 1998: 342]. , ,
, [ : 344]. . . .
, , (, ) ,
... [ : 339]. , . , , - , . ., , [ ].
, - ,
("Corpus Areopagiticura"), .
,

590

. .

, . - (), ,
, .
2. :

.. . - ! , , , .
( .
)

, , ,
(. 17: 34), - V VI ., .
-, -.

. . ,
[ 2002: 118], , ,
XV .,
.
,
() . :
1) , ,
; 2) , - ; 3) , ,
; 4) , .
,
, , . , ,
[ 2001: 251]
, , ,
( , , , .,
. [ : 273]).

...

591

, , .


, , ,

- . ,
, , ,
. , . . : ...,
, - , .
- ,
, , ,
, [ 1994: 365].
, . . , , , (...)
[ : 366]. , ,
, , - , ,
[ : 365]. , . . , . - , ,
, . , - ,
,
[ ].

.
: , ,
, (...) , (...) ,
(...) , (...) ,
(...) ; , ,
(...) , , ; , ; (...) ,
(...) , , ;
, ; , ; -
, , , ,

592

. .

, ,
[ 1995: 363367].

,
, ,
(), (.
, : , ... ( . . , . [ 1997: 458]).
, . , , [ 1997: XVI].
3. :


. . , ,
.
( (),
)
, , ,
, , (.6<;), , . , ,
, , [ 1996: 3839].
. - . -
.
,
. , , . . ,
,
,

...

593

,
[ 2001: 29; 20016: 208].

(),
,
, .
. ;, , _ . (;, ,
, .
, ^1., (), (), , , , , .
, , ( . . ), ,
,
- -,
, , , : , , " (. : [ 1997: 145]).
, , , ,

. ,
. . , ,
[
1997:146]. , , [ ].
- - -,
.
- ,
, , , , ()(. - ).
3 8 - 3595

594

. .

, - (
). (,
), -, ( , ), ,
. Ka9apoiq ,
q,T ; ;
, , Te^eicocnq
, (yvocpoq) ,
- (avorioia) [ 1996: 39].
.
(), . (), ,
,
. , . . : . , , , , , (...)
(yiyvcboKEiv) , ,
, (avei)j,v) [ 2000: 54].

, . ,
, , ,
. , ,
,
, , , , ,
, .
, .
(Geocpaveia),
(Gecoaiq) , , Geoooiq, [ : 65], . , ,

...

595

[ : 49]. ,
. .
. ,
, , ; ,
; .
, [ 2001: 256
257]. , ,
, , , ,
, . . , , . ,
, , , .

, . . . ,
. ,
: , .
(...) .
(...) ().
(...) , (...)
[ 1996: 35].
. , , , , (...) , , , ,
, ,
,
, , [ 1997: 35].

596

4. :

(...)
, (...)

.
, .
()

(. o\)p|3oA.ov , ) , - , , ,
[ 1970:
10]. ,
,
[
2001: 156].

,
, , , , .
, -
,
, , , , , ., (. [ 1991: 84]). ,
,
, .
, , , , ,
, .
. .
,
. -, ,
. -, ,
. ,
, , " [ 1991: 87]. , , .

...

597

, ,
. ,
, , ,
(...
[
2001: 95]), . , , ,
.
[ , 249, 255, 261], . , 1)
, , , , , ,
, 2)
.
, , .
.
, , , ,
, , , , , ,
, ,
, ,
,
, , , ,

, . , , ,
,
( 20: 36)1, . [ 1995: 2729].
1


(20: 3436), : 34-
: ; 35-
, , 36-
; , .

598

. .

, ,

[ 2001: 263]. ,
,
. , ,
, , ,
, . ,
, (,
), , . ()
( ), , . . , , (
),
, . . , ,
( ).

: 1) , , 2) , .
.
, , . , , , ,
, , , , , , , , ,
[ 1995: 17 .]. ,
,
, , ", , , [ 2002: 122].

, .
, , ,
. . ,
, , , , . , ,
, ,
, , , [ 1997: 19, 21].

...

599

, , .
() , ,
, , , . ., ,
,
() . ,
, , , , [ : 21]. ,
, ,
,
.

, - . , ,

,


[ : 23].
-

.
:
[ 2001: 179]. ,
. , ,
. . : , . :
: , , [ 2001: 193].

- .
. ,

600

. .


, , ,
, , , , , [
2002; 2002; 2002].

1997 . . . . ., 1997.
2001 . . . : . , 2001.
1966 . . . : ( ). ., 1966.
1997 . . . // : . ., 1997.
1998 . . . . ., 1998.
1991 . . . . , 1991.
2002 . . . . ., 2002.
1995 . . ., 1995.
1997 . . ., 1997.
2001 . : . ., 2001.
2001 . , . // . . 2. ., 2001. . 2829.
20016 . , . // . . 2. . 2001. . 208.
1996 . . . . ., 1996.
2002 (), . :
. . 1. ., 2002.
1996 {), . . . ., 1996.
2002 . . . . ., 2002.
1970 . . . // . . 5. ., 1970.
1982 . . . , , . ., 1982.
1994 . .. . . . ., 1994.
1995 . . . . ., 1995.
1997 . . . : . ., 1997.
2000 . . . // . . . : . . ., 2000.
1997 . . . Corpus Areopagiticum // .
. ., 1997.

. 3. ()

, ,

1 . .
.
,
, -.
, , .
: ,
,
, - ( ), -
, - ?
,
.

1. . . , 2 beautiful,
schon . .; , . 3 : beautifulface \poem, painting] [-
1

. . ,
.
2
, , .
,
, ( / ) - .
3
, ,
- . . . , ,
- .

602

. 3.

, - ]; beautiful women [roses, clothes] [,


- ].
beautiful ( schon . .)
- : beautiful weather (. schdnes Wetter, .
grazus oras) ; beautiful ride ; beautiful soup
[dinner, wine] [, -oe ]; beautiful patience
; beautiful organization ! .
. beauty
: spiritual beauty ;
beauty of form [voice, melody, verse, feeling] [, ,
, ]; beauties of nature ; beauty contest
. , - : beauty preparations ; . .; beauty doctor
, ( : ); beauty culture
, , . .
2. . . , , .: beautiful, lovely, handsome,
pretty, comely . . 4 schon hubsch5: hubsch , schon, ( ) 14 .
.
3. (, ) ,
. . : , . .

, ( )
4

Webster's New World College Dictionary : beautiful is applied to


that which gives the highest degree of pleasure to the senses or to the mind and suggests that
the object of delight approximates one's conception of an ideal; lovely refers to that which
delights by inspiring affection or warm admiration; handsome implies attractiveness by reason
of pleasing proportions, symmetry, elegance, etc. and carries connotations of masculinity,
dignity, or impressiveness; pretty implies a dainty, delicate, or graceful quality in that which
pleases and carries connotations of femininity or diminutiveness; comely applies to persons
only and suggests a wholesome attractiveness of form and features rather than a high degree
of beauty; fair suggests beauty that is fresh, bright, or flawless and, when applied to persons,
is used esp. of complexion and features; good-looking is closely equivalent to handsome or
pretty, suggesting a pleasing appearance but not expressing the fine distinctions of either word;
beauteous, equivalent to beautiful in poetry and lofty prose, is now often used in humorously
disparaging references to beauty ANT. ugly.
5
: Sie war nicht hubsch,
aber sehr schon (Th. Mann, Krull 441) ' [], [ ]'.

603

, ., : () !! . Wie
schon!) ( ) danke schon, . koszonom
szepen, . dziqkujq slicznie.
- her smile was one of her beauties, -
, :
( * ).
: the contains a thousand beauties , I 7 say that 1 see the beauty of it
; his black eye was a beauty ; you are a beauty, I must say , .
- , . ., : . -, .
- , ,
.
, , , , .
- ,
. , ,
, , .
, beautiful, beauty
, pretty, prettiness. , prettiness
.
4. , , , , , ,
(. , , , ) , .: /. , 6 .
, - , ,
. ,
. , , * . , , . ,
. : , ; -
6

(
); , , .

604

. 3.

; ( , ) , ;
, ; , (. . ).
: ,
, , , , .
. , , . .
,
, .
,
: , , ; ; (.-.: , , ); ; (.: , ,
); , . : . ', , '; ', , , '; , . , , , ; ( , ); ;
(), . ', , '; , , ; (., . ',
, ': ); , ,
; ; (= ).
, (/)
: , , , (
, ), , , ;
; , . ; , , , (., ., ., . ', , ,
, ; , '); ( ,
, , , : / ,
, ); (. ' ,
, '); ' , '.
- - , :
) . , , . (
. . ): ( , , ), , , , .:
; ( ): , , : , ;
) : , , .
) : , !;
(, , , ,
, , ) . ', ', ;
) , ;

605

) : ,
, , . .: (), , ( ).
,
, ( : > ).

, :
(. ', , '), , (. ' , ').
5. vs. : . : () ,
. - ( ), . , , , , . .: ( ); -
( ).

: ,
. , :
, : , ,
, / (. . . ,
1963); (. . );
(. . . -);
: , , , , (. . . );
: /
(. . );
, :
,
, (. .
).
XIXXX . , ,
(., . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . ).
, :
) () :
, , (. . . ); , ,
/ (. .

606

. 3.

); ,
, (. . ).
: ,
, / (. . );
I (. . ,
).
. (
, , ): / , / , , / , / / ?
(. . ). , , .
) ( ) : , , \
, / : / / (. . ); , -, / / , / (. . );
- ! (. . );
! (. . );
(. . . );
(. . . ).
) ( , ): (. . );
,
(. . . ); : / , ! (. . . .:
7 . . 3); , , / , , /
, / (. . . );
/ , / /
(. . ).
: ...
(. . .
).
: .. . , (. . . );
, ( ).
,
: + + , : ... , , , , , (. . . . . 11).
,
-

607

: , / , , / , /
, (. . . - ); ... /
(. . . 18191822: ) 7 . = -. ' ' . . , ,
, (. . . ).
, , : ; / (. . .
); / (. . . , 18131814). : 1) vs. ; 2) vs.
; 3) , .
// (
) + + . ,
(
): (. . ); (. . Generation ), (. . .
), (. . ), (. ;
. . ), (. ), (. . ),
(. . ), (. . -.
, ; . . ; . . ),
(. . . ; . . ), (. . .
. .: 3 . . 1), (. ), (. . . ), (. . ), (. . . ; . ), (. . . -;
. -. : . 1, . 2; . . ), (. . ), (. . . ; . . . . 2).
, .
.
. ?
,
, .
XVIIIXIX .:
1

XVIIIXX . 12
, . .
( - ), . . ( ), . , . . (
), . . ( ), . . ( ),
. ( -), . . .

608

. 3.

/ / (. . .
); , / \
(. . . ); , I
; I ,
(. . . ). , : , I
, I / ! (. . . ). -
: / (. . . ).
, : , (JI. . . ).

XXXXI ., , : , ; , , ,
(. . ); (. . ).
.
, , , :
Einen so vorzuglichen Mann sich anzueignen, war der erste Minister bedacht; er verheiratete ihm seine Tochter, ein Frauenzimmer von der heitersten Schonheit und gewandt
in alien hdheren geselligen Tugenden (J. W. Goethe. Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre);
Damit offnete Meister Abraham die , undauf der Strohmatte zusammengekrummt,
schlafend, lag ein Kater, der wirklich in seiner Art ein Wunder von Schonheit zu nennen
(E. T. A. Hoffmann. Lebensansichten des Katers Murr).
Wunder '
', .: Dies Madchen, dies Wunder von Schonheit will sich einem Roten an
den Hals werfenl (K. May. Satan und Ischariot. Bd. II). ;
: Hoffentlich wird der Winter entsprechend wie der
Herbst gewesen ist: wenigstens hier war er ein wahres Wunder von Schonheit und Lichtfiille ein Claude Lorrain in Permanenz (F. Nietzsche. Briefe). von
, : Oder ware das Lied von
der Leidenschaft, an der die jubelnden Herzen Romeos und Julias verbluten mufiten,
nicht ein Lied der reinsten Schonheit? (L. Ganghofer. Waldrausch).
,
XIXXX .; -
: She was a woman in her freshest age, Of wondrous
beauty, and ofbountie rare... (E. Spenser. The Faerie Queene, 1596); A damsel of surpassing beauty! (W. Irving. The Alhambra, 1832).
, . . , .: Princesse of beauty
for whose only sake / The raines of Loue I loue, though neuer slake, / And ioy therein,
though nations count it shame (Ph. Sidney. Astrophel and Stella, 1591).

609

- Schdnheit , - beauty. beaut: Une jeune dame Catalina,


de bonne famille et dune ravissante [...] (A. R. Lesage. Gil Bias de Santillane);
LucUe etait grande et dune beaute remarquable, mais serieuse (F.-A. Chateaubriand.
Memoires d'Outre-tombe). ,
, : Eclore tout a coup
sous les pas de Dieu, I Ou brillef sur le front de la supreme, / Comme un pale
fleuron de son saint diademel (A. de Lamartine, Nouvelles meditations poetiques); Par
moments, le t rep as, comme le fruit d'un arbre, / Tombait du front pensifde la pale ;
I Le de meurtre et de frocit I Passait de I'ceildu tigre au regard de la vierge
(V. Hugo. Legende des siecles, 1859).

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XX : . // XX :
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Malygina 2002 N. Malygina. Creative history of the story 'The Extinguished Lamp of
U'ich' // Essays in Poetics. The Journal of the British Neo-Formalist Circle. Platonov Special
Issue in Two Volumes. Vol. II. Keele, 2002.

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2001 . . : // W. Weitlaner (ed.). Kultur. Sprache. Okonomie. Beitrage zur gleichnamigen Tagung an
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1996 . M. (. .). -. II.
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1997 . . . . :
. ., 1997.
. 2000/01. , .
. . 2000, . 200111 . 200112.
XX . / . -
. ., 1998.
Brockhaus Enzyklopadie in 24 Banden. Miinchen, 1990.
Doleschal, Hoffmann, Doleschal U., Hoffmann E. Qualitat. Zur Diffusion
eines globalen marktwirtschaftlichen Konzeptes im Russischen. R. Hammel, L. Geist (eds.),
Jungslavistlnnentreffen Berlin 2001. Miinchen.
Duden 1989 Deutsches Universalworterbuch AZ, 2. Auflage. Mannheim et al., 1989.
Fairclough 1989 Fairclough N. Language and Power. New York, 1989.
Fairclough 1995 Fairclough N. Critical Discourse Analysis. The Critical Study of Language. Harlow, 1995.
Fairclough, Wodak 1997 Fairclough N.. Wodak R. Critical discourse analysis // T. Van
Dijk (ed.). Discourse and Interaction. Sage, 1997. P. 258284.
Hoffmann, Hoffmann E. Weltbilder Kulturstandards Schlusselkonzepte
und Werbediskurs // B. Hansen (ed.). Linguistische Beitrage zur Slavistik aus Deutschland und
Osterreich. XI. Jungslavistlnnen-Treffen Cambridge 2002. Miinchen.
Hoffmann, Doleschal, Hoffmann E., Doleschal U. Qualitat. Marktwirtschaftliche Schliisselkonzepte zwischen Globalisierung und Diffusion. Dargestellt am Beispiel des
Russischen // Journal of Cross-Cultural Competence and Management, 3rd vol.
Piirainen 1997 Piirainen T. Towards a New Social Order in Russia. Transforming
Structures and Everyday Life. Dartmouth et al., 1997.
Rathmayr 1993 Rathmayr R. Cto u nas normal'no? Was ist bei uns normal? Wandlungen in der Perestroikalexik // A. Ertelt-Vieht (ed.): Sprache, Kultur, Identitat. Selbst- und
Fremdwahrnehmungen in Ost- und Westeuropa. Frankfurt/M. et al., 1993. S. 3154.
Rathmayr, Rathmayr R. Reden iiber die Qualitat des Lebens. Zur Entstehung
bzw. zum Wandel eines Konzepts im Russischen // Slavistische Linguistik 2001 / Hgg. von
G. Freidhof. Miinchen.
Van Dijk 1998 Van Dijk T. Ideology. A Multidisciplinary Approach. London et al., 1998.
Wodak R. 1994 Wodak R. Critical linguistics and critical discourse analysis // J. Verschueren, J.-O. Ostmann, J. Blommaert (eds.). Handbook of Pragmatics. Amsterdam; Philadelphia, 1994. S. 204210.

(,

, , ,
1

, , , , A L L ,
H I M M E L , KOSMOS, U N I V E R S U M , W E L T A L L , W E L T R A U M . vs. (. concrete concepts
vs. abstract concepts, [Wierzbicka 1996]). :
- : 1, 1,
1, 2, 1; ALL, H I M M E L 1, H I M M E L 2, KOSMOS 1,
U N I V E R S U M 1, W E L T A L L , W E L T R A U M ;
: 2, 2, 2;
KOSMOS 2, U N I V E R S U M 2.
, .
'', '/', '-/', '', '', '', ''
'', ''.
:
1 H I M M E L 1 ' ';
2 H I M M E L 2 ' ()';
1 W E L T R A U M ' ';
K O S M O S 1, ALL, W E L T A L L ' ( )
';
1, 1 U N I V E R S U M 1 ' ( )'.

.
, 1
. , , M A C . ., , :
1

. . : , -2001.
, .

...

655

, ,
XVIXVII ,
, : ,
, , , ,
( 1988/27).
, ,
, . ---: ,
( , )
, . - ...
. ,
( 2000/37).
2 KOSMOS 2, 2,
2 UNIVERSUM 2 '
-'. . (, ) ; der Kosmos (das Universum)
seiner Gedanken, :
... - . , , ,
( 1996/42).
.: Dylan... schuf in Worten und Musik ein ganzes Universum...
, , .
, , , , (.
).
.: Der Garten... machte auf mich immer mehr... den Eindruck eines Kosmos in
Miniatur.
- ... ().
.: Aber lag nicht auch etwas Osterreichisches in dieser beharrlichen Ausrichtung
auf das menschliche Universum...
.

, KOSMOS, UNIVERSUM: , , Kosmen, Universen; , , Alle,
Weltalle, Weltraume. :


(?. . .). ,
. . -, -

656

: . , <? . .)
. , , , ! , ,
. .
- ,
( 1999/21).
.: ... die Gleichwertigkeit der nichtwissenschaftlichen Hypothese von Gott und
der wissenschaftlichen Hypothesen von einer Vielzahl von Universen (Kosmen,r-'Allen,
n
WeltaUen,?Weltraumen. T. P.)...
, (-. . .),
() ().
.: A Is Beispiel erwdhnen wir die Hypothese von Moisej Markov uber die MakroMikrosymmetrie unserer Welt, nach der andere Universen (Kosmen. T . P.) bestehen
konnen, die...
...sind nicht dann auch jede Menge Universen denkbar, die auf einer Physik ohne
unsere Quantenphysikaufbauen? Diverse Theorien (...) raumen die Moglichkeit
bis zu unendlich vielen Kosmen ein (Eigenschaften anderer Kosmen, http://home.
arcor.de/universum4u/faq.html).
Wir konnen keine A tome und keine Weltalle konstruieren, aber wir sie dank
dem Universalitatsprinzip als konstruiert begreifen (http://www. hyperkommunikation.ch/lexikon/formalisierung.htm).
Aber It. SPIEGEL soli der "verbesserte Nachfolger des Cobe-Satelliten, der im Jahre
2006 in Betrieb gehen soil, ganz am Rande unseres Kosmos vielleicht auch Hinweise
auf andere Weltraume finden" (http://home.t-online.de/home/weber.E-K-H/
Nichts05.htm).
. . . 2:

. : (), () ( ) ( 1997/41).
.: Im Licht meiner Beschaftigung mit den "Kosmen nationaler Welten"...
, W E L T R A U M , Raum-, .: Weltraumfahr
{.Raumfahrt), Weltraumflug (Raumflug), Raumfahrer, Raumkapsel, Raumschiff Raumstation . ( ) (
), (, ).
.

,
1.

...

657

(= ) (= ),
Erde Weltraum. . :
,
, ( 2000/13).
.: Denn im Weltraum laufen Prozesse ab, die man auf der Erde nur sehr schwer
oder uberhaupt nicht modelljeren kann.
...
... ( ,
26.10.1987).
- , , . ... ( , 27.04.1989).
,
Atmosphare Weltraum, .:
... , , ( 1998/4).
.: ...unterzeichneten einen Vertrag, der Atomversuche in der Atmosphare, im
Weltraum und unter Wasser untersagte.
, , , ''
, '' . , 1 ,
( ), ,
WELTAUM, , WELTALL, ALL, , .: in den Weltraum fliegen (), hinausfliegen (),
hinauffliegen (); ins Weltall (Alt)fliegen, hinausfliegen, ''hinauffliegen. , KOSMOS 1 .
, , : 1 , '' , 1 , '', .:
, , . ,
? ? , , ? ?
, .
, (
1997/16).
1, W E L T R A U M ,
WELTALL, ALL , , , ' ' ' '. . () , , die Erforschung (Erschliefiung, Eroberung) des Weltraums (Weltalls, Alls), in den Weltraum (das Weltall, das
All) vorstofien.

42 - 3 5 95

658

2.

-
, .:
.. . !
, . , ().

().
(. der
erdnahe Raum {Weltraum)) (. .
, . der offene Raum {Weltraum)), .:
, , , ... ().
13 46... ( , 19.01.1989).
Weltraumspaziergang. * , * , *das erdnahe Weltall {All,
Universum), *das offene Weltall {All, Universum).
3. '' ' '
, 1 , . , 1
, . [ 1997: 214]:
, , , , ,
.
H I M M E L 1
SKY, . [LGDaF] [Wierzbicka 1996]:
HIMMEL 1: der Luftraum tiber der Erde
sky something very big
people can see it
people can think like this about this something:
it is a place
it is above all other places
it is far from people
1 WELTRAUM, 1 ALL, WELTALL, UNIVERSUM 1, , . :
... ,
, (* . . .); ,

, , , ... 661

659

, ... (. ).
: ...Semenov loschte das Bordbuch nicht erst auf dem Planeten, sondern bereits
im Weltraum(*Weltall, *All, * Universum)...
, . , , , ,
, , , , , , (G. Orwell. 1984).
. [LGDaF]:
WELTRAUM: der unendliche Raum auBerhalb der Erdatmosphare.
'' ' ' ' ( )' 1. , ,
, :
...
().
. :
... ? ...
, , ().
.: ... 1 ...
'' ' ' ALL, WELTALL, UNIVERSUM 1, .
[LGDaF]:
WELTALL: der ganze Weltraum mit alien Himmelskurpern;
UNIVERSUM = Welt(all);
ALL = Kosmos, Universum.
. :
...als das Universum (All, Weltalt) eine "brodelnde Suppe" war...
In dieser Zeit bekam das Universum (All, Weltalt) eine kornige Struktur, und es trat
in die Zeit seiner Jugend ein, welche ungefahr eine Million Jahre dauerte.
. :
Ungefahr 300 Jahre nach dem Urknall war das Universum (All, Weltall.
T. P.) etwa 3000 Gradheifi (Breidenich).
, 1 WELTRAUM . 1 UNIVERSUM 1 .
4.

, ,
. . . :
,
(Jo . . .) ().
42

660

,
1028 , (- . . .) ().
, , KOSMOS 1, ALL, WELTALL UNIVERSUM 1 . . :
Diese Strahlung nemlt man Reliktstrahlung, da sie Informationen die weit
zurtickliegende Vergangenheit des Universums {Alls, Weltalls, Kosmos) enhalt.
...die Information daruber istfur die Elementarteilchenphysik unddas Verstandnis
der Prozesse im jungen Universum {All, Weltall, Kosmos) aufierordentlich wichtig.
. :
Das Weltall ist nicht unendlich alt, sondern begann mit dem Urknall. Seither dehnt
es sich mit all seiner Materie im Inneren aus, mit hoher, aber nicht unendlich hoher
Geschwindigkeit. Und deswegen ist der Rand des Universums auch noch nicht unendlich weit gekommen (Breidenich).
Andere Kosmen konnen vollig anders beschaffen sein als unser Universum, sie konnten beispielsweise ohne jede Materie sein, oder aus Antimaterie bestehen oder 5 und
mehr Dimensionen haben. So wie beijeder Fluktuation einem 'Auf' auch ein "Ab"
folgen mufi, konnte ein solches fur uns vollig fremdartiges All eine Art Gegenpol zu
unserem Kosmos darstellen. In jedem Fall waren derartige Kosmen, so sie nicht wie
unser eigner beschaffen sind, absolut lebensfeindlich. Wir hatten keine Chance, ein
All aus Antimaterie zu betreten, weil sich Materie mit Antimaterie sofort vernichtet,
annihiliert. Und auch ein 5- dimensionaler Weltraum ist nicht der richtige Ort fur
uns, weil hier die Gesetze der elektrischen und gravitativen Anziehung nicht gelten
und sich daher sofort jedes Atom auflosen wurde (Das online-Lexikon der Astronomie).
5. 1 K O S M O S 1
1 KOSMOS 1: ,
. . :
: , . - ... (. ).
: ...wie der Kosmos auf uns wirkt...
, , , - , , , , , ( 18.10.1997, ).
: ...dafl irgendjemand diktiert vielleicht Gott, vielleicht der Kosmos...
.. . ,
. .
, .
, ( 2000/18).

...

661

: ...Der Kosmos ist jederzeit bereit Leben zu vernichten, das er selbst hervorgebracht hat.
6.
, , 2, 2, 2, KOSMOS 2, UNIVERSUM
2 .
.
: , ( ,
. . .) , ( 1998/36).
.: .. .erstmals zu sehen, welchen Kosmos (welches Universum)jeder Mensch in sich
tragt...
, , , { , . . .) ().
.: Das Werk Bacons nennen die Wissenschaftler... "Universum (Kosmos) der
Verzweiflung".
( , . . .),
( 2000/12).
.: Und sehr bald werden die europaische oder die amerikanische Zivilisation in
der Lage sein, ein "Universum (einen Kosmos) hoher Virtualitat " zu schaffen...

( , . . .),
( 1996/30).
.:.. .funktioniert das Gesetz des sich ewig ausdehnenden adminstrativen (Kosmos)...
, ().
.: Sein Kosmos ist nicht die Welt, sondern der Mensch.
Die Quellen von Brossas dramatischem Universum (Kosmos. T. P.) sindder katalanische, speziell barceloninische Arbeit er- und Handwerkeralltag und zugleich die
Kritik an der Kirche, Militar und Bourgeoisie (Kindler Literaturlexikon).
2, KOSMOS 2 ,
, , .:
, (? . . .),
(G. Orwell. 1984).
.: Da die Supermdchte unbesiegbar sind, stellt jede von ihnen ein eigenes Universum (Jeinen eigenen Kosmos) dor...

662

(? . . .) ( 1997/16).
.: In diesem Moskauer Universum (?Moskauer Kosmos} verbinden sich grofie
Meisterwerke der Architektur mit...
,
, (-)
. ,
- .

. . 16. ., 1964.
MAC . . 4. ., 1984.
1997 . . . 1, 2, , , // . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . .
/ . . . . . . 1. ., 1997.
. . 4. ., 1940.
LGDaF Langenscheidts GroBworterbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Berlin; Munchen,
1996.
Wierzbicka 1996 A. Wierzbicka. Semantics: Primes and Universals. Oxford; New
York, 1996.

) Tubinger Russische Korpora: http://www.sfb441.uni-tuebingen.de/bl/


. . // . 1989/11.
. . // . 1989/12.
. . : // . 1986/4.
. . // . 1987/5.
. . // . 1986/3.
. . // . 1986/08.
. . // . 1988/05.
, 27.04.1989.
, 1988 2000.
, 26.10.1987, 19.01.1989.
. ; .
G. Orwell. 1984.
) :
. . // . . (. .). ., 1991.

...

663

. Breidenich. Warum ist der Himmel nachts so dunkel? Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung,
17.5.2002.
Das online-Lexikon der Astronomie, http://astronomie.info/
Eigenschaften anderer Kosmen, http://home.arcor.de/universum4u/faq.html
http://www.hyperkommunikation.ch/lexikon/formalisierung.htm
http://home.t-online.de/home/weber.E-K-H/Nichts05.htm
Kindler Literaturlexikon

666 Tan Aoshuang

THE CHINESE CONCEPT OF LOVE IN THE LIGHT


OF WESTERN LINGUISTICS

By day I'd love to be her shadow


To move with her in unison.
Alas, umbrageous are the lofty trees,
Too often we would be parted.

'Tween the twin pillars, I'd love to be the candle-light


To feast my eyes on her face ofjade.
Alas, the sun would look in all too soon
And drown me in its glory. (1)

I. The Chinese Concept of Love


The concept of love varies from one culture to another. Nonetheless, there are features
all have in common, i.e. universal characteristics that can be traced in the vocabulary and
established idioms present in the various literary genres of different times and nations.
This being the case, my paper centres on words and expressions related to love in the
Chinese language and literature. Before reconstructing the Chinese concept of love, I shall
dwell for a moment on the word love itself as used in the Chinese language.
A bilingual dictionary would readily indicate that the relevant word for the English
love is AIQING in Chinese, a term that came into use as late as the twenties of the last
century, together with the appearance of European literature in Chinese translation and
the birth of Chinese literature in BAIHUA a a (the modern vernacular) some eighty years
ago. Come to think of it, what are eighty years in a civilization that stretches back several millennia! Each of the two characters which compound into the term AIQING, love,
is an independent word in its own right and of ancient origin, as is borne out by the great
number of its collocations, sufficient to generate a semantic field of its own. Both components, Al and QING, are productive and, in combination with other related characters,
bring forth their own microfield in displaying the various connotations of love in Chinese.
A cursory glance at the semantic field of love will reveal that the characters in the semantic
field (44 in all) are collocated with either one of the basic characters (Al or QING), either in a direct manner or indirectly. The arrows indicate the order of the two-character
pairs as displayed in the Comprehensive Dictionary of the Chinese Language (2).
The designation or code of each microfield from left to right can be regarded as components of the notion of love in Chinese. Accordingly, related to the pivotal character Al
(love) are the words denoting respect, worship, yearning, and pity whereas the words
denoting friendship, sexuality, sickness and offence (or regret) are grouped within the
sphere of the character QING, feelings.
It must be borne in mind that the two basic characters Al and QING are nowhere identical in terms of usage. The character QING (feelings), which suggests sentiments of
varying intensity and a variety of stronger emotions, is a much more productive word.
In The Dream of the Red Chamber (a magnificent 18th century novel by Cao Xueqin), 35 of the 120 couplets heading each chapter of the book contain the word QING
(feelings) whereas the word Al (love) figures merely in a single couplet. It is quite obvious that most of the foregoing notions illustrated by the Diagram (being abstract entities
like the notion of love itself) defy any exclusive and clear-cut definition. As for the notion

77?e Chinese Concept of Love in the Light of Western Linguistics

665

of love, it suggests an emotion involving both body and mind. 'To be in love'' is a verbal
phrase, but the verb 'to love' can be either an action or a state of being. It may appear
strange that the expressions, 7 am in love' and 7 love you', are, until recently, virtually
non-existent in Chinese classical literature prose as well as poetry. In the Russian translation of The Dream of the Red Chamber by Panasiuk, BAO YU (lit. Cherished Jade) the
principle male character of the story, is nowhere quoted as saying 7 love you' to DAI YU
(lit. Black Jade), his beloved cousin. As for DAI YU (Black Jade), it would greatly surpass her power of imagination to conceive that there could be such a thing as 7 am in
love' or 7 love you, BAO YU.' Nonetheless, there is no doubt whatsoever in the reader's
mind that the two young lovers are indeed deeply fond of each other and that they would,
as people in love usually do, wish to stick to each other as lifelong companions 'until there
were silver threads in their hair' (BAI TOU XIE LAO), as the set phrase goes.
One would ask why it was so hard for the two to unbosom themselves to each other
by uttering the plain and simple words 7 love you'. It is because no such expression existed in Chinese in those days. In other words, the answer is to be found in the extraordinary diversity of human cultures.
Similarly, Shakespeare's great tragedy, Romeo and Juliet ('For never was a story of
more woe / Than this of Juliet and her Romeo'), could have ended happily had it not been
for the twist of events that cut short the lives of the two lovers. The dismal ending, moreover, could well have been avoided in Renaissance Europe. The love story between BAO
YU and DAI YU, however, (its much later appearance on the literary scene notwithstanding) was predetermined to end in a tragedy. DAI YU 's love was doomed from the very
outset, destined, as she was, to die a premature death. BAO YU, on his part, was likewise fated to end up a cloistered monk. In solitude, DAI YU breathes her last as the cutting blare of the wedding band penetrates the bamboo grove from the other end of the
garden. In strict accordance with time-honoured rituals, BAO YU lifts the veil of his
would-be bride only to perceive, to his abject dismay, that she was not DAI YU but BAO
CHAI (another cousin of his) instead, even though she may be the very embodiment of
female virtues and the ultimate choice of his grandmother, the dowager.
Actually, the story was, as the author put it, meant to be an empty dream, a mystical
notion of clearing a terrible debt incurred in the previous life. In the author's view, love
is, in the final analysis, an ambrosial illusion. Nevertheless, love is real; it does exist, not
merely as a notion, but also as a craving and an emotion. This seems to be the cruel paradox manifested in the novel. A casual glance at the semantic field will bring home the
huge space the microfield of 'regret' takes up, and not without reason. Both 'regret' and
'offence' in this context suggest feelings that result from unrequited love. Sex, more often seen as a desire and an impulse, is nonetheless a spectacular feeling to be considered
in due course.
Without courtship and the verbal means of making one's feelings unmistakably clear,
how is the message of love to reach the awareness of the beloved? The author of The
Dream of the Red Chamber has no doubt dedicated many a beautiful chapter to describing the profound devotion between BAO YU and DAI YU. He has, as a matter of fact,
woven the plot so masterly that, despite the genuine pleasure BAO YU took in being surrounded by pretty girls, no reader would ever question the perfect sincerity of his love
for DAI YU. Alas, for want of the expression 7 love you', he was hopelessly disabled

666

Tan Aoshuang

from communicating his deep love to DAI YU. A reasonable substitute for love could, in
those days, be the word heart XIN.
In the semantic field of love (see Diagram) this key word, heart, located between the
characters Al (love) and QING (feelings), tops the sheet. In old China, love was nameless, as it were, envisaged as an emotion flowing from the heart the seat of the seven
emotions and desire. To this word the author refers on a few rare occasions only. In chapter
27, BAO YU irons out the misunderstanding that caused such sore distress to DAI YU.
Here he uses the word heart, protesting, 'I am in my own like you. I should have thought
our hearts are the same (meaning that they love each other), but my heart has been longing for you in vain. I try and try, but it gets me nowhere and nobody knows or can...'.
In chapter 82, the issue of heart surfaces dramatically in DAI Y U ' s nightmare. She
is terribly disturbed by the gossips going around in the extended family about BAO YU
's affection for her. She vaguely feels that without the grandmother's blessing, her fond
hopes would come to grief. DAI Yu sinks in despair. In her dream she sees herself forced
to leave the family and marry a widower. Neither BAO YU nor the grandmother, i.e. the
dowager, are willing to come to her assistance. Brutally forsaken, she cries out in her sleep,
reproving BAO YU for being heartless and devoid of all sense of righteousness WU QING
WU YI. In this same dream, she watches BAO YU vindicating himself by cutting out his
heart and showing her his bleeding love.
The author, moreover, makes frequent use of the term XIN SHI (concerns of the heart),
when he adverts to love.
In chapter 97, on being told that DAI YU had consigned to the flames the poems she
addressed to BAO YU, BAO Y U ' s grandmother, the dowager, dismissed the state of being in love as a sickness of the heart, XIN BING that could not be healed and needed not
be heeded.
As she looked in on the dying girl, the dowager was angry with her for having been remiss in her duties and negligent of her role in the family ( BU SHOU BEN FEN). To her
mind there could not and must not be such a thing as love. Accordingly, she refused to put
up with such a sickly relationship between a young girl and a young man. She herself had
never in her life experienced a relationship remotely similar to it an emotional association that bespoke a sickly state of mind , let alone her female forebears.
To her matrimony was something that ought to be embarked on as a result of the matchmaker's arrangement and parental orders, MEI SHUO ZHI YAN, FU MU ZHI MING, in
view of the fact that the rules of propriety in China in former times prescribed that a woman must obey her father before marriage, her husband in wedlock, and her sons in widowhood, traditionally known as the Three Obediences and Four Virtues SAN CONG SI DE.
Neither the male nor the female concerned had any say in the choice of his or her prospective connubial partner. And as it was a wife's natural duty to comply with her husband's eveiy
whim, she would meekly and in good grace resign herself to her husband's concubinage.
More often than not, a man would willingly embrace this privilege accorded to all men from
emperor to plebeian. Sterility on the woman's part would make it imperative on the husband to take a concubine willy-nilly, were it for no other reason than the continuation of
the family line. This is a practice as old as the male-oriented Chinese civilization itself.
Following in the steps of The Dream of the Red Chamber, there appeared the 18th century biographical novel, Six Chapters of a Drifting Life, by Shen Fu (English translation

77?e Chinese Concept of Love in the Light of Western Linguistics

667

by Lin Yutang (4)) that tells the heart-rending story of a woman's self-renouncing love. In his
introduction to the book, Lin Yutang writes, 'I cannot help wondering what this commonplace scholar [the author] must have been like to inspire such a pure and loyal love in his
wife, and to be able to appreciate it so much as to write for us one of the tenderest accounts
of wedded love we have ever come across in literature. Peace be to his soul!'
What strikes one as inconceivable is the saintly abnegation of his beloved wife Yun.
Splendidly endowed by nature and well educated, she was brought up in sensitive awareness of her womanly duty. Not only did she urge upon her husband the sagacity of taking
a concubine, but also made sure th^t the young woman was appealing and educated, qualities she believed to be evident in the person of a sing-song girl she had taken a fancy to.
Unduly provoked, fortune must have worked against her by marrying the woman of her
choice to a man of affluence, thereby freeing her husband from a well-meant imposition.
What then can be inferred from this self-sacrificial attempt on the woman's part? Female
virtue and wisdom? The tortured and distorted soul of a Chinese woman? Deficient appreciation of conjugal love that must not be shared with another woman? Or should it be
interpreted as the expression of the old Chinese concept of love?
With reference to The Dream of the Red Chamber, the contemporaneous Chinese
writer, Wang Meng observes: 'In classical Chinese literature one rarely finds a work like
The Dream of the Red Chamber in which the theme of love is so freely, fully, and with
such unalloyed delight pursued and glorified'(5). Wherever freedom of love was concerned, there was sure to be a yawning abyss that gaped between man and woman NAN
NU ZHI DA FANG, the formidable barrier keeping both sexes apart, resulting from the
Confucian ethics institutionalized by a feudal state. In conformity with the Five Ethical
Principles, WU LUN, proclaimed by Confucianism, the relation between husband and wife
was not one of mutual love, but one of mutual respect (JING), as is exemplified by the
expression XIANG JING RU BIN: showing each other the kind of respect due to a wor-

thy guest, (see Diagram, semantic field, upper left, by the centre).
In modern Chinese, the word denoting love is AI. Hence, '/ love you' is pronounced
WO AI N1. In fact, the word AI is far more often used as a verb than as a noun. Besides,
WO AI N1 7 love you' is by no means an entirely modern usage in that its appearance in
old erotic literature is far from being infrequent. In chapter three of The Adventures of
the Before Midnight Scholar (ROU PU TV AN) by the famous playwright Li Yu (1611
cl679) (6), when the scholar, Wei Yangsheng (Casanova's Chinese opposite number),
initiates his beautiful bride Yu Xiang into the art of love-making, he explains, "this business of love-making consists solely in 'I love you' and 'you love me'. Without it, no one
ever achieves orgasm." As is apparent in this specific context, 'I love you' and 'you love
me' relates to sex pure and simple in that such utterances have nothing to do with one's
inner feelings. It can, therefore, be safely assumed that the usage 7 love you' lay well
beyond the reach of a BAO YU or a DAI YU in The Dream of the Red Chamber.
II. Symbols, Metaphors and Allegories
in the Chinese Association Field of Love
The fact that there were no definite terms with which the idea of love could be made
articulate does not imply that the notion of love was in any way alien to the Chinese or

668

Tan Aoshuang

the Chinese culture of former times. Image-tropes abundantly made up for the absence
of relevant verbal expressions. Love was consequently signified by imagery imbedded
in idiomatic expressions such as (1) PO JING CHONG YUAN: 'the shattered mirror
turned whole again'( implying conjugal reconciliation and reunion); (2) QUE YUE
CHONG YUAN: 'the dying moon back to its luminous fullness once again; (3) FEN
CHAIDUAN DAI: 'the hairpin apart and the girdle severed'.'This last set phrase is presumably derived from The Dream of the Red Chamber:
That the word CHAI (hairpin, in example 3) happens to be the second component of
BAO CHAI's name (i.e. the name of the hero's other cousin the third party in the triangular love relationship designated, though undeclared, by his grandmother as his
bride- to-be) and that the word DAI (girdle), a homonym of the word DAI (black), is the
initial component of DAI YU's first name (Black Jade) appear to be no mere coincidence.
As for the negative connotation of the idiom (featuring the words 'apart' and 'severed'),
it seems to forebode the misfortune waiting to befall the two girls.
Apart from the idea of 'wholeness' (with reference to the full moon) and 'severance'
or 'rupture' (in respect of the severed belt) rooted in these derivatives of inanimate objects, there is a group of idioms related to the world of plants and animals, such as soles
(BI MU YU) and spoonbills (BI YI NIAO), both words alluding to a couple enraptured
in love. (YUANYANG): Mandarin ducks, the male and female of which stick to each
other in pairs, and (LIAN LI ZHI) 'interlocked branches' are idioms serving as metaphors for lifelong love.
These expressions occur in Po Chii-I's ballad Everlasting Remorse:
'In the skies, would that we could turn into spoonbills, / On earth, into entwined
branches. Long as they may abide, there is an end to earth and heaven; / Our gnawing remorse, however, will linger on and on.'
Other expressions suggest matrimonial harmony, such as 'a romance performed on
a pair of plucked instruments'(QIN SE ZHI HAO) in antithesis to 'a pair of plucked instruments playing out of tune' (QIN SE BU TIAO), suggesting marital discord.
LUAN FENG HE MING: 'A pair of fabulous birds engaged in a melodious duet',
implies conjugal bliss. FU CHANG FU SUI: 'The husband sings and the wife joins in',
suggests concordance between a married couple, whereas BAI TOU XIE LAO 'holding together to old age', conveys a wish customarily enclosed in congratulations to a newly-wed couple. OU DUAN SI LIAN: Literally, 'even though the lotus root were broken
in two, the fibers remain joined', implying that the threads of a battered romance have
not altogether snapped.
It is amazing that words like jealousy are so conspicuously absent from the Chinese
semantic field of love. However, in the association field of love, one may run into the less
formal expression ZHENG FENG CHI CU, meaning to turn green with envy in rivalry
for the affection of a man or woman (with the acid taste of vinegar CU in the mouth).
The words sexuality (XING), prurience (SE), lust (YU), lechery (YIN), promiscuity and
incest (LUAN) form their own microfield on the upper right of the semantic field, remarkable for its rich content. Romantic love and courtship having been placed under taboo over
the ages, the void resulting from their suppression provided ample room for premarital and,
especially, extramarital sexuality in which love and courtship were uninvolved, a circumstance that gave rise to a great number of figures of speech related to sexual activities.

670

Tan Aoshuang

Traditionally, the sexual act was obliquely referred to as the 'activation of rain and
clouds' (YUN YU ZHI SHI or WU SHAN YUN YU), based on the legend of Prince Gao
Tang who fell asleep from exertion at one of the three Yangtzu Gorges after a hard chase.
In his dream, he perceived a fairy (a succubus in Western cultures) making love to him.
Mornings she would appear as a cloud that melted into rain in the evenings: hence the
metaphor.
Among other four-character idioms springing from this legend there are (ZHAO YUN
MU YU): 'morning clouds and evening rain'; (YUN YU GAOTANG): 'Gao Tang in rain
and clouds'; (XIE YUN WO YU): 'in the rapturous embrace of rain and clouds'; (FENG
QING YUE ZHAI): 'wallowing in fleshly indulgence.' QING TIAN NIE HAI connotes
'insatiable lust and submersion under a sea of sins'. The character QING (for feelings)
includes the states of mind from the minutest change of mood to the most passionate
emotion, and is possessed of the potential for collocation with a huge variety of other
words. It is therefore classified as one of the basic components of the Chinese 'love field'.
The term NIE HAI is of Buddhist origin and denotes a sea of sins. NIE features in the
microfield of fate (see Diagram).
There remain two more figures of speech to complete this series of metaphors.
In Chinese, the trope suggesting a fickle or promiscuous woman is SHUI XING YANG
HUA, which compares her inconstancy to flowing water and her lightness to drifting poplar blossoms. The set phrase 'teasing the grass and picking flowers'(RE CAO NIAN HUA)
describes the prurient male fooling around with members of the opposite sex.
All the above metaphors point to the fact that, since endearing love between man and
woman languished in the fetters of Confucian ethics, unable to declare itself loudly and
clearly, it had to resort to imagery and allegories, a circumstance that accounts for the
exceedingly rich classical legacy of mostly four-character set phrases.
'

III. Whether or not Love in Classical Chinese Literature


is Presented as a Reciprocal Emotion

This topic is directly linked to the 'subject of consciousness' in lyric poetry, and the
'lyric hero' in literary criticism.
In the twenties of last century, the renowned Russian scholar Bakhtin devoted himself to the structural study of narrative. In view of the peculiarities of this genre, he likened it to a polyphonic chorus conducted by the author himself. Bakhtin's ideas were
advanced and elaborated upon by subsequent generations of Russian linguists engaged
in the field of discourse grammar. As can be expected, the topic aroused considerable
interest and much discussion.
In contradistinction to a discourse (a dialogue) in which the subject of consciousness can be either the speaker or the hearer, in narrative writing, the subject of consciousness is variable in that it can be the narrator, an observer or one of the characters.
By words exhibiting coordination of time and space as well as by the speaker's distinctive (egocentric) diction, one can unmistakably identify the subject of consciousness
in a specified passage of a text. In poetry, the so-called 'story-teller' (the narrator) is
invariably the lyrical hero present throughout the poem. In him one cannot fail to recognize the poet himself.

77?e Chinese Concept of Love in the Light of Western Linguistics

671

Browsing through the classical Chinese love poems entered in the Classified Encyclopedic Dictionary of Quotations (BAIKE FEN LEI CI DIAN) (7) in the section of Love,
one is confronted by this singular phenomenon: In 291 out of a total of 315 poetic quotations an absolute majority the poet (a male usually) cannot be identified as the lyric hero, i.e. the 'subject of consciousness'. The reason for this is that the 'focus of empathy' (a psychological term first applied to linguistics by the American scholar Kuno) in
these citations is not a man (not the author) but a woman, the poet's real or imagined wife
in most cases. (Wallace Chafe has it that the focus of empathy is the ability to look at the
world from the point of view of another person (8)). Only in 24 out of 315 poems does
the author empathize with the lyrical hero.
This reflects a very important feature of the Chinese concept of love and betokens the
Chinese traditional way of thinking. Accordingly, to be loved and pampered is a privilege the man enjoys as he stands at the receiving end of the love relationship. It follows
that love is no mutual relationship, as is manifested in the expression NAN HUAN NU
Al: The male is concerned with sensual pleasure, the female, with endearing love.
It could hardly have been the other way round.
In the 291 poems by male poets, the subject of consciousness is indicated by such
words as (JUN) 'my lord' in addressing the husband, and by such seif-demeaning appellations as (QIE) 'your concubine' or (NU) 'your slave' with reference to herself.
The husband could also be addressed as (LANG JUN) 'my young lord', or (ZHENG REN)
'my wayfarer' or 'my warrior' (in the case of the husband's being a conscript serving in
distant borderlands). GONG is used as a respectful salutation and corresponds to 'the
revered so and so' in English.
Incidentally, JUN is also employed as a polite form of address in the second person
among men, used especially on more formal occasions. The following lines in verse could
serve to exemplify poetry in which the focus of empathy is a woman. The quotation is
from The Song of Lament (YUAN GE XING) by the much celebrated Wei dynasty poet
Cao Zhi (A. D. 192232):
Would that I could be the northerly east wind
And fondle your bosom lovingly!
Or, this quotation from Longing in Spring by Li Bai (Li Po or Li T'ai-po), the great
Tang dynasty poet:
By the time my lord thinks of returning, ,
Heartbroken would be your humble slave.
Naughty spring breeze, you total stranger,
How dare you enter my silk-curtained four-poster!
The next and last example is a couplet by the Tang dynasty poet Zhang Jiuling:
Pining for my lord, I feel like a full-orbed moon,,
Whose splendour grows fainter with each passing night.
The character SI (to yearn or pine for someone) on the far left of the semantic field,
together with the character XIANG (reciprocity), constitute the compound XIANG SI

672

Tan Aoshuang

(mutual longing). Possible derivatives of this term are XIANG SI BING (lovesickness)
or DAN XIANG SI (unrequited love).
The love poem Without a Title by the prominent Tang poet LI SHANGYIN (9), begins with the line:
Hard it was to see each other harder still to part,
and closes at the end of seven lines with:
Helpful1 blue bird, bring me the news of her.
The English translation by Innes Herdan is irreproachable except for her misapprehension of the poems' subject of consciousness, whom she regards as a male. In the eightline poem, the only available clue by which this can be unmistakably determined lies in
the fifth line, in which the subject of consciousness expresses her misgivings about looking
into the mirror mornings to find her cloud-like hair changed (turning white). As the term
YUN BIN describes a woman's hair-do, the subject of consciousness is irrefutably a female longing for her husband and appealing to the blue bird to bring her news of him.
This appears to be one of many similar traps even an unguarded native speaker of Chinese could fall into.
However, not all these poems were written behind the persona of a woman. The final
quotation to follow is cited from one of the 24 poems not composed behind the mask of
a woman. It is extracted from the poem Passion Checked, rich in striking metaphors, by
the distinguished Eastern Jin poet Tao Yuanming (A. D. 372427):
By day I'd love to be her shadow,
To move with her in unison.
'Tween the twin pillars, I'd love to be a candle light,
To feast my eyes on her face of jade.
As bamboo I'd love to be her fan,
Cool and airy in her tender hand. (1) ,
In her work Language, Culture, and Cognition, the prominent Polish-Australian linguist, Anna Wierzbicka, noted for her fruitful research in the field of cross-cultural pragmatics, maintains that 'the systems of languages and cultures differ in a large measure.
But there are semantic universals which show that human language, human thought and
culture are based upon common ideas'. One may add that the desire for love is equally
a universal craving, considering that Love is the tie binding together man and woman.
However, for historical, cultural and other reasons the concept of love varies of necessity with time and space.
References
1. The Complete Works of Tao Yuanming, transl. and annot. by Tan Shilin, Joint Publishing
(H. K.) CO., LTD, 1992.
2. The Comprehensive Chinese Dictionary. Shanghai, 1997.
3. -. / . . . . ., 1958.

77?e Chinese Concept of Love in the Light of Western Linguistics

673

4. Shen Fu. Six Chapters of a Floating Life, contained in The Wisdom of China and India /
Ed. by Lin Yutang. N.-Y., 1942.
5. Wang Meng. Beijing, 1996.
6. Li Yu. The Before Midnight Scholar, transl. by F. Kuhn, Zurich, 1959.
7. The Classified Encyclopedic Dictionary of Usages, C1C1, 1990.
8. Chafe W. Giveness, Contractiveness, Definiteness, Subjects, Topics and Points of View,
contained in Subjects and Topics, ed. by Ch. N. Li, N.-Y, 1976.
9 Beijing, 1988.
*

Here I would like express my gratitude to my dear brother Tan Shilin for editing this
paper in a high English style.

43 - 3595

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696

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697

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. [ 1998]. . [ 2001]. , ,
. . . .
, [ 2001].

698

. .

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]; (. . ); , ? (. . .
), [ ]. . .: , ( ); , ,
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700

. .

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,

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); . . :
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, ]
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] VS. [ ].
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, .

701

, , , . .
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, .

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.
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'. .: .
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. 1.1 1.3; .: , , (. .
).
6

, .:
, / I (. . . ...).

702

. .

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, , 7 . , , .
1.2. .: , . , 1.2, , , , (. [ 2001]).
7

, (. ) .

703

.
1 ~ ' '. .: ,
; , .
2 ~ ' '. , , , -. , -.
3 (.) = ' ,
'.
(, () ), . . .: , , I (. . ).
4.1.
4.2 1.2.
(, . .) 3
4.1. .: , (. . . ).
, ' '.
1 4.1 :
.
(, ,
.) .

2001 . . . // . . 2001. 4.
2001 . .
. ., 2001.
1990 . . . //
: , , : . .
. - . . ., 1990.
MAC . . 14. . 19851990.
2001 . . . :
( ) // . . 2001. 4.
. . : 4 . ., 2000.
1998 . . . //
. . 36. ., 1998.
2002 . . . . ., 2002.

. . ()


,
. . [1976: 347] :.. .
. , , , ,
, , , , ,
.
, , , (. [ 1999: 344]
, '' ): friend , ,
, (-) !-; ,
. . :
, , . , . .. . :
, , .
... . , . ... , ,
. , , , , , , friend [ 1999: 345].
, -
. ,
- a friend of mine,
(,
) , .
. ( )
( ),

705

[ 1971]:
.
,
- . ,
. , (
, , -
)1, - ( X ) boyfriend. ( ) ,
, ami Freund.
(., , ,
,
. .). , ,
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? : , , .
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), ?, ; ,
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, , , . , " [ 1999: 340375]. ,
: , , . ,
,
1

. .
: , , ... ? . , , .
. " , , . , ( ) .
. , ( ), -: - . , , . ,
, .
45 - 3595

706

; ,
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(, , ,
acquaintances, friends,
, . [ 1999: 477]).
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,
. , ; ,
, . 'X
'
, . .:
, / (. ).
2

, (
, friend,
., , close friend)', , .

707

, ,
, .

-, .
, (. ).
, .
, , acquaintance connalssance; friendship. friend, friend
(, . .
Rabbit's Friends and Relations ).
. (). , , 3.
[1980] ( )
, : ( ), ; , ,
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. (...) . - . , , , ; , , ;
4 . . . [2000: 108]
''
: ,
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, ' '
( , \) friend.
4
. : , , . . . : , , . . ,
, , '' , ''. ,

, . ( , ,
, -, , .)
45*

708

.: , , (. . . ). ,
(), , . , ,
, .
, , , , (., -, ).
, ',
', .

. . . . , , , ,
: , , ?.
, .
5 . ,
. :
, -, . . , , , , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, .
JI. [1960: 521
530], , ,
. [1999: 359368]. , , ,
,
, , , 6 .
, , ,
5

, . ,
. . [2000: 108]: , , ?
6
( )
.
, 1930- . "
".
, , - ,
- .
, , 1960- ., , . :

709

. , 7 . ,
, -.

: .
: , ,
. , , , , ,
, ? ? : , , ,
, , :
, ,
.
( [ 1913: 96])8.
. ,
(
, XVII .),
, , , JI. [1960: 521] : , , - , .
. , : ,
, : , , , " [ 1960: 522].
: ,
!" . : ,
: , . - ,
?" : ,
.
, , bonne mine au mauvais jeu... He , , , !",
, , , , . , , ( 1960- .)
" , , .
7
, , . , ( , ).
8
. : , (. . )
( ).

710

, ,
9 .
( ,
):
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, , . . [2000: 107],
, ,
, , , . ,
, . . ' '.
, -,
. ( '' ; 1 ) ,
, , ,
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, ). , , ,
: .
, ,
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, , , : , ; ,
[ 1957: 777]. , ,
.
, , () (, , ) . ! . (. ), [ 1970] .
[1999: 358]. , , , , . . [2000: 107] , , ,
-.
, , - ,
.

711

. , . , , , , ; .
. : : .
, - , ,
-.
, . , , -,
, 30 .
, ( , ) ,
, .: , -
. friend. friend,
. [2000: 331] , true friend ' ', close friend ' '. ,
( ,
); , .
, - , ;
, , ,
,
, ,
11 .
. a friend of mine
? son of mine [ 2000: 325]. : ' ,
, , ',
, friend , , . ,
, : (
10
. . [2000: 108] . ( , ) .:
? - .
11

.
: ?.. ?, : " , ".
, "? ? ?.

712

* ; * )12, , ,
, friend.
, . . , ,
; ,
, .
: ,
. . [2000: 108] (, , ?)13,
[ 1996: 219].
14 .
:
; ; ; . . , ,
: . , (,
, ).
,
, . (), , , '
'. . ,
[ 1999: 352
357]. . ,
-, " 15 . , ( 12

. [ 1996: 216217]. , ,
, ,
.
13
, .
, , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , , , . . [ 1997]. , ,
, , .
14
, ,
, .
, (31.03.2003). , , :
? : . . .
15
, , . [1999: 352353], : -,

713

), . ,
[ 1999: 354].
, , , ,
,
,
. ,
"? (
) 16 :
(...) , , , . ,
, . , .
. - , ,
. . .
, ,
...
, , . , , , , , (
, ).
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, , -, . , , , ( ),
, .
,
, .
( ), . . , , ,
.
, , ,

, girlfriend', -,
; -, ,
, .
16
, (
).

714

. , , , . , ,
. , ( ), ' ' ' '.
,
, . . , ( X
Y-, Y -). -,
,
. , , ( ,
), , 11. , , * . , - , friend ( ) 18 .
' , ' .

.
: ; ; . :
17

(, ) , ,
"?: ,
, . : - . , ... .
. (...)" , , .
, . - ,
. , . : ,
.
18
(), ,
, , . . , ,
: ... ".
, , ! ,
!" ( . ).

715

( ) , .
, ( - , ). :
; . ,
; .
, . . ,
, 1.2.

1976 . . . . .: , 1976.
1960 . . . . . .: . , 1960.
1999 . . .
.: , 1999.
1957 . .. . .: . - .
., 1957.
1980 . . . : . 3. .:
, 1980.
1970 . 11. (.). : 2 .
. 1. . .: , 1970.
1997 . . . , , // .
1997. 5.
1913 . . (.).
. . I, . 1: . .: . , 1913.
2000 . . . 1 //
. . 2. ., 2000.
1996. . . . Tampere,
1996. (Slavica Tamperensia IV).
1971 . . . // . 1971. 2.

. . ()

'

(...) .
'

(. )

. '"
, , .
.
, ( , ), ,
,
, . ,
. , ,
.

, . , -, , , , -,
, , ,
-, , .
,
, , , ,
.
, , ,
. , ,
. ,
, , , ,
, , 1 (
1

.
. ,
. /,

''

717

, ), , , .
() , .
, ( ),
,
, , (.: [ 2001]).
,
, .
.
(, , )
. , (. , . ) .-. *dom-, *dem(.-. dama- '', '', '', . tun, . Sopoq, . domus), , -, ,
() . ,
'', ''
, , [,
1984: 741].
, , , (
. 2 . . , . [ 1995]).
. diM,
. ,
, , . XVIIXVIII ., , ,
, '' ,
, , ,
.
(. , . nopiz ' () ').

718

. .

1599 .
, , 2 . (XVIII .), ,
[1... 1983: 407].
, , , ( , ). ,
.
, XVIXVII .,
,
3: ,
... ... [
1618 1/3: 240]. - XVII . .:
2

budynek .-.-. buden, btiwen '', boude ', '. .-. '', .-. bnuti '', . byti '', . [ 1: 277278].
3
[ 8: 2122] [ IV: 226]. , XIX . , . ,
, () (-) , ,
( ) - , . [ 1997: 159163]. , . .
' ( )' , ,
[ 1991]. ,
. , , ,
. , , -,
, . .:
? ? (. ). ,
, ,
. , , , ,
. , , , .

''

719

, (1649 .), . [IcTopin...


1983: 406]. XVIII . , -, ' ' , , ,
: npocmic [ ]4.
, XIX . , 1
. (
, ,
),
: ,
, ,
, . , ,
, .

.
. .
( ) ( ).
, , , . , , ,
.
,
(overlapping),
. [Buck 1949: 459].
. , , ( , ), , ( . :
!). ,
, . , , "image scheme"
[Gandelman 1988], ,
. : , , .
4

'', , , .

720

. .

, (, , - ) . , [
1995: 196]. , , . , ( '-') ', ',
, *dem-.
, , ,
( , , , )
'' , . [, 1984: 74; 1991] (
, , *dem-
'' dem- '', ) 5 . ,
, ,
, - .
, . , ,
, ( ) ( ) 6 .

, .
, , 5

, , , 1
( ) [ 1995].
6
. , , , , ,
,
, .
( , ).
. [ 1999].

''

721

'' '' 7 (
po3i i pi3Hoi ' '), : . (
, , ),
, ,
. : 7 7 1 ,
, :
1 () diM, nid Kucei
i .

(. ) ,
, , . diM, , ,

. (, ) (, ) - . .: . diM . 3 1, i
. ,
(. ). . ., , . : piK ... , , : Mamepi
nic . , ,
' , wie , . [ 2000]8.
, . , XIX ., (, ', ')
.: .
, , (. -).
7

.
( ) ( Bin ' ', Bin .;
. . ).
8
, . , ,
. , . [ 2000: 288295]. .
, .
46 - 3595

722

. .

,
, . ., .
,
, , ,
, . .: . :
pi4Ku [., III: 386]. , , (. .
, ) ( . [ 2001]).
,
''. .
', ( )',
' '. , , ( * )
, .
. .
, , ,
diM . . .
, [ 2000],
,
.
, , , , ( [
: 197])
.
pidiia
, (' '). ,
, -, ''. ???
.
.
, ,
', ( ); ()' (. ', , ').
: , II (JI. ). ,
, , .
, , . , , , .

''

723

9 .
() , , , .
, , , , ,

, , , .
, .- ; *ueik- (. *vbSb), ', ', '' [ 1991: 197]10. ,
, , , , , . .

, . , , ,
, , , ''.
,
, , , - , , , ', . . , ,
, ,
. , , ,
'; ' (. . .
''),
, , ,
.

, ,
9

. [ 1995].

, , (
) .-. *kei'': .-.-., .-.-. heim '', .-. ham, . home, . haims '', .-. hem, ham ', ', . [Klein 459]. ,
semja . .
10

46*

724

. .

-. : dcmi ,
eaiidpieKa i3 (...) pedmopiK, co6i, ! 13 ,
mi. ,
(JI. ). i3
. ,
. , ,
, , , , .
. , , ,
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, , ,
, , , .
, , ,
, , , ,
. , ,
. ,
: Mi. II xamuni dienu I/- (. ). , ,
, . , .
,
() . , , , , , pidua, ,
, . , .
,
( ). (npocmip, ) ,
, .

. , ,
- ,
, , , [ 1999]. , ,
11

() , , ,
.

''

725

, ,
, : ...
, (...) , i . , ,
1 (. ). . , , , . ,
12 .
,
vs. . -.
? . ,
, , , ,
, aypoq '' aypioq, ''
, domesticus '' domus, . [
1995: 208]. ,
- , '; '. : 1) , 2) , , [., III: 501] (.
-). '; ', ( ).
, , ,
, ,
.
,
(. '', . , ''). . : (1) 1 ,
, .uaucmpie i ,
. , deopi,
noxmo'i . i ; (2) , . odni
cmi , ', .
piK , .
, , (. ).
12

. . . , ,
, , , , [ 1997].

726

. .

. ( ) , , , ,
, . ( ): ceni eci ',
, (. ).
,
, . - ,
.
, .
,
.
( ), .
( mi) , ( neni), , (, , ), , .
. , , ,
zopodi,
* 1.
,
, , , ,
(, ), .
,
(. . '', 5- '' - %
' ', . [ 1995: 198]) (., , , ' ', ).
,
,

''

727

.
, , ,
, .
, 16- . , , .

1999 . . . //
: . , 1999.
2001 . . . // : : 70- . . . ., 2001.
1995 . . /
. . ., 1995.
1997 . . . (VI
XIII .). , 1997.
, 1984 . . , . . .
. -
. , 1984.
IcTopitf... 1983 Icmapin ' 1 . i .
, 1983.
2000. . . //
: . ., 2000.
1995 . . . 2, , , , // : / . . . . . ., 1995.
1995 . . . , 1, 3, , 2, , //
: / . . . . . ., 1995.
1 1997 . . . MOBi: iae'i i // . 1997. 45.
2000 . . . : . ., 2000.
1991 . . . . . ., 1991.
1999 . . . . // . 1999. 23.
Buck 1949 . D. Buck. A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages. A Contribution to the History of Ideas. Chicago, 1949.
Gandelman 1988 C. Gandelman. The Semiotic square as a "catastrophe" // Semiotica.
1988. Vol. 70, 1/2.

- . .1, . 3. , 1863.
' : 7 . / . . . . , 1982. . 1.

728

. .

. . . ! . . 14. , 19071909 ( . , 1997).


. : 4 . . 4. ., 1987.
: / . . . . . 8. ., 1981.
Klein Klein . A. A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language.
In 2 vol. Amsterdam etc., 1966. Vol. 1.

. . ()

(.
. :
)

(. 1670 . 12
1731 .), , ,
-- (1701),
(1704) , 1 , (10 1709 . 31 1744 .), , ,
- I. . ,
, XVII ., , I 2 ; . ,
.
, . .
. XVIII . , . ,
3040- . - 3 , , 84%
4. .
.
. . , , 1

. [ 2000].
. [ 1996: 8486].
3
-
. . (. 96. 43,13); . (, [. I]).
4
. . :
19712 , 47000.
, . ,
35%.


730

. .

(, , ,
, , ) 5 , ,
: , , , 6 .

; . . <;
ootpoq . vehement^ sapiens 7 .
. !, . sapientia; . ;, sapiens 8 .
, .
9 ; . . yvcoaiq
. cognitio, scientia, '' . ETUGTTIMV . cognitor 10 .
. , , ; , ,
11 .
.
,
12 , . . 13 .
,
, , . , .
. , ( , , , , , ,
) 14 .
(1716) . ,
, 15 . , ,
16 .
. [ 1704, . 2].
. [ 1704, . 6 .].
[ 1704, 2- ., . 42].
[ 1704, . 175].
[ 1704, . 6].
[ 1704, . 125 .].
11
[ 2000: 139].
12
[ 1704, . 6 .].
13
. [ 1996: 8486].
14
. [ 2000: 105106].
15
. [ 2000: 336].
[ 1718, . 17 .].
16
. [ 1986; 1996: 9195, 99100].

...

731

: , 17 .
, , .
. , ,
.
. , . (, ) ; . I III: . , , ,
18; . , 19 ,
: , , ,
20 .
. . ,
- . (sagesse, savoir) (savoir, science, connoissance) 21 . savoir, , , 22 .
, , . ,
23 ,
; .
IV ( ): []
, 24 .

. . 25 . .
17

[ 2000: 336].
[. , I: 31].
*
19
[. , I: 76].
20
[. , I: 418].
21
[. I. . 499; II, . 158]. . '' '' .
connoisseur [, . 499].
22
. [ , III: 3404].
23
I . : , , [. , I: 201]. ; . : . , ,
[ ].
24
[. , 1: 316]. . : la morale [.
, . 249].
25
. "De arte poetica" . ,
, , . :
, , , . ,
, ,
18

732

. .

sage 26 ; , . sage, XVI ., philosophe 27 . ,


. cocpla (,
).
--
. 53- ( ), : ,
28 .
, , . .
29 :
, 30 .
, , .
, .
(17291742) ,
, , , ,
, 31 .
. , 3 2 . IV : , , , ,
, 3 3 .
, . ,
.
, . : ,
34 .
, ,
[ 1961: 344].
. [. . , . . 2000, . III].
26
[. II, . 158]; . : , sapiens [1704, . 175].
27
. [ , III: 3353].
28
[. , I: 381].
29
, ,
1736 . 1738 .
;
. .
30
"In ihrem [Russischen Nation] Gottesdienst, Kirchen-Sachen und andern hohen geislichen
Dingen die alte Slavonische Sprache eingefiihret" [ 1738: 460].
31
. , Q. IV. 382, . 2 .
32
. [ 1738: 236].
33
[. , I: 319].
34
. , Q. IV. 382, . 2 . , . , . . , , .

...

733

, . , . , ,
. .
, ,
. , . 3 5 .
, . , . .
: ...
36 . .
; , , / , XVII XVIII .
37 . , .
, , . ,
.
. , (
,
,
, ("Der hoff-Stylus hat zwar
die gewohnliche Sprache zum Grunde, dabei aber viel dunkles in sich und bedienet sich fast aller
Kunstworter der AuBlander" [ 1738: 460]).
35
., , : ...
.
[, I: 341];
: ... ,
.
, ,
[, I: 385] : ...
, (. , Q. IV.
382, . 2 .).
36
"Die ordentliche und durchgehends im gemeinem Leben ubliche RuBische Sprache ist eine
Tochter der Sclavonischen... Zelbige [RuBische Sprache] ist sehr Wortreich une wird heut zu
Tage mit grossen FleiB excoliret" [ 1738: 460].
37
. [.
, II: 23].

734

. .

). , . , . , , ,
, 3 8 .
.
. . ;, .
literatus, litterator, eruditus. -:
39 . ,
- ; . . litera 40 .
. . ', ' 41 . :
. homme de lettre, savant 4 2 . , . '' 4 3 .
, , "lettres" 44 .
. lettre, , , , , belles-lettres republiques des lettres.
, ( )45 : ,
. , ,
, ,
. litera.
. .
. .
. creator, . . '' (. . 71, . creo, facio) 46 .
38

. [ 2000: 23 .].
[ 1704, . 78]. . '' ), scriptura, scriptio [2- nar.,
. 6 .].
40
[ 1704, . 78].
41
"Qui sait lire et ecrire" [. I, . 271].
42
[. I, . 270, 271].
43
[. I, . 270].
44
[. I, . 270].
45
, . '': Femme de
lettres. Savante [I, . 270].
46
[ 1704, 2- ., . 127 .].
39

...

735

. ; . , noirixfiq, poeta, conditor, author [sic!]47.


: . auvBoccpeuq, . constructor, compositor 48 .
.
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5 5 , 5 6 .
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dictio, verbum, eloquium, loquela). ,
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, . , ( (lexewpov xf\c, ^eceojq, sublimitas elocutionis). , ; . ,
(, >,1, , ewppaSia, ^!, facundia, elo47

[ 1704, 2- ., . 17].
[ 1704, 2- ., . 111].
49
[. , I: 25, 195, 82].
50
. . , : ,
poiein, " ",
, , ", " " [ 1961: 346].
51
. : editeur auteur [. II, . 521].
52
, , ,
, .
53
. V, . 701, [.
, I: 137].
54
"Qui a compose un livre. Auteur; (celui qui est la premiere cause de quelleque chose)
Auteur. (:Inventeur de quelleque chose) Auteur" [I, . 5].
55
. .
56
[ 2000: 2930].
57
. .
48

736

. .

quentia, elocutio) 58 . . , 59 .
. , , (StaXoyoq, dialogus,
diuerbium) , . . (56<;, ),
5ia^c,iq, disputario, disceptario, sermocinatio, reputatio) 60 , , , . , , ' (oratio soluta, sermo solutis),
(carmen, versus). , ,
, (. . 'koyoq, . sermocinatio).
. , ,
, , , , ,
, , , , ,
, , , .
, . ^oyoypoccpeco . scribo orationes,
scribo historiam, libros condo.
: . Xoyoypacpta . scriptio
orationum, : . Xoyoypoupoq, ;, . logographus, sermonum scripter 61 .
,
, .
. , . 5||6;, . narrabilis 62 . . (, ) iotopia, historia; .
: ioxopioypacpoq, historiographus, historicus) 63
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, Ei)(ppa5|Kov, rhetor, orator, eloquens) 64 , , , (. , -orandi ratio, eloquentia rhetorica, . , ,
, : , rhetor, orator) 6 5 .
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59
60
61
62
63
64
65

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[

1704, 2- ., . 86].
2000: 29].
1704, 2- ., . 68, 73, 73 ].
1704, 2- ., . 100].
1704, 2- ., . 10].
1704, . 140].
1704, . 155 .].
1704, 2- ., . 82 .].

...

737

738

. .


, , , 76 , ,
,
/ 77 .
. ,
, . , * . , ,
, ,
. . , , , , (. historiographe, historien) 78 . . eloquence
, , , . . .
, II ( ): , . : Cum tu declamas Romae. Declamare . , ,
79 ; . , , , 80 , : ,
81 , ...
82 . . , ,
.
. , . , , discours, sermon 83 .
76

[ 2000: 145]. . , . (1723), :


( )
, (. 6).
77
. : [ 2000: 3132].
78
[. I, . 563; II, . 4].
79
[. , I: 407].
80
[. , I: 198].
81
[. , I: 432].
82
[. , I: 508].
83
[. II, . 70].

...

739

. 84. , . , ; .
, , ;
, ,
85.
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87; , , :
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: ,
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92 .
. . , , :
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84

- , , , , , ,
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85
[. , I: 214, 317].
86
[. , I: 215].
87
[. , I: 243].
88
[. , I: 78].
89
[. , I: 343].
90
[. , I: 167].
91
[. , I: 419].
92
[. , I: 541].
93
[. , I: 386].

740

. .

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96 .
, .
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, 103 .
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[. , I: 342].
[. , II: 2].
96
[. , I: 326].
97
[. , I: 541].
98
[. , I: 385].
99
[. , I: 8].
100
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101
. : [ 1985: 100].
102
[. , I: 237].
103
[. , I: 247].

95

...

741

104 . , ,
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: 110 .
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105
[. , II: 19].
106
[. , II: 453].
107
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108
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109
[. , I: 343].
110
[. , I: 390].
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742

. .

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(Poetiquement) , '' 1 1 3 . .
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.
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117 .
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, . ,
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.
112

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.
115
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0 . . [ 1996: 240; 1998].
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. .
118
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119
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...

743

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1961 . . .; ., 1961.
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. , 1619.
1963 . . . . .; ., 1963.
1985 . . .
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, . . , , novarum
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,
.
. [ ,
695] ,
. . . , [] ,
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; , , , , , [, VI: 34].
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, . ,

745

, ( modernity),
, (. ,
, tempora, mores! . .). , , , ,
.
, - XVII .,

. , .

, .
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, . , , ,
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.
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746

. .

) .
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, 1700-, , ,
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, .
, .
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.
, .
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, .
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, ,
.
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,
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, (. [ 1981: 120176]).
, , ,
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.
,
, , : , , ,
, , . . . 1725 . ,
.
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1728 . - . ( ) : ,
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1731 . ( . IXI) . ,
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748

. .

, , ( ,
stno
[] ) [
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, , , , , .
, XI , ,
.
. 2- (London, 1711, 93, Saturday, June 16), ,
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, , . .; , (
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.
, . . leisure class, ( ) .
,

. , , .
2

, ,
:

749

"dont tout le bien consiste en ce


qu'il n'y a point de mal" (1746, 25), mal , . - : , , (1731, 43). ,
, .
:

accomplishments (
XVIII . , ), , , , , .
(), , country life. , country life, , :
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3

1711 . for the employment of our dead unactive bodies, [1711: 56]; ,
, , dead unactive hours
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750

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751


XVIII . XVIII
:
,
, -.
- ,
-.
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( 1766, : 176)
,
, . . , loisir otium
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, . .
. . 27 1749 .
,
: \
, ,
[, VIII: 96]6. , , ,
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[ ]. , ,

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769

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, .
, , ,
( ) .
, XX .
.
' ' ,
, XIX . [
1903], [ 1965]. , . . . . .
XIX . ( ). -

XIX . ...

771

, , .
, ,
. . , . ,
: ' '.
, . . , (2002 .):
.. ,
, , .
. . , , -, . ' -. '; .
4. .
. .
.
[ 2000].
, ,
XIX .
.
. . . . .
(:
) . :
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, . .
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; , . ,
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, .
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, , ,
, , ,
, .
, , ; ,
49*

772

. .

, - . , , , , ,
. . , , , . ,
, . , ,
, ". , (15 . 1890 .).
, XIX ., ( 21 ), .

1998 . . . . .: , 1998.
2000 . . (. .). . .:
, 2000.
1994 . . . . ., 1994.
1981 . . .
70- XIX . XX . (1917)//
XIX. XX / . . . . . .: , 1981.
2001 . . // : . .:
, 2001.
, 1993 . . , . . . . ., 1993.
1964
XIX .: / . . . . . . .: , 1964.
1997 . . .
XIX .: - / . . . . . .: , 1997.
-1 . . IVI. ., 17891794.
-2 .
. IVI. ., 18061822.
1847 - ,
. . 14. ., 1847.
1903 .
3- ., . . / . . . --. . 14. .; ., 1903.
1934 / . . . . . 1
4. 19341940.
1956 . . IIV. ., 19561961.
1965 . . . . 3090- . XIX . .; .: , 1965.

. .

:
,
XVII




. . . , -,

( , ),
[History 1976; 1985]. , XVIXVII ., , ,
.
,
, .
. 2002 . 1 . ,
1619 . 2 , . . 40 -,
.
, ,
. . , "Grammatica exemplificada na Portuguesa & Latina" (, ), , .
1

A. de Roboredo. Methodo Grammatical para todas as Linguas. Edigao de Marina A. Kossarik. Lisboa, Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, 2002. ,
: . A. Kossarik. A obra de Amaro de Roboredo. Questoes de historiografia lingui'stica portuguesa, . [Roboredo 2002: 763].
2
A. de Roboredo. Methodo grammatical para todas as Ifnguas. Lisboa, por Pedro Graesbeeck, 1619. ,
, ,
( , ).

774

. .


, . , "Copia de palavras
exemplificada nas Latinas, artificio experimentado para entender Latim em poucos
meses" ( , , [] ), 1200 , ,
. , "Frase exemplificada Latina, em que se exercitam as syntaxes ordinarias, & colloca'qao rhetorica" (, , [ ] ),
. 240 , . , , .
,
. - ,
, ,
, [Roboredo 1621]3; (--) [Roboredo
1623]; [Roboredo 1625].
, , , XVIII .
XVII .,
-.
4 . , , 3

. ,
,
, ,

. , . , , ,

, .
4
. ,
. , 1610 . , , ( ). ,
,
, , XVII . .

: ...

775

XVIII XIX ., .
[Machado 1965; Silva 1858; Universidade do Porto 1994]
[Favero 1996; Woll 1994; Schafer 1990],
, 5 .
,
.
, -, : ,
, , 6 .
,
, ,
, .
, ,
. , XVI . ,
. , ,
, , .
, ( ). ,
, . , ,
, . XVIXVII .
[Fonseca 1564; Fonseca 1591; Commentarii 15921597], , . . , ,
5

, ,
. , , . [Verdelho 1995].
6
, [ 1988; 1996; Buescu 1983; Buescu 1983; Coseriu 2000; Favero, op. cit.; Schafer, op. cit.; Verdelho, op. cit.; Woll, op. cit.],

, . XVIXVII . [ 1991-2000].

776

. .


, (
XVI
XVII .). , , , XVIXVII .
.
' XVIXVII . ,
, , , ,
XVI ., (15801640). ,
. : , , ,
, , , .
, , , .
, ,
( , , , , , , .).
, , .
, , , , ,
. ( , ,
); , ( , ), (
, , ), ( );
;
,
(, , , , , /). . ,
-,

: ...

777

, . . .
, ,
, XVI . ,
, [Roboredo 1619: a3v4]. .
.
,
, , , , , , "lingua Materna". .
.
.
:
, '', ,
[Roboredo 1623: 25].
, , - ,
[Roboredo 1619: 2, 4849, 6566].
, ,
, , . .
.
, ,
. , .
, , .
,

778

. .

. .

( , ), ( ).

, XVII .
(, - ).
,
.
,
. , "Methodo grammatical para todas as lfnguas",
: "Grammatica exemplificada Portuguesa Latina"
,
,
.
[Sanchez 1587], ,
, , , ;
.
7 . ratio, .
, . , , ,
, (
, ).
^ frase,
. , , ,
, .
, . , ,
, , , , , , , ;
7

acho grande confusao nas artes, ou Syntaxes, que teem misturado, que he particular de
hua lingua, com que he commum a muitas, ou a todas [Roboredo 1619, bv2].

: ...

779

, , ,
, . , .
,
( , ,
, ), , , :
, ;
, ,
, , , . , , , ,
. ,
XVII . , , .
oragao frase
, :
, ,
, oragao, , , ,
frase.

,
8 . ,
, ,
, 9 .
. , , ( ),
.
. .
,
.
,
8

, , [Sanchez
1587], , ,
. [Sousa 1535; Barros 1540; Alvares 1572].
9
Muitas figuras Ellipses desta maneira, que admitte a Latina, nao admitte a Portuguesa,
nem a Castelhana: por tanto, com as palavras, que se hao de supprir, se descobrem defronte
as figuras. E per esta via notaras de passagem a d i f f e r e n t da frase destas tres linguas
[Roboredo 1923: 28].

780

. .

XVIXVII . , (,
, , apellatio, suppositio).
, 10 . - , ,
.
, -, .
, .
-, , , . ,
,
(, . .), -, ,
, .
, , , , (. , . , , )
. , , , , . , ,
.
ratio, intellectus , , ,
, ,
. XVIXVII .
, . ,
. ,
,
10

Grammatica he arte de fallar, que tern por fim a oragao bem concertada: a qual he hua
coherente disposi9ao de palavras, de que consta, como de partes. Procedese para a Oragao
per Letras, Syllabas, & Dic6es, ou Palavras [Roboredo 1619: 64]. de Oragoes se faz a Prattica
[Ibid.: 65].

: ...

781

,
.
, . :
, , () 11 , , , ,
, ,
, .
, , ,
, . , ,
. , ,

. ,

- ,
.
, .
, , , ,
,
. , , , [Resende 1540]. , ,

. [Tavora 1566],
,
. 11

,
.

782

. .

. ( ) .
, ,
. .
,
.
, -,
, -, , . (
, ). :
. ,
,
.

.
: , , ,
, , .
,
1 2 . , , ,
,
,
. ,

, . [Faria 1624; Pereira 1643].
XVII .,
,
, .
12

Mestre que quiser meter em outra Hnguas Discipulo, que aprendeo algua per este
Methodo, como na Italiana, Francesa, Grega, Hebrea, etc. Ensine nella a declinar & conjugar
(...). E em lugar dos exemplos Latinos no 3. livro, meta, como fica dito, os da lingua que quer
ensinar. E a frase particular dessa lingua langara a outra parte, para seu tempo, aa imitagao
da Latina [Roboredo 1619: c2v].

: ...

783

1996 . . . : - // :
. ., 1996. . 105127.
1988 . . .
// . ., 1988. . 182191.
1995 . . . : //
. , . 5. 1995. . 104116.
2000 . . .
// Res Philologica : : . . . . . 80- .
(19191999). .: , 2000. . 155193.
1991 . . . : ( ): . ... . . . .: , 1991.
1998 . . . (
XVIXVII .): .... . . . .:
, 1998.
1985 . . . . ., 1985.
Alvares 1572 . Alvares. Emmanuelis Alvari(...)grammaticalibritres. Olyssipone, 1572.
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784

. .

Pereira 1643 F. Pereira. Arte de grammatica latina (...}. Lisboa, 1643.


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. . ()


(
GLASS)

, ( , , ), ,
. , , -
, , , , . , ,
, . , - -
, ,

, , ,
. , , , , , , , file ', , ,
' file ', , ',
, , ,
cenn > '-1' '-2' lam > lamh '-1' '-2',
. , , ,
- , , , , , ,
- .
, ,
.
, , ,
, . , 1100 ., ,
(Lebor hUidre, LU)
(Amra Choluim Chille),
. , ,
50 - 3595

786

. .

,
, 563 .
, - ,
,
.
,
, . , (, , ). ,
, , , .
, , , ( , , - . , . 11 17 [Mac Niocaill 1972]).
- , ,
. , , 565 ., ,
. , ,
: , , - , ,
. , , ,
(. [ 1997]). , ,
.
, , , X . , , ,
- . , ,
( . XII ., . [Stokes 1899])
, . : , XV . . 1513 .,
(. [Herbert 1996: 212, 245],
),
' 1532 . (Betha Colaim Chille) ,
. , . , ,
,
[Murphy 1977: 201202]. (fegbas fegas

...

787

fhechus noco n-aceba nocon fhaiccbe ni faicfe), ,


, . glas,
, , , , , , .
. , * , .
, . (...)
[Lacey 1997, 36]. , , , ,
, , . , , ,
, , , ( ),
. VI . , , .
. LU ( [Murphy 1977, 64]):

glass
,
. , , ,
-- , . ,
viridis (virdis
), gwyrdd , glas ,
'' '' (. [Geiriadur... 1968:
14011402]). glass . glass
', , ' ( , ), uaine '',
. ,
50

788

. .

gorm '-'
'' '', glass , ,
, . , ,

, .
,
glass '', '',
'',
,
. , , , glas blue '', grey '' greygreen '-' ( - ).
glas
, , , , ,
. ,
buga, , , , . . ( )
( . [LEIA-B: 112]). ,
buga [DIL-B: 232] , '' ( '' '', , , a glas '', '' ., ).
, (DIL)
, gorm '' ban ''
(, ). , , glas, , ,
...badar
glasithir buga na di shuil [TBDD 1963: 1] (?) (?) .
, (. . , , gorm) ,
, glas, , ''. ., , is glaise suil na fear is drucht air
(?) , ,

[O'Suillivan 1981].

...

789

glas -, ( )
, . ,
. ., ,
(LL, . [ 1970], glass '' ):
rose ro-glass ro-chain - -
rose ro-glass gossarda -
rose ro-glass lainnerda -
rose ro-glass gossarda is caindelda -
(, '').

, - , , -, . .
. , ,
, (
, ). , , glass
'', , , Glass mo gruad (,
), . madain ghlaisreodha , (, '-' [O'Keeffe 1975: 49]). ,
'', '' glass
, , ., '',
, , ,
(hi mbrott glass ' ').
, ,
, (Felire). , (Lebar Brecc, XIV .)
:
, Fochan fyglas trena folt, .
Greenish cornblades (grew) through the hair of his head ' () ' [Stokes 1905: XXV], , , , . , glas
:
, . . .
glas, .
glas .
*glasto- (. glas, . glas,
. glaz '--', . -. Glastum '' [Billy 1993:

790

. .

83]), .-. *ghel-, *ghla- ', ' [IEW: 432; Falileyev 2000: 61]. ( , .-. *ghle- ', ' . [- 1971: 230]).
. . glas(s) ' ', .-.-.
glas '', '', . . glosa ', , ', . glaz
' ' . ( . gles(um) '', , , . [ 1979:
262]). [ 1996: 410], (.
[ 1994, 1: 190]).
,
. fil ', ' (. . gwelet), . .
'!'. , . , . fil-us
daneu tre cenele martre logmara () [Thurneysen 1975: 479], , -
, .... .
: , ,
, , , , Fail secht ngemma lath ngaile / ar lar a da imcaisne [TBC 1970:
7] (? ?) / .
f(a)il .
, , ,
, fil , . , fil , , . .
. , , , , ,
( suil , ) : ,
?

, , ,
, .
: ,

...

791

, , .
, , : , . sad is my grey-green eye [Lacey 1997: 37] ,
, (
/ ), , , , .
,
. , , ,
, :
,
.

, .
[ ... 1997: 203]
? , , , , , , ?
, ,
. , .
( ), , ,
() : , . .-. : > *ghle- . glasir '' (
), gladr ', , ', ., . glad ', , ', .-. gloed ' ', .-. gladmod '' .


?
, ,
- , 563 ., , ,
. , ,
VI ., XI . . (Vaterland) , ,
(Heimat, . [ 2001, 17]), ,
( ... , ...). ,

792

. .

, . ,
, -
, , , VIII ., peregrinus pro Christo,
Vita Columbae
. , . ,
,
561 ., , 563 .,
, [Herbert 1996: 27]. ,
. -,

[Charles-Edwards 1976: 54].
, ,
, , , , . , ,

, ,
: "...7 is ed atberat - Colum Cille Erinn in tan
sin ar no bid breit dara suilib 7 is edfotera sein ar ro gell remi sein ic dul taris na fegbad
Erind sein immach" [LU, 1970, 11].
, , ,
(,
):
Ocus iss ed atberat nocon fhacca Colum cille Herinn intan-sin, ar no bid anart ciartha
dara suilib, ocus is ed fotera sin, ar ro gell remi ic dul taris nad fhaiccbeth Herind
shain immach... [Stokes 1899: 38] ,
, (LU
) , ,
, ...
gelaid ,
', , , , .'. , ,
, , ,
, , . ,

...

793

, .
, Noco n-aceba
, . . , , , ,
: !
, XIV .:
Is amlaid immoro tanic Colum Cille anoir 7 breit ciartha tar a shuilib 7 a culpait tairis
anuass 7 a at in cochall tairiside sis ar daig nach faicfedfiru Erenn nach a mna. Uair
ro tairngir reme in tan do-cuaid a nAlbain ar tus 7 adubairt in rann... (. no
[Herbert 1996: 244]) , , , .
, ...
do-airngir ', , ', *to-air-in-gair- gair- ', ' ( ),
, /
(. [ 2001]).
, , , ,
( , ). , .
, . ., , ,
, ,
, . . , ,
[Sjoblom 2000: 191].
, firu Erenn nach a mna. -, ,
fir Erenn, , ' ' ,
, ''. -, "" - : '', '' ( -
< *eion ''

794

. .

, :
,
:
,
, .

... 1997 / . . // . . 3, 1997.


- 1971 . . -. . , 1971.
1997 . . . : // . . 3. 1997.
2001 . . . : // . .
2001. 6.
2001 . . . // Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. Sdrbd. 50. Wien, 2001.
1979 . H. . : : . ., 1979.
1996 . . : 4 . .
. (., 1986, 1996).
1994 . . . -
. . 12. ., 1994.
Billy 1993 . . Billy. Thesaurus Lingae Gallicae. Hildesheim; Zurich; New York, 1993.
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Herbert 1996 M. Herbert. Iona, Kells and Derry. The History and Hagiography of the
Monastic Familia of Columba. Dublin, 1996 (1988).
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Lacey 1997 Br. Lacey. Colum Cille and the Columban Tradition. Dublin, 1997.
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Murphy 1977 G. Murphy. Early Irish Lyrics: Ed. with transl., notes and glossary. Oxford, 1977 (1956).
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...

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Sjoblom 2000 . Sjoblom. Early Irish Taboos. A Study in Cognitive History. Dublin, 2000.
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20. 1899.
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W. Stokes. London, 1905.
TBC 1970 Tain by Cualnge from the Book of Leinster / Ed. C. O'Rahilly. Dublin, 1970.
TBDD 1963 Togail Bruidne Da Derga / Ed. E. Knott. Dublin, 1963.
Thurneysen 1975 R. Thumeysen. A Grammar of Old Irish. Dublin, 1975 (1946).

. . ()


... I
( , 1, VI, 1 0 I I ) 1

, , , : . :
:
, ,
-,
,
,
vale,
, ,
.


:


.
, - (. .
. . ), , (. . ), , ,
, [ 1950: 4748, 57; 1983: 132; 1999: 54, 55], , [ 1983: 131]2,
1

( 01-04-00-132 01-04-00-201).
. . , , , , ,
, (. . , . . , , ). , - , ,
[ 1983: 130131]. , ,
, ,
, , - ,
2

797

[ 1950: 4647, 57; 1983: 131


132]3, - "vale"
[ 1999: 55]4, ,
. , . . , , , , , , , :.. .
, .
, .
, ,
, . , .
, , .
, ;
, , ,
, (. . . // . . I. ., 1878. . LIX).
3
, ( , ,
- , ...) [ 1950: 4647], ,
: , , [ 1983: 131132]. , ,
- , , , , ,

. , ,
,
, , ,
. !
, , (
(), tabula [ 1937/1995: 6, 219]) [ 1983: 131],
, - . , , , val,
, , .
4
, vale
. ,
, vale .
, .
1825 ., 3 : 1825, 1827, 1828 . [ 1924: 9091]. vale , ,
, .

798

. .

. , , .
.
. .

, ,
. : , ,
(. [ 2000: 83]),
, , . .:
,
, , (...),
, , , , , , ,
(sic!)
(. . .
1812 , 18151816// .... ., 1983. . 321);
, -
() (. . . (...) , 1825 //
. . . . I. ., 1878. . 195); , /
, / I !.. (. . . , , 1826); ,
, :
, , ,
(. . .
, , 1830- . //
. . . . .: , 1975. . 192);
:
[., 1785] ( 1849// . 1873. . 1. . 34. . 244); . ,
, ". , (. . . 1816
1826 ( ) //
.... ., 1983. . 200).
. .
[.: 1, 214] . [MAC: I, 130]
. : , [1, 125], -

799

, , , . , , 5 . .
: , . , . ; , , [ 1955: I, 148].
6 = ' ',
(.: , , , ; ,
, . . . . , 29 1834 .) [
1982: 32] ( 1- : / ... [ 1937/
1995: 6,219, 8]) ''. , ,
, . , [, ]. ,
7 , ,
, , . :
, / , / /
! / ...( , 1837) [PC 1997: 80]. ,
(1813)
: , ! / ,
!.. [ 17901810- . JL: , 1971. . 750]8.
, --
' ()', '/
5

. , . . ,
, (J1.: , 1975. . 175).
6
. : " [ 1999: 208], , .
7
.: , , ,
. , , ,
, , , , ,
... (. . . ,
1827 // . . . . 18251826 . .; JL, 1964. . 22).
8
'' '' ''
''. .: , , ,
, , , , ... (. . .
, 1816 // :
. ., 1983. . 261).

800

. .

/ ()', ' / '. .



(8, V): /
/ / /
(sic!) / /
, / ... [ 1937/1995, 6: 621]).
, , . . , ( !), ,
9 [ :
4, 46]. (1830): ... ,

. (...) ,
[ 1949/1996: 11, 91]10.
. . :
, ,
, , ,
,
, (, 17 1831 . . . . . ., 1989. . 448);
, -
: 1825 test act, , 1828 ; 1831 , 1835 corporations-act. , , 9

, , "Le prophete de passe", . . . : , , / , . / / ,


. / / , , / , I ( , 1924, II
. . . 2 . ., 1985. . 1. . 494). , , , . :
(1798) [1997: 286]. ,
, ,
. . , , , .
10
, ,
(1834): ,
; , [ 1956: 1, 201]. . ,
.
( ... ?!), [ 1949/1996: 11, 256;
1958: VII, 289]. .

801

, , ... ( , 1836 // . . .
. 18251826 . .; JL, 1964. . 65); ...

(...) ,
... ( , 1845 // . . 244). . -. .. . (...)
,
... ( , 1838 // . . 144); ,
. (...) , (les lacunes)
(. . . , 14 1836// . . .
1989. . 276).
. (, ,
1 1 ) '' . . : ... () (...)
, , ,
,
(. . . . , 1998. . 228). : ... , , , , ,
11
, ,
, - , , , ,
,
( ) , . .
: , , . ,
, . (...)
"...
(. . . // :
. .: , 1990. . 27); (. . ) " . . , ; (. . . . ., 2000. . 367); ...
(. . ), , ,
... ( . . 388).

51 - 3595

802

. .

,
( . . 229) 12 .
12
: ; , , , ,
; . ,
, ,
... (. . . , 20 1789); () , . !
, , . !
, , !" ( , 2 1789);
, , , . !
compendium , Hauptdata ,
(. . . . , 18 1833 // . ., 1982.
. 88); , ; ,
, , , ,
(. . . ,
1833); , , , ,
(. . . , 1890- . // . . . . ., 1988. . 405). . : (1) , /
, I - : I / ... (. . ..., 1829),
', ( , , )'; (2) ;
/ ? , ; / , / . / , / /
, , / ... (. . , 1828), ' '
(3) , ! / / / . / /
: / / . / ,
, / , , , I /
(. . , 1828), ,
, (1). . -, : ', ' -
' ' ' '. , , , , (. . . . , 1832),
(. . !..., 1840) (. . , 1833). ,
. .: /
, , / . / , . / , / , ,
... (. . . . , 1823); , , I , / / ... (. . , 1835 // . JL, 1936. . 2. . 136).

803


, .
, : , / , / , / / -
; / : / /
/ , / , /
, / (. . . . , 1824/1825). : () . , non-sens!
, ! ,
, .
, . ,
,
!.. (. . . . . , 1825 // . 18201827 / .
. . , . . . ., 1996. . 253. . . ,
/ . . .)
, , , - (. historia < .-. ioiopioc ' ' >
' ' ...)
' -',
. . (Mignet), , , , (. . . , 30
, , '' '': (...)
, ,
... (. . . , 1790). . . : , (...) ,
... (, 1833). ' ' '': ,
, ,
(. . . , 1837 // . . . . 18251826 . .; J1., 1964. . 139.
).
13
. , -; . (...)
, ,
, ... (. . . . , 29 1836// . . . . , 1982. . 148).
51*

804

. .

1826 . //. 18251826 . . 431); XII (...)


: . : , - (, ) -
; , ... (. . . , 1824II . . . ., 1948. . 151).
XIX . -- , . , , . . . ,
, (, ),
' ', '
' 14 . .:
( . . , VIII. 1834
1836 // . 1897. . 2, . 8. . 544). .
: ,
(...)
(. . , 1921 //
: . ., 1998. . 22).
, . . , , , , , - .
1830- , (1832), " (18331834), " (1835), ", "
1840- . " . ; (...)
, [ 1969: 150.
. . .]. , , , ,
:
, , .
, , , .. ,
14

. : , , " (. . // . . . . ., 1984. . 17).

805

, , .
(, , )
, 15 . . .
, , ,
.
.

(. [. 1975: 835]) , / , ! (. . , 1827),
, , [, 1965: 1007]16; 15

, ( , )
(.: [ 1994: 133; 1999]). , , [
1959, III: 897]. . . : / ,
- / , / , /
, / , / ; /
- / ( ), / , , / - / / -, / - / . / , / : !
/ (. . , 1829).
: , , . .: /
, / , ? / /
, , / , / , /
/ ?.. (. . . , 1831); , (...)
, , , ... (. . , 20 1832); !
! / ! / , !
! , ! (. . . , 1830);
! ! ! :! , / ! (. . . , 1831) . .
.
16
.: ( ) , ,
(. . .
-, VII, 1833 // . . . . ., 1984.
. 201); , ,
, , , (. . . , 18401841 // .
. 159); , monsieur ...
. ? ... , , ,

806

. .

(.: [ 1975: 706]), , ,


17 , ,
. , ,
, ,
, [ 1983: 132]. , , ,
. . , , . . : . " , -
, [ 1950: 57].
, ,
, , [ 1965:
I, 41 ]18.
... , , ... ! ... (. . . , IV // : 4 . ., 1958. . 4. . 317).
, , , ,
(1, VII, 14; 8, XXXVIII, 310), , (1, V, 1314), . [ 1983: 130; 1999]. ,
, -
', ', 1,
2: NN , . , ... (. . . , 1823 // .
. ., 1994. . 2. . 127); () ...(. . (
), 1830).
17
.: " - - (. . . 1823 );
" , , , (. . . . , 29 1825 // . . .
: 2 . . 2. ., 1987. . 716); 1824 . (. . . X. ,
20 1827 .); " . . (. , 1831. . 4.
42. . 69). , ,
-
(.: [ 2002]).
18
, , ,

807

, .
. , ,

,
.
: ()
. ,
...(. . . . , 16 1831 .);
. (...) , . :
! : (. . . . , 27 1836 .);
, .
. ?
, , , ! (. .
. . , 30 1828 . // , 1901. . 3, . 10. . 138); ( ) ... (. . . . , 1836 // . . .
. 18251826. ., 1964. . 75). . '' : () ... (. . . , VI. ., 2000.
. 482). '
, ':
, ,
, (. . . . . , 5, 1865 // . . . . ., 1965. . 44).
,
, . .:
... (. . .
, 1845 // . . . . 1825
1826 . .; ., 1964. . 228).
,
''. .: ,
, . (...) " , , ,
, ... (. . .
. , 1820 // . . . . ., 1989. . 302);
. () , , ... (. . .
. XII, 1820 // . . 321); , ,
: 1-, , 2-, , 3-, , 4-, .
, (. . . , 18201830- . //
. . . . ., 1982. . 95); , , . , , (. . . 14 1825 II . . .

808

. .


:
, , . . . : .
. , ,
. , , ,
... :
, , ,
, . . ,
, ( . . ,
1 1809 . // . . . . ., 1986. . 340
341). , , (, , )
.

(2 1818 .). 19 .
. ., 1983. . 106107); , . ;
, ...
(. . . , IV, 350); ... I , (...) (. . . . 18121883. ., 1991. . 44);
, (...)
... (. . . ,
, 1830- .); ...
() , , , , (. . . , II //
. ., 1988. . 334). . : , . ,
, , , ,
. , , , , (. . . . , 16 1834 //
. . . . ., 1982. . 111); .. . , , , (...)
(. . . , 1839 // . . .
. 18251826 . .; ., 1964. . 181).
19
. ( ):
() .
. ! !

IT

809

, ,
.
, ( )

.

, . , .
, ,
, .
, ,
,
(1830).
, , ,
, , ,
, :
,
, ,
[ 1949/1996: 11, 77. . . .].
,
,
, . . [1935: 298],
, (
, ). - , , , , ,
.
. ,
, , , . ,
, . , ! ... ( . . , 18 1816 .). . . :
, . , . . , , 12 ,
. ! ,
... (
. . , 1818 // ...: . ., 1983. . 278).

810

. .

,
20 .

1994 . . ., 1994.
1950 : 17 . .; .:
, 19501965.
1952 . . . : . . . ., 1950.
1969 . . . 30- //
: : .
. VI. ., 1969.
1935 . . . :
. .; ., 1935.
1955 . . . . . 1.
., 1955.
1997 . . . : 4 300
XX , , , . ., 1997.
2000 . . . : , ,
. .: , 2000.
1983 . . . . . : : . 2- . .: , 1983.
MAC 1986 : 4 . .: , 1986.
1998 . . . . .
. .: -., 1998.
1982 . . . .: , 1982.
1999 . . . ,
// . . . . . 1999. 1. . 214229.
2002 . . . ( ): 1. //
: . . 1415 2002 .: . . ., 2002.
2002 . . . :
, ( , 1, LIV, 11) // - . ., 2002.
1994 . . . . : (-
). , 1994.
1999 . . . : ( ) // , XX : . . . . . 4. , 1999.
20

. , :
" ; , ,
, , (
), ,
(, 8 1832 . // . . . .
., 1989. . 45. . . .).

811

19371949/19951996 . . . . . .: 17 . .; .,
19371949. , . ., 19951996.
PC 1997 XIX : - /
. . . . . ., 1997.
19561961 : 4 . ., 19561961.
. 19351940 / . . . .
4 . ., 1940.
1924 . . .:
, 1924.
1999 . . . : . ., 1999.

. .


: . - . FJALL ' '

,
, , (...) ,
() , , ,
[ 2000: 7]. ,
, , , , ; ,
, .

, 1 ,
. , V XII ., ( , ). ,

- , .-. berg '',
, , .,
(.
).
, . ,
, 2
. . [ 1997]. . . 1

. Codex Regius, XIII .; AM 748, XIV .; Hauksbok, XIV .


2
[ 1997: 361].

...

813

814

. .

...

815

816

. .

12) fjal-: ;
126) Qal-:
HINDAR-FJALL ' ' < .-. hind ' ', .-., .-.
hind, .-.-. hinde, .-.-. hint ', .-. <; ', ',
.-. sama- '' . [Vries 1977: 228] & .-. fjall ', ' (. 8);
Sigur5r rei5 upp a Hindarfjall ok stefndi su5r til Frakklands (Sd. 1 .) .
HIMIN-FJQLL ' ' < .-. himinn '' (. HIMIN-BJQRG '
') & .-. fjall ', ' (. 8);
Ar var alda, [>at er arar gullo, // hnigo heilog votn af Himinfjollonr, II [ haf6i Helga
inn hugumstora II Borghildr borit f Bralundi (HH. I 1) , // ; II , , // .
JASSAR- FJQLL ' ' < .-. jassar- < . Jesenik, . .
jasen,jesen '' [Vries 1977, 295] & .-. fjall ', ' (. 8);
Kenndu at Dilgjo ok a Diinhei5i, // ok a ]}eim ollom Jassarfjollom\ II ] oft Gotar gunni
ha5o // ok fagran sigr fraegir vago (Hunn. 26) ,
, // ! // //
; at Dilgjo ok a Dunhei6i // orrosto, undir
Jassarfjollom (Hunn. 28) , , // \
LOGA-FJQLL ' ' < .-. logi '', .-, loga, .-.-.
lohe; . lucere '', lux '', .-. .6<; ', ', .-.
rocate '', . , .-. luach (< *leuko-) '' [Vries 1977: 364] &
.-. fjall ', ' (. 8);
Fara hildingar hjorstefno til, // J^eirar er 16g5o at Logafjollom (HH. 113)
, // ;
bra ljoma af Logafjollom, II en af ])eim ljomom leiptrir qvomo, //
var und hjalmom
a Himinvanga. // Brynjor varu Jjeira blo6i stoknar, enn af geirom geislar sto6u (HH. I
15) , , //
. //
, ; Helgi var [ at Logafjollom ok
haf6i barizt vi5 Hundings sono (HH. II 13 .) .
MEGIN-FJALL ' ' < .-. megin ', ', .-. mcegen,
.-. megin, .-.-. megin, magan, .-. mega '' [Vries 1977:
381] & .-. fjall ', ' (. 8);
Hofom erfifli ok ekki orindi, // [>raut ora a meginfjalli, II ur9om sfpan Sasmorn
va5a (HHv. 5) : // , // ;
ROSMO-FJQLL ' ' < .-. rosmo- < *wormazfelfio ' ' ; (. Rosomonorum gens ) ,

...

817

.-. rosm-hvalr '', .-.-. rosama ', ' [Vries


1977: 451] & .-. fjall ', ' (. 8);
Seinat er nu, systir, at samna Niflungum, // langt er at leita ly5a sinnis til, // of rosmofjoll
Rrnar rekka oneissa (Akv. 17) , , , //
, // !;
RQDULS-FJQLL ' ' < .-. rgdull '', .-. rador,
.-. rador, rodor; ' , ', .-.-. rad; .
.-. ratha- '', . rota, .-. roth '' [Vries 1977: 457] &
.-. fjall ', ' (. 8);
Kysto mik, Svafa, kem ek eigi a5r// Rogheims a vit ne Rodulsfjalla (HHv. 43) , ! He // , ;
SEVA-FJQLL ' ' < .-. seer, sjor, sjdr ', ', . saiws ', ', .-. see-, sa-, .-, se, .-.,
.-.-. seu, seo '' (, ' , '); .
syvas '', . 57 ' ', .-. aiovac (.-. *saiwo) [Vries
1977: 575] & .-. fjall ', ' (. 8);
Mun- ] Sigrun fra Sefafjollom Hodbroddr konungr, hnfga at armi (HHv. 25)
, !; Sitk-a ek sva sael at Sefafjollom, // ar ne um naetr at ek una li'fi, // nema at lidi lofSungs
ljoma bregfli (HHv. 36) , //
, , , ; Ut gakk [, Sigrun fra
Sefafjollom, // ef JDIIC folks ja3ar finna lystir (HHv. 42) ,
, II !; Ein veldr ], Sigrun fra Sefafjollom. //
er Helgi er harmddgg sleginn (HH. II. 45) ,
, []; Nu kve5 ek enskis orvaent vera //
si'd ne snimma at Sefafiollom 11 er { a armi olif9om sefr (HHv. 48) , , , . // , //
.
SOL- FIQLL ' ' < .-. sol '', . sauil; . sol,
.-. saule, . haul, . .-, , .-. siira-, svar- ''
. [Vries 1977: 529] & .-. fjall ', ' (. 8);
Gaf hann Helga nafn ok Hringsta6i, // Solfioll, Sncefioll ok Sigarsvollo, // Hringsto5,
Hatun ok Himinvanga (HH. I. 8) : , // , , // .
SN/E-FJQLL ' ' (. SOL- FJQLL) < .-. sneer, snjor, snjar '',
. snaiws, .-. snaw, .-. sne, .-., .-.-. sneo, .-.
snee, sneeu (< .-. *snoig#hos), . sniegas '', .-. snige ', '
.; s: .-. vicpa, . nix [Vries 1977: 527] & .-. fjall ',
' (. 8).
13) :
13) : ;
136) : 17.
14) berg :
14) :
52 - 3595

818

. .

Jassar-fjgll Rosmo- fjpll ,


, . [Vries 1977: 295; 451].

...

52*

819

820

. .

...

821

822

. .

...

823

Ls. 55
,
.
5

,
, , .

824

. .

:
Edda. Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmalern / Hrsg. von Gustav
Neckel. I. Text. 4 umgearbeitete Aufl. von Hans Kuhn. Heidelberg, 1962.
:
: / . . . ; .,
, . . . -. .; ., 1963.

Cleasby 1957 R. Cleasby, G. Vigfusson. An Icelandic-English Dictionary / Initiated by


R. Cleasby; Revised, enlarged and completed by G. Vigfusson. 2nd ed. with a supplement by
Sir W. A. Craigie. Oxford, 1957.
Edda. Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmalern / Hrsg. von Gustav
Neckel. II. Kurzes Worterbuch von H. Kuhn. 3 umgearbeitete Aufl. des kommentierenden
Glossars. Heidelberg, 1968.
La Farge, Tucker 1992 B. La Farge, J. Tucker. Glossary to the Poetic Edda. Based on
Hans Kuhn's Kurzes Worterbuch / Skandinavistische Arbeiten hrsg. von K. von See. Bd. 15.
Heidelberg, 1992.
IEW = Pokorny 1959 J . . Indogermanisches etymologisches Worterbuch. Bern;
Miinchen, 1959. Bd. III.
Vries 1977
1. de Vries. Altnordisches etymologisches Worterbuch. 2. Aufl. Leiden, 1977.

1997 . E. . , // : . . . .
., 1997. . 360373.
2000 : . / . . . . . .: , 2000. (Studia Philologica).

827 . .

: , , ,


, (. . ), :
, , . - . . . : [] , ,
. ( ) - , ? ,
, ,
.
. , , > , . . .
, ,
:
... , , , , [ 2000: 239]. ,
,
, .
,
. , , , : , , ;
( . [ 1994] [ 1995]).
, , , , , : ,
, -;
1 , .
. [ 19956].

826

. .

! , , . ( ), . :
! ! ... (
* ), ,
(*); , .
:
. (
; ...), .
(* ... * ...).
. , , , .
,
. , , (-) : , , .
.
. , . , , ,
(. );
(. . ). , ,
( !) , . : ,
( ) . ,
, :
// ... (. ); , I/ ... (. ); .
, . // . // (. ).
. , . ... (. ); ... (. ). - ,
2.
, , ( ),
2

. [
1997]. ( ,
) . . , : ... , , [ 1997: 165].

: , , ,

827

, , , :
, // , II , , II
(. ); /I , II II
(. ); ... I/
(. ); , , ,
.11 ... (. ).
, : ... ( , .
[, III: 701]).
,
,
: ,
(: ...; ...),
, , , . ,
[, III: 701]:
(. ); [I: 226]: , ...; , II , . ! , .
, ,
-.
: , - - ( .).

,
, .: ! // ();
, () [
] ...
(. ).
( ), , .
, , , . ( ):
...; ...
, . . : , , , , ...
, ,

828

. .

.
, ,
, , , ,
(1020- ):
...
(, 91- 93-...). ,
, ( , ) .
: , ! ; , (= ), , .

, .:
, ... , , : , , , , .
.

, .: : ... (); , - // ,!! (. ); , // :


// , !!
(). - '' ( ), '' ( ), .: ... (. ) ( ).
'', ,
' '.
, , .
(3 . 14: 10) , (. 1: 12) ,
, ,
, . , ( ):
) = '', '' ) = , '', - , , . : () ... , , (3 . 9: 2);

: , , ,

829

... , (3 . 7: 3031) ( , , , , , ; , , ,
); () , , ... (3 . 7: 74). -, ,
.
, , (,
) , , ('') .
.
. , , , -, , = '', -,
(= ) XX . XIX , .:
- ... (. ).
, : , 3 , .
( ) , , -,
( ). ,
... , ,
, , , . , - , , , ...
, ,
, : , .
(. ). ,
. : [ . ] ,
...-,
,
, . , , , (= = ...)
.

830

. .

- , . , , , 6070-: , /I ... (. ).

. , , , ...
,
.: , "... , .
, , ... ,
.
[,
1997: 228229].
: ... "... ,
, , , le Grand Siecle
XIV, depuis des siecles ... , -, ( ,
231).
-, .: -
, , ,
,
( , 239).

,
, , .: ( *) ;
(= ''), .
/,
, , .
(.: ), ;
.
, , (. .. . ),
, .
, .:
(. ).

: , , ,

831

[17, 19041905] ,
, ,
, . (-): [] , ; . . : ( . )
, ( . ) ...
. ,
, : [/ .
, .] (. );
( . ) (. ). ,
, .
( ).
. ,
(), ,
, (. [, IV: 520]).
() ,
, .
, ( . ), . . :
(. ).
; ,
.: .. . ... ... , , (. ); ... (. ).
, , ( )
. , , , ,
. , '', . . , , , , ... .
-
, , , . , : , , .
, . ,

832

. .

, . ,
, , , - ., , , .
.
, , (
), . . . ,
, , ' '
.
, .:
( . ) (18231824) , , ...; ( . )
, , ,
, ', ( . ) , , -
.
- , . . :
.

, ,
, , -. , , , . : 1)
(. ); ... (. ); , , ... () 2) II , II , II ,
().
, ,
, ; . , ,
, , ... -
. : , , , ... - , : - .
, .: ... , -

: , , ,

833

(. ). , ,
, .: !
.
: ; . , .: !
... , 4.
, , , , - (,
- ), . . , ( ), . . : .

(- )
, , , , ,
. , ,
(= ) , , .
, , . , . , ,
- (= ) . , , , , .
,

. , : , , : , , 5;
4

. .
( ) :
( )
( ...),
: , * ..., . [ 1997: 116].
5
, ( /!...) : , (
53 - 3595

834

. .

. ()
,
( ) , .
, ,

(), : , II (. ); , I/ , /I !! (. ); ,
(. );
, (. ); .
, , , ; ! ...; .

. : ... II
, , , II . , , - ,
.
. ,
, . ,

, .
: [ ]
, ; [ . ] , II . . :
; / ; .
, : ,
(. ); // ,
, (. ).

: 17 . .; ., 19501965.
2000 . . . :
( ) // : . ., 2000.
), ( ; ), .
( ):.. . , , . , , . . . : (
, ) (

: , , ,

835

1997 . . . : // : . ., 1997.
, 1997 . . , . . . .
. ., 1997.
. ., 19591961. . IIV.
19641973 . . . . I
IV. ., 19641973.
1994 . . . : ( , ). ., 1994.
1995 . . . // .
. 1995. 6.
1995 . . . : // : ( ): . . ., 1995.

, , , , ).
, (/
) .

. .

-
(
1953 .).
1 .
, .
(19501960- .) . . . ( , , , ,
, ),
, - , -
, , .
. . . : , ,
, : , , , ,
(. . )
, , , .
. . . .
.
. . . ,
.
. . . , .
1

. . . .,
. 846879. .

\
838

. .

1960- . . . .
, , XX ., ,
(. , JI. .).

,
. . . . . ,
: . 1963 . ( ),
1964 . ( ), 1967 . ( ) 1973 . ( ).


, ( ), , , ( ).
, ,

.
, . . . ( , ) .
, . . .
,
,
. , ,
.
, .
. . . , , , :

. .

839

() 19531961 . ( ,
) . . .

() ( 19611962 . el
pajaro mosca, ),

() ,
(1) ( 1963 . )
(") ( 1966 .
),
() (= ),
(1) ( 19691972 . ),
(") ( 19701972 .
- -), ,
() () , 19691983 .
. . . (19691983) . .
. . .,
, .
1)

.
2) .
3) , - .
. . . , :
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, (. .
, ),
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,

840

. .

), , . .
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,
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).
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, - .
. . . . (, , ) () .
,
.
. . . . , ,
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. . . (1973, 1976, 1980 .)
. , ,
, .
. . . ( )
:
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) ( ,
);
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( 1971 .) (
, ,

);
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. .

841

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, , :
(1) . . .
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. . . (, , ) ,

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( ,
);
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; :
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, );
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(1972) . ,
, - .
(1976) , -
. ,
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: ( ), ( ) (
). ,

842

. .

, , .
.
. . . 1976 .
,
. ,
, ; ,
. , ,
(), ( ; . ..), , , (),
,
( [!/] ;
[!'/] ). , , ,
.
. . . 1970- .
.
, -
(. . ).
( ) (
).
( , ). , - ,

.
. . . (1988) . . .
,

, ( ).

, ,
, :
, , , .
. . . ( 1998 .)
, .

. .

843

, , , , (, ,
), , , . -

, , .
. . ,
,
.
, :
. , - (, , , , ) (
,
. ), . , , ,
. ,

, ( 1986 .)
.

, .
,
, , ,
.
,
.
, , ,
, .
, , , , ,
,
. - () ( ),
, (19601970- .)
( 1970- .)

844

. .

, . - ( , ) . . . - ,
, .
. . . :
1) - [, , , ), (, ), , . . 19861989 .;
2) ,
(, , , , , , , , , , , , , , . .) 19901991 .;
3)
( ,
) 19911993 .;
4) ,
(, , ) 1994 .;
5) , , , ( 19971998 .);
6) (, , , , , , , ) (, , , , , , ...) 1990- .;
7) , (, , , , ,
, ...) 19961997 .;
8) (, , , , , , , , ...), , , ,
1998 .;
9) , , 2000 .;
10) , () (, , , , , ...) () (, , , , , ,
, , ...)-,
11) , (), () 2002 .;
12) 2003 .
- , , .
, :

. .

845

;
, ( , );
, ,
, , .
- ,
. . .
( () () ), , :
,
.
:
, .
.
, , . . . . .
,
.
, ,
. , ,
( , ,
),
.
. ,

.
. .

. .

0.
. . ,
(. 874881). , ,
.
(I) , , , , , , , .
( II III) .
, . :
, , ,
, , , , , , , , , .
,
( , ). . ,
,
. :
, ,
, .
-,
, . ,
.
:
-8 . . 8: / .
. . . .: , 1972.
-9 . . 9: / . . . . .: , 1972.
-10 . . 10: / . A.M. . .: , 1972.
-23 . . 23: / . . . . .: , 1976.
-25 . . 25: / .
. . . .: , 1976.

. .

847

-29 . . 29: -- / .
A. . . .: , 1978.
-30 . . 30: / . . . . .: , 1978.
.
. . .
. . .
- . 70 / . . . . .:
, 1988. 830 .
: / . . . .
-: . / . . . . . , .: , 2003. 695 .
-1990 / . . . .
.: , 1990. 685 .: .
-2002 . 2- ., . / .
B. . . .: , 2002. 709 .: .
. . .
-2 - . 2.
-61 . .
/ . . . . . . .:
- . , 1961. 771 .
-79 . / . . . . .: , 1979. 432 .: .
-97 . . 2- ., . . / . . . . .: : , 1997. 703 ., 16 . .
-98 . . 2- () . / . . . . .: , 1998.
685 .: .
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, , ,
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1956
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848

. .

3. [. .:]. - / . . . . .: .
- , 19531954. 944 . // . 4. 1956.
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1958
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1959
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6. . // . 2. 1959.
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1960
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1961
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. .

849

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54

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. .

853

57*(2) // 57. . 270277.


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83*(VI.2).
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83*(VI.3). // 83.
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856

. .

83*(VI.4). //83. . 348356.


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117*(2). . ( . . ) // 117. . 5393.


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117*(2.1.0.). [] // 117. . 53.
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117*(2.1.3). // 117. . 6264.
117*(2.1.4). // 117. . 6469.
117*(2.2). // 117. . 6983.
117*(2.2.1).
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117*(2.2.2). //117.
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117*(2.2.3). // 117.
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117*(2.2.4).
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117*(2.3). II 117. . 8391.
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117*(2.3.3). //
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117*(2.3.4). II 117. . 87.
117*(2.3.5). // 117. . 88.
117*(2.3.6). //
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117*(2.3.7). / ^ 117. . 8991.
117*(2.4). II 117. . 9193.
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117*(3.1). // 117. . 142186.
117*(3.1.0). []// 117. . 142143.
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117*(3.1.1.1). ,
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117*(3.1.1.2). //
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117*(3.1.1.3). //
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117*(3.1.2). // 117. . 162186.

. .

859

117*(3.1.2.1). // 117. . 162165.


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117*(3.1.2.3). // 117.
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120. //
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1984
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1985
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1986
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. , 1213
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860

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1988
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134*() // 134. . 58.
134*(1) I. (
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134*(1.0) // 134. . 911.
134*(1.1) . ( )// 134. . 1216.
134*(1.2) .
(. , . ) // 134. . 1621.
134*(1.3) .
(. ) // 134. . 2123.
134*(1.4) . ; (. ) //
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134*(1.5) (. )// 134. . 2627.
134*(1.6) (. . ) // 134. . 2830.
134*(1.7) () . (. , . , . ) // 134.
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134*(1.8) .
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134*(1.9) . // 134. . 5256.
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. .

861

134*(.2) ( -) //134. . 6471.


134*(11.3) // 134. . 7175.
134*(.4) - // 134. . 7577.
134*(.5) //134. . 7781.
134*(.6) // 134. . 8184.
134*(.7) // 134. . 8492.
134*(.8) //134. . 92101.
134*() III. //134. . 101199.
134*(III.l) // 134. . 101106.
134*(1.2) // 134.
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