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Grades of materials used for

Pipes - Fittings - Flanges - Valves - Stud Bolts


according to various AsTM standards
What are ASTM Grades?
ASTM standards define the specific manufacturing process of the material
and determine the exact chemical composition of pipes, fittings and
flanges, through percentages of the permitted quantities of carbon,
magnesium, nickel, etc., and are indicated by "Grade".
For example, a carbon steel pipe can be identified with Grade A or B, a
stainless-steel pipe with Grade TP304 or Grade TP321, a carbon steel
fitting with Grade WPB etc..
Below you will find as an example 3 tables with chemical requirements for:
Flanges according to ASTM A182 Grade F304, F304L F316L
Pipes according to ASTM A312 Grade TP304, TP304L, TP3016L
Fittings according to ASTM A403 Grade WP304, WP304L, WP316L
Furthermore, a table with frequently used ASTM Grades, arranged on
Pipes, Fittings, Flanges, Valves, Bolts & Nuts, which belong together as a
group.
As you may be have noted, in the table below, ASTM A105 has no Grade.
Sometimes ASTM A105N is described;
N stands not for Grade, but for normalized. Normalizing is a type of heat
treatment, applicable to ferrous metals only. The purpose of normalizing is
to remove the internal stresses induced by heat treating, casting, forming
etc..
Chemical requirements composition, %
Flanges according to ASTM A182
Grade
C
Mn
P
S
Si
Ni
Cr
Mo
F304 0.08 2
0.045 0.03 1
8 - 1118 - 20
F304L
0.03 2
0.045 0.03 1
8 - 1318 - 20
F316L
0.03 2
0.045 0.03 1
10 - 15
16 - 18
2-3
Note:
Grades F304, F304L, and F316L shall have a maximum Nitrogen content
of 0.10%.
Pipes according to ASTM A312
Grade
C
Mn
P
S
Si
Cr
Ni
Mo
TP304
0.08 2
0.045 0.03 1
18 - 20
8 - 11
TP304L
0.035 2
0.045 0.03 1
18 - 20
8 - 13
TP316L
0.035 2
0.045 0.03 1
16 - 18
10 - 14
2-3
Note:
For small diameter or thin walls or both, where many drawing passes are
required, a Carbon maximum of 0.040% is necessary in grades TP304L
and TP316L. Small outside diameter tubes are defined as those less than
0.50 in. [12.7 mm] in outside diameter and light wall tubes as those less
than 0.049 in. [1.20 mm] in average wall thickness (0.044 in. [1.10 mm] in
minimum wall thickness).
Fittings according to ASTM A403
Grade
C (1) Mn (1)
P (1) S (1) Si (1) Ni

Cr

Mo

WP304
0.08 2
0.045 0.03 1
8 - 1118 - 20
WP304L
0.03 (2)
2
0.045 0.03 1
8 - 1218 - 20
WP316L
0.03 (2)
2
0.045 0.03 1
10 - 14 (3) 16 - 18
23
Notes:
(1) Maximum, unless otherwise indicated.
(2) For small diameter or thin walls or both, where many drawing passes
are required, a Carbon maximum of 0.040% is necessary in grades TP304L
and TP316L. Small outside diameter tubes are defined as those less than
0.50 in. [12.7 mm] in outside diameter and light wall tubes as those less
than 0.049 in. [1.20 mm] in average wall thickness (0.044 in. [1.10 mm] in
minimum wall thickness).
(3) On pierced tubing, the Nickel may be 11.0-16.0%.
Frequently used ASTM Grades
Material
Pipes Fittings
Flanges
Valves
Bolts & Nuts
Carbon Steel
A106 Gr A A234 Gr WPA
A105 A216 Gr WCB
A193 Gr B7
A194 Gr 2H
A106 Gr B A234 Gr WPB
A105 A216 Gr WCB
A106 Gr C A234 Gr WPC
A105 A216 Gr WCB
Carbon Steel
Alloy
High-Temp A335 Gr P1 A234 Gr WP1
A182 Gr F1 A217 Gr WC1
A193 Gr B7
A194 Gr 2H
A335 Gr P11
A234 Gr WP11
A182 Gr F11
A217 Gr WC6
A335 Gr P12
A234 Gr WP12
A182 Gr F12
A217 Gr WC6
A335 Gr P22
A234 Gr WP22
A182 Gr F22
A217 Gr WC9
A335 Gr P5 A234 Gr WP5
A182 Gr F5 A217 Gr C5
A335 Gr P9 A234 Gr WP9
A182 Gr F9 A217 Gr C12
Carbon Steel
Alloy
Low-Temp A333 Gr 6 A420 Gr WPL6
A350 Gr LF2
A352 Gr LCB
A320 Gr L7
A194 Gr 7
A333 Gr 3 A420 Gr WPL3
A350 Gr LF3
A352 Gr LC3
Austenitic
Stainless
Steel A312 Gr TP304 A403 Gr WP304
A193 Gr B8
A194 Gr 8
A312 Gr TP316 A403 Gr WP316 A182
A312 Gr TP321 A403 Gr WP321 A182
A312 Gr TP347 A403 Gr WP347 A182
Material
Pipes Fittings
Flanges
ASTM Materials

A182 Gr F304
Gr F316
Gr F321
Gr F347
Valves

A182 Gr F304

A182 Gr F316
A182 Gr F321
A182 Gr F347
Bolts & Nuts

Pipes
A106 = This specification covers carbon steel pipe for high-temperature
service.
A335 = This specification covers seamless ferritic alloy-steel pipe for hightemperature service.
A333 = This specification covers wall seamless and welded carbon and
alloy steel pipe intended for use at low temperatures.
A312 = Standard specification for seamless, straight-seam welded, and
cold worked welded austenitic stainless steel pipe intended for hightemperature and general corrosive service.
Fittings
A234 = This specification covers wrought carbon steel and alloy steel
fittings of seamless and welded construction.
A420 = Standard specification for piping fittings of wrought carbon steel
and alloy steel for low-temperature service.
A403 = Standard specification for wrought austenitic stainless steel piping
fittings.
Flanges
A105 = This specification covers standards for forged carbon steel piping
components, that is, flanges, fittings, Valves, and similar parts, for use in
pressure systems at ambient and higher-temperature service conditions.
A182 = This specification covers forged or rolled alloy and stainless steel
pipe flanges, forged fittings, and Valves and parts for high-temperature
service.
A350 = This specification covers several grades of carbon and low alloy
steel forged or ring-rolled flanges, forged fittings and Valves for lowtemperature service.
Valves
A216 = This specification covers carbon steel castings for Valves, flanges,
fittings, or other pressure-containing parts for high-temperature service
and of quality suitable for assembly with other castings or wrought-steel
parts by fusion welding.
A217 = This specification covers steel castings, martensitic stainless steel
and alloys steel castings for Valves, flanges, fittings, and other pressurecontaining parts intended primarily for high-temperature and corrosive
service.
A352 = This specification covers steel castings for Valves, flanges, fittings,
and other pressure-containing parts intended primarily for lowtemperature service.
A182 = This specification covers forged or rolled alloy and stainless steel
pipe flanges, forged fittings, and Valves and parts for high-temperature
service.
Bolts & Nuts
A193 = This specification covers alloy and stainless steel bolting material
for pressure vessels, Valves, flanges, and fittings for high temperature or
high pressure service, or other special purpose applications.
A320 = Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting
Materials for Low-Temperature Service.
A194 = Standard specification for nuts in many different material types.

Definition and Details of Nominal Pipe Size


Nominal Pipe Size
Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American set of standard sizes for
pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures. The name NPS is
based on the earlier "Iron Pipe Size" (IPS) system.
That IPS system was established to designate the pipe size. The size
represented the approximate inside diameter of the pipe in inches. An IPS
6" pipe is one whose inside diameter is approximately 6 inches. Users
started to call the pipe as 2inch, 4inch, 6inch pipe and so on. To begin,
each pipe size was produced to have one thickness, which later was
termed as standard (STD) or standard weight (STD.WT.). The outside
diameter of the pipe was standardized.
As the industrial requirements handling higher pressure fluids, pipes were
manufactured with thicker walls, which has become known as an extra
strong (XS) or extra heavy (XH). The higher pressure requirements
increased further, with thicker wall pipes. Accordingly, pipes were made
with double extra strong (XXS) or double extra heavy (XXH) walls, while
the standardized outside diameters are unchanged. Note that on this
website only terms XS and XXS are used.
Pipe Schedule
So, at the IPS time only three walltickness were in use. In March 1927, the
American Standards Association surveyed industry and created a system
that designated wall thicknesses based on smaller steps between sizes.
The designation known as nominal pipe size replaced iron pipe size, and
the term schedule (SCH) was invented to specify the nominal wall
thickness of pipe. By adding schedule numbers to the IPS standards, today
we know a range of wall thicknesses, namely:
SCH 5, 5S, 10, 10S, 20, 30, 40, 40S, 60, 80, 80S, 100, 120, 140, 160, STD,
XS and XXS.
Nominal pipe size (NPS) is a dimensionless designator of pipe size. It
indicates standard pipe size when followed by the specific size designation
number without an inch symbol. For example, NPS 6 indicates a pipe
whose outside diameter is 168.3 mm.

The NPS is very loosely related to the inside diameter in inches, and NPS
12 and smaller pipe has outside diameter greater than the size designator.
For NPS 14 and larger, the NPS is equal to 14inch.
Steel Pipes
For a given NPS, the outside diameter stays constant and the wall
thickness increases with larger schedule number. The inside diameter will
depend upon the pipe wall thickness specified by the schedule number.
Summary:
Pipe size is specified with two non-dimensional numbers,
nominal pipe size (NPS)
schedule number (SCH)
and the relationship between these numbers determine the inside
diameter of a pipe.
Stainless Steel Pipe dimensions determined by ASME B36.19 covering the
outside diameter and the Schedule wall thickness. Note that stainless wall
thicknesses to ASME B36.19 all have an "S" suffix. Sizes without an "S"
suffix are to ASME B36.10 which is intended for carbon steel pipes.
The International Standards Organization (ISO) also employs a system
with a dimensionless designator.
Diameter nominal (DN) is used in the metric unit system. It indicates
standard pipe size when followed by the specific size designation number
without a millimeter symbol. For example, DN 80 is the equivalent
designation of NPS 3. Below a table with equivalents for NPS and DN pipe
sizes.
NPS 1/2 3/4 1
1 1 2
2 3
3 4
DN 15
20
25
32
40
50
65
80
90
100
Note: For NPS 4, the related DN = 25 multiplied by the NPS number.
Do you now what is "ein zweihunderter Rohr"?. Germans means with that
a pipe NPS 8 or DN 200. In this case, the Dutch talking about a "8 duimer".
I'm really curious how people in other countries indicates a pipe.
Examples of actual O.D. and I.D.
Actual outside diameters
NPS 1 actual O.D. = 1.5/16" (33.4 mm)
NPS 2 actual O.D. = 2.3/8" (60.3 mm)
NPS 3 actual O.D. = 3" (88.9 mm)
NPS 4 actual O.D. = 4" (114.3 mm)
NPS 12 actual O.D. = 12.3/4" (323.9 mm)
NPS 14 actual O.D. = 14"(355.6 mm)
Actual inside diameters of a 1 inch pipe.
NPS 1-SCH 40 = O.D.33,4 mm - WT. 3,38 mm - I.D. 26,64 mm
NPS 1-SCH 80 = O.D.33,4 mm - WT. 4,55 mm - I.D. 24,30 mm
NPS 1-SCH 160 = O.D.33,4 mm - WT. 6,35 mm - I.D. 20,70 mm
Such as above defined, no inside diameter corresponds to the truth 1"
(25,4 mm).
The inside diameter is determined by the wall thickness (WT).

Definition and Details of Pipe - Lengths & Ends


Types, Lengths and Ends of Pipes
Pipe manufacturing refers to how the individual pieces of pipe are made in a pipe
mill; it does not refer to how the pieces are connected in the field to form a
continuous pipeline. Each piece of pipe produced by a pipe mill is called a joint or a
length (regardless of its measured length). In some cases, pipe is shipped to the
pipeline construction site as "double joints", where two pieces of pipe are pre-welded
together to save time. Most of the pipe used for oil and gas pipelines is seamless or
longitudinally welded, although spirally welded pipe is common for larger diameters.

Steel Pipes are manufactured in 4 versions:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Longitudinally Welded SAW


Spiral Welded
Electric Resistance Welded (ERW)
Seamless

Welded Pipe
Welded pipe (pipe manufactured with a weld) is a tubular product made out of flat
plates, known as skelp, that are formed, bent and prepared for welding. The most
popular process for large diameter pipe uses a longitudinal seam weld.
Spiral welded pipe is an alternative process, spiral weld construction allows large
diameter pipe to be produced from narrower plates or skelp. The defects that occur
in spiral welded pipe are mainly those associated with the SAW weld, and are similar
in nature to those for longitudinally welded SAW pipe.

Electric Resistance Welded (ERW) and High Frequency Induction (HFI) Welded Pipe,
originally this type of pipe, which contains a solid phase butt weld, was produced
using resistance heating to make the longitudinal weld (ERW). But most pipe mills
now use high frequency induction heating (HFI) for better control and consistency.
However, the product is still often referred to as ERW pipe, even though the weld
may have been produced by the HFI process.

Seamless Pipe Plug Mill Process


This process is used to make larger sizes of seamless pipe, typically 6 to 16 inches
(150 to 400 mm) diameter. An ingot of steel weighing up to two tons is heated to
2,370F (1,300C) and pierced. The hole in the hollow shell is enlarged on a rotary
elongator, resulting in a short thick-walled tube known as a bloom.
An internal plug approximately the same diameter as the finished diameter of the
pipe is then forced through the bloom. The bloom containing the plug is then passed
between the rolls of the plug mill. Rotation of the rolls reduces the wall thickness.
The tube is rotated through 90 for each pass through the plug mill to ensure
roundness. The tube is then passed through a reeling mill and reducing mill to even
out the wall thickness and produce the finished dimensions. The tube is then cut to
length before heat treatment, final straightening, inspection, and hydrostatic testing.

Seamless Pipe Mandrell Mill Process


This process is used to make smaller sizes of seamless pipe, typically 1 to 6 inches
(25 to 150 mm) diameter. The ingot of steel is heated to 2,370F (1,300C) and
pierced. A mandrel is inserted into the tube and the assembly is passed through a
rolling (mandrel) mill. Unlike the plug mill, the mandrel mill reduces wall thickness
continuously with a series of pairs of curved rollers set at 90 angles to each other.
After reheating, the pipe is passed through a multi-stand stretch-reducing mill to
reduce the diameter to the finished diameter. The pipe is then cut to length before
heat treatment, final straightening, inspection, and hydrostatic testing.

Seamless Pipe Extrusion Process


This process is used for small diameter tubes only. The bar stock is cut to length and
heated to 2,280F (1,250C) before being sized and descaled. The billet is then
extruded through a steel die. After extrusion, the final tube dimensions and surface
quality are obtained with a multi-stand reducing mill.

Electric Resistance Welded (ERW) and High Frequency


Induction (HFI) Welded Pipe

Originally this type of pipe, which contains a solid phase butt weld, was produced
using resistance heating to make the longitudinal weld (ERW), but most pipe mills
now use high frequency induction heating (HFI) for better control and consistency.
However, the product is still often referred to as ERW pipe, even though the weld
may have been produced by the HFI process.
The defects that can occur in ERW/HFI pipe are those associated with strip
production, such as laminations and defects at the narrow weld line. Lack of fusion
due to insufficient heat and pressure is the principal defect, although hook cracks
can also form due to realignment of non metallic inclusions at the weld interface.
Because the weld line is not visible after trimming, and the nature of the solid phase
welding process, considerable lengths of weld with poor fusion can be produced if
the welding parameters fall outside the set limits. In addition, early ERW pipe was
subject to pressure reversals, a problem that results in failure in service at a lower
stress than that seen in the pre-service pressure test. This problem is caused by
crack growth during the pressure test hold period, which in the case of early ERW
pipe was due to a combination of low weld line toughness and lack of fusion defects.

A note about the lack of fusion in ERW weld


As a result of these early problems, ERW pipe was generally regarded as a secondgrade pipe suitable only for low pressure applications. However, prompted by a
shortage of seamless pipe and the lower cost of ERW pipe, suppliers and end users
directed a major effort toward improving the pipe mill quality in the 1980s. In
particular, accurate tracking of the weld line by the automatic ultrasonic inspection
equipment was found to be crucial, since the weld line can rotate slightly as the pipe
leaves the welding station. In addition, the standard of heat treatment of the weld
line, which is necessary to ensure good toughness, was found to be important and
some specifications call for local weld line heat treatment using induction coils
followed by full body normalizing of the whole pipe in a furnace. As a result of these
improvements, modern ERW/HFI pipe has much better performance than the
traditional product and has been accepted by a number of operators for high
pressure gas transmission.
Text about types of welded and seamless pipe for this page are coming from: General Electric
Company

Length of Pipes
Piping lengths from the factory not exactly cut to length but are normally delivered
as:

Single random length has a length of around 5-7 meter

Double random length has a length of around 11-13 meter

Shorter and longer lengths are available, but for a calculation, it is wise, to use this
standard lengths; other sizes are probably more expensive.

Ends of Pipes
For the ends of pipes are 3 standard versions available.

Plain Ends (PE)

Threaded Ends (TE)

Beveled Ends (BE)

The PE pipes will generally be used for the smaller diameters pipe systems and in
combination with Slip On flanges and Socket Weld fittings and flanges.
The TE implementation speaks for itself, this performance will generally used for
small diameters pipe systems, and the connections will be made with threaded
flanges and threaded fittings.

The BE implementation is applied to all diameters of buttweld flanges or buttweld


fittings, and will be directly welded (with a small gap 3-4 mm) to each other or to
the pipe. Ends are mostly be beveled to angle 30 (+ 5 / -0) with a root face of
1.6 mm ( 0.8 mm).

Piping Coordination Systems - Reference Points


Foreword - Location is Relative
An object's location is always given relative to another reference object.
For example, the location of a Heat Exchanger may be described as five blocks from
the General Service Building. To be more specific, the Heat Exchanger is four blocks
east and three blocks south of the General Service Building. With this illustration, a
direction and a distance from the General Service Building has been established.
Several things are assumed to be known, the place to begin
(General Service Building), and understanding of east and south (reference
directions), and the length of a block (unit of displacement). Without consensus on
these things, communication of the location of a Process Plant becomes unclear.
Before beginning with making drawings for a new process plant or building, there
must be determine where the new building in the area will take his place. A
coordination system, which refers to an officially recognized point therefore is
necessary.
In the Netherlands, for example, are thousands of official reference points,
distributed across the country ...search on the Internet on geographic coordinate
conversion, triangulation stations, benchmarks, geography or topography. You'll find
a lot of information about how reference points are measured and identified.

Horizontal Reference
Defining a starting point of the site related to the North / South direction, is one of
the first steps in setting up a coordination system.
In principle, with a simple reliable compass the direction of the magnetic north can
to be determined. In the image below the true north is at 18. As a draftsman would
work with the true north coordinates, he will immediately find out that each line
from west to east and from north to south at an angle of 18 must be drawn.
To avoid this, a Plant North will be determined. In the example below, the true
north, 18 is reversed, draftsmen and construction contractors will be grateful for it.
General there will be tried, to approach the true north-south coordinates as close as
possible.
A rule is, that the angle between true north and Plant North can not exceed 45. At
50, for example, the Plant North would be on the right side, so on the Eastern side
of the image.

1 = Official reference point


2 = South West angle of new plant
X = East West distance from new plant to reference point
Y = North South distance from new plant to reference point

Vertical Reference
Before starting with any building, the site is leveled (graded), what means that the
ground is made as flat as practically possible. After leveling we talking about
"finished grade", where the highest graded point is termed
"high point of finished grade".
This highest point of finished grade refers to an official reference point on which all
vertical measurements are related. In the Netherlands, for example, many vertical
measurement are in relation to the "Normaal Amsterdams Peil" (NAP). If the field
compared to the NAP is 1 meter higher, usually the reference point will not become a
zero start of 1000 mm, but in this case a zero start at zero(0).
On a isometric view of a pipe line elevations are indicated by EL.109665 or EL.99450
etc..
What is meant by this vertical dimensions ?

The first EL.109665 you can read as: centerline of pipe is 9665 mm above
zero point

The second EL.99450 you can read as: centerline of pipe is 550 mm below
zero point

Well, the vertical zero point in this case is 100 meters (100000 mm), and this has
the advantage that no negative (minus) values on drawings need to be applied.

Remark(s) of the Author...


Center-Line and Elevation symbol
I have learned, to apply a centerline, a Elevation symbol and a Center-Line symbol
to a isometric.
Namely, the Center-Line symbol at the end of the centerline, and
Elevation symbol, followed by the elevation-numbers.

The sign on the left shows the centerline symbol.


Tip for AutoCad users: use the CDT font, lower case Q.

ON that line the

The sign on the left shows the Elevation symbol.


That sign, you will see on almost every isometric.
A combination of both signs, you see rarely nowadays on an isometric. Usually only
the Elevation symbol is applied. Why? There are many reasons to make no oldfashioned isometrics.
Large-engineering companies can tell you why!

Piping Coordination Systems - Piping Arrangement


Views in Piping Drawings
There are two types of views in hand-drawn piping drawings:

Orthographic - Plans and Elevations

Pictorial - Isometric Views

Orthographic drawings are views (front, side, top etc.) of an piping system, and in
Piping they are called "Piping Arrangements".
An orthographic view shows only one side, and therefore multiple drawings (views)
are necessary to show a complete Piping Arrangement.
In complex systems, where orthographic views do not illustrate the details of the
design, pictorial view in isometric presentation is made for clarity.

Priorities on a Piping Arrangement


Process equipment and piping have priority on the Piping Arrangement. The major
primary beams and secondary beams are also shown, even as Utility stations so that
the most efficient route for utilities can be determined.
Order of importance of pipe lines in a Piping Arrangement:

Alloy steel and other special materials

Large bore piping

High temperature/high pressure piping

Lined piping

Carbon Steel Process Piping

Utility piping

Further (if possible) all equipment, instrument connections, with the tag numbers
will be shown on a Piping Arrangement. Important details are often in a larger scale
in the same drawing shown.
Even as a Plot Plan, a whole process plant usually can not be given on a readable
drawing. Therefore the Piping Arrangement show parts of a process plant.

Types of Piping Arrangement Drawings


Pipelines on a Piping Arrangement are shown by single lines and double lines.
In single line representation only the center line of the pipeline is drawn using a solid
line. In double line representation the actual size to scale is drawn with center line
marked in chain-dotted lines.
Single lines representation

Flanges are shown as thick lines drawn to the scaled outsite diameter of the
flange.

For flanged joints a small gap between dimension lines will be shown to
indicate a gasket.

Valves are shown with identification number and a handwheel is drawn with
stem fully extended. If a valve is lever operated, then the movement of handle
position is given.

Dimensions for flanged valves are given to the flange faces, while non flanged
valves are dimensioned to the center lines of their stems.

Example of a single line Piping Arrangement


The drawing shows 2 pumps, 4 valves (all Handwheel operated and flanged), a pipe line and a
column.

The line number CD - PL - 101 - 12 - C300 - T2 - I2 tells something about the


pipe line.

CD

Indicator for plant or system, where the pipeline is located.

PL

Indicator for a service designation.

101

Indicator for the serial number of the pipe line.

12

Indicator NPS, in this case the main pipeline is NPS 12.

C300 Indicator for Pipe Line Class or "Pipe Spec".


C tells that the material is Carbon Steel, and 300 indicates the Pressure Class.

T2

Indicator for E-tracing type.

I2

Indicator for Insulation type.

Above description of the line number is only an example. For line numbers are no
standard definitions, and therefore a customer specification can be different from
what is here defined.
The indication 12-314 (Typ) on the valve told that the valve is 12 inches and 314
indicates the type of valve. The same applies also to the valve near the pump, where
DR indicates a Drain Valve.
Typ stands for Typical and means that there is another ore more valves in that
drawing with the same specification. The advantage of this indicator is, that items
with the same specification only once need to be defined.
Furthermore, the red arrow indicates the flow direction, which perhaps is
unnecessary, because the pipe line is connected to the Suction side of the pump.

Dis. = Discharge, pressure side of a pump

Suc. = Suction, suction side of a pump

An important item is designation TF (Top Flat) which is shown to the eccentric


reducer at the pump. That means that the flat side of the reducer is on the top of de
pipe line. If it was vice versa BF(Bottom Flat), also the elevation to the suction side
of the pump must be given.
Example for the pump suction side:
A eccentric reducer 12 to 8 inch has a center-line difference from 52.4 millimeters.
(12" = O.D. 323.9 mm / 8" = O.D. 219.1 mm / Length = 203 mm / Center-line
difference = 52.4 mm).
If the reducer bottom flat, an elevation round off upwards EL. 100548 must be
shown.

Note: The connection to the column is Class 600. This change in Pressure Class is
indicated
by a so-called "Spec break" (change of Piping Class Specification). In this case it
means, that the flange that connect to nozzle C1 also must be have a Pressure Class
of 600, and that the material probably not changed.
Another important item is the elevation (given in red) of nozzle C1 from the column.
The elevation EL. 104966 is shown, because the pipe line ends with an eccentric
reducer Bottom Flat (BF). In this case it means, that the vertical centerline from
nozzle C1 is 15.88 mm above the center line of the pipeline.
A eccentric reducer 14 x 12 (355.6 mm x 323.9 mm) has a length of 330 mm and a
center-line difference from 15.88 mm.

Symbols on a Piping Arragement Drawing


On the drawing can be seen that the pipe line(s) from the pumps run up to the
column. The pipeline starts with elevation EL. 100600 at the pump suction site and
ends at elevation EL. 104950 at nozzle "C1" from the column. But without the
elevations, the upward routing is also visible.
For single line representation there are a lot of symbols, which illustrate a directional
change.
The three partly open blue circles in the drawing, indicate three Elbows which are
bending down.
The two blue half-moons around the pipelines/valves indicate that the valves are at
the bottom of the pipeline are located. The two valves are needed to drain the
pipeline. By applying eccentric reducers (Top Flat) in the lowest part of the pipeline,
the two valves make it possible to fully empty the system.
In the main Menu "Docs" the most used drawing symbols can be found.

3-Dimensional View
More and more engineering companies show Plot Plans, equipment and piping

arrangements in a 3D view. Better 3D software has made this possible, and


generally has this way of drawing many advantages.
There are many programs that can be made 3D views, but they are all very
expensive. Large engineering companies often have developed their own software.
Some of these programs make it possible "to walking through a whole plant" in
order to find a particular item. It is very impressive, what is possible with that type
of software.

Summary
A standard Piping Arrangement does not exist.
Like a Plot Plan or Equipment Arrangement, in the development phase of a new
plant, the requirements for the drawings will be made by customer and/or
engineering company.

Remark(s) of the Author...


My own experience with 3-Dimensional Views...
Since 1999, I draw many topics in 3D views.
The reason is, that I have noted that a pipefitter or construction worker knows
immediately what he must build. Another reason is, that people who are not able to
read a drawing, also know what I am trying to explain.
For myself, I discovered that it cost me less time, to make different views, because
with acceptable 3D software, each view (what ever you want) in seconds can be
displayed and printed.
My first 3-D drawing

In recent years I have found a combination of both, Orthographic and 3D view. If it


is a simple drawing I show only two or three orthographic views. In complex
drawings I show the necessary orthographicthis views with in the right corner of the
drawing, a 3D view. It works perfectly for those who must carry out the job.
Simple drawing of a 3-Dimensional view from the Piping Arrangement above mentioned.

The 3D view from the Piping Arrangement is simple but it probably shows, for most users, a direct
understandable drawing.
At the end of 2008 I had a job for the design of a new 14 inch pipeline from and between two
storage tanks. Normally I had made isometric views from the new pipe line and orthographic views
of the supports. But in that case, for the first time, I made only 3d views to scale from the

pipeline, valves, supports etc.. I gave the pipefitters and construction workers all possible
views...the job is performed without any problems.
With respect to our "grandfathers", they builded without our current techniques, the largest plants
on earth.

Piping Coordination Systems - Piping Isometrics


Piping Isometric

Unlike orthographics, piping isometrics allow the pipe to be drawn in a manner by


which the length, width and depth are shown in a single view. Isometrics are usually
drawn from information found on a plan and elevation views. The symbols that
represent fittings, Valves and flanges are modified to adapt to the isometric grid.
Usually, piping isometrics are drawn on preprinted paper, with lines of equilateral
triangles form of 60.
The Iso, as isometric are commonly referred, is oriented on the grid relative to the
north arrow found on plan drawings. Because

iso's are not drawn to scale,

dimensions are required to specify exact lengths of piping runs.


Pipe lengths are determined through calculations using coordinates and elevations.
Vertical lengths of pipe are calculated using elevations, while horizontal lengths are
caculated using north-south and east-west coordinates.
Piping isometrics are generally produced from orthographic drawings and are
important pieces of information to engineers. In very complex or large piping
systems, piping isometrics are essential to the design and manufacturing phases of a
project.
Piping isometrics are often used by designers prior to a stress analysis and are also
used by draftsmen to produce shop fabrication spool drawings. Isometrics are the
most important drawings for installation contractors during the field portion of the
project.
Large image of a Hand-Drawn Isometric

How to read a Piping Isometric?


A pipe into a isometric view, is always drawn by a single line. This single line is the
centerline of the pipe, and from that line, the dimensions measured. So, not from
the outside of a pipe or fitting.
The image below shows a orthographic view of a butt welded pipe with three sizes
(A, B, C).

The A size is measured from the front to the center line of the elbow / pipe.

The B size is measured from centerline to centerline.

The C size is like the A size, measured from the front to the center line of the
elbow / pipe.

Orthographic view
(double line presentation)

Isometric view

The isometric view shows the same pipe as in the orthographic view.
As you can see, this drawing is very simple and quick to implement. The red lines
show the pipe, the black dots are the butt welds and A, B & C are the dimensions of
front to center line and center line to center line.
The simplicity with which a pipe isometric can be drawn is one reason to made iso's.
A second reason to made isometrics; if a pipe should be drawn in several planes
(north to south, then down and then to the west, etc.), orthographic views really not
an option. In a orthographic view it is not a problem if the pipe runs in one plane,

but when a pipe in two or three planes to be drawn, a orthographic view can be
unclear.
Another reason why isos are preferred, is the number of drawings that for
orthographic views should be made.
For example: for a complex pipeline system, 15 isometrics must be drawn. I've
never tried, but I think for orthographic views maybe 50 drawings are needed to
show the same as the Iso's.

Isometric, Plan and Elevation Presentations of a Piping


System
The image below show the presentation used in drafting. The isometric view clearly
show the piping arrangement, but the plan view fails to show the bypass loop and
valve, and the supplementary elevation view is needed.

Isometric views in more than one plane


Below are some examples of isometric drawings. The auxiliary lines in the shape of a
cube, ensure better visualization of the pipeline routing.

Figure

1 shows a pipeline which runs through three planes. The pipe line begins and

ends with a flange.


Routing starting point

pipe runs to the east

pipe runs up

pipe runs to the north

pipe runs to the west

pipe runs down

Figure

2 is almost identical to the drawing above. A different perspective is shown,

and the pipe that comes from above is longer.


Because this pipe in isometric view, runs behind the other pipe, this must be
indicated by a break in the line.
Routing starting point X

pipe runs to the south

pipe runs up

pipe runs to the west

pipe runs to the north

pipe runs down

Figure

3 shows a pipe that runs through three planes and in two planes it make a

bow.
Routing starting point

pipe runs to the south

pipe runs up

pipe runs up and to the west

pipe runs up

pipe runs to the west

pipe runs to the north-west

pipe runs to the north

Figure

4 shows a pipe that runs through three planes, from one plane to a opposite

plane.
Routing starting point

pipe runs to the south

pipe runs up

pipe runs up and to the north-west

pipe runs to the north

Hatches on a Isometric Drawing


Hatches on isometric drawings being applied, to indicate that a pipe runs at a certain
angle and in which direction the pipe runs.
Sometimes, small changes in the hatch, the routing of a pipe is no longer the east,
but for example suddenly to the north.

Figure

5 shows a pipe, where the hatch indicates that the middle leg runs to the

east.
Routing starting point

pipe runs up

pipe runs up and to the east

pipe runs up

Figure

6 shows a pipe, where the hatch indicates that the middle leg runs to the

north.
Routing starting point

pipe runs up

pipe runs up and to the north

pipe runs up

The two drawings above show, that changing from only the hatch, a pipeline
receives a different direction. Hatches are particularly important in isometric views.

Figure

7 shows a pipe, where the hatches indicates that the middle leg runs up and

to the north-west.
Routing starting point

pipe runs up

pipe runs up and to the north-west

pipe runs to the north

What are Engineering Standards?


ES

Standards and Codes


Standards, codes, specifications are extremely important - often essential - technical
documents in engineering and related technical fields.

Standards: a technical standard is an established norm or requirement. It is


usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria,
methods, processes and practices. The documents prepared by a professional group
or committee which are believed to be good and proper engineering practices and
which contain mandatory requirement.

Codes: a code is a set of rules and specifications or systematic procedures for


design, fabrication, installation and inspection methods prepared in such a manner
that it can be adopted by legal jurisdiction. Codes can be approved by local, state or
federal governments and can carry the force of law. The main purpose of codes is to
protect the public by setting up the minimum acceptable level of safety for buildings,
products and processes.

Pipe Fabrication Institute

The primary purpose of the Pipe Fabrication Institute is to promote the highest standards of
excellence in the pipe fabrication industry.

The Pipe Fabrication Institute (PFI) publishes advisory Engineering Standards (ES)
and Technical Bulletins (TB) intended to serve the needs of the pipe-fabricating
industry at the design level and in actual shop operations.
The PFI standards contain minimum requirements; however, the designer or
fabricator may consider specifying additional requirements beyond the scope of PFI
publications. The use of PFI standards or bulletins is voluntary. A listing of PFI
publications follows:

Engineering and Fabrication

ES2
Method of Dimensioning Piping Assemblies

ES7
Minimum Length and Spacing for Welded Nozzles

ES16
Access Holes, Bosses, and Plugs for Radiographic Inspection of Pipe Welds

ES26
Welded Load Bearing Attachments to Pressure Retaining Piping Materials

ES36
Branch Reinforcement Work Sheets

ES40
Method of Dimensioning Grooved Piping Assemblies

ES44
Drafting Practices Standard

Welding and Fabrication

ES1
Internal Machining and Solid Machined Backing Rings For Circumferential Butt
Welds

ES21
Internal Machining and Fit-up of GTAW Root Pass Circumferential Butt Welds

ES24
Pipe Bending Methods, Tolerances, Process and Material Requirements

ES35
Nonsymmetrical Bevels and Joint Configurations for Butt Welds

ES45
Recommended Practice for Local Post-Weld Heat Treatment

ES47
Welding of Internally Clad Piping

ES49
Guidelines for Installation of Integrally Reinforced Branch Connection Outlet
Fitting

Cleaning, Painting, and Shipping

ES5
Cleaning of Fabricated Piping

ES29
Internal Abrasive Blast Cleaning of Ferritic Piping Materials

ES31
Standard for Protection of Ends of Fabricated Piping Assemblies

ES34
Temporary Painting/Coating of Fabricated Piping

ES37
Standard for Loading and Shipping of Piping Assemblies

Quality Control

ES3
Fabricating Tolerances

ES11
Permanent Marking on Piping Materials

ES22
Recommended Practice for Color Coding of Piping Materials

ES32
Tool Calibration

ES39
Fabricating Tolerances for Grooved Piping Systems

ES41
Standard for Material Control and Traceability of Piping Components

ES43
Standard for Protection of Austenitic Stainless Steel and Nickel Alloy Materials

Examination and Testing

ES4
Hydrostatic Testing of Fabricated Piping

ES20
Wall Thickness Measurement by Ultrasonic Examination

ES27
"Visual Examination" The Purpose, Meaning and Limitation of the Term

ES42
Standard for Positive Material Identification of Piping Components using Portable
X-Ray Emission Type Equipment

ES48
Random Examination

Example of Engineering Standard


On the right of this page you will find a link (ES) that opens a small menu. Through
this menu you can open several pages that give you an example, how an
Engineering Standard might look like. Remember, the shown ES on this website only
is an example!

What are Piping Specifications?


The Piping Specification (abbreviated:

Pipe Spec) is a document prepared during

the design phase of any project. It provides the appropriate selection, specification
and material grade of pipe and piping components for a given service.

For all subsequent maintenance and repair on a section of pipe, the piping
specification remains as the key to correct material selection.
Before commencing any job, reference to the piping specification is essential to
specify and use the correct materials. For the job check that you are using the latest
revision of the specification.
Do not rely on "what was installed before must be right" as this is not
always the case! If a discrepancy is found, it should be reported.
Note that a piping specification only applies to the defined plant, site or installation.
Other sites or plants for example can have their own piping specifications and they
are NOT interchangeable.
To use the piping specification, reference must first be made to the Process and
Instrument Diagram. Identify the section of pipe in the P&ID and a line number will
be quoted, e.g:

12-FW-1014-1CS1P which is interpreted as follows:

12 - The nominal pipe size of the line.

FW - The service code. This refers to the contents of the pipe. In this
instance, FW refers to Fire Water.

1014 - The pipeline number which is a unique number allocated to a specific


section or run of pipe during the design stages.

1CS1P - The piping specification number. This is a short-hand


reference into the piping specification document, and is also unique to that
document. The first number normally refers to the pressure rating of the
system.

Having determined the piping specification number, turn to the appropriate page in
the piping specification document. There the correct type of gasket, the correct
grade of studbolts, spectacle blinds, blind flanges, pipe material, pipe wall thickness
will be specified for the job in hand.
In the pipe specification are also links to other standards, such as testing, welding,
inspection, painting and so on. You will also find a so-called Branch Table, which tells
you how a branch is to be made.

PIPE SPEC
1-CS-1-P
1 Class 150

CS Carbon Steel

Description
3 = class 300
6 = class 600
9 = class 900
15 = class 1500
25 = class 2500
CA = Carbon Steel Alloy Low-Temp (Killed Steel)
SA = Austenitic Stainless Steel 304SS

SD = Austenitic Stainless Steel 316SS


1 Corrosion Allowance
(1 x factor)

0 = Stainless steel or other


Austenitic Stainless Steels

P General Process
Non Corrosive

FW = Fire Water
V = High Process Vacuum
A = Alloy 20 valves

PIPE SPEC
1-CS-1-P

Description

PIPING SPECIFICATION
Standard No.: PLC 150
Title: PIPING LINE CLASS 150

Page : 1 of Issue Date : December, 2014

Approvals:

Sponsor

Manager, Stationary Equipment

Director, Specialty Engin

Name:

M.C. Donald

A. Lincoln

S. Stallone

Signature:

on org file

on org file

on org file

2014

2014

2014

11-12

11-12

11-12

Date:

PART 1 GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE
A. This specification covers carbon steel piping for general non-corrosive gas and
liquid process service.
B. Design limits based on ASME B16.42 Class 150 ductile iron Valves & on EWP's
temperature limit on PTFE in gaskets.
C. Corrosion Allowance: 0.0625 inch.
Maximum Pressure
Sizes
NPS
psig
kPag
barG
1/2-24

250
235
215
205

1724
1621
1483
1414

17.2
16.2
14.8
14.1

Design Temperature
F

-20 to +100
200
300
350

-29 to +38
93
149
177

1.2 RELATED DOCUMENTS


A. Specification Doc. No..., "Piping, General Notes"
B. Specification Doc. No..., "Piping, General Fabrication"
C. Specification Doc. No..., "Piping, General Installation"
D. Specification Doc. No..., "Piping, General Testing"

E. Specification Doc. No..., "Piping, General Welding"


F. Specification Doc. No..., "Piping, Carbon Steel Welding"
G. Specification Doc. No..., "Pipe Weld Inspection and Testing"
H. Specification Doc. No..., "Piping, General Cleaning"
I. Standard Details Doc. No..., Doc. No..., Doc. No...,Doc. No...

1.3 REFERENCES
1.3.1 American Petroleum Institute (API)
1.

API 594 Wafer Check Valves

2.

API 600 Steel Gate Valves, Flanged or Buttwelding Ends

3.

API 602 Compact Carbon Steel Gate Valves

4.

API 607 Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter Turn Valves

5.

API 608 Metal Ball Valves

6.

API 609 Butterfly Valves, Lug Type and Wafer Type

1.3.2 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


1.

ASME B31.3 Process Piping

2.

ASME B1.20.1 Pipe Threads, General Purpose (inch)

3.

ASME B16.5 Steel Pipe Flanges and Pipe Fittings

4.

ASME B16.9 Wrought Steel Buttweld Fittings

5.

ASME B16.10 Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions Ferrous Valves

6.

ASME B16.11 Forged Steel Fittings Socketwelding and Threaded

7.

ASME B16.21 Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges

8.

ASME B16.25 Buttwelding Ends

9.

ASME B16.34 Steel Valves - Flanged and Buttwelding Ends

10.

ASME B16.36 Orifice Flanges

11.

ASME B16.48 Steel Line Blanks

12.

ASME B31.1 Power Piping

13.

ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping

14.

ASME B36.10 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe

1.3.3 Manufacturer Standard Society Practice (MSS)


1.

MSS SP-25 MSS Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings, Flanges and
Unions

2.

MSS SP-79 Socket Welding Reducer Inserts

3.

MSS SP-83 Class 3000 Steel Pipe Unions, Socket Welding and Threaded

4.

MSS SP-95 Swage(d) Nipples and Bull Plugs

5.

MSS SP-97 Integrally Reinforced Forged Branch Outlet Fittings - Socket


Welding, Threaded and Buttwelding Ends

1.3.4 Process Industry Practice (PIP)


1.

PIP PNSM0001 Piping Line Class Designator System

PART 2 PRODUCTS
NPS
PIPE:

DESCR

NOTE CODE

1/2-2

ASTM A106-B CS SMLS PE XS/80

02

20132

2 -10 ASTM A53-B TYPE-E CS ERW BE STD/40

20327

12-24

20327

ASTM A53-B TYPE-E CS ERW BE STD/0.375

FITTINGS:
1/2-2

CAP ASTM A105 CS 3000 SW ASME B16.11

20679

1/2-2

COUPLING ASTM A105 CS 3000 SW ASME B16.11

20749

1/2-2

COUPLING RED ASTM A105 CS 3000 SW ASME B16.11

20338

1/2-2

ELL 45 ASTM A105 CS 3000 SW ASME B16.11

20338

1/2-2

ELL 90 ASTM A105 CS 3000 SW ASME B16.11

20709

1/2-2

INSERT SW RED ASTM A105 CS 3000 MSS SP-79

20338

1/2-2

TEE ASTM A105 CS 3000 SW ASME B16.11

20700

1/2-2

RED TEE ASTM A105 CS 3000 SW ASME B16.11

20338

1/2-2

UNION ASTM A105 CS 3000 SW MSS SP-83

20700

2-24

CAP ASTM A234-WPB CS BW STD ASME B16.9

20334

2-24

ELL 45 ASTM A234-WPB CS BW STD ASME B16.9

20334

2-24

ELL 90 LR ASTM A234-WPB CS BW STD ASME B16.9

20334

2-24

ELL 90 SR ASTM A234-WPB CS BW STD ASME B16.28

20334

2-24

RED CONC ASTM A234-WPB CS BW STD ASME B16.9

20334

2-24

RED ECC ASTM A234-WPB CS BW STD ASME B16.9

20334

2-24

TEE ASTM A234-WPB CS BW STD ASME B16.9

20334

2-24

TEE RED ASTM A234-WPB CS BW STD ASME B16.9

20530

O'LETS:
1/2-2

ELBOLET ASTM A105 CS 3000 SW MSS SP-97

20551

1/2-2

LATROLET ASTM A105 CS 3000 SW MSS SP-97

...

1/2-2

SOCKOLET ASTM A105 CS 3000 SW MSS SP-97

20342

2 -6

WELDOLET ASTM A105 CS BW STD MSS SP-97

20340

SWAGES, NIPPLES, THREADED ITEMS:


1/2-1

NIPPLE PIPE TBE NPT ASTM A106-B CS XS

1/2-1

NIPPLE PIPE POE-TOE NPT ASTM A106-B CS XS

20015

1/2-4

SWAGE NIPPLE CONC ASTM A234 WPB CS XS BLE-PSE MSS SP-95

20715

1/2-3

SWAGE NIPPLE CONC ASTM A234-WPB CS BBE XS MSS SP-95

20343

1/2-2

SWAGE NIPPLE ECC ASTM A234-WPB CS BBE XS MSS SP-95

20551

05

20343

FITTINGS - THREADED:
1/2-2

BUSHING ASTM A105 CS NPT HEX ASME B16.11

05

20336

1/2-2

CAP ASTM A105 CS 3000 NPT ASME B16.11

05

20014

1/2-1

COUPLET (VOGT) ASTM A105 CS 6000 NPT

05

20699

1/2-2

COUPLING ASTM A105 CS 3000 NPT ASME B16.11

05

20336

1/2-2

COUPLING RED ASTM A105 CS 3000 NPT ASME B16.11

05

20336

1/2-2

CROSS ASTM A105 CS 2000 NPT ASME B16.11

05, 06

...

1/2-2

ELL 45 ASTM A105 CS 2000 NPT ASME B16.11

05, 06

20336

1/2-2

ELL 90 ASTM A105 CS 2000 NPT ASME B16.11

05, 06

20336

1/2-2

PLUG ASTM A105 CS 3000 NPT HEX HD ASME B16.11

05

20337

1/2-2

TEE ASTM A105 CS 2000 NPT ASME B16.11

05, 06

20337

1/2-2

TEE RED ASTM A105 CS 3000 NPT ASME B16.11

05

20343

1/2-2

THREDOLET ASTM A105 CS 3000 NPT MSS SP-97

05

20342

1/2-2

UNION ASTM A105 CS 3000 NPT MSS SP-83

05

20337

FLANGES:
1/2-24

BLIND ASTM A105 CS ASME B16.5-150 RF

20015

1/2-24

FLANGE SO ASTM A105 CS ASME B16.5-150 RF

20015

1-2

FLANGE ORIFICE WN ASTM A105 CS ASME B16.36-300 RF XS

20642

2-6

FLANGE ORIFICE WN ASTM A105 CS ASME B16.36-300 RF STD

20642

FLANGES, ALTERNATES:
1/2-2

FLANGE THREAD NPT ASTM A105 CS ASME B16.5-150 RF

1/2-2

FLANGE SW ASTM A105 CS ASME B16.5-150 RF

2-24

FLANGE WN ASTM A105 CS ASME B16.5-150 RF STD

05

20015
...

03

20538

GASKETS:
1/2-24

FLAT RING ASME B16.5-150 F-PTFE 1/16 THK, ASME B16.21 TABLE 4

20586

1-6

FLAT RING ASME B16.5-300 F-PTFE 1/16 THK, ASME B16.21 TABLE 5

20581

BOLTING:
...

STUD ASTM A193-B7 STL

20002

...

NUT HEAVY HEX ASTM A194-2H STL

20002

MISCELLANEOUS:
1/2-24

SPACER LINE ASTM A516-70 CS 150 RF

14

20541

2-24

STRAINER TEMPORARY CONICAL CS 150 RF

18

20551

1/2-2

Y-STRAINER ASTM A105 CS 600 NPT SS SCREEN

05

...

1-12

Y-STRAINER ASTM A216-WCB CS ASME B16.5-150 RF

ITEM, NPS DESCR

20589

NOTE CODE

VALVES:
1/2-2

BALL ASTM A216-WCB CS 1000 SW 316 SS BALL FULL PORT


3-PC R-PTFE SEATS

23, 32,
2061
34

1/2-6

BALL ASTM A216 STL 150 RF PTFE SEATS, GRAPH PKG, Grounded

3-14

BUTTERFLY LUG ASTM A216-WCB CS 150 RF, NPS 10 & >GEAR


PTFE SEATS & SEALS

1/2-2

CHECK H-LIFT ASTM A105 CS 800 SW GRAPH

2-12

CHECK SWING ASTM A216-WCB CS 150 RF

34

2050

6-14

CHECK WAFER ASTM A216-WCB CS 150 W/ SPRING

22, 34

2055

1/2-2

GATE ASTM A105 CS 800 SW CR TR GRAPH

3-14

GATE ASTM A216-WCB CS 150 BW STD HF NPS 14 & >GEAR GRAPH

1/2-14

GATE ASTM A216-WCB CS 150 RF HF NPS 14 & >GEAR GRAPH

2002

1/2-2

GLOBE ASTM A105 CS 800 SW HF GRAPH

2006

3-12

GLOBE ASTM A216-WCB CS 150 RF HF GRAPH

3-6

GLOBE ASTM A216-WCB CS 300 BW STD GRAPH

24

2057

1-6

GLOBE 3-PORT ASTM A216-WCB CS 150 RF GRAPH

36

2085

3-10

PLUG CI 150 RUBBER LINED ECCENTRIC PLUG LIMIT TO 180F

33

2055

1/2-6

PLUG DUCTILE IRON 150 RF PTFE SLEEVE

34

2057

1/2-8

PLUG (LOW EMISSION) D-IRON PTFE SLEEVE 150 RF

35

2086

2050
31

2062
2092

2003
24

2005

2051

Notes:

02 - Pipe Bending shall be used ONLY where specified on the drawings or


where approved in writing by the EWP project engineer.

03 - Specify WN flanges adjacent to welded fittings and/or Butterfly Valves as


alternates only.

05 - Threaded joints are permitted only at terminal of vent, drain, and


hydrostatic test connections, and at instrument take-off points, and to match
equipment.

06 - EWP's TED site preference, class 2000 threaded FS fittings are made
only in 45 and 90 elbows, tees, and crosses. The class 2000 fittings are rated
same as sch XS/80 (max) threaded pipe. Class 3000 fittings found in existing
lines may be replaced by class 2000.

14 - Line blinds, spacers, restricting orifices, and spectacle blinds shall be per
Standard Details Doc. No...01 thru 04.

18 - Conical Strainer to be used as temporary start-up strainer at pumps.

20 - Thread sealant to be used on all thread joints except if seal welding is


used. Refer to Specification Doc. No....

22 - These Valves have no flanges but are installed between line flanges with
extra length bolts.

23 - Cast Valves used in "critical service" or "very critical" service should be


considered for radiographic inspection.

24 - BW gate or globe is for alternate use.

25 - Reducing fittings that have ends of different thickness must show


thickness (e.g., Conc. Red - SCH XS x SCH STD).

31 - Butterfly Valves NPS 6 & smaller w/ handle; NPS 8 & larger w/ gear
operator. Do not use above 177C service.

32 - Intended for orifice taps only.

33 - Doc. No... for slurry service.

34 - Valves with PTFE may be chosen for use in the OXO reactor loop piping.

35 - Valve Index 180 is alternate for 180K.

36 - May be used for Relief Valve changeover.

PART 3 EXECUTION
3.1 Piping, General Notes
See Specification Doc. No...

3.2 Assembly Details


Following are recommended vent/drain and instrument connections.
Other connections may be shown on design:
HDR SIZE
DESCR

DETAIL

VENT & DRAIN CONNECTION ASSEMBLIES (STANDARD DETAILS DOC. NO...):


1/2

UNVALVED VENT/DRAIN 1/2 SW TEE FLG

Doc. No...

3/4

UNVALVED VENT/DRAIN 3/4 SW TEE FLG

Doc. No...

1-2

UNVALVED VENT/DRAIN SW TEE/INS 3/4 FLG

Doc. No...

2-6

UNVALVED VENT/DRAIN 3/4 SOL FLG

Doc. No...

8-24

UNVALVED VENT/DRAIN 1 SOL FLG

Doc. No...

1/2

VALVED VENT/DRAIN 1/2 SW TEE 1/2 GATE

Doc. No...

3/4

VALVED VENT/DRAIN 3/4 SW TEE 3/4 Gate Valve

Doc. No...

1-2

VALVED VENT/DRAIN SW TEE/INS 3/4 Gate Valve

Doc. No...

2-6

VALVED VENT/DRAIN 3/4 SOL Gate Valve

Doc. No...

8-24

VALVED VENT/DRAIN 1 SOL Gate Valve

Doc. No...

PRESSURE CONNECTION ASSEMBLIES (STANDARD DETAILS DOC. NO...):


1/2

PRESSURE CONN 1/2 SW TEE GATE COUPLET

Doc. No...

3/4

PRESSURE CONN 3/4 SW TEE GATE COUPLET

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1-2

PRESSURE CONN SW TEE/INS 3/4 GATE COUPLET

Doc. No...

2-24

PRESSURE CONN SOL 3/4 GATE COUPLET

Doc. No...

TEMPERATURE CONNECTION ASSEMBLIES (STANDARD DETAILS DOC. NO...):


1/2-1

TEMPERATURE CONN 1-1/2 SW TEE/INSERT FLANGE

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TEMPERATURE CONN 1-1/2 SW TEE FLANGE

Doc. No...

TEMPERATURE CONN 2" SW TEE/INS 1-1/2 FLANGE

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2-24

TEMPERATURE CONN 1-1/2 SW ELBOLET FLANGE

Doc. No...

2-24

TEMPERATURE CONN 1-1/2 SOL 1-1/2 FLANGE

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ORIFICE TAP CONNECTION ASSEMBLIES (STANDARD DETAILS DOC. NO...):


2-4

ORIFICE FLANGES 1/2 SW Ball Valves

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6-24

ORIFICE VENA TAPS 1/2 SW Ball Valves

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3.3 FABRICATION
A. See Specification Doc. No..., "Piping, General Fabrication," Specification Doc.
No..., "Piping, General Welding,"
Specification Doc. No..., "Piping, Carbon Steel Welding," and Specification Doc. No...,
"Pipe Weld Inspection & Testing."

3.4 INSTALLATION
A. See Specification Doc. No..., "Piping, General Installation"

3.5 TESTING
A. See Specification Doc. No..., "Piping, General Testing"
B. Vacuum Piping System: Apply Pneumatic Leak Test with internal pressure at 1.5
times the maximum operating external pressure, or minimum 15 psig (103 kPag,
1.03 bar-g, 1.06 kgf/cm2)
C. Category D Piping System: Apply Initial Service Leak Test
D. Normal Service Piping System: Apply standard Hydrostatic Leak Test.
E. Category M Piping System: Apply both a standard Hydrostatic Leak Test & a
Sensitive Leak Test with helium tracer gas.
F. Maximum Hydrostatic Test Pressure: 413 psig (2848 kPag, 28.4 bar-g, 29.0
kgf/cm2)

3.6 CLEANING
A. See Specification Doc. No..., "Piping, General Cleaning"

90 DEGREE BRANCH TABLE


CONNECTION TYPE

D = TEE & REDUCER


S = SOCKOLET
V = SW TEE W/ INSERT
E = REDUCING TEE
T = TEE
W = WELDOLET
P = REINFORCING PAD
U = UNREINF. STUB-IN

D or V may be substituted by E.

S or W may be substituted by P (minimum pad width = 1").

P = Reinforcing pad with minimum thickness equal to header thickness, and


width equal to 1/2 of the branch nominal pipe size. Drill 1/8" (3mm) diameter

hole in each pad section for venting (a weld gap is acceptable as a means of
venting).

Piping Coordination Systems - Mechanical symbols for


P&ID's

Piping Coordination Systems - Symbols for Isometrics