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THUMB RULES
Particulars
PIPING PRESSURE DROP : For Raynold's no 2100 to 106
EQUIVALENT LENGHTS for Pressure drop in the system
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FLOW OF STEAM THROUGH PIPE 41, 12 & 2" only
ALLOWABLE VELOCITIES FOR PROCESS FLUIDS
SONIC VELOCITY CALCULATION
PERMANENT HEAD LOSS THROUGH ORIFICE
VENTURI Pressure Drop
FLOW RECTANGULAR WEIR
CONTROL VALVE SIZING
RELIEF VALVE SIZING FOR LIQUID EXPANSION
STORAGE VESSEL VOLUMES
NPSH
Pressure Drop in Pipeline
TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
MOTORS kVA
MOTORS AMPS ETIMATE
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HP
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HEAD
TEMPERATURE RISE IN COMPRESSION
PUMP EFFICIENCY
PUMP HORSE POWER
RELATION OF HP, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED
RELATION BETWEEN PUMP HEAD, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED
CHANGE IN PUMP CAPACITY WITH IMPELLER DIAMETER
TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER
MOTOR HP OUTPUT
MOTOR TORQUE
GAS EXPANDERS : AVAILABLE ENERGY
POWER FACTOR
SELECTION OF TYPE OF VACUUM EQUIPMENT
FAN / BLOWER OR COMPRESSOR
SPRAY WATER FOR PRDS
MAXIMUM AVAILABLE ENERGY (EXERGY)
FUEL TO AIR RATIO
COOLING TOWERS : WINDAGE LOSSES
COOLING WATER CONCENTRATION RATIO
APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCIES OF COMPRESSORS
Physical Properties

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PIPING PRESSURE DROP


For Raynold's no 2100 to 106 :
viscosity
Flow rate

Density
internal pipe diameter

Frictional pressure loss,

PF

W
d

cp
lb/hr
lb/ft3
Inch
psi/100 equivalent
ft of pipe

#DIV/0!

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Angle valve

Swing chek valve

55
70
80
100
130
200
260
330
400
450
500
550
650
688
750

26
33
40
50
65
100
125
160
190
210
240
280
300
335
370

13
17
20
25
32
48
64
80
95
105
120
140
155
170
185

90 miter bend

Enlargement

Short rad

Long rad

Hard T

Soft T

1
2
2
2
3
4
6
7
9
10
11
12
14
15
16
21
25
30
35
40
45

1
2
2
2
3
4
6
7
9
10
11
12
14
15
16
21
25
30
35
40
45

3
4
5
6
7
11
15
18
22
26
29
33
36
40
44
55
66
77
88
99
110

2
3
3
4
5
8
9
12
14
16
18
20
23
25
27
40
47
55
65
70
80

8
10
12
14
19
28
37
47
55
62
72
82
90
100
110
140
170
200
220
250
260

2
3
3
4
5
8
9
12
14 28
16 32
18 38
20 42
23 46
25 52
27 56
40 70
47 84
55 98
65 112
70 126
80 190

Contraction

std

sudden

d/D = 3/4

d/D = 1/2

d/D = 3/4

d/D = 1/4

d/D = 1/2

d/D = 3/4

20
22
24
28
32
34
36
44
52
64
72
80
92

d/D = 1/2

21
24
27
30
33
36
39
51
60
69
81
90
99

4 miter

3 miter

2 miter

Equiv. Length in terms of small d


d/D = 1/4

7
14
11
17
30
70
120
170
170
80
145
160
210
225
254
312

Elbow 45

Plug cock

sudden
Gate or ball valve

1.5
2
2.5
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
30
36
2
48
54
60

Globe v/v or ball check v/v

Nominal pipe size (in)

EQUIVALENT LENGHTS

5
7
8
10
12
18
25
31
37
42
47
53
60
65
70

3
4
5
6
8
12
16
20
24
26
30
35
38
42
46

1
1
2
2
3
4
5
7
8
9
10
11
13
14
15

4
5
6
8
10
14
19
24
28

1
1
2
2
3
4
5
7
8

3
3
4
5
6
9
12
15
18
20
24
26
30
32
35

2
3
3
4
5
7
9
12
14
16
18
20
23
25
27

1
1
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Contraction
Std

d/D = 1/2

d/D = 3/4

erms of small d

1
1
2
2
3
4
5
6
7

1
2
2
2

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MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FLOW OF STEAM THROUGH PIPE :


In FPS :

In SI :

Nominal pipe Maximum lb/hr x 10 at Pressure (psig)


600
175
30
size (in)
-3

Density (lb/ft3)

3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

0.88

0.41

0.10

7.5
15
40
76
130
190
260
360

3.6
7.5
21
42
76
115
115
220
300

1.2
3.2
8.5
18
32
58
87
117
166
227

Nominal pipe
size (in)
Density (kg/m3)

3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

Maximum T/hr at Pressure (barg)


41
12
14.08

6.49

3.4
6.8
18.2
34.5
59.1
86.4
118.2
163.6

1.6
3.4
9.5
19.1
34.5
52.3
52.3
100.0
136.4

T/hr at Pressure (barg)


2
1.62

0.5
1.5
3.9
8.2
14.5
26.4
39.5
53.2
75.5
227

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ALLOWABLE VELOCITIES FOR PROCESS FLUIDS


Fluid
Water
air
Dry gas
wet gas
high pressure steam
low pressure steam
Average liquid process
Pump suction (non-boiling)
Pump suction (boiling)
BFW
Drain lines
Liquid to reboiler (no pump)
Vapor to condenser
Gravity separator flow
Vapours
Hot oil headers

ft/s
10
100
100
60
150
100
4 - 6.5
1-5
0.5 - 3
4-8
1.5 - 4
2-7
15 - 80

m/s
3.0
30.5
30.5
18.3
45.7
30.5
1.2 -2
0.3 - 1.5
0.2 - 0.9
1.2 - 2.4
0.5 - 1.2
0.6 - 2.1
4.6 - 24.4

0.5 - 1.5 0.2 - 0.5


326
99.4
1.5 psi/100 ft

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

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SONIC VELOCITY
Sonic velocity
Vs
Absolute temperature
T
ratio of sp. Heats (usually = 1.4) K
Accelearion by gravity
g
Universal gas constant
R

Ft/s
R
ft/s2
/mol wt

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

0
1.4
32.2
1544

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PERMANENT HEAD LOSS THROUGH ORIFICE :


Do/Dp
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8

Permanent loss
95
82
63
40

Permanent loss =h (1-Co)


For orifice :
(Uo2 - Up2)1/2 = Co(2gh)1/2
Where
Uo =
Up =
h =
D=
Co =

Velocity through orifice (ft/s)


Velocity through pipe (ft/s)
Orifice pressure drop (ft of fluid)
Diameter
Coefficient
(0.6 for typical applns)

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

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VENTURI Pressure Drop


(Uo2 - Up2)1/2 = Co(2gh)1/2
Venturi pressure drop (ft of fluid)
Permanent Head loss (ft of fluid)*
Velocity through orifice (ft/s)
Velocity through pipe (ft/s)
Diameter
Coefficient
(0.98 for typical applns)

h =
Uo
Up
D
Co

* Permanent head loss @ 3 - 4 % of h

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

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RECTANGULAR WEIR
Flow over weir
Width of weir
Height of liquid over weir

ft3/s Fv
ft
L
ft
H

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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CONTROL VALVE SIZING


For liquids :
Cv = Q (G/P)1/2
Hence if control valve specs are known, Q can be calculated as :
Flow rate
Body differential pressure
Specific gravity
Liq. Sizing coeff

m3/hr
psi

Q
P
G
Cv

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

85
3.5
1
2

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RELIEF VALVE SIZING FOR LIQUID EXPANSION

Required capacity (gpm) =

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

Heat input (Btu/hr)


Coefficient of volumetric
expansion per F (Select fluid)
Specific gravity
Specific heat (Btu/lbF)

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

0.0008

m3/hr

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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STORAGE VESSEL VOLUMES


For Horizontal Cylindrical vessel :
Choose Type of head :
Liquid hold up (m3) =

4
#VALUE!

Diameter (m)
Height of liquid in vessel (m)
Depth of head (m)
Length of straight portion (m)
* For spherical vessels same formula can be used with length of straight portion = 0

Ref. : Calc & shortcut deskbook, Chemical engg

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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NPSH
Net Positive Suction Head =
Where,
Suction head
Vessel abs pressure
Vapor pressure (pumping)
specific gravity
Suction friction losses

NPSH

Feet
Psia
Psia
Ft of fluid

Ref. : Calc & shortcut deskbook, Chemical engg

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

#DIV/0!

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PRESSURE DROP IN PIPELINE


P = Pressure drop, Pa =

#DIV/0!

Laminar flow :
f = Fanning friction factor =

#DIV/0!

Enter :
=
=
D=
L=

Q=

Fluid density, kg/m


Fluid viscosity, kg/m-s
Pipe diameter, m
Pipe length, m
Pipewall roughness, m
Volumetric flowrate m3/s

Ref. : Calc & shortcut deskbook, Chemical engg

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER


I. Straight tube loss :
viscosity
Flow rate through one tube
Density
Internal tube diameter
Length of tube
No. of tubes
Velo.in pipe leading to & from HE
Number of tube passes

d
L
n

cp
lb/hr
lb/ft3
Inch
ft
ft/s

Frictional pressure loss in tubes


P by Entering & exiting the HE
P by Entering & exiting the tubes
P by end losses in tubeside
bonnets & channels

psi
psi
psi

#DIV/0!
0
#DIV/0!

psi

#DIV/0!

Total tubeside pressure drop

psi

#DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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MOTORS kVA
Current
Line to line voltage
kVA

Amps
V
kVA

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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MOTORS AMPS ETIMATE


Motor horse power
Line to line voltage
Motor efficiency
Power factor

HP
V
fraction
fraction

6900000
11000
0.8
0.86

Motor amps :
For three phase motor :

393.15218321

For single phase motor :

680.15327696

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HP
Suction temperature
Suction pressure
Discharge pressure
Flow
Adiabatic efficiency
Avg compressibility factor
Universal gas constant
Adiabatic component

T1
P1
P2
W
Ea
Z
R
K

R
psia
psia
lb/min
fraction
1
1544
1.4

/mol wt
Cp/Cv

Adiabatic Head Had (ft) =

#DIV/0!

Horse power =

#DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HEAD


Suction temperature
Suction pressure
Discharge pressure
Polytropic efficiency
Avg compressibility factor
Universal gas constant
Adiabatic component
polytropic component

T1
P1
P2
Ep
Z
R
K
N

R
psia
psia
fraction
/mol wt
Cp/Cv
=KEp/(KEp-K+1)

Polytropic Head Hpoly (ft)=

#DIV/0!

Adiabatic Head Had (ft) =

#DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

0.8
1
1544
1.4
1.6

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TEMPERATURE RISE IN COMPRESSION


Suction temperature
Suction pressure
Discharge pressure
Adiabatic component

Adiabatic : Disch Temp (C)=

T1
P1
P2
K

R
psia
psia
Cp/Cv

1.4

#DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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PUMP EFFICIENCY

SI units
Developed head
Flow
Efficiency

m
m3/hr
%

80

Applicable for :
Head = 15 - 92 m
Flow = 23 - 227 m3/hr

80

Applicable for :
Head = 50 - 300 ft
Flow = 100 - 1000 GPM

fps units :
Developed head
Flow
Efficiency

ft
GPM
%

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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PUMP HORSE POWER


SI units :
Flow rate
Discharge pressure
Suction pressure
Pump efficiency
Pump power

m3/hr
bar
bar
%
HP

1.5
7.5
1
80
20.0211

GPM
psi
psi
%
HP

#DIV/0!

FPS units :
Flow rate
Discharge pressure
Suction pressure
Pump efficiency
Pump power

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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RELATION OF HP, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED

Initial impeller diameter (m) =


Initial speed (rpm) =
Initial HP =
New impeller diameter (m) =
New speed (rpm) =
New HP =

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

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RELATION BETWEEN PUMP HEAD, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED

Initial impeller diameter (m) =


Initial speed (rpm) =
Initial head (m) =
New impeller diameter (m) =
New speed (rpm) =
New head (m) =

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

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CHANGE IN PUMP CAPACITY WITH IMPELLER DIAMETER

Initial diameter (m) =


Initial capacity (m3/hr) =
New diameter (m) =
New capacity (m3/hr)

#DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER

viscosity of fluid
Flow rate through one tube

cp
W lb/hr

Density
Internal tube diameter
Length of tube
No. of tubes
Number of tube passes

lb/ft3
d Inch
L ft
n
N

Frictional pressure loss in tubes


All other losses
Total tubeside pressure drop

psi
psi

#DIV/0!

psi

#DIV/0!

Total tubeside pressure drop

bar

#DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

#DIV/0!

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MOTOR HP OUTPUT
Motor power input
Motor efficiency
HP output =

kW
fraction
0

OR :
Torque
speed
HP output =

rpm

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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MOTOR TORQUE
Motor power
Speed
Full load torque

HP
rpm

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

#DIV/0!

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GAS EXPANDERS : AVAILABLE ENERGY


SI units :
Cp
Inlet temperature
Inlet pressure
Outlet pressure
K= Cp/ Cv
Actual available power

Btu/lbC
C
psia
psia
Btu/lb

#DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Cp
Inlet temperature
Inlet pressure
Outlet pressure
K= Cp/ Cv
Actual available power

kJ/kgC
C
barg
barg
kWh/kg

#DIV/0!

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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POWER FACTOR
kW input
kVA input
Power factor

kW
kVA

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

#DIV/0!

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SELECTION OF TYPE OF VACUUM EQUIPMENT

Reciprocating piston pump

down to 1 torr

Rotary piston pump

down to 0.001 torr

Two-lobe rotary pump

down to 0.0001 torr

Steam jet ejectors 1 stage


Steam jet ejectors 3 stages
Steam jet ejectors 5 stages

down to 100 torr


down to 1 torr
down to 0.05 torr

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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FAN / BLOWER OR COMPRESSOR ??

Fans

For 3% rise in pressure

Blowers

For differential of 40 psig

Compressors

Higher than 40 psig

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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SPRAY WATER FOR PRDS


(Pressure Reduction Desuperheating Stations)

Enthalpy of high pressure steam


Enthalpy of lower pressure steam
Enthalpy of the spray water
Spray water required

kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
T/T

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

#DIV/0!

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MAXIMUM AVAILABLE ENERGY (EXERGY)

Receiver temperature
Enthalpy at receiver conditions
Enthalpy at source conditions
Entropy at receiver conditions
Entropy at source conditions
Maximum available energy

To
C
Ho
kJ/kg
H
kJ/kg
So kJ/kgC
S
kJ/kgC
Ex kJ/kg
Ex kWh/kg

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

0
0

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FUEL TO AIR RATIO


For fuel gas :
Density of fuel gas relative to air (i.e. MW/MWair)
Fuel gas / air ratio (mass/mass)

0.78
2145

For Fuel oil :


% Carbon
% hydrogen
Fuel oil / air ratio (mass/mass)

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

#DIV/0!

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COOLING TOWERS : WINDAGE LOSSES

Type of cooling device


Spray pond
Atmospheric cooling tower
Mechanical draft cooling tower

Windage loss as per centage of


system circulating rate
3
0.7
0.2

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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COOLING WATER CONCENTRATION RATIO

Chloride concentration in make-up water


Chloride concentration in blow down
Concentration ratio

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

#DIV/0!

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APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCIES OF COMPRESSORS

Efficiency Compression ratio


Reciprocating

65%

1.5

75%

80 - 85%
Large centrifugal

76 - 78%

Rotary compressor (except liquid liner type)

70%

Liquid liner type rotary

50%

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

3.6

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Physical Properties
Property

Units

Heat Capacity

Density

Latent Heat

Thermal Cond.

Viscosity

Water

Organic Liquids

Steam

Air

KJ/kg C

4.2

1.0-2.5

Btu/lb F

0.239-0.598

0.479

0.239

kg/m3

1000

700-1500

1.29@STP

lb/ft3

62.29

43.6-94.4

0.08@STP

KJ/kg

1200-2100

200-1000

Btu/lb

516-903

86-430

W/m C

0.55-0.70

0.10-0.20

Btu/h ft F

0.32-0.40

0.057-0.116

cP

1.8 @ 0 C

varies with temp.

0.01-0.03

0.02-0.05

10-1000

0.7

0.025-0.070

0.025-0.05

0.0144-0.040 0.014-0.029

0.57 @ 50C
0.28 @ 100C
0.14 @ 200C
Prandtl Number

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

1-15

Organic Vapors
2.0-4.0
0.479-0.958

0.02-0.06
0.116-0.35
0.01-0.03

0.7-0.8

Compiled by : Ms Gauri